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Control System

System

Analysis and Design

PROBLEMS, REMEDIES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

© IMAGESTATE

By YUN LI, KIAM HEONG ANG, and GREGORY C.Y. CHONG

W

**ith its three-term functionality offering treatment of both transient and steady-state responses,
**

proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control provides a generic and efficient solution to realworld control problems [1]–[4]. The wide application of PID control has stimulated and sustained research and development to “get the best out of PID’’ [5], and “the search is on to find

the next key technology or methodology for PID tuning” [6].

This article presents remedies for problems involving the integral and derivative terms. PID design objectives, methods, and future directions are discussed. Subsequently, a computerized, simulation-based approach

is presented, together with illustrative design results for first-order, higher order, and nonlinear plants. Finally,

we discuss differences between academic research and industrial practice, so as to motivate new research

directions in PID control.

**STANDARD STRUCTURES OF PID CONTROLLERS
**

Parallel Structure and Three-Term Functionality

The transfer function of a PID controller is often expressed in the ideal form

32 IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE

»

FEBRUARY 2006

1066-033X/06/$20.00©2006IEEE

Authorized licensed use limited to: St. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. Downloaded on June 26, 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

its cousins. (2) where KI = KP /TI is the integral gain and KD = KP TD is the derivative gain. and future correction is ignored until the actuator desaturates. Explicit Antiwindup In nearly all commercial PID software packages and hardware modules. the message that the derivative term improves transient response and stability is often wrongly expounded. decrease the steady-state error. respectively. The Series Structure If TI ≥ 4TD. Similarly. and (1) where U(s) is the control signal acting on the error signal E(s). [9]. KP. it can be seen that adding an integral term to a pure proportional term increases the gain by a factor of 1 + 1 1 = 1 + 2 2 > 1. For optimum performance. while K I and K D are fixed. increasing K P alone can decrease rise time. . I. A PID controller can be considered as an extreme form of a phase lead-lag compensator with one pole at the origin and the other at infinity. The three-term functionalities include: 1) The proportional term provides an overall control action proportional to the error signal through the allpass gain factor. 3) The derivative term improves transient response through high-frequency compensation. however. for all ω. although the individual effects of these three parameters on the closedloop performance of stable plants are summarized in Table 1. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore. The factored PI part of (3) is thus implemented as shown in Figure 1 [8].GPID (s) = 1 U(s) = KP 1 + + TD s . and the closed-loop system becomes more oscillatory and potentially unstable. reducing UI (s) to [8]–[10] TABLE 1 Effects of independent P. and D tuning on closed-loop response. slightly increase settling time. KI (or TI ). and decrease stability margins. This matter has now reached a point that requires clarification. antiwindup can be achieved implicitly through automatic reset. antiwindup is implemented explicitly through internal negative feedback. Downloaded on June 26. Practitioners have found that the derivative term can degrade stability when there exists a transport delay [4]. The control signal can also be expressed in three terms as α= 1± √ 1 − 4TD /TI > 0. both gain margin (GM) and phase margin (PM) are reduced. 2 THE INTEGRAL TERM Destabilizing Effect of the Integral Term 1 U(s) = KP E(s) + KI E(s) + KD sE(s) s = UP (s) + UI (s) + UD (s). 2) The integral term reduces steady-state errors through low-frequency compensation. Referring to (1) for TI = 0 and TD = 0. E(s) TI s where GPD (s) and GPI (s) are the factored PD and PI parts of the PID controller. KP is the proportional gain. Automatic Reset If TI ≥ 4TD so that the series form (3) exists. and KD (or TD) must be tuned jointly. can also be regarded as extreme forms of phaselag and phase-lead compensators. Rise Time Overshoot Settling Time Steady-State Error Stability Increasing K P Decrease Increase Small Increase Decrease Degrade Increasing K I Small Decrease Increase Increase Large Decrease Degrade Increasing K D Small Decrease Decrease Decrease Minor Change Improve FEBRUARY 2006 « IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE 33 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. for all ω. jωTI ω TI (5) and simultaneously increases the phase-lag since 1+ 1 jωTI = tan−1 −1 ωTI < 0. this causes low-frequency oscillations and leads to instability. The windup is due to the controller states becoming inconsistent with the saturated control signal. and s is the argument of the Laplace transform. (6) Hence. However. Integrator Windup and Remedies If the actuator that realizes the control action has saturated range limits. increase overshoot. TI is the integral time constant. respectively. For example. Frustration in tuning KD has thus made many practitioners switch off the derivative term. the PI and the PD controllers. the integrator may suffer from windup. Restrictions apply. the PID controller can also be realized in a series form [7] 1 (3) GPID (s) = (α + TD s) KP 1 + αTI s (4) = GPD (s)GPI (s). TD is the derivative time constant. as discussed in this article. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. [7]. and the saturations are neglected in a linear control design.

red curves). consider the typical first-order delayed plant 1 + α TIs FIGURE 1 The PI part of a PID controller in series form for automatic reset.1. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore. such as the Ziegler-Nichol (Z-N) formula obtained from the step-response method. This analysis also confirms that some PID mapping formulas. The PI part of a PD-PI factored PID transfer function can be configured to counter actuator saturation without the need for separate antiwindup action. and L = 0. T = 1 s. due to the transport delay. For example. if TD > T/KKP and KP > 1/K. K −Ls e . G( jω)GPD ( jω) = tan−1 ωT 1 1 THE DERIVATIVE TERM Therefore. G( jω)GPD ( jω) > 1. However. and γ is a correcting factor. T is the time constant. when ω approaches infinity. TI s γ (9) G(s) = GPD (s) = KP (1+TD s) (11) leads to an open-loop feedforward path transfer function with frequency response 1 + jTD ω − jLω . Furthermore. 1 34 IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE » (8) G( jω)GPD ( jω) < −180◦ . (10) where K is the process gain. preemptive minimization of the control signal can impede performance due to minimal control amplitude. In the meantime. consider plant (10) with K = 10. P 1 + T2 ω 2 T (13) G( jω)GPD ( jω) = KKP For all ω. as in linear quadratic optimal control schemes that minimize the tracking error and control signal through a weighted objective function. e 1 + jTω (12) 1 + TD2 ω2 TD . When U(s) does not saturate. Downloaded on June 26. To see this. then. the phase is D − tan−1 Tω − Lω. U(s) is the actual control signal capped by the actuator limits. To demonstrate that adding a differentiator can destabilize some systems. A value of γ in the range [0. as seen in Figures 2 and 3 (Set 1. the gain satisfies Accounting for Windup in Design Simulations Another solution to antiwindup is to reduce the possibilities for saturation by reducing the control signal. This action is also helpful in hastening loop recovery from disturbances. during the design evaluation and optimization process. However. Derivative action can have a more dramatic effect on second-order plants than first-order plants [9]. Restrictions apply. KK min 1. the control signal should not be minimized but rather capped at the actuator limits when the input to the plant saturates since a simulation-based optimization process can automatically account for windup that might occur. note that adding a derivative term to a pure proportional term reduces the phase lag by ωTD 1 + jωTD = tan−1 ∈ [0. The resulting PD controller (7) ¯ where U(s) is the theoretically computed control signal. D + 1 and hence the overall stability may be improved or degraded. for all ