1
VECTORS
1.1
Basic concept
·
Vectors have magnitude and direction, whereas scalars have only magnitude.
·
Vector. A directed line segment represents a vector. A vector from P to Q is denoted
®
®
by PQ . P and Q are called respectively initial and terminal points of the vector PQ . The
®
direction of vector PQ is from P to Q.
®
®
·
The magnitude of vector PQ is denoted by  PQ  and represents length of line
·
segment PQ.
Zero vector. A vector whose initial and terminal points coincide is called a zero vector.
® ®
r
It is also defined as a vector whose magnitude is zero. It is denoted by 0 or AA, BB
·
®
r
r
etc.  0  = 0,  0  = 0,  AA  = 0.
r
y
Unit vector. A vector a is called a unit vector if its magnitude is one unit. It is denoted by
aˆ ,  aˆ  = 1.
r
a
r
Unit vector represents direction along a vector a , also aˆ = r .
a
·
Position vector of a point. If we take a fixed point O, which is called the origin of
®
reference and P be any point in the plane, then the vector OP is called the position
r
r
vector of P relative to O. If position vector of point P is a , denoted as P( a ), then
®
®
corresponding to some origin of reference O, OP = a .
·
Line of support. A line, whose segment is PQ, is called the line of support of the
®
vector PQ .
1.2
Types of vectors
1.
Like vectors. Two vectors are said to be like vectors, if they have (i) same or parallel
lines of support.
(ii) same direction.
2.
Unlike vectors. Two vectors are said to be unlike vectors, if (i) their lines of support
are same or parallel, (ii) opposite direction.
3.
Equal vectors. Two vectors are said to be equal, if they have (i) same or parallel
lines of support, (ii) same direction and (iii) equal magnitudes.
We can also say that if like vectors have equal magnitudes then they are equal.
4.
Coinitial vectors. Two or more vectors are said to be coinitial vectors if they have
®
®
®
the same initial point, e.g., AP, AQ, AR etc. are coinitial vectors.
5.
6.
Collinear vectors. Two or more vectors are called collinear vectors, if they have the
same or parallel lines of support.
Coplanar vectors. Any number of nonzero vectors are said to be coplanar if they lie
in the same plane or parallel planes.
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VECTORS
2
7.
Negative vector. A vector which has the same magnitude but opposite direction of
®
®
®
®
the given vector, is called the negative of the given vector. If PR = x then RP =  x .
1.3
Properties with respect to addition
·
Triangle law of vector addition. If two vectors are
represented along two sides of a triangle taken in
order, then their resultant is represented by the third
side taken in the opposite order.
B
®
If the sides OA and AB of DOAB represent OA and ,
®
®
®
®
®
®
then OA + AB = OB , i.e., OB = a + b
·
r
b
O
Parallelogram law of vector addition. If two vectors
are represented along two adjacent sides of a
parallelogram, then their resultant is represented along
the diagonal of a parallelogram passing through the
common vertex of adjacent sides. If the sides OA and
OC of a parallelogram OABC represent respectively
®
®
®
®
®
OA and OC , then OA + OC = OB .
A
r
a
C
B
O
A
·
Properties with respect to addition
r
r
r
r
r
r
(i) Commutative. For vectors a and b , we have a + b = b + a .
r
r
r r
r
r
r
r
r
(ii) Associative. For vectors a , b and c , we have a + ( b + c ) = ( a + b ) + c
r
r
r
r
(iii) Additive identity. For every vector a , a zero vector 0 is its additive identity as a + 0
r
= a.
r
r
r
r
(iv) Additive inverse. For a vector a , a negative of vector a is its additive inverse as a + (– a )
r
= 0.
®
®
®
®
r
®
®
Also for vector AB , its additive inverse is BA as AB + BA = AA = 0 , Also, we conclude BA = –
®
AB .
1.4
Properties of with respect to multiplication
·
·
·
r
Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Let a be a given vector and k a scalar, then
r
r
multiplication of vector a by scalar k, denoted k a , is a vector whose magnitude is k
r
r
times that of vector a and direction is (i) same as that of a , if k > 0. (ii) opposite to that
r
of a , if k < 0. (iii) a zero vector, if k = 0.
r
r
r
r
To prove a is parallel to b we have to show that a = k b , where k is a scalar..
Properties with respect to multiplication of a vector by a scalar
r r
For vectors a , b and scalars l, m, we have
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
(i) l( a + b ) = l a + l b
(ii) (l + m) a = l a + m a
r
r
(iii) l(m a ) = (lm) a .
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VECTORS
3
1.5
Propertes of vectors
·
To find a vector when position vectors of end points are given :
r
r
Let a and b be the position vectors of end points A and B of a line segment AB. Then,
®
®
r
r
= Position vector of B – Position vector of A = OB – OA = b – a .
AB
r
r
r
r
Components of a vector. If rr = a + b , then a and b are known as components of
r
r.
Vector in two dimensions :
Let rr be position vector of a point P(x, y),
®
·
·
·
(i)
®
Then rr = OP = x ˆi + y ˆj
(ii)
r
x ˆi and y ˆj are known as component vectors of r along x and yaxis
and x and y are known as components of rr along x and yaxis.
(iii)
r
r
Magnitude of r , is given by,  r  =
(iv)
r
x
y
x ˆi + yˆj
r
r
r
r , i.e.,, ˆ = r ˆ + r ˆj .
Unit vector along r , is given by, r = r =
r
i
r
r
r
r
(v)
y
x
r
If q is angle which r makes with xaxis, then cos q = r , sin q = r .
r
r
(vi)
r
cos q, sin q are known as direction cosines of r .
(vii)
r
r
For r = x ˆi + y ˆj ; x and y are known as direction ratios of r , i.e., components
r
of a vector are direction ratios of r , but converse may or may not be true.
x2 + y2 .
Vector in three dimensions :
r
If r is position vector of point P(x, y, z)
(i)
r
Then r = x ˆi + yˆj + zkˆ, x ˆi, yˆj and zkˆ are component vectors and x, y
Z
kˆ
g
O
ˆi
a
r
r
b
ˆj
Y
X
r
and z are components of vector r along x, y and zaxis.
(ii)
r
r
Magnitude of r , is given by,  r  =
(iii)
r
If a, b, g are the angles which vector r makes with x, y and zaxis, then its
x 2 + y2 + z2
direction consies cos a, cos b, cos g are cos a =
z
r .
r
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x
y
r ; cos b = r ; cos g =
r
r
VECTORS
4
(iv)
x
y
z
Unit vector along rr , is given by, rr = r ˆi + r ˆj + r kˆ = (cos a) ˆi + (cos
r
r
r
b) ˆj + (cos g) kˆ
(v)
·
r
If r = xˆi + yˆj + zkˆ , then x, y, z are direction ratios of rr , i.e., components of a
vector are direction ratios of a vector.
Vector when coordinates of end points are given. If A (x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2)
®
be the endpoints of line segment AB, then AB = (x2 – x1) ˆi + (y2 – y1) ˆj + (z2 – z1) kˆ .
(x2 – x1), (y2 – y1) and (z2 – z1) are components of
·
®
AB
along x, y and zaxis respectively..
These are also direction ratios along x, y and zaxis respectively.
Position vector of a point dividing the line segment in a given ratio (Section formula).
Position vector rr of a point which divides the join of two given points with position
r
r
r
l b + ma
r
r
.
vectors a and b in the ratio l : m internally is, r =
l+m
r
r
l b  ma
If point divides externally, in the ratio l : m, then position vector is
.
l m
·
Position vector of the midpoint (1 : 1) of the line segment joining the end points
r r
r
a+b
r
with position vectors a and b is
.
2
1.6
Scalar or dot product of two vectors
·
r
Scalar or dot product of two vectors. If q is the angle between two given vectors a
r
r
r
r
r
r
and b , then their scalar or dot product, denoted by a . b is given by a . b =  a 
r
r
r
 b  cos q, where q is angle between a and b .
r r
y.
a . b is a scalar quantity.
r r r
( a . b ). c is not defined.
r r r
r r
r
Commutative property. For vectors a and b , a . b = b . a .
r r r
r
Associative property. For vectors a , b , c , associative property does not hold as a
r r
. ( b . c ) is not defined.
r r r
r r
r
r r
r r
Distributive property. For vectors a , b , c , ; a .( b + c ) = a . b + a . c .
r r
r
r
r
r
r r
For vectors a and b , a .(l b ) = (l a ) . b = l( a . b ), l is a scalar..
r r
r
r r
r
r
r
r
r
For vectors a and b , a . b = 0 Û a = 0 , b = 0 or a ^ b .
·
r r r
r
For vector a , a . a = ar 2 =  a 2, i.e., square of a vector is equal to square of its
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
magnitude.
·
r r
r r
æ a .b ö r
a .b
r
r
r
r
ç r ÷
r
Projection of a along b is
and projection vector of a along b is ç
2 ÷ b.
b
èb ø
·
r r
a.b
r
r
r
r
Angle between a and b is given by, cos q = r r , q is the angle between a and b .
 a b
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VECTORS
5
·
If ˆi , ˆj , kˆ are unit vectors along x, y and zaxis respectively, then
ˆi . ˆi = ˆj . ˆj = kˆ . kˆ = 1 ; ˆi . ˆj = 0, ˆj . kˆ = 0, kˆ . ˆi = 0.
·
·
r
r
r r
r
If a = a1 ˆi + b1 ˆj + c1 kˆ and b = a2 ˆi + b2 ˆj + c2 kˆ , then a . b = a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 If a ^
r
r r
b then a . b = 0 Þ a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0
r
r
If q is angle between a = a1 ˆi + b1 ˆj + c1 kˆ and b = a2 ˆi + b2 ˆj + c2 kˆ , then
cos q =
1.7
a1a2 + b1b 2 + c1c 2
a12
+ b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c 22
.
Vector or cross product of two vectors
·
·
·
r
r
r
r
Vector or cross product of two vectors a and b . denoted by
y a . b , is given by
y
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
a × b =  a   b  sin q n, q is angle between a and b , nˆ is a unit vector ^ to a × b ,
is given by
r
r
r r
a and b and direction is such that a , b and nˆ form a right hand system.
r
r
r
r
r
r
a × b is a vector quantity, whose magnitude is,  a × b  =  a   b  sin q.
r r
 a´b 
r
r
If q is angle between a and b , then sin q = r r .
 a  b 
·
r
r r
r
For a , a × a = 0 .
r r
r
r
r
r
For vectors a and b , a × b = – b × a , i.e., cross product of two vectors is not
·
commutative.
r r
r
For a , b and c ,
·
·
·
·
·
r
r
r
r
r
r
a × ( b × c ) ¹ ( a × b ) × c , in general. Not associative.
r
r
r r
r r
r
r
r
r
Distributive property. For vectors a , b and c , a × ( b + c ) = a × b + a × c .
r r
r
r
r r
r
r
r
r
r
For vectors a and b , a × b = 0 Û a = 0 , b = 0 or a  b .
r
r
If we want to show that two nonzero vectors a and b are parallel, then we
r
r
r
should show that a × b = 0 .
r
r
Geometrically,  a × b  represents area of a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are
r
r
along a and b .
·
r
r
1 r
r
Area of a triangle whose sides are along a and b is given by
 a × b .
2
·
r
r
1 r
 d1 ×
Area of a parallelogram whose diagonals are along d1 and d2 is given by
2
r
d2 .
·
If ˆi , ˆj , kˆ are vectors along x, y and zaxis respectively, then
·
r
ˆi × ˆi = 0 , ˆj × ˆj =
r
For a scalar l, l( a ×
r
r
0 , kˆ × kˆ = 0 ˆi
r
r
r
b ) = (l a × b ) =
× ˆj = kˆ ; ˆj × kˆ = ˆi ; kˆ + ˆi = ˆj .
r
r
r
r
( a × l b ), where a and b are given vectors.
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VECTORS
6
SOLVED PROBLES
Ex.1
r
r
Find the projection of a = iˆ – 3 kˆ on b = 3 iˆ + ˆj  4 kˆ .
Sol.
r r
3 + 0 + 12
15
r ar.b
r
Projection of a on b =
=
=
.
9 + 1 + 16
26
b
Ex.2
r
r
r
If a is a unit vector and ( xr + a ).( xr – a ) = 15, find  xr .
Sol.
r 2
r
r 2
x 2  a2 = 15 Þ x  =15+ a  =16 Þ x = 4
Ex.3
Find a vector in the direction of vector 5 ˆi  ˆj  2ˆ k which has magnitude 8 units.
Sol.
r
The unit vector in the direction of vector a = 5ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ is
®
®
1
1
r . r =
a a
2
5 + ( 1)2 + 22
1
=
( 5ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ )
( 5ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ ) =
25 + 1 + 4
1
30
( 5ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ )
r
The vector of 8 units in the direction of the vector a =
Ex.4
Sol.
8
30
( 5ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ )
r
Find a vector of magnitude 5 units, and parallel to the resultant of the vectors a =
r
2 ˆi + 3 ˆj  kˆ and b = iˆ  2 ˆj + kˆ .
r
r
The resultant of vector a = 2ˆi + 3ˆj  kˆ and b = ˆi  2ˆj + kˆ is given by
r r
a + b = (2ˆi + 3ˆj  kˆ ) + (ˆi  2ˆj + kˆ ) = 3ˆi + ˆj
r r
The unit vector in the direction of a + b is
=
3
2
2
3 +1
=
1
ˆi +
3
ˆ+
10 i
2
3 + 12
1
10
ˆj i.e.,,
ˆj
æ 3 ˆ
1
r r
i+
A vector of magnitude 5 units, and parallel to a + b is, therefore, = 5 çç
10
è 10
i.e.,
=
3
2
10 ˆi +
10 ˆ
j
2
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ˆj ö÷
÷
ø
VECTORS
7
Ex.5
Sol.
r
r
r
IF a = iˆ + ˆj + kˆ , b = 2 iˆ  ˆj + 3 kˆ AND c = iˆ  2 ˆj + kˆ , FIND A UNIT VECTOR PARALLEL TO THE VECTOR
r r
r
2 a  b + 3c .
r
r
Here, 2a = 2ˆi + 2ˆj + 2kˆ
 b = 2ˆi + ˆj + 3kˆ
r r
r
2a  b + 3c = 3ˆi  3ˆj + 2kˆ
r
3c = 3ˆi  6ˆj + 3kˆ
and
r r
r
The unit vector parallel to the vector 2a  b + 3c =
3 ˆ
3 ˆ
2 ˆ
ij+
k
22
22
22
Ex.6
Show that the vectors 2 iˆ  3 ˆj + 4 kˆ and 4 iˆ  6 ˆj  8 kˆ are collinear.
Sol.
r
Two vectors a = a1ˆi + a 2 ˆj + a3kˆ
and
a1 a 2 b 3
r
b = b1ˆi  b2 ˆj + b3kˆ are collinear if b = b = b
1
2
3
For given vectors, we have
2
3
4
=
=
4
6
8
1
. Hence , the given vectors are collinear..
2
Each is equal to
Ex.7
Find the direction cosines of the vector iˆ + 2 ˆj + 3 kˆ .
Sol.
For a vector a1ˆi + a2 ˆj + a3kˆ , a1, a2, a3 are the direction ratios of the vector..
Hence, for the given vector,
a1 = 1, a 2 = 2 and a3 = 3.
1
2
2
1 +2 +3
2
2
,
2
2
1 +2 +3
2
,
3
2
1 + 22 + 3 2
are the required direction cosines.
i.e.,
1
14
,
2
14
,
3
14
are the required direction cosines.
Ex.8
Find the scalar and vector components of the vector with initial point (2, 1) and terminal
point (–5, 7).
Sol.
The vector joining the initial point (2, 1) and the terminal point (5, 7) is = ( 5  2)ˆi + (7  1)ˆj
= 7ˆi + 6ˆj
The scalar components of the vectors are –7 and 6.
Ex.9
®
Find the unit vector in the direction of vector PQ , where P and Q are the points (1, 2,
3) and (4, 5, 6) respectively.
Sol.
®
The vector PQ = (4  1) ˆi + (5  2)ˆj + (6  3 )kˆ
= 3ˆi + 3ˆj + 3kˆ
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VECTORS
8
®
PQ = 3ˆi + 3ˆj + 3kˆ =
3 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 = 9 + 9 + 9 = 27 = 3 3
so, the unit vector in the direction of PQ =
1
3 3
(
)
1 ˆ
1 ˆ 1 ˆ
. 3ˆi + 3ˆj + 3kˆ =
i+
j+
k
3
3
3
Ex.10 Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the points A(1, 2,–3) and B(–1,–2, 1),
directed from A and B.
Sol.
®
The vector AB =  2ˆi  4ˆj + 4kˆ
®
The direction ratios of AB are, therefore,–2, –4 and 4 and, the direction cosines are
1 2 2
, ,
3 3 3
Ex.11 Find the position vector of the midpoint of the vector joining the points P(2, 3, 4) and
Q(4, 1, –2).
Sol.
The position vectors of the points P and Q are 2ˆi + 3ˆj + 4kˆ and
4ˆi + ˆj  2kˆ
r r
b+a
The position vector of the midpoint of the vector PQ is
1+ 1
(
[
)
=
1 r r
1
a + b = (2 + 4 )ˆi + (3 + 1)ˆj + (4  2)kˆ
2
2
=
1é ˆ
6i + 4ˆj + 2kˆ ù = 3iˆ + 2ˆj + kˆ
û
2ë
]
r
r
Ex.12 Show that the points A, B and C with position vectors a = 3 iˆ  4 ˆj  4 kˆ , b = 2 iˆ  ˆj + kˆ and
r
c = iˆ  3 ˆj  5 kˆ respectively form the vertices of a rightangled triangle.
B
A
C
r
c
r
b
a
O
Sol.
®
The vector AB
®
= ˆi + 3ˆj + 5 kˆ ,
BC =  ˆi  2ˆj  6kˆ ,
®
CA = 2ˆi  ˆj + kˆ
®
Now, AB = AB =  ˆi + 3ˆj + 5kˆ
=  12 + 32 + 52 = 1 + 9 + 25 = 35 Þ AB 2 = 35
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VECTORS
9
®
BC = BC =  ˆi  2ˆj  6kˆ
( 1)2 + ( 2)2 + ( 6)2
=
= 1 + 4 + 36 = 41 Þ BC 2 = 41
®
CA = CA = 2ˆi  ˆj + kˆ = 2 2 + ( 1)2 + 12 = 4 + 1 + 1 = 6
Þ
CA 2 = 6
Since BC 2 = AB 2 + CA 2 ; DABC is right angled triangle, rightangled at A.
Ex.13 Show that the vector iˆ + ˆj + kˆ is equally inclined to the axes OX, OY and OZ.
Sol.
Let a, b, g be the angles which the vector ˆi + ˆj + kˆ is inclined to the axes OX, OY and OZ
respectively. Then cos a = 1, cos b = 1 and cos g = 1 Þ a = b = g
Ex.14 Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q
whose position vectors are ˆi + 2 ˆj  kˆ and  ˆi + ˆj + kˆ respectively, in the ratio 2 : 1.
Sol.
r
r
Let the position vector of P be a = ˆi + 2ˆj  kˆ and of Q be b = ˆi + ˆj + kˆ .
(i) Let R divide the line joining the point P and Q in the ratio 2 : 1 internally. Then, the position
vector of R is
r
r r
Q ()
b
r
r
1
2b + a
= 2b + a
3
2+1
R
(
)
[(
) (
1
=
 2ˆi + 2ˆj + 2kˆ + ˆi + 2ˆj  kˆ
3
=
[
r
P (a)
)]
]
[
1
( 2 + 1)ˆi + (2 + 2) ˆj + (2  1)kˆ = 1  ˆi + 4ˆj + kˆ
3
3
=
]
1ˆ 4ˆ 1 ˆ
i+ j+ k
3
3
3
(ii) Let R divide the line joinin the points P and Q in the ratio 2 :1 externally. Then the position
r r
r r
2b  a
= 2b  a
Vector of R is
2 1
R
()
r
Q b
r
P (a)
(
)(
)
=  2ˆi + 2ˆj + 2kˆ  ˆi + 2ˆj  kˆ =  3ˆi + 3kˆ
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VECTORS
10
Ex.15 Show that the points A(1, –2, –8), B(5, 0, –2) and C(11, 3, 7) are collinear and find the
ratio in which B divides AC.
Sol.
®
Here AB = (5  1)ˆi + (0 + 2)ˆj + ( 2 + 8)kˆ = 4ˆi + 2ˆj + 6kˆ
®
and BC = (11  5 )ˆi + (3  0)ˆj + (7 + 2)kˆ = 6ˆi + 3ˆj + 9kˆ
®
®
4 2 6
= =
The vectors AB and BC are collinear if
6 3 9
k
A(1,2,8)
which is true. Hence, the given points are
1
B
C(11,3,7)
collinear. Let B divide AC in the ratio k : 1
Then the coordinates of B are :
æ 11k + 1 3k  2 7k  8 ö
,
,
ç
÷
è k +1 k +1 k +1 ø
æ 11k + 1 3k  2 7k  8 ö
11k + 1
3k  2
7k  8
,
,
÷ to (5, 0, 2), we have
=5;
= 0;
= –2
Equating ç
è k +1 k +1 k +1 ø
k +1
k +1
k +1
which is true for k =
2
3
Hence, B divides AC internally in the ratio 2 : 3.
Ex.16 Show that the following points are collinear: A( 2 iˆ + 3 ˆj + 5 kˆ ), B( iˆ + 2 ˆj + 3 kˆ ) and C( 7 iˆ  kˆ )
Sol.
®
AB = (1 + 2)i + (2  3)ˆj + (3  5 )kˆ = 3ˆi  ˆj  2kˆ
®
BC = (7  1)ˆi  2ˆj + ( 1  3 )kˆ = 6ˆi  2ˆj  4kˆ
®
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
AC = (7 + 2)ˆi  3ˆj + ( 1  5 )kˆ = 9 i  3 j  6k
®
AB = 9 + 1 + 4 = 14
Further,
®
BC = 36 + 4 + 16 = 56 = 2 14
®
AC = 81 + 9 + 36 = 126 = 3 14
®
®
®
Therefore,  AC = AB  +  BC 
Hence, the points A, B and C are collinear.
r r r
r r r r r r
r r r
Ex.17 If a , b , c are unit vectors such that a + b + c = 0 , find the value of a . b + b . c + c . a .
r r r
Sol.
It is given that  a = b = c = 1
(
r r
r
r r r
Now, a + b + c = 0 gives a =  b + c
r r
r r r
r r rr
\ a . a = a.  b + c =  a.b + ac
[ ( )] (
)
)
r r
r
(Q a . a =  a 2 = 12 = 1)
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VECTORS
11
rr rr
Þ a.b + a.c = 1
r r r r
rr rr
Þ a.b + c.a = 1 (Q a . c + c . a )
rr rr
rr rr
Similarly, b.c + a.b = 1 and
c.a + b.c = 1
(
)
rr rr rr
Adding the three, we get 2 a.b + b.c + c.a = 3 Þ
rr rr rr
3
a.b + b.c + c.a = 2
r r
r r
r r
Ex.18 If a = 0 or b = 0 , then a . b = 0 . But the converse need not be true. Justify your answer
Sol.
with an example.
r r
r r
rr
If a = 0 or b = 0 , the a.b = 0
r
r
But the converse is not necessarily true. For, take a = 2ˆi  ˆj + 3kˆ and b = 3ˆi + 3ˆj  kˆ
rr
rr
Then a.b = 0. because a.b = 6  3  3 = 0
Yet. the vectors are nonzero vector.
Ex.19 If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are (1, 2, 3), (–1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 2), respectively,
then find Ð ABC.
Sol.
®
ˆ
Here, BA = (1 + 1)ˆi + (2  0 )ˆj + (3  0) k
A(1, 2, 3)
= 2ˆi + 2ˆj + 3kˆ
Þ
®
 BA = 22 + 22 + 32
B(–1, 0, 0)
4 + 4 + 9 = 17
and
C(0, 1, 2)
®
 BC = (0 + 1)ˆi + (1  0 )ˆj + (2  0 )kˆ
= ˆi + ˆj + 2kˆ
®
Þ
 BC = 12 + 12 + 22 = 1 + 1 + 4 = 6
So,
BA.BC = BA  .  BC  .cos ÐABC
® ®
®
®
( 2iˆ + 2jˆ + 3kˆ ).( ˆi + ˆj + 2kˆ ) =
17. 6 cos ÐABC
Þ
2 + 2 + 6 = 102 cos ÐABC Þ
Þ
æ 10 ö
ÐABC = cos1 ç
÷
è 102 ø
10
102
= cos ÐABC
Ex.20 The scalar product of the vector ˆi + ˆj + kˆ with a unit vector along the sum of vectors
2 iˆ + 4 ˆj  5 kˆ and lˆi + 2 ˆj + 3 kˆ is equal to one. Find the value of l.
Sol.
r
ˆ bˆ = 2iˆ + 4ˆj  5kˆ andcr = l ˆi + 2jˆ + 3kˆ
Let a = ˆi + ˆj + k,
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VECTORS
12
(
) (
r r
Then b + c = 2ˆi + 4ˆj  5kˆ + l ˆi + 2ˆj + 3kˆ
)
= ( 2 + l ) ˆi + (4 + 2)jˆ + ( 5 + 3)kˆ = (2 + l )ˆi + 6ˆj  2kˆ
Þ Unit vector along
r r
r r
b+c
b+c = r r =
b+c
=
2+l
(2 + l)
2
1
(2 + l )
2
+ 36 + 4
6
ˆi +
(2 + l)
2
+ 40
[(2 + l )ˆi + 6ˆj  2kˆ]
2kˆ
ˆj 
( 2 + l )2 + 40
+ 40
r r
r
Now, we are given that a . unit vector along b + c = 1
é
So, (ˆi + ˆj + kˆ ). ê
2+l
ê
ë
Þ
(2 + l )
2
2+l
(2 + l )
Þ
2
+ 40
+
2+l+62
(2 + l )2 + 40
Þ l+6=
6
ˆi +
(2 + l )
2
+ 40
6
(2 + l )
2
+ 40
2kˆ
j
(2 + l )
2
+ 40

2
ù
ú =1
ú
+ 40 û
(2 + l )2 + 40
=1
=1
(2 + l )2 + 40
Þ (l + 6 )2 = (2 + l )2 + 40
Þ l2 + 12l + 36 = l2 + 4l + 4 + 40 Þ 8l = 8 Þ l = 1
r
r
r
r
Ex.21 Let a = ˆi + 4 ˆj + 2 kˆ , b = 3 iˆ  2 ˆj + 7 kˆ an d c = 2 iˆ  ˆj + 4 kˆ . Find a ve ctor d
r
r
r r
perpendicular to both a and b , and c . d = 15.
Sol.
Let
r
d = a1ˆi + a2 ˆj + a3kˆ
r
r rr
rr
r
Since vector d is perpendicular to both a and b , d.a = 0 and d.b = 0
(a1ˆi + a2ˆj + a3kˆ )(. ˆi + 4ˆj + 2kˆ ) = 0
Þ
a1 + 4a2 + 2a3 = 0
....(1)
(a1ˆi + a2ˆj + a3kˆ ).(3iˆ  2jˆ + 7kˆ ) = 0
Also,
rr
cd = 0
Þ
(2ˆi  ˆj + 4kˆ ). (a1ˆi + a2ˆj + a3kˆ ) = 15
Þ
2a1  a2 + 4a3 = 15
3a1  2a2 + 4a3 = 0
.....(3)
Solving a1 , a2 and a3 from (1), (2) and (3),
we have a1 =
160
5
70
, a2 = – and a3 = 3
3
3
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.....(2)
whic h is
VECTORS
13
(
)
r
1
Thus, the required vector d is 160ˆi  5ˆj  70kˆ .
3
r r
r r
r r
Ex.22 Show that ( a  b ) × ( a + b ) = 2 ( a ´ b )
Sol.
(
)(
) (
)
(
)
( )
r r r r
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
r r r r
r r
Consider a  b ´ a + b = a  b ´ a + a  b ´ b = a ´ a  b ´ a + a ´ b  b ´ b = 0 + a ´ b + a ´ b  0 = 2 a ´ b
r
Ex.23 Find l and m if ( 2 iˆ + 6 ˆj + 27 kˆ ) × ( iˆ + lˆj + mkˆ ) = 0 .
Sol.
Given
(2ˆi + 6ˆj + 27kˆ )´ (i + lˆj + mkˆ ) = 0r
Þ
2ˆi ´ ˆi + 6ˆj ´ ˆi + 27kˆ ´ ˆi + 2l ˆi ´ j + 6lˆj ´ ˆj + 27lkˆ ´ ˆj
r
+ 2mˆi ´ kˆ + 6mˆj ´ ˆj + 27mkˆ ´ kˆ = 0
Þ
r
2 ´ 0  6i ´ ˆj + 27kˆ ´ ˆi + 2l ˆi ´ j + 6l ´ 0  27lˆj ´ kˆ  2 μkˆ ´ ˆi + 6mˆj ´ kˆ + 27 ´ 0 = 0
Þ
6kˆ + 27ˆj + 2lkˆ  27l ˆi  2mˆj + 6mˆi = 0
Þ
(6m  27l )i + (27  2m )j + (2l  6 )kˆ = 0
Þ
6m  27l = 0; 27  2m = 0 and 2l  6 = 0
Þ
l = 3, m =
27
2
Hence, l = 3 and m =
27
.
2
r
r r
r r
r
r
Ex.24 Given that a . b = 0 and a × b = 0 . What can you conclude about the vectors a and b ?
r
r r
r
Sol.
Given a . b = 0, we have  a   b  cos q = 0
r
r
Either  a  = 0,  b  = 0 or q = 90º
r
r
r
r
r
Given a × b = 0 , we have  a   b  sin q = 0
r
r
Either  a  = 0,  b  = 0 or q = 0
Hence, From (1) and (2) taken together, we have
r
r
Either  a  = 0 or  b  = 0
r r
r r r
r r
Ex.25 If either a = 0 or b = 0 , then a ´ b = 0 . Is the converse true ? Justify your answer with an
example.
Sol.
r
The converse not true. take any two nonzero collinear vectors, say, a = ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ and
r
b = 2ˆi  2ˆj + 4kˆ
r r r r
r r r
Then, a ¹ 0 ; b ¹ 0 yet a ´ b = 0
ˆi ˆj
r r
a ´ b = 1 1
2 2
kˆ
2
4
r
= ( 4 + 4 ) ˆi + ( 4  4 ) ˆj + ( 2 + 2 ) kˆ = 0
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VECTORS
14
UNSOLVED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE – I
Q.1
r
r
r
r
r
r
If a = 2ˆi + ˆj  kˆ, b = ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ and c = ˆi  2ˆj + kˆ such that a + lb is perpendicular to c , find the
value of l.
Q.2
r
r
r
r
r
Find the angles which vector a makes with vectors b and c , where a = 3ˆi + 2ˆj  kˆ, b = 2ˆi  ˆj  3kˆ
r
and c = 2(ˆi  ˆj + kˆ ) .
Q.3
r
r
Find the value of l for which the vectors a = lˆi + 2ˆj + 3kˆ and b = ˆi  2ˆj  3kˆ are (i) parallel,
and (ii) perpendicular.
Q.4
r
Find the work done by the force F = 2ˆi + ˆj + 2kˆ in displacing an object from A(1, 2, –3) to B(3,
1, 2).
Q.5
Find the work done by the forces ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ and 2ˆi + 3ˆj + kˆ in displacing an object from the
origin to the point A(2, 1, 4).
Q.6
Find the projection of the vector ˆi + 2ˆj + 4kˆ on the vector 2ˆi + 4ˆj + kˆ .
Q.7
Find the component of the vector ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ in the direction of 2ˆi + ˆj  kˆ .
Q.8
Show that the points whose position vectors are 4ˆi  3ˆj + kˆ, 2ˆi  4ˆj + 5kˆ and ˆi  ˆj from a right
triangle.
Q.9
The adjacent sides of a triangle are 2ˆi  ˆj + 4kˆ and ˆi  2ˆj  kˆ . Find the area of the triangle.
Q.10
Find the area of a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are ˆi + 2ˆj + 2kˆ and 2ˆi + ˆj  kˆ .
Q.11
If A(1, –1, 2), B(2, 3, 1) and C(3, 2, –1) are the vertices of DABC, find its area using the
vector method.
Q.12
If ˆi + 2ˆj  kˆ and ˆi + ˆj  2kˆ are the two diagonals of a parallelogram, find its area.
Q.13
If A(2, –1, 1), B(1, 2, 0), C(3, 2, 2) and D(4, –1, 3) are the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD, find
its area.
r r
r
Q.14 If a , b and c are the position vectors of the vertices of DABC, show that the area
of DABC is
r
r
1 r
r
r
r
a × b + b × c + c × a
2
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VECTORS
15
Q.15
r
r
r
r
r
r
Prove that ( a – b ) × ( a + b ) = 2 a × b . Interpret the result geometrically..
