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1

**CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY
**

3.1

BASIC CONCEPTS AND IMPORTANT RESULTS

(a)

**Continuity of a real function at a point
**

A function f is said to be left continuous or continuous from the left at x = c iff

(i)

f(c) exists

(ii)

Lt f(x) exists and

(iii)

x ®c -

Lt f(x) = f(c).

x ®c -

**A function f is said to be right continuous or continuous from the right at x = c iff
**

(i)

f(c) exists

(ii)

Lt

x ®c +

f(x) exists and

(iii)

Lt

x ®c +

f(x) = f(c).

**A function f is said to be continuous at x = c iff
**

(i)

f(c) exists

(ii)

Lt f(x) exists and

(iii)

x ®c

Lt f(x) = f(c).

x ®c

**Hence, a function is continuous at x = c iff it is both left as well as right continuous at x = c.
**

When xLt

f(x) exists but either f(c) does not exist or

®c

Lt f(x) ¹ f(c), we say that f

x ®c

**has a removable discontinuity; otherwise, we say that f has non-removable discontinuity.
**

(b)

**Continuity of a function in an interval
**

A function f is said to be continuous in an open interval (a, b) iff f is continuous at every

point of the interval (a, b) ; and f is said to be continuous in the closed interval [a, b] iff f is

continuous in the open interval (a, b) and it is continuous at a from the right and at b from

the left.

Continuous function. A function is said to be a continuous function iff it is continuous at

every point of its domain. In particular, if the domain is a closed interval, say [a, b], then f

must be continuous in (a, b) and right continuous at a and left continuous at b.

The set of all point where the function is continuous is called its domain of continuity. The

domain of continuity of a function may be a proper subset of the domain of the function.

3.2

**PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
**

Property 1. Let f, g be two functions continuous at x = c, then

(i)

af is continuous at x = c, " a Î R

(ii)

f + g is continuous at x = c

(iii)

f – g is continuous at x = c

(iv)

fg is continuous at x = c

(v)

f

is continuous at x = c, provided g(c) ¹ 0.

g

**Property 2. Let D1 and D2 be the domains of continuity of the functions f and g respectively
**

then

(i)

af is continuous on D1 for all a Î R

(ii)

f + g is continuous on D1 Ç D2

(iii)

f – g is continuous on D1 Ç D2

(iv)

fg is continuous on D1 Ç D2

(v)

f

is continuous on D1 Ç D2 except those points where g(x) = 0.

g

**Property 3. A polynomial function is continuous everywhere.
**

In particular, every constant function and every identity function is continuous.

Property 4. A rational function is continuous at every point of its domain.

Property 5. If f is continuous at c, then | f | is also continuous at x = c.

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

2

**In particular, the function | x | is continuous for every x Î R.
**

Property 6. Let f be a continuous one-one function defined on [a, b] with range [c, d], then

the inverse function f–1 : [c, d] ® [a, b] is continuous on [c, d]

Property 7. If f is continuous at c and g is continuous at f(c), then gof is continuous at c.

Property 8. All the basic trigonometric functions i.e. sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x and

cosec x are continuous.

Property 9. All basic inverse trigonometric functions i.e. sin–1 x, cos–1 x, tan–1 x, cot–1 x, sec–

1

x, cosec–1 x are continuous (in their respective domains).

**Property 10. Theorem. If a function is differentiable at any point, it is necessarily continuous
**

at that point.

The converse of the above theorem may not be true i.e. a function may be continuous at a

point but may not be derivable at that point.

3.3

DERIVATIVE OF VARIOUS FUNCTIONS

(a)

**Derivative of composite functions
**

Theorem. If u = g(x) is di fferentiabl e at x and y = f(u) is differentiable at u, then y

is differentiable at x and

dy

dy

du

=

.

.

dx

du

dx

**If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g(x), then the composite function h(x) =
**

f(g(x)) is differentiable at x and h’(x) = f’(g(x)). g’(x).

Chain Rule. The above rule is called the chain rule of differentiation, since determining the

derivative of y = f(g(x)) at x involves the following chain of steps :

(b)

(i)

First, find the derivative of the outer function f at g(x).

(ii)

Second, find the derivative of the inner function g at x.

(iii)

**The product of these two derivatives gives the required derivative of the composite
**

function fog at x .

(i)

dy

dy

dx

dt

= dx , provided

¹ 0.

dx

dt

dt

(ii)

(iii)

dy dx

.

=1

dx dy

(iv)

dx

1

dy

=

¹ 0.

