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You are on page 1of 6

1

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRALS

AREA UNDER SIMPLE CURVE

1.

The area of the region bounded by a curve y = f(x), x =a, x = b, and the x - axis.

Case– I When the curve y = f(x) lies above the x-axis.The area bounded by the curve

b

y = f(x), the x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b is given by

ò y dx

a

Y

y = f(x)

B

A

C

X’

O

D

b

a

X

Y’

**Case–II When the curve y = f(x) lies below the x-axis.The area bounded by the
**

b

curve y = f(x), the x-axis,and the ordinaes x = a and x = b is given by

ò (-y) dx

a

Y

O

X’

C

a

C

Y’

2.

b

B

A

y=f(x)

X

D

**The Area of the Region Bounded by a Curve x = f(y), The Abscissae y = c, y = d and
**

the y -axis.

Case – I When the curve x = f(y) lies to the right of the y -axis. The area bounded by

d

the curve x = f(y), the y-axisand the abscissae y = c and y = d is given by

ò x dy

c

Y

B

A

y=d

D

x=f(y)

C

y=c

X’

X

Y’

**Case – II When the curve x = f(y) lies to the left of the y-axis. The area bounded by
**

d

the curve x = f(y), the y-axis and the absissa y = c and y = d is given by

ò (-x) dy

c

Y

6.1

y=d

x=f(y)

y=c

X’

O

X

Y’

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

3

6.2

**SOME STANDARD CURVES
**

1.

Circle

(i)

x2 + y2 = a2 represents a circle with centre at (0,0) and radius = a. It is symmetric

about both the axes.

(ii)

(x–a)2 + (y – b)2 = a2 represents a circle with

Y

B(0,a)

a

X’

a

X

A(a,0)

O (0,0)

Y’

(iii)

**centre at (a, b) and radius = a.
**

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents the general equation of a circle with centre at

(–g, – f ) and radius =

2.

(i)

g2 + f 2 - c

Parabola

y2 = 4ax, where a > 0 or y2 = 4ax,

whre a < 0 (standard equation)

It is symmetric about x -axis,

where O is the vertex,

X’

F is the focus, LL¢

is the latus rectum :

Y

x=a

F

Latus rectum

X

O

X

O

x=–a

L’

L’

Y’

Y’

axis of the parabola.

y2 = 4ax, a > 0

**x2 = 4by, where b > 0 or x2 = 4by,
**

where b < 0

It is symmetric about y-axis,

where LL¢ is the latus rectum.

O is the vertex, F is the focus,

LL¢ is the latus rectum, LL' ^ YY' .

y

Y

Latus rectum

y=b

L’

O

X’

F

L’

X’

X

L

X

O

Y’

x2 = 4by, b > 0

3.

F

X’

Latus rectum

LL' ^ X' X; X' X being the

(ii)

Y

L

y=–b

F

L

Latus rectum

Y’

x2 = 4by, b < 0

Ellipse

x2 y2

+

= 1 represents an ellipse with centre at (0, 0).

a 2 b2

It is symmetric about both the axes, meeting x-axis at (±a, 0) and y-axis at (0, ±b)

and a > b. Here, AA¢ = 2a = length of major axis. BB¢ = 2b = length of minor axis.

Y

B(0,b)

A’(–a,0)

X’

A(a,0)

O (0,0)

X

B’(0,–b)

Y’

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

5

2

é x 4 - x2

x2 ù

æxö

=ê

+ 2 sin -1ç ÷ - 2x + ú

2

2ú

êë

è2ø

û0

= 2 sin–1(1) – 4 + 2 = (p – 2) sq. units

Ex.4

Sol.

**Find the area of the circle 4x2 + 4y2 = 9 which is interior to the parabola x2 = 4y.
**

Given equations to the curves are

x2 + y2 =

9

4

...(1)

x2 = 4y

...(2)

Equation (1) represents a circle whose centre is (0, 0) and radius

3

.

2

**Equation (2) represents a parabola whose vertex is O(0, 0) and x-axis is y-axis.
**

From (2), we have

Put y =

y=

x2

4

x2

in (1), we have

4

x2 +

x4 9

=

16 4

Y

x2=4y

A(– 2 ,1/ 2)

B( 2 ,1/ 2)

4x2 + 4y2 = 9

X’

– 2

O

2

X

Y’

Þ

Þ

Þ

x4 + 16x2 – 36 = 0

(x2 + 18) (x2 – 2) = 0

x2 = 2 or – 18

Þ

x=±

2

(Q x cannot be – 18)

2

y=

1

x2

=

2

4

Taking y =

9

- x2

4

\

on f(x) and y =

x2

as g(x), where f(x) ³ g (x) in [– 2 , 2 ] we have

ve

4

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

7

Ex.6

Find the area of the region bounded by the curves y = x2 + 2, y = x, x = 0 and x = 3.

Sol.

**Given equations are
**

y = x2 + 2

...(1)

y=x

...(2)

x=0

...(3)

x=3

...(4)

Equation (1) represetns a parabola with vertex

Y

A(0, 2) and axis is y-axis.

y = x2 + 2

y=x

**Equation (2) represents a line passing through (0, 0) and (1, 1)
**

A(0,2)

**Equation (3) represents y-axis
**

X’

Equation (4) represent a line parallel to y-axis

B(3,0)

O

X

and passing through B(3, 0)

x=3

x=0

3

3

0

0

Y’

ò y(of parabola )dx - ò y (of line y = x) dx

Required area =

3

3

é x3

ù

é x2 ù

æ9

ö

21

= 0 ( x + 2)dx - 0xdx = ê + 2x ú - ê ú = (9 + 6) - ç + 0 ÷ =

sq. units.