Q.16
r
r
Prove that  a × b  =
Q.17
r
r
r
r
r r
If  a  = 4,  b  = 3 and  a × b  = 8, find a . b .
r r
r r
a 2 . b 2  (a .b )2 .
Q.18 Find a unit vector perpendicular to both the vectors ˆi + 2ˆj  3kˆ and 3ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ .
Q.19
Find a vector of magnitude 5 units in a direction perpendicular to both the vectors ˆi + ˆj  2kˆ
and 2ˆi  ˆj + kˆ .
Q.20
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
Prove that a × ( b + c ) + b × ( c + a ) + c × ( a + b ) = 0 .
Q.21
r
r
r
r
r
For any vector a , prove that  a × ˆi 2 +  a × ˆj 2 +  a × kˆ 2 = 2 a 2.
Q.22
Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of DABC where the position vectors of A, B and
C are 2ˆi  ˆj + kˆ, ˆi + ˆj + 2kˆ and 2ˆi + 3kˆ respectively..
Q.23
Find the angles of DABC when the vertices are A(1, 2, –1), B(2, –1, 1) and C(1, 1, –2).
Q.24
r r
r
r
r
For any vector r , prove that r = ( r . ˆi )ˆi + ( r . ˆj )ˆj + ( r .kˆ )kˆ.
Q.25
q
1
If aˆ and bˆ are unit vectors inclined at an angle q then prove that sin
=
 aˆ – bˆ .
2
2
r r
r
Q.26 If a , b and c are three mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude, prove that
r
r
r
r r
r
the vector a + b + c is equally inclined with the vectors a , b and c .
Q.27
r
r
r r
r
r
r
r
If a = 3ˆi  ˆj and b = 2ˆi + ˆj  3kˆ , express b in the form b = b1 + b2 , where b1 is parallel to a and
r
r
b2 is perpendicular to a .
Q.28
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
For any two vectors a and b , prove that  a + b 2 +  a – b 2 = 2( a 2 +  b 2).
Q.29
r
r
r
r
r
r r r r
If a + b + c = 0 ,  a  = 3,  b  = 7 and  c  = 5, find the angle between a and c .
Q.30
r
r
r r
r
r
r
If a and b are two vectors such that  a + b  =  a  then prove that 2a + b is perpendicular
r
to b .
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VECTORS
16
BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE – II
Q.1
r
r
Find l if a = 4ˆi  ˆj + kˆ and b = l ˆi  2ˆj + 2kˆ are perpendicular to each other
[C.B.S.E. 2000]
Q.2
r
r
Find a unit vector perpendicular to both a = 3ˆi + ˆj  2kˆ and b = 2ˆi + 3ˆj  kˆ .
[C.B.S.E. 2000]
Q.3
r r r r
r r
r
r
Define a × b and prove that a ´ b a ´ b = a . b tan q , where q is the angle between
( )
r
r
the vectors a and b .
Q.4
[C.B.S.E. 2000]
r r
r
r r r r
r r r r r r
If three vectors a , b and c are such that a + b + c = 0 , prove that a ´ b = b ´ c = c ´ a
[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.5
r r
r
r
If a = 4ˆi + 3ˆj + kˆ and b = i  2k find 2b ´ a .
[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.6
Find a vector whose magnitude is 3 units and which is perpendicular to the following two
r
r r
r
vectors a and b : a = 3ˆi + ˆj  4kˆ and b = 6ˆi + 5ˆj  2kˆ
[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.7
In D OAB, OA = 3ˆi + 2ˆj  k and OB = ˆi + 3ˆj + k . Find the area of the triangle. [C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.8
r
r r2 r
r r2
Prove that a ´ b = a 2 . b 2  a . b .
Q.9
r
r
r
For any two vectors a and b , show that 1 +  a 2
Q.10
r r
r
If a , b and c are position vectors of points A, B and c, then prove that
®
( )
®
( )
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
(
r
)
) (1 +  b  ) = (1  a.b
r 2
r 2
r r r r
+  a + b + a ´ b 2
(
)
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
(ar ´ br + br ´ cr + cr ´ ar ) is a vector perpendicular to the plane of D ABC.
Q.11
Find the value of l so that the two vectors 2ˆi + 3ˆj  kˆ and. 4ˆi + 6ˆj + lkˆ are
(i)
Q.12
Parallel
(ii)
Perpendicular to each other
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
Find the unit vector perpendicular to the plane ABC where the position vectors
of A, B and C are 2ˆi  ˆj + kˆ, ˆi + ˆj + 2k and 2ˆi + 3kˆ respectively..
Q.13
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
r
r
r r
r r
If a = 5ˆi  ˆj  3kˆ and b = ˆi + 3ˆj  5kˆ , then show that vectors a + b and a  b are orthogonal.
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
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VECTORS
17
Q.14
r
r
Show that the points whose position vectors are a = 4ˆi  3ˆj + kˆ. bˆ = 2ˆi  4ˆj + 5kˆ and c = ˆi  ˆj form
a right angled triangle.
Q.15
[C.B.S.E. 2005]
r
r
r
r
r
Let a = ˆi  ˆj, b = 3 j  kˆ . Find a vector d which is perpendicular to both a and b
r r
and c . d =1.
Q.16
[C.B.S.E. 2005]
r
Express the vector a = 5ˆi  2ˆj + 5kˆ as sum of two vectors such that one is parallel to the
r
r
vector b = 3 ˆi + kˆ and the other is perpendicular to b .
Q.17
[C.B.S.E. 2005]
r r
r
If a ,b and c are mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude, show that they are
(
)
r r r
equally inclined to the vector a + b + c .