, provided

dx

dy

dx

dy

x

d

(| x |) =

, x ¹ 0.

|x|

dx

**Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions
**

1

(i)

d

(sin–1 x) =

dx

(ii)

1

d

(cos–1 x) = –

, x Î (–1, 1) i.e. | x | < 1

dx

1 - x2

(iii)

1

d

(tan–1 x) =

, for all x Î R

dx

1+ x2

(iv)

1

d

(cot–1 x) = –

, for all x Î R

dx

1+ x2

1 - x2

, x Î (–1, 1) i.e. | x | < 1

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

3

(c)

(v)

1

d

,x>1

(sec–1 x) =

dx

x x2 - 1

(vi)

1

d

(cosec–1 x) = –

,x>1

dx

x x2 - 1

**Derivatives of algebraic and trigonometric functions
**

(i)

d

(xn) = nxn – 1

dx

(ii)

d

(xx) = xx log ex

dx

(iii)

d

(sin x) = cos x

dx

(iv)

d

(cos x) = – sin x

dx

(v)

d

(tan x) = sec2 x

dx

(vi)

d

(cot x) = – cosec2 x

dx

d

(cosec x) = – cosec x cot x.

dx

Derivatives of exponential and logarithmic functions

(vii)

(d)

(e)

(i)

d

(ex) = ex , for all x Î R

dx

(vi)

1

d

(loga | x |) =

, x ¹ 0, a > 0, a ¹ 1.

x log a

dx

(ii)

d

(ax) = ax log a, a > 0, a ¹ 1, x Î R

dx

(v)

d

1

(log | x |) = , x ¹ 0

dx

x

(iii)

d

1

(log x) = , x > 0

dx

x

(iv)

1

d

(loga x) =

, x > 0, a > 0, a ¹ 1

x

log

a

dx

Logarithmic differentiation

If u, n are differentiable functions of x, then

(f)

d

d

(un) = un

(n log u).

dx

dx

**Derivatives of functions in parametric form
**

If x and y are two variables such that both are explicitly expressed in terms of a third

variable, say t, i.e. if x = f(t) and y = g(t), then such functions are called parametric

functions and

dy

dy

dx

dt

= dx , provided

¹ 0.

dx

dt

dt

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

4

(g)

**Derivative of second order
**

If a function f is differentiable at a point x, then its derivative f’ is called the first derivative or

derivative of first order of the function f. If f’ is further differentiable at the same point x,

then its derivative is called the second derivative or derivative of the second order of f at

that point and is denoted by f’’.

If the function f is defined by y = f(x), then its first and second derivatives are denoted by f

’(x) and f’’(x) or by

d2 y

dy

and

or by y1 and y2 or by y’ and y’’ respectively..

dx

dx2

3.4

ROLLE’S THEOREM AND LAGRANGE’S MEAN VALUE THEOREM

(i)

Rolle’s theorem

If a function f is

(i)

continuous in the closed interval [a, b]

(ii)

derivable in the open interval (a, b) and

(iii)

f(a) = f(b),

**then there exists atleast one real number c in (a, b) such that f’(c) = 0.
**

Thus converse of Rolle’s theorem may not be true.

(ii)

**Lagrange’s mean value theorem
**

If a function f is

(i)

continuous in the closed interval [a, b] and

(ii)

**derivable in the open interval (a, b),
**

then there exists atleast one real number c in (a, b) such that f ’(c) =

The converse of Lagrange’s mean value theorem may not be true.

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f (b) - f (a)

b-a

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

5

SOLVED PROBLESM

Ex.1

Is the function defined by f(x) = x2 – sin x + 5 continuous at x = p ?

Sol.

Here, f(p) = (p)2 – sin p – 5 = p2 – 5

lim f(x)= lim f(p+h)= lim [(p+h)2 –sin(p+h)–5]

h®0

h®0

x ®p +

2

2

= hlim

® 0 [(p + h) + sin h – 5] = p – 5

and

lim

x ® p-

lim

2

f(x)= hlim

® 0 f(p–h) = h ® 0 [(p–h) –sin (p–h)–5]

2

2

= hlim

® 0 [(p – h) – sin h – 5] = p – 5

lim

f(x) = x ® p - f(x) = f(p),

Since, xlim

®p +

the function f is continuous at x = p.

Ex.2

Discuss the continuity of the cosine, cosecant, secant and cotangent functions.

Sol.

Continuity of f(x) = cos x

Let a be an arbitrary point of the domain of the function f(x) = cos x.

Then, f (a) = cos a

lim

x ®a +

lim

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(a + h) = h ® 0 cos (a + h)

= hlim

® 0 [cos a cos h – sin a sin h]

= cos a × 1 – sin a × 0 = cos a

and

lim

x ®a -

lim

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(a – h) = h ® 0 cos (a – h)

= hlim

® 0 [cos a cos h + sin a sin h]

= cos a × 1 + sin a × 0 = cos a

Since,

lim

x ®a +

lim

f(x) = x ®a - f(x)=f(a), the function is continuous at x = a.

**As a is an arbitrary point of the domain, the function is continuous on the domain of the
**

functions,

Proceed as above and prove yourself the continuity of other trigonometric

Ex.3

Find all points of discontinuity of f, where

ì sinx

ï

, if x < 0

f(x) = í x

ïî x + 1 , if x ³ 0

Sol.

**The point of discontinuity of f can at most be x = 0.
**

Let us examine the continuity of f at x = 0.

lim

lim

Here, x ®0+ f(x)= hlim

® 0 f(0+h)= h ® 0 [(0+h)+1]=1

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

6

lim

**lim sin( 0 - h) = lim - sinh = 1
**

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(0 – h) = h ® 0

h ®0

0-h

-h

and

x ®0 -

Also,

f(0) = 0 + 1 = 1

Since,

x ®0 +

lim

f(x) =

lim

x ®0 -

f(x) = f(0), f is continuous at x = 0.

