6 views

Uploaded by 1plus12

t

save

You are on page 1of 3

Midterm Solution

Problem 1.(8pts)

(a) (6pts) Construct a truth table for the statement

P =⇒

(NOT Q) ⇐⇒ R .

**(b) (2pts) State the contrapositive of the statement “if n is prime, then n = 2 or n is odd”.
**

Solution.

(a) (6pts) The truth table is

P Q R (NOT Q) (NOT Q) ⇐⇒ R P =⇒ (NOT Q ⇐⇒ R)

T T T

F

F

F

T T F

F

T

T

T

T

T

T F T

T F F

T

F

F

F

F

T

F T T

F

T

T

F T F

F F T

T

T

T

F F F

T

F

T

(b) (2pts) “If n 6= 2 and n is even, then n is not a prime.”

Problem 2.(12pts) Consider the following statement “for any two numbers x and y, if x > y,

then x2 > y.”

(a) (4pts) Write down this statement using mathematical quantifiers.

(b) (4pts) Write down and simplify the NOT of this statement. Your answer should not have

the word “NOT” in it.

(c) (4pts) Is the statement in (a) true if the universe of discourse is the set of positive real

numbers? Justify your answer.

Solution.

(a) (4pts)

∀x, ∀y, (x > y =⇒ x2 > y)

(b) (4pts) Note that “NOT (P =⇒ Q)” is equivalent to “P

AND (NOT Q)”, and “NOT ∀”

is “∃ NOT”. Thus, “NOT ∀x, ∀y, (x > y =⇒ x2 > y) ” is equivalent to

∃x, ∃y(x > y AND x2 ≤ y).

(c) (4pts) Over the positive real numbers, the statement is FALSE. The following is a counterexample. Let x = 1/2 and y = 1/3. Then x2 = 1/4 < 1/3 = y.

Problem 3.(9pts) A sequence {yn } is defined recursively by y1 = 16, y2 = 44, and

yn = 2yn−1 + 3yn−2 ,

n ≥ 3.

**Prove that for all n ∈ P, yn = (−1)n+1 + 5 · 3n .
**

Solution. We prove the statement by Principle of Strong Induction.

If n = 1, (−1)2 + 5 · 31 = 1 + 15 = 16 = y1 . Thus the statement is true for n = 1.

If n = 2, (−1)3 + 5 · 32 = −1 + 45 = 44 = y2 . Thus the statement is true for n = 2.

Suppose there is a positive integer k ≥ 2 so that for 1 ≤ r ≤ k,

yr = (−1)r+1 + 5 · 3r

1

Problem 4. By Principle of Strong Induction.(11pts) (a) (3pts) Determine the coefficient of x3 1 6 2 in the expansion of 2x − . ∀n ∈ P. k ∈ P with n > k. we have n−1 n−1 − k k−1 Solution. y ∈ Z such that gcd(46134.(7pts) Find x. yn = (−1)n+1 + 5 · 3n . 6 So the coefficient is (2)3 (−1)6−3 = (20)(8)(−1) = −160 3 n−1 n−1 (b) (8pts) − k k−1 (n − 1)! (n − 1)! = − k!(n − 1 − k)! (k − 1)!(n − 1 − (k − 1))! (n − 1)! (n − 1)! = − k!(n − 1 − k)! (k − 1)!(n − k)! (n − 1)!(n − k) (n − 1)!k = − k!(n − k − 1)!(n − k) k(k − 1)!(n − k)! (n − 1)!(n − k) − (n − 1)!k = k!(n − k)! (n − 1)!(n − k − k) = k!(n − k)! n(n − 1)!(n − 2k) = k!(n − k)!n n! n − 2k = k!(n − k)! n n − 2k n = n k Problem 5. yk = (−1)k+1 + 5 · 3k and yk−1 = (−1)k + 5 · 3k−1 = (−1)k [2(−1) + 3] + 5 · 3k−1 [2 · 31 + 3] = (−1)k + 5 · 3k−1 [9] = (−1)k+2 + 5 · 3k+1 Since (−1)k = (−1)k (−1)2 = (−1)k+2 Thus the statement is true for n = k + 1 when it is true for 1 ≤ r ≤ k. 2244) = 46134x + 2244y. 6−r 6 1 2 r (a) (3pts) The general term is (2x ) − r x We want 2r + r − 6 = 3⇒ r = 3. x (b) (8pts) Prove that all n. n − 2k n .Consider n = k + 1. = n k . We have yk+1 = 2yk + 3yk−1 k+1 = 2[(−1) From the recursive definition of {yn } and k + 1 ≥ 3 + 5 · 3k ] + 3[(−1)(k−1)+1 + 5 · 3k−1 ] From the assumption.