Q.18
[C.B.S.E. 2006]
r
r
r r
r r
If a = ˆi + 2ˆj  3kˆ and b = 3ˆi  ˆj + 2kˆ , show that a + b and a  b are perpendicular to each other..
[C.B.S.E. 2006]
Q.19
r
r
r r
r r
Find the angle between the vectors a + b and a  b where a = 2ˆi  ˆj + 3kˆ and b = 3ˆi  ˆj  2kˆ
[C.B.S.E. 2006]
Q.20
r
r
r r r
r
r r
If a = ˆi + ˆj + kˆ and b = ˆj  kˆ find a vector c such that a ´ c = b and a . c = 3 . [C.B.S.E. 2007]
Q.21
r r
r
r
r
r
Find the projection of b + c on a where a = 2ˆi  2ˆj + kˆ ,b = ˆi + 2ˆj  2kˆ and c = 2ˆi  ˆj + 4kˆ
[C.B.S.E. 2007]
Q.22
r r r r
rr rr rr
r r
r
Three vectors a , b and c satisfy the condition a + b + c = 0 . Find the value of a.b + b.c + c.a if
r
r
r
a = 1, b = 4 and c = 2 .
Q.23
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
(
r
r
where a = ˆi + ˆj + kˆ and b = ˆi + 2ˆj + 3kˆ
Q.24
)
(
r r
r r
Find a vector of magnitude 5 units. perpendicular to each of the vectors a + b and a  b
)
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
If ˆi + ˆj + kˆ , 2ˆi + 5ˆj . 3ˆi + 2ˆj  3kˆ and ˆi  6ˆj  kˆ are the position vectors of the points A, B, C and D,
find the angle between
®
AB
®
®
and CD . Deduce that ® and CD are collinear..
AB
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
Q.25
r
r r r r
r
r
r
r
If a + b + c = 0 and a = 3, b = 5 , and c = 7, show that angle between a and b is 60º.
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
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VECTORS
18
Q.26
The scalar product of the vector ˆi + ˆj + kˆ with a unit vector along the sum of vectors l ˆi + 2ˆj + 3kˆ
2ˆi + 4ˆj + 5kˆ and is equal to one. Find the value of l .
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.27
r
r r r r
r
If P is a unit vector and (x  p ) (x + p ) = 80 , then find x .
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.28
r
r r r
r
Find the projection of a on b if a . b = 8 and b = 2ˆi + 6ˆj + 3kˆ
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.29
r
r
r
If a = ˆi + ˆj + kˆ , b = 4ˆi  2ˆj + 3kˆ and c = ˆi  2ˆj + kˆ , find a vector of magnitude 6 units which is
r r
r
parallel to the vector 2a  b + 3c .
Q.30
[C.B.S.E. 2010]
r
r
r
r
Let a = ˆi + 4ˆj + 2kˆ, b = 3ˆi  2ˆj + 7kˆ and c = 2ˆi  ˆj + 4kˆ . Find a vector d which is perpendicular to
r
r
r r
both a and b and c . d = 18.
[C.B.S.E. 2010]
Q.31
Using vectors, find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1, 1, 2), B(2, 3, 5) and C(1, 5, 5).
[C.B.S.E. 2011]
Q.32
Let a = i + 4 j + 2 k , b = 3 i  2 j + 7 k and c = 2 i  j + 4 k . Find a vector p which is perpendicular
®
^
^
^
®
^
^
®
^
^
^
®
® ®
®
®
^
to both a and b and p . c = 18.
Q.32
®
^
^
^
®
^
^
[C.B.S.E. 2012]
^
®
®
®
®
If a = i  j + 7 k and b = 5 i  j + l k , then find the value of l, so that a + b and a  b are
perpendicular vectors
[C.B.S.E. 2013]
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VECTORS
19
ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE – 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)
2. 60º, 90º
6.
3. (i) –1 (ii) 13
2 21
3
11.
18. ±
7.
107
sq units
2
1
12.
( ˆi  11ˆj  7kˆ )
9.
6
11 sq units
19. ±
171
23. ÐA = cos
4. 13 units
5. 20 units
3 14
sq units
2
10. 5 2 sq units
13. 6 2 sq units
5( ˆi + 5ˆj + 3kˆ )
22. ±
35
17. ± 4 5
3ˆi + 2ˆj  kˆ
14
æ 1 ö
æ 1 ö
æ 13 ö
÷÷ , ÐB = cos–1 ç ÷ , ÐC = cos–1 çç
÷÷
ç
è 14 ø
è2 7 ø
è2 7 ø
–1 ç
r
r
3
1
1
3
27. b1 = ˆi  ˆj ; b2 = ˆi + ˆj  3kˆ
2
2
2
2
29. 60º
EXERCISE – 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)
1. –1
2.
1
5 3
(5 ˆi  ˆj + 7kˆ )
6. 2ˆi  2ˆj + kˆ
7.
3
2
10 sq units
10. 60 27. 6 14
11. (i) –2
(ii) 26
12.
1
14
( 3 ˆi + 2ˆj  kˆ
15.
1
( ˆi + ˆj + 3kˆ )
4
16. 6ˆi + 2kˆ ;  ˆi  2ˆj + 3kˆ
19.
p
2
20.
5ˆ 2ˆ 2 ˆ
i+ j+ k
3
3
3
21.
2
22. –
5
10
5
21
8
ˆj –
23. –
ˆi +
ˆ 24. 180º 26. 1 27. 9 28.
6
6
6 k
2
7
31. 1 61
2
32.
®
^
^
29. 2ˆi  4ˆj + 4kˆ
^
p = 64 i  2 j  28 k
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30. 64ˆi  2ˆj  28kˆ