**Hence, there is no point of discontinuity of f.
**

Ex.4

Determine if f defined by

1

ì 2

ïx sin , if x ¹ 0

f(x) = í

x

ïî 0,

if x = 0

is a continuous function.

Sol.

**It is sufficient to examine the continuity of the function f at x = 0.
**

Here f (0) = 0

Also,

lim

x ®0 +

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(0 + h)

1 ù

1ù

é

é 2

(0 + h)2 sin

h sin ú = 0

= hlim

= hlim

® 0 êë

® 0 êë

0 + h úû

hû

and

lim

x ®0 -

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(0 – h)

é 2

1 ù

æ 1 öù

é

é

ù

1

(0 - h)2 sin

= hlim

= lim êh sin ç - h ÷ ú = 0 êQ sin £ 1ú

® 0 êë

0 - h úû h ® 0 ë

øû

è

h

ë

û

Hence,

lim

x ®0 +

f(x) =

lim

x ®0 -

f(x) = f(0)

So, f is continuous at x = 0

This implies that f is a continuous function at all x Î R.

Ex.5

Examine the continuity of f, where f is defined by

Sol.

ìsin x - cos x , if x ¹ 0

f(x) = í - 1,

if x = 0

î

Here, f(0) = –1

lim

lim

Also, x ®0+ f(x)= hlim

® 0 f(0+h)= h ® 0 [sin(0+h)–cos(0+h)]

= hlim

® 0 [sin h – cos h] = –1

lim

lim

and x ®0 - f(x)= hlim

® 0 f(0–h)= h ® 0 [sin(0–h)–cos(0–h)]

= hlim

® 0 [–sin h – cos h]

[Q sin (–h) = –sin h]

= –0 – 1 = –1

and cos (–h) = cos h]

lim

lim

Hence, x ®0+ f(x) = x ®0- f(x) = f(0)

So, f is continuous at x = 0; and hence continuous at all x Î R.

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

7

Ex.6

Sol.

**Find the value of k so that the following function f is continuous at the indicated point:
**

(i)

ì kx + 1 , if x £ 5

f(x) = í3 x - 5 , if x > 5 at x = 5

î

(ii)

ì kx2 , if x £ 2

f(x) = í

at x = 2

if x > 2

î3 ,

(i)

Since f is given to be continuous at x = 5, we have

lim

x ®5 +

lim

+ h) = hlim

® 0 f(5 – h) = f(5)

Þ

h ® 0 f(5

Þ

h ® 0 [3(5+h)–5]= h ® 0

Þ

10 = 5k + 1

(ii)

Since f is given to be continuous at x = 2, we have

lim

lim

x ® 2+

Ex.7

lim

f(x) = x ®5- f(x) = f(5)

lim [k(5–h)+1] = 5k + 1

f(x) =

9

5

Þ k=

lim

x ® 2-

f(x) = f(2)

lim

+ h) = hlim

® 0 f(2 – h) = f(2)

lim

2

= hlim

® 0 [k(2 – h) ] = 4k

Þ

h ® 0 f(2

Þ

h ® 0 (3)

Þ

3 = 4k

Þ

k=

3

4

Find the values of a and b such that the function defined by

if x £ 2

ì5,

ï

f(x) = íax + b, if 2 < x £ 10

ïî 21,

if x ³ 10

is a continuous function.

Sol.

Since the function f is continuous, it is continuous at x = 2 as well as at x = 10.

lim

lim

f(x) = x ®2- f(x) = f(2)

So,

x ®2+

i.e.,

h ® 0 f(2

i.e.,

2a + b = 5

and

x ®10 +

i.e.,

h ® 0 f(10

i.e.,

21 = 10a + b

lim

lim

lim

+ h) = hlim

® 0 f(2 – h) = f(2)

f(x) =

(......1)

lim

x ®10 -

f(x) = f(10)

+ h) = hlim

® 0 f(10 – h) = f(10)

(......2)

**From (1) and (2), we find that
**

a = 2 and b = 1

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

8

Ex.8

Sol.

**Show that the function defined by
**

g(x) = x – [x] is discontinuous at all integral points. Here, [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

The function f(x) = x – [x] can be written as

ì x - (k - 1), if k - 1 < x < k

f(x) = í x - k,

if k < x < k + 1, where k is an arbitrary integer..

î

lim

lim

f(x)= hlim

® 0 f(k + h)= h ® 0 [(k+h) –k]=0

lim

lim

f(x)= hlim

® 0 f(k–h)= h ® 0 [(k–h)– (k–1)]=1

lim

f(x) ¹

Now,

x ®k +

and

x ®k -

Since,

x ®k +

lim

x ®k -

f(x), the function f is not continuous at x = k.

**Since k is an arbitrary integer, we can easily conclude that the function is discontinuous at all
**

integral points.

Ex.9

**Verify LMV Theorem for the function
**

ìx 3 + 2, when x £ 1 on [ -1, 2 ].

f(x) = í

î 3 x , when x > 1

Sol.

