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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

1

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRALS
AREA UNDER SIMPLE CURVE
1.
The area of the region bounded by a curve y = f(x), x =a, x = b, and the x - axis.
Case– I When the curve y = f(x) lies above the x-axis.The area bounded by the curve
b

y = f(x), the x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b is given by

ò y dx
a

Y

y = f(x)

B

A

C

X’

O

D
b

a

X

Y’

Case–II When the curve y = f(x) lies below the x-axis.The area bounded by the
b

curve y = f(x), the x-axis,and the ordinaes x = a and x = b is given by

ò (-y) dx
a

Y
O

X’

C

a

C

Y’

2.

b
B

A

y=f(x)

X

D

The Area of the Region Bounded by a Curve x = f(y), The Abscissae y = c, y = d and
the y -axis.
Case – I When the curve x = f(y) lies to the right of the y -axis. The area bounded by
d

the curve x = f(y), the y-axisand the abscissae y = c and y = d is given by

ò x dy
c

Y

B
A

y=d

D
x=f(y)
C

y=c

X’

X
Y’

Case – II When the curve x = f(y) lies to the left of the y-axis. The area bounded by
d

the curve x = f(y), the y-axis and the absissa y = c and y = d is given by

ò (-x) dy
c

Y

6.1

y=d
x=f(y)
y=c
X’

O

X

Y’

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

3
6.2

SOME STANDARD CURVES
1.
Circle
(i)
x2 + y2 = a2 represents a circle with centre at (0,0) and radius = a. It is symmetric
about both the axes.
(ii)
(x–a)2 + (y – b)2 = a2 represents a circle with
Y
B(0,a)
a
X’

a

X
A(a,0)

O (0,0)

Y’

(iii)

centre at (a, b) and radius = a.
x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents the general equation of a circle with centre at
(–g, – f ) and radius =

2.
(i)

g2 + f 2 - c

Parabola
y2 = 4ax, where a > 0 or y2 = 4ax,
whre a < 0 (standard equation)
It is symmetric about x -axis,
where O is the vertex,
X’
F is the focus, LL¢
is the latus rectum :

Y
x=a
F

Latus rectum

X

O

X

O
x=–a
L’

L’

Y’

Y’

axis of the parabola.

y2 = 4ax, a > 0

x2 = 4by, where b > 0 or x2 = 4by,
where b < 0
It is symmetric about y-axis,
where LL¢ is the latus rectum.
O is the vertex, F is the focus,
LL¢ is the latus rectum, LL' ^ YY' .

y

Y

Latus rectum
y=b
L’

O

X’

F

L’

X’

X

L

X

O
Y’
x2 = 4by, b > 0

3.

F

X’

Latus rectum

LL' ^ X' X; X' X being the

(ii)

Y

L

y=–b

F

L

Latus rectum
Y’
x2 = 4by, b < 0

Ellipse
x2 y2
+
= 1 represents an ellipse with centre at (0, 0).
a 2 b2
It is symmetric about both the axes, meeting x-axis at (±a, 0) and y-axis at (0, ±b)
and a > b. Here, AA¢ = 2a = length of major axis. BB¢ = 2b = length of minor axis.
Y
B(0,b)
A’(–a,0)
X’

A(a,0)
O (0,0)

X

B’(0,–b)
Y’

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

5
2

é x 4 - x2
x2 ù
æxö

+ 2 sin -1ç ÷ - 2x + ú
2

êë
è2ø
û0

= 2 sin–1(1) – 4 + 2 = (p – 2) sq. units
Ex.4
Sol.

Find the area of the circle 4x2 + 4y2 = 9 which is interior to the parabola x2 = 4y.
Given equations to the curves are
x2 + y2 =

9
4

...(1)

x2 = 4y

...(2)

Equation (1) represents a circle whose centre is (0, 0) and radius

3
.
2

Equation (2) represents a parabola whose vertex is O(0, 0) and x-axis is y-axis.
From (2), we have

Put y =

y=

x2
4

x2
in (1), we have
4

x2 +

x4 9
=
16 4

Y

x2=4y

A(– 2 ,1/ 2)

B( 2 ,1/ 2)
4x2 + 4y2 = 9

X’
– 2

O

2

X

Y’

Þ
Þ
Þ

x4 + 16x2 – 36 = 0
(x2 + 18) (x2 – 2) = 0
x2 = 2 or – 18

Þ

x=±

2

(Q x cannot be – 18)
2

y=

1
x2
=
2
4

Taking y =

9
- x2
4

\

on f(x) and y =

x2
as g(x), where f(x) ³ g (x) in [– 2 , 2 ] we have
ve
4

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

7
Ex.6

Find the area of the region bounded by the curves y = x2 + 2, y = x, x = 0 and x = 3.

Sol.

