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Photosystem 2

1. noncyclic
2. occurs/resides in thylakoid membrane
3. reaction center chlorophyll is P680

Photosystem 1
1. can be cyclic, if required
2. occurs/resides in thylakoid membrane
3. reaction center chlorophyll is p700

4. passes photoexcited electrons to
photosystem 1 via an electron transport
5. Light enters chlorophyll and excites an
electron. The energy from this electron is
passed from electron to electron until an
electron in the reaction center is excited
and physically removed to the primary

4. uses ‘spent’ electrons from photosystem 2
to make up the number of electrons in its
own system
5. ‘Passes’ spent electrons back to prior
electron transport chain to create extra ATP
if needed (this is the cyclic process).

6. This excited electron is passed down the
electron transport chain to photosystem 1

6. Passes its own photo excited electrons to
an electron transport chain, which
transmits them to Fd, an iron-containing


Calvin Cycle
occurs in stroma
CO2 enters and leaves as sugar
cycle spends ATP as energy and consumes
NADPH as reducing power for adding
high-energy electrons to make sugar
returns NADP+ to the light reactions

5. 3 phases:
 carbon fixation: each CO2 is fixed into a
5-carbon sugar, using RuBP
 reduction: each 3-phosphoglycerate
receives a phosphate from ATP. A pair of
electrons from NADPH then reduces it to
 regeneration: RuBP is regenerated, so that
CO2 can again be accepted, and cycle can
turn again
6. G3P is the product of this cycle, not
glucose. G3P is a sugar

these molecules are regenerated by the light reactions 9. NADP+ reductase transfers the electrons from Fd to NADP+ creating NADPH 7. the cycle consumes 9 ATP and 6 NADPH. to create one net G3P 8. 9. 8. For net synthesis of one G3P. This NADPH provides reducing power for the synthesis of sugar in the calvin cycle 9.7. ATP produced during noncyclic electron flow is called noncyclic photophosphorylate 7. fixing 3 carbons. Splits water into oxygen and electrons. G3P is starting material for metabolic pathways that synthesize other organic compounds David Snow . Water is the source of electrons for this process 8. Cycle must turn 3 times.