**Both x3 + 2 and 3x are polynomial functions. So, f (x) is continuous and differentiable everywhere except at x = 1.
**

Here,

lim f ( x ) = 3.1 = 3

x ®1+

lim f ( x ) = 13 + 2 = 3

x ® 1-

As

**lim f(x) = lim f(x) =f(1),f(x) iscontinuous
**

at x =1.

x®1+

x®1-

**Obviously, then f(x) is continuous on [–1, 2]. Again to test the differentiability of f(x) at x = 1,
**

we have

L f ‘(1) =

3

3

lim f ( x ) - f (1)

lim ( x + 2) - (1 + 2)

=

x ®1

x ®1

x -1

x -1

lim x3 - 1

lim

= x ®1= x ®1- (x2 + x + 1) = 3

x -1

lim f ( x ) - f (1)

R f ‘(1) = x ®1+

x -1

=

lim 3 x - 3.1

x -1

x ®1+

=

lim

x ®1+

(3) = 3

**As L f ‘(1) = R f ‘(1), the function f (x) is differentiable at x = 1. Hence, f is differentiable in (–
**

1, 2).

Thus, both the conditions required for the applicability of the LMV Theorem are satisfied

and hence, there exists at least one c Î (–1, 2) such that

f ‘(c) =

f (2) - f (-1)

6 -1

5

=

Þ f ‘(c) =

2 - ( -1)

3

3

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

9

Now, in x > 1, f ‘(x) = 3. So, f ‘(c) cannot be

In x £ 1.

f ‘(x) = 3x2

Þ

f ‘(c) = 3c2

Obviously, 3c2 =

5

5

5

gives c2 = or c = ±

3

9

3

Both

5

in this interval.

3

5

5

and –

lie in (–1, 2). Thus, LMV is verified for f(x) and [–1, 2].

3

3

**Ex.10 Verify Rolle’s theorem for the function f (x) = x (x – 3)2 in the closed interval 0 £ x £
**

3.

Sol.

(i)

Here,

f(x) = x (x – 3)2

= x (x2 – 6x + 9)

= x3 – 6x2 + 9x

**Since f(x) is a polynomial function of x, it is continuous in [0, 3]
**

(ii)

f ‘(x) = 3x2 – 12x + 9

exists uniquely in the open interval (0, 3)

(iii)

f(0) = (0)3 – 6(0)2 + 9(0)

=0–0+0=0

f(3) = (3)2 – 6(3)2 + 9(3)

= 27 – 54 + 27 = 0

f(0) = f(3)

**Thus, all the three conditions are satisfied, Hence, Rolle’s Theorem is applicable.
**

Let us now solve

i.e.

f ‘(c) = 0

3c – 12c + 9 = 0

2

3(c2 – 4c + 3) = 0

(c – 3) (c – 1) = 0

c = 3, 1

SInce, c = 1 Î (0, 3), the Rolle’s Theorem is verified for the function.

f(x) = x(x – 3)2 in the closed interval [0, 3].

Ex.11 Verify Rolle’s Theorem for the function f(x) = (x – a)m (x – b)n in [a, b] ; m, n being

positive integers.

Sol.

**Here, f(x) is a polynomial function of degree (m + n). So, it is a continuous function in [a, b].
**

f ‘(x) = (x – a)m – 1 (x – b)n – 1 [m (x – b) + n (x – a)] exists uniquely in (a, b). So, it is derivable

m (a, b).

Further, f(a) = 0 and f(b) = 0. So, f(a) = f(b)

Thus, all the three conditions of Rolle’s Theorem are satisfied. Hence, Rolle’s Theorem is

applicable.

Let us now solve f ‘(c) = 0

Þ (c–a)m – 1 (c – b)n – 1 [m (c – b) + n (c–a)] = 0

Þ

c = a or c = b or c =

Since c =

mb + na

m+n

mb + na

Î (a, b), the Rolle’s Theorem is verified.

m+n

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

10

ì1 + x, if x £ 2

Ex.12 Show that the function f(x) = í5 - x , if x > 2 is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable

î

at x = 2.

Sol.

At x = 2,

lim

lim

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(2 + h) = h ® 0 [5–(2+ h)] = 3

lim

lim

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(2 – h) = h ® 0 [1+(2–h)] = 3

x ®2+

x ®2-

Also,

f(2) = 1 + 2 = 3

Since,

x ® 2+

lim

f(x) =

lim

x ® 2-

f(x) = f(2), f(x) is continuous at x = 2.

f (2 - h) - f (2)

Next, Lf ‘(2) = hlim

®0

-h

(1 + 2 - h) - (1 + 2)

= hlim

=1

®0 =

-h

f (2 + h ) - f ( 2 )

5 - (2 + h) - (1 + 2)

= hlim

= –1

Rf ‘(2)= hlim

®0 =

®0

h

h

Since, Lf ‘(2) ¹ Rf ‘(2), the function f is not differentiable at x = 2.

ì1 - x, if x < 1

Ex.13 Show that the function f(x) = í x2 - 1, if x ³ 1 is continuous at x = 1, but not differentiable

î

thereat.

Sol.