Given equations are
y = x2 + 2

...(1)

y=x

...(2)

x=0

...(3)

x=3

...(4)

Equation (1) represetns a parabola with vertex

Y

A(0, 2) and axis is y-axis.

y = x2 + 2
y=x

Equation (2) represents a line passing through (0, 0) and (1, 1)
A(0,2)

Equation (3) represents y-axis
X’

Equation (4) represent a line parallel to y-axis

B(3,0)

O

X

and passing through B(3, 0)

x=3
x=0

3

3

0

0

Y’

ò y(of parabola )dx - ò y (of line y = x) dx

Required area =

3

3

é x3
ù
é x2 ù
æ9
ö
21
= 0 ( x + 2)dx - 0xdx = ê + 2x ú - ê ú = (9 + 6) - ç + 0 ÷ =
sq. units.
3
2
2
è
ø
2
ë
û0 ë û0

ò

Ex.7

3

ò

2

3

Find the area of the region
| (x,y) : x2 + y2 £ 2ax, y2 £ 2ax, a > 0, x ³ 0, y ³ 0|

Sol.

Required area =

=

a

ò éêë
0

ò

a

0

a 2 - ( x - a)2 - ax ù dx
úû

Y

A(a,a)

a

é 2
1 2
2 a 3/2 ù
2
-1æ x - a ö
x ú
÷ê a - ( x - a) + a sin ç
2
3
è a ø
ûú 0
ëê

C

X’

X

Y’
æ pa 2 2 2 ö
2 2ù é1 2
– 2 2 1 2æ - p ö
é1 2
ù
-1
-1
- a ÷÷ sq. units.
= ê a sin (0) - a ú - ê a sin ( -1)ú =
a - a ç
÷ = çç
3 ø
3 û ë2
2 è 2 ø
3
ë2
û
è 4

Ex.8

Using the method of integration, find the area of the triangle ABC, coordinates of whose
vertices are A (2, 0), B(4, 5) and C (6, 3).

Sol.

Required area = area of the region ABC
= area of the region APB + area of the region
PQCB – Area of the region AQC
6
5x - 10
dx + (9 - x )dx = 2
4
2

ò

4

ò

4

6

æ 3x - 6 ö
÷ dx
ç

4 ø

ò

6

B(4,5)
C(6,3)

6

ù
é
ù
5 é x2
x2 ù
3 é x2
= ê - 2x ú + ê9x - ú - ê - 2xú
2ë 2
2
4
2
û2 ë
û4
ë
û2

= 7 sq. units.

Y

A(2,0)
X’ O
Y’

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P

Q

X

AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

9

BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE – II
Q.1

Using integration, find the area of the region, given :
{(x, y) : 0 £ y £ x2 + 1 ; 0 £ y £ x + 1, 0 £ x £ 2}

Q.2

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

Using integration, find the area of DPQR where P is (2, 1) Q is (3, 4) and R is (5, 2)
[C.B.S.E. 2001]

Q.3

Using integration, find the area of the region bounded by the line 2y + x = 8, x-axis
and the line x = 2 sand x = 4.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.4

Find the area of the region given by {(x, y) : x 2 £ y £ |x|}.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.5

Using integration, find the area of triangle ABC, whose vertices are A(3,0), B(4, 5)
and C(5, 1)

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

Q.6

Find the area of the following region : {(x, y) : y 2 £ 4x, 4x2 + 4y2 £ 9}.

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

Q.7

Using integration, find the area of the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the x-axis
and the line y = x and the circle x2 + y2 = 32.

Q.8

C.B.S.E. 2004]

Find the area of the region lying between the parabola y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4ay, where a > 0
[C.B.S.E. 2004]

Q.9

Using integration, find the area of the smaller region bounded by the
curve

Q.10

x y
x2 y2
+ =1
+
= 1 and the straight line
4 3
16 9

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

Find the area enclosed by the parabola y2 = x and the line x + y = 2 and the x-axis.
[C.B.S.E. 2005]

Q.11

Using integration, find the area of the smaller region bounded by the ellipse

and the straight line

Q.12

x y
+ =1
a b

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

Using integration, find the area of the region enclosed between the circles x2 + y2 = 1
and (x – 1)2 + y2 = 1.

Q.14

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

Using integration, find the area of the region enclosed between two circles x 2 + y2 = 1
and (x – 1)2 + y2 =1.

Q.13

x2 y2
+
=1
a 2 b2

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

Find the area of that part of the circle x2 + y2 = 16 which is exterior to the parabola y2 = 6x.
[C.B.S.E. 2007]

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AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS

11

ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE – I
1.

15
2

2.

16a2
3

9.

15. 16

9
8

10.

3.

21
7
a 2 æç p - 1ö÷
4.
5.
2
6
2 è2 ø

6. 4p

æ 8p
ö
11. ç 3 - 2 3 ÷
è
ø

8
3

æ p 1ö
16. ç 4 - 2 ÷
è
ø

17.

1
3

7.

12.

18.

p
8

8.

4p + 3

13.

8p - 3

abp
ab

4
2

16p + 4 3
3

æ pa2 2a2 ö
ç
÷
19. ç 4 - 3 ÷
è
ø

23
6

EXERCISE-II
1.

23
6

7. 4p

12.
21. 9

1
3

2. 4

3. 5

4.

8. 16/3

9. 3(p – 2)

10. 7/6

æ 2p
3 ö÷
2p
3
ç

13. ç 3 - 2 ÷
3
2
è
ø
22.

14.

4
(8p –
3

5. 9/2

3)

6.

1
3 2

11.

15.

16 2
a
3

(p – 2)

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+

9p
9
–1 1

sin
8
4
3

ab
(p - 2)
4
æ 8p
ö
16. ç 3 - 2 3 ÷
è
ø

14. 9

20. 4