3

2

2

è

ø

2

ë

û0 ë û0

ò

Ex.7

3

ò

2

3

**Find the area of the region
**

| (x,y) : x2 + y2 £ 2ax, y2 £ 2ax, a > 0, x ³ 0, y ³ 0|

Sol.

Required area =

=

a

ò éêë

0

ò

a

0

a 2 - ( x - a)2 - ax ù dx

úû

Y

A(a,a)

a

é 2

1 2

2 a 3/2 ù

2

-1æ x - a ö

x ú

÷ê a - ( x - a) + a sin ç

2

3

è a ø

ûú 0

ëê

C

X’

X

Y’

æ pa 2 2 2 ö

2 2ù é1 2

– 2 2 1 2æ - p ö

é1 2

ù

-1

-1

- a ÷÷ sq. units.

= ê a sin (0) - a ú - ê a sin ( -1)ú =

a - a ç

÷ = çç

3 ø

3 û ë2

2 è 2 ø

3

ë2

û

è 4

Ex.8

**Using the method of integration, find the area of the triangle ABC, coordinates of whose
**

vertices are A (2, 0), B(4, 5) and C (6, 3).

Sol.

**Required area = area of the region ABC
**

= area of the region APB + area of the region

PQCB – Area of the region AQC

6

5x - 10

dx + (9 - x )dx = 2

4

2

ò

4

ò

4

6

æ 3x - 6 ö

÷ dx

ç

2è

4 ø

ò

6

B(4,5)

C(6,3)

6

ù

é

ù

5 é x2

x2 ù

3 é x2

= ê - 2x ú + ê9x - ú - ê - 2xú

2ë 2

2

4

2

û2 ë

û4

ë

û2

= 7 sq. units.

Y

A(2,0)

X’ O

Y’

www.thinkiit.in

P

Q

X

AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

9

BOARD PROBLES

EXERCISE – II

Q.1

**Using integration, find the area of the region, given :
**

{(x, y) : 0 £ y £ x2 + 1 ; 0 £ y £ x + 1, 0 £ x £ 2}

Q.2

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

**Using integration, find the area of DPQR where P is (2, 1) Q is (3, 4) and R is (5, 2)
**

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

Q.3

**Using integration, find the area of the region bounded by the line 2y + x = 8, x-axis
**

and the line x = 2 sand x = 4.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.4

Find the area of the region given by {(x, y) : x 2 £ y £ |x|}.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.5

**Using integration, find the area of triangle ABC, whose vertices are A(3,0), B(4, 5)
**

and C(5, 1)

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

Q.6

Find the area of the following region : {(x, y) : y 2 £ 4x, 4x2 + 4y2 £ 9}.

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

Q.7

**Using integration, find the area of the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the x-axis
**

and the line y = x and the circle x2 + y2 = 32.

Q.8

C.B.S.E. 2004]

**Find the area of the region lying between the parabola y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4ay, where a > 0
**

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

Q.9

**Using integration, find the area of the smaller region bounded by the
**

curve

Q.10

x y

x2 y2

+ =1

+

= 1 and the straight line

4 3

16 9

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

**Find the area enclosed by the parabola y2 = x and the line x + y = 2 and the x-axis.
**

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

Q.11

Using integration, find the area of the smaller region bounded by the ellipse

and the straight line

Q.12

x y

+ =1

a b

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

**Using integration, find the area of the region enclosed between the circles x2 + y2 = 1
**

and (x – 1)2 + y2 = 1.

Q.14

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

**Using integration, find the area of the region enclosed between two circles x 2 + y2 = 1
**

and (x – 1)2 + y2 =1.

Q.13

x2 y2

+

=1

a 2 b2

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

**Find the area of that part of the circle x2 + y2 = 16 which is exterior to the parabola y2 = 6x.
**

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

11

ANSWER KEY

EXERCISE – I

1.

15

2

2.

16a2

3

9.

15. 16

9

8

10.

3.

21

7

a 2 æç p - 1ö÷

4.

5.

2

6

2 è2 ø

6. 4p

æ 8p

ö

11. ç 3 - 2 3 ÷

è

ø

8

3

æ p 1ö

16. ç 4 - 2 ÷

è

ø

17.

1

3

7.

12.

18.

p

8

8.

4p + 3

13.

8p - 3

abp

ab

–

4

2

16p + 4 3

3

æ pa2 2a2 ö

ç

÷

19. ç 4 - 3 ÷

è

ø

23

6

EXERCISE-II

1.

23

6

7. 4p

12.

21. 9

1

3

2. 4

3. 5

4.

8. 16/3

9. 3(p – 2)

10. 7/6

æ 2p

3 ö÷

2p

3

ç

–

13. ç 3 - 2 ÷

3

2

è

ø

22.

14.

4

(8p –

3

5. 9/2

3)

6.

1

3 2

11.

15.

16 2

a

3

(p – 2)

www.thinkiit.in

+

9p

9

–1 1

–

sin

8

4

3

ab

(p - 2)

4

æ 8p

ö

16. ç 3 - 2 3 ÷

è

ø

14. 9

20. 4

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