**The function is continuous at x = 1, because
**

lim

x ®1+

f(x) =

lim

x ®1-

f(x) = f(1) as shown below :

lim

lim

lim

2

2

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(1 + h) = h ® 0 [(1 + h) – 1] = h ® 0 (h + 2h) = 0 ;

lim

lim

lim

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(1 – h) = h ® 0 [1 – (1 – h)] = h ® 0 (h) = 0

x ®1+

x ®1-

and

f(1) = (1)2 – 1 = 1 – 1 = 0

Further,

f (1 + h) - f (1)

Rf ‘(1) = hlim

®0

h

[(1 + h ) 2 - 1] - [0 ]

= hlim

=2

®0

h

f(1 - h) - f(1)

[(1 - h ) 2 - 1] - [0 ]

Lf ‘(1) = hlim

= hlim

®

0

®0

h

h

æ h ö

lim

ç

÷

= hlim

® 0 è - h ø = h ® 0 (–1) = –1

Since, Rf ‘(1) ¹ Lf ‘(1), the function is not differentiable at x = 1.

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

11

Ex.14 Show that the function f defined as

ì 3x - 2, if 0 < x £ 1

ï 2

f(x) = í2 x - x , if 1 < x £ 1

ï 5 x - 4, if x > 2

î

is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable thereat.

Sol.

lim

lim

At x=2, x ®2+ f(x)= hlim

® 0 f(2+h)= h ® 0 [5(2+h)–4]=6

lim

x ®2-

lim

2

f(x) = hlim

® 0 f(2–h)= h ® 0 [2(2–h) –(2–h)]

2

= hlim

® 0 [2(4 – 4h + h ) – (2 – h)]

2

= hlim

® 0 [6 – 7h + 2h ] = 6

and

f(2) = 2 (2)2 – 2 = 8 – 2 = 6

Since

x ®2+

lim

lim

f(x) = x ®2- f(x)=f(2), the function f is continuous at x = 2.

f (2 - h) - f (2)

Next, Lf ‘(2) = hlim

®0

-h

2(2 - h)2 - ( 2 - h) - [5(2) - 4]

= hlim

®0

-h

=

6 - 7h + 2h2 - 6

=7

-h

f (2 + h) - f (2)

f ‘(2) = hlim

®0

h

[5(2 + h) - 4] - [5(2) - 4]

= hlim

®0

h

[5(2 + h) - 4] - [5(2) - 4]

= hlim

®0

h

é 6 + 5h - 6 ù

= hlim

ú =5

® 0 êë

h

û

Since, Lf ’(2) = Rf ‘(2), the function f is not differentiable at x = 2.

www.thinkiit.in

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

12

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

EXERCISE – I

Q.1

ì 1

ï e x -1

ï

, when x ¹ 0

Show that the function f(x) = í 1

ï ex +1

ï 0

, when x = 0

î

is discontinuous at x = 0.

Q.2

1

ì

ï x sin , when x ¹ 0

Show that the function f(x) = í

x

ïî 0

, when x = 0

is continuous at x = 0

Q.3

**Is the following function continuous at the origin ?
**

f(x) =

f(0) =

Q.4

cos ax - cos bx

x2

, when x ¹ 0

b2 - a2

, when x = 0

2

ì ex - 1

ï

, when x ¹ 0

If the function defined by f(x) = í log(1 + 2x)

ï k,

when x = 0

î

is continuous at x = 0, find the

value of k.

Q.5

Q.6

ì cos2 x - sin 2 x - 1

,

ï

if f(x) = í

x2 + 1 - 1

ï

k

,

î

when x ¹ 0

is continuous at x = 0, find k.

when x = 0

ì

ï 1 - cos 4x ,

when x < 0

ï

x2

ï

k

,

when x = 0 is continuous

Determine the value of k so that the function f(x) = í

ï

x

, when x > 0

ï

ïî 16 + x - 4

at x = 0.

Q.7

ì x- | x |

ï

, when x ¹ 0

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) at x = 0 if f(x) = í 2

ïî 2

, when x = 0

Q.8

ì 2, if x £ 3

ï

Let f(x) = íax + b, if 3 < x < 5

ïî

a , if x ³ 5

find the value of a and b, so that f(x) is continuous.

www.thinkiit.in

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

13

Q.9

Q.10

Q.11

Q.12

Q.13

x -1

ì

, x ¹1

ïï 2

+

2

x

7

x

5

Find the derivative of f(x) = í

at x = 1

-1

ï

, x =1

ïî

3

ì x 2 + 3x + a , if x £ 1

Find the value of ‘a’ and ‘b’, so that the function f(x) = í

is differentiable at

, if x > 1

îbx + 2

each x Î R.