Since qx + by ∈ Z. Solution. Problem 6. 21 990 1254 = 1 · 990 + 264 1 −1 (−1) · row 3 + row 2 −1 (−1) · row 4 + row 3 2 −41 264 990 = 3 · 264 + 198 3 −3 (−3) · row 5 + row 4 −7 144 198 264 = 1 · 198 + 66 1 −1 (−1) · row 6 + row 5 9 −185 66 → gcd 198 = 3 · 66 + 0 Thus we have 66 = 9 · 46134 − 185 · 2244. i. a + b). b) = gcd(3a + 2b. by Proposition 2. d|(a + b) and e = gcd(3a + 2b. by Proposition 2. a + b). Let d = gcd(a. Multiplying by b.x y 46134x + 2244y Euclidean Algorithm q −q 1 0 46134 0 1 2244 46134 = 20 · 2244 + 1254 20 −20 (−20) · row 2 + row 1 1 -20 1254 2244 = 1 · 1254 + 990 1 −1 Solution. d|(3a + 2b) and d|(a + b). e|a. b ∈ Z. y ∈ Z. we have e ≤ d. e|b. c) = 1. we get b = abx + bcy = qcx + bcy = c(qx + by).. e|b. by the Euclidean algorithm.e. gcd(a. b) and e = gcd(3a + 2b. we have d = e. y = −185 is a solution. e|(a + b) − b. not both zero.11(ii). Since d ≤ e and e ≤ d. and x = 9. a + b). a + b). Since d|a and d|b.11(ii). c) = 1..e. Since gcd(a. i. we have c|b. We want to prove that d = e. c ∈ Z with c|ab and gcd(a. Since e|(3a + 2b) and e|(a + b). ..e. we have d ≤ e. b). Since e|(a + b) and e|b.(8pts) Let a. b. and d = gcd(a. Solution. i. Prove that c|b. Prove that gcd(a.(5pts) Let a. e|3(a + b) − (3a + 2b). Problem 7. Since c|ab. by Proposition 2. Since d|(3a + 2b). such that 1 = ax + cy. b) = gcd(3a + 2b. there exists q ∈ Z such that ab = qc. Since e|a.11. there exist x.

- Ideals 7310 Hw5 AnswerUploaded byoscura
- gcd problems-Discrete mathsUploaded byshrekkie29
- DM_chap4Uploaded byb9902233
- Public AdaUploaded byClara Isabel Correa Osorno
- ma046[1]Uploaded bymagiciandark
- 2011-04-24_174658_pfUploaded byMona Vimla
- QRT4 WEEK 10 TG Lesson 107.docxUploaded byMadonna Arit Matulac
- Measuring Portfolio Mean Performance - Cash Flows and Approximation MethodsUploaded byNina Šarin
- jackie kim - term iii math - feedbackUploaded byapi-193684547
- Singaporean Secondary Maths 1AUploaded byWant To Learn
- Mathematical modeling - a personal philosophyUploaded byJohn
- 05-Methods.pptUploaded byrednri
- 21.1.11Uploaded byhalimabanu916270
- Maths.docxUploaded byJesus Herrera Mora
- Institutional Ontology as an Ontology of TypesUploaded bylorenzopasserini
- Assignment IVB Preoblems of Teacher EducationUploaded byJoshuel Ibasco
- march 30-april 1, 2015 weekly happenings docxUploaded byapi-262635656
- Why Teach Mathematical ModellingUploaded byMohammad Umar Rehman
- qquizUploaded byIrtiza Hussain
- A Do Be Connect LinksUploaded byS TANCRED
- Distributed Event-Triggered Consensus Tracking of First-Order Multi-Agent Systems with a Virtual LeaderUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- bs-biochem.pdfUploaded byedomin00
- schutz(mar29).pdfUploaded byrifqi235
- jgglp1[1]Uploaded byJohnny G. Galla
- dontaz brown ind dataUploaded byapi-379755793
- Binary Search AlgorithmUploaded byMirsha Ida
- telling my storyUploaded byapi-382040257
- eoqUploaded byxmod13
- action research paper educ 2061Uploaded byapi-438417920
- AMEP_flyer2016.pdfUploaded byMohit Changani

- Qualitative ReflectionsUploaded by1plus12
- notes13dUploaded by1plus12
- Textbook Solutions 2.1-2.5Uploaded by1plus12
- Houdini 3 Chess Engine - User's Guide.pdfUploaded by1plus12
- mipsrefUploaded by1plus12
- edu-2009-fall-mfe-table.pdfUploaded by1plus12
- markov_chains.pdfUploaded by1plus12
- 1introUploaded by1plus12
- Blacketscholes Formule de ItoUploaded by1plus12
- CS 234 1059 Midterm SolutionsUploaded by1plus12
- a1Uploaded by1plus12
- A 2 Problems30Uploaded by1plus12
- Basic Solutions 2upUploaded by1plus12
- Tutorial 6Uploaded by1plus12
- Student Notes - Chapter 01Uploaded by1plus12
- Week 02 Overall FeedbackUploaded by1plus12
- TestUploaded by1plus12