**Differentiate the following w.r.t x :
**

1 - cos x

1 + cos x

æ

ö

loga ç x + x 2 + a2 ÷

è

ø

(iii)

log (sec x + tan x)

(vi)

æ 2

ö

2

ç x +a +x÷

log ç 2

ç x + a2 - x ÷÷

è

ø

(i)

log

(iv)

xö

x

æ

log ç sin + cos ÷

2

2

è

ø

(i)

If y =

(ii)

æ x +1+ x -1ö

x + x2 - 1

÷ , prove that dy =

If y = çç

÷

dx

x2 - 1

è x +1 - x -1 ø

(iii)

If y =

(iv)

If y =

sec x + tan x

dy

= sec x (sec x + tan x)

, show that

sec x - tan x

dx

(i)

If y =

x +

(ii)

(v)

æ 1 + x sin x ö

÷

log ç

è 1 - x sin x ø

1- x

dy

+y=0

, prove that (1 – x2)

1+ x

dx

cos x + sin x

dy

pö

æ

, show that

= sec2 ç x + ÷

cos x - sin x

dx

4ø

è

1

x

, show that 2x

dy

+ y = 2 x (ii)

dx

If y = x sin y, prove that x

dy

=

dx

y

(1 - x cos y )

(iii)

-1

dy

,x¹y

If x 1+ y + y 1+ x = 0, prove that

=

(

1

+

x )2

dx

x + x + x + ........ , prove that

Q.14

If y =

Q.15

Given that cos

cosec2x –

1

dy

=

(

2

y

- 1)

dx

1

1

x

x

x

sin x

x

x

. cos

. cos

......=

, prove that 2 sec2

+ 4 sec2 + ......=

2

4

8

x

2 2

4

2

1

x2

www.thinkiit.in

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

14

2t

Q.16

If x = tan–1

Q.17

Differentiate : (i)

(iii)

1- t

2

and y = sin–1

2t

1+ t

2

, show that

dy

= 1.

dx

ì

ü

sin–1 í x 1 - x + x 1 - x 2 ý

î

þ

æ

1

ö

÷÷ + tan–1

tan–1 çç 2

è x + x + 1ø

æ

1

ö

çç 2

÷÷ + tan–1

è x + 3x + 3 ø

æ

x

ç

tan–1 ç

2

è 1- x

ö

÷

–1

÷ + tan

ø

(ii)

æ 2x ö

÷

tan–1 çç

2÷

è 1 + 15 x ø

æ

1

ö

çç 2

÷÷ + ............ to n terms.

è x + 5x + 7 ø

æ

x

ç

ç

2

è 1+ 1- x

ö

÷

÷ (ii)

ø

æ 3 cos x - 4 sin x ö

÷

cos–1 ç

5

è

ø

Q.18

Differentiate : (i)

Q.19

æ

1

Differentiate : sin–1 çç

2

è 1+ x

Q.20

Differentiate : (i)

Q.21

ì2x - 1, if x < 0

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) = í2x + 1, if x ³ 0

î

Q.22

ì| x -4|

ï

, x¹4

If a function f(x) is defined as f(x) = í x - 4

show that f is everywhere continuous except

ïî 0

, x =4

ö

÷ + tan–1

÷

ø

æ

ö

2

ç 1 + x - 1÷

çç

÷÷ .

x

è

ø

æ 1 + x + 1- x

sin–1 çç

2

è

ö

÷

÷

ø

(ii)

æ x - x -1 ö

÷

cos–1 çç

-1 ÷

èx+x ø

at x = 4.

Q.23

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) = | x | + |x – 1| in the interval [–1, 2]

Q.24

Show that f(x) = | x | is not differential at x = 1.

Q.25

ì2 + x , if x ³ 0

Let f(x) = í2 - x , if x < 0 , show that f(x) is not derivable at x = 0.

î

Q.26

ì 2 æ 1ö

ï x sinç ÷ , if x ¹ 0

Show that the function f(x) = í

is differential at x = 0 and f ‘(0) = 0.

èxø

ï 0

, if x = 0

î

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

15

BOARD PROBLES

EXERCISE – II

log x

dy

.

=

dx

(1 + log x )2

Q.1

If xy = ex – y, prove that

Q.2

If xp yq = (x + y)p + q, prove that

Q.3

æ x2 ö

ç

÷

Find

2 when y = log ç e x ÷ .

dx

è

ø

Q.4

If y = ae2x + be–x, prove that

Q.5

If y = A cos nx + B sin nx show that

Q.6

ì2 x - 1 , x < 0

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) at x = 0 if f(x) = í2x + 1 , x ³ 0

î

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.7

Show that the function f(x) = 2x – | x | is continuous at x = 0.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.8

ì 3ax + b , x > 1

ï

, x = 1 is continuous. at x = 1, find the values of a and b.

If the function f(x) = í 11

ïî 5ax - 2b , x < 1

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

dy

y

= .

dx

x

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

d2 y

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

d2 y

dx2

–

dy

– 2y = 0.

dx

d2 y

dx2

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

+ n2y = 0.

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

æp

ö

1 - sin 2x

dy

, prove that

+ sec2 ç - x ÷ = 0.

1 + sin 2x

dx

è4

ø

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.9

If y =

Q.10

dy

æ

æ p x öö

If y = log çç tanç + ÷ ÷÷ , show that

– sec x = 0.

dx

è 4 2 øø

è

Q.11

Verify Lagrange’s mean value theorem for the following functions in the given intervals.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Also find ‘c’ of this theorem : (i) f(x)=x2 +x–1 in [0, 4]

Q.12

If y = ex (sin x + cos x), prove that

Q.13

**Differentiate the following w.r.t. x
**

æ 1 - cos x

(i) log çç

è 1 + cos x

ö

÷ (ii) log (x +

÷

ø

d2 y

dx2

–2

dy

+ 2y = 0.

dx

1+ x 2 )

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(ii) f(x)= x 2 - 4 on [2, 4]

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

16

dy

p

at t = .

dx

2

Q.14

If x = a(t + sin t), y = a(1 – cos t), find

Q.15

**Differentiate the following functions w.r.t x :
**

æ

ö

(i)

1 + sin x

tan–1 çç 1 - sin x ÷÷ .

è

ø

(iv)

æ

2

ç 5x + 12 1 - x

sin ç

13

ç

è

(vi)

æ 1+ x - 1 - x ö

ç

÷

tan–1 ç

÷

è 1 + x + 1- x ø

–1

d

dx

(ii)

ö

÷

÷÷ (v)

ø

æ 1 - sin x

ç

cot–1 ç 1 + sin x

è

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

ö

÷

÷

ø

æ

2

2

ç 1+ x - 1 - x

tan çç

2

2

è 1 + x + 1- x

–1

æx

xö

a2

ç

sin -1 ÷ =

a2 - x 2 +

ç2

÷

2

2

è

ø

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

(iii)

ö

æ

1 + x 2 - 1÷

tan–1 çç

÷÷

x

ç

ø

è

ö

÷

÷÷

ø

a2 - x 2 .

Q.16

Prove that

Q.17

If y = (sin x)x + (cos x)tan x, find

Q.18

Find

Q.19

æ 2x ö

÷÷ w.r.t. sin–1

Differentiate tan–1 çç

è 1 - x2 ø

Q.20

æ3+ xö

÷

If f(x) = ç

è 1+ x ø

Q.21

Find

Q.22

2

æ x ö

d2 y

1 æ a ö

ç

÷

ç

÷

If y = x log

, prove that

.

=

è a + bx ø

x è a + bx ø

dx2

Q.23

ì

ï 1 - cos 4x

, x<0

ï

x2

ï

a

, x = 0 is continuous at x = 0, find the value

If the function f defined by f(x) = í

ï

x

ï

, x>0

ï 16 + x - 4

î

dy

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

2bt

1- t2

dy

, when x = a

,y=

2

dx

1+ t2

1+ t

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

æ 2x ö

çç

÷÷ .

è 1 + x2 ø

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

2 + 3x

, find f ’(0).

æ 1 + t2 ö

2t

dy

÷

if : x = a çç

2 ÷, y =

dx

1- t2

è 1- t ø

of a.

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

www.thinkiit.in

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

17

1

dy

+y=2 x.

dx

Q.24

If y =

Q.25

æ 1 + sin x + 1 - sin x

Differentiate w.r.t. x : tan–1 çç

è 1 + sin x - 1 - sin x

Q.26

If y x 2 + 1 = log ( x 2 + 1 – x), prove that (x2 + 1)

Q.27

b

æ dy ö

= .

If x = a sin 2t (1 + cos 2t) and y = b cos 2t (1 – cos 2t), show that ç ÷

p

a

è dx ø t =

x +

x

, then show that 2x

ö

÷

÷

ø

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

dy

+ xy + 1 = 0.

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

4

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

d2 y

Q.28

If y = cosec x + cot x, show that sin x .

Q.29

Verify LMV ; find ‘c’ f(x) = x 2 + 2x + 3 in [4, 6]

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

Q.30

ì x 2 - 25

ï

If f(x) = í x - 5 , x ¹ 5 is continuous at x = 5, find the value of k.

ïî

k

, x =5

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

Q.31

If y = 3e2x + 2e3x, prove that

Q.32

If y = A emx + B enx, prove that

Q.33

If y = sin (log x), prove that x 2

Q.34

For what value of k is the following function continuous at x = 2 ?

d2 y

dx

2

–5

d2 y

dx2

d2 y

dx

2

dx2

= y2.

dy

+ 6y = 0.

dx

– (m + n)

+x

dy

+ mny = 0.

dx

dy

+ y = 0.

dx

ì 2x + 1 , x < 2

ï

f(x) = í k , x = 2

ïî 3 x - 1 , x > 2

Q.35

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

**Discuss the continuity of the following function at x = 0 :
**

ì x 4 + 2x3 + x 2

ï

, x¹0

f(x) = í

.

tan-1 x

ï

0

, x =0

î

www.thinkiit.in

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

18

Q.36

ì 1 - sin 3 x

ï

ï 3 cos2 x

ï

a

Let f(x) = í

ï

ï b(1 - sin x )

ï ( p - 2x )2

î

Q.37

If f(x), defined by the following, is continuous at x = 0, find the values of a, b and c.

p

2

p

p

, if x = . If f(x) be a continuous function at x = , find a and b.

2

2

p

, if x >

2

, if x <

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

ì

ï sin( a + 1)x + sin x

, if x < 0

ï

x

ï

c

, if x = 0

f(x) = í

ï

2

ï x + bx - x

, if x > 0

ï

bx 3 / 2

î

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

dy

n

x 2 + a 2 ) , prove that dx =

ny

.

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

Q.38

If y = (x +

Q.39

If x 1 + y + y 1 + x = 0 , find

Q.40

If y =

Q.41

dy

p

qö

æ

at q = .

If x = a ç cos q + log tan ÷ and y = a sin q, find the value of

dx

4

2ø

è

Q.42

If y = (log (x +

Q.43

If sin y = x sin (a + y), prove that

Q.44

If (cos x)y = (sin y)x, find

Q.45

If y =

Q.46

Differentiate the following function w.r.t. x : xsin x + (sin x)cos x

Q.47

x

sin x

2

x + a2

dy

.

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

æ1

1 ö÷

dy

ç

.

x 2 + 1 – log ç x + 1 + 2 ÷ , find

dx

x

è

ø

sin -1 x

1- x

2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

x 2 + 1 ))2, show that (1 + x2)

d2 y

dx2

+x

dy

– 2 = 0.

dx

dy

sin 2 (a + y )

=

.

dx

sin a

dy

.

dx

, show that (1 – x2)

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

d2 y

dx

2

– 3x

dy

–y=0

dx

æ sin x

ö

+ cos x log x ÷ + (sin x)cos x (cos x cot x – sin x logsin x)

ç

è x

ø

www.thinkiit.in

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

19

dy

if (x2 + y2)2 = xy..

dx

Q.48

Find

Q.49

**If y = 3 cos (log x) + 4 sin (log x), then show that x 2 .
**

æ 3x + 4 1 - x 2

ç

çç

5

è

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

d2 y

dx

2

+x

dy

+ y = 0 [C.B.S.E. 2009]

dx

ö

dy

÷

÷÷ , find dx .

ø

Q.50

If y = cos–1

Q.51

If y = cosec–1 x, x > 1, then show that x (x 2 – 1)

Q.52

If xy = ex – y, show that

Q.53

d2y

dy

æ1

ö

=0

If x = tan ç log y ÷ , show that (1 + x2)

+ (2x – a)

2

dx

dx

èa

ø

Q.54

If x =

dy

y

=- .

dx

x

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

Q.55

é 1 + x2 - 1 ù

ú with respect to x.

Differentiate tan–1 ê

x

úû

ëê

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

Q.56

If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t – t cos t), 0 < t <

-1

asin

t

,y=

[C.B.S.E. 2010]

d2 y

dx2

+ (2x2 – 1)

dy

= 0 [C.B.S.E. 2010]

dx

log x

dy

=

.

{log (xe)}2

dx

-1

acos

t

, show that

[C.B.S.E. 2011]

[C.B.S.E. 2011]

2

2

2

dy

dx dy

p

, 2 and

, find

2

2 .

2

dt dt

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

dy (1 + log)2

=

.

dx

log y

Q.57

If yx = ey – x, prove that

Q.58

**Differentiate the following with respect to x :
**

æ 2 x +1.3x

sin–1 çç

x

è 1 + (36)

Q.59

[C.B.S.E. 2013]

[C.B.S.E. 2013]

ö

÷

÷

ø

Find the value of k, for which

[C.B.S.E. 2013]

ì 1 + kx - 1 - kx

, if - 1 £ x < 0

ïï

x

í

f(x) = ï

2x + 1

,

if 0 £ x < 1

x -1

îï

is continuous at x = 0.

OR

If x = a cos3 q and y = a sin3 q, then find the value of

d2 y

dx

2

at q =

www.thinkiit.in

p

.

6

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

20

ANSWER KEY

EXERCISE – 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)

3. yes

4. 1/2

9. –2/9

10. 3 and 5 11. (i) cosec x (ii)

(v)

(iii)

2( x cos x + sin x)

2

(vi)

2

1 - x sin x

1

–

2

1+ (x + x)

18. (i)

3

2 1- x

2

5. –4

2

2

x +a

6. 8

1

17. (i)

2

7. discontinuous

1- x

1

2

log a x + a

+

2

1

2 x-x

2

(ii)

2

8. 7/5 and –17/2

(iii) sec x (iv)

5

1 + 25 x 2

–

æp xö

1

tan ç 4 - 2 ÷

è

ø

2

3

1 + 9x2

1

1+ x2

(ii) 1

19.

-1

2

2(1 + x )

20. (i)

-1

2 1- x

(ii)

2

-2

1+ x2

**EXERCISE – 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)
**

3.

-2

6. Discontinuous

x2

13. (i) cosec x (ii)

15. (i)

18.

1

2

(ii)

1

2

8. 3,2

1

6

14. 1

1+ x2

(iii)

11. (i) 2 (ii)

1

1

(iv)

2

2(1 + x )

1- x

(v)

2

x

1- x

4

(vi)

-1

2 1 - x2

- b(1 - t 2 )

2at

19. 1

21.

1+ t2

2at

23. 8

25. –1/2

29. 5

30. 10

32. 5/2

34. 5

35. continuous

36.

1

,4

2

37. –

-1

3

1

, any real number, 39.

(1 + x )2

2

2

41. 1

44.

**log sin y + y tan x
**

log cos x - cot y

56. at cos t, at sin t and

48.

y - 4x 3 - 4xy 2

2

3

4x y + 4y - x

50.

-1

1- x

2

55.

1

2(1 + x2 )

sec3 t

at

www.thinkiit.in

40.

x2 + 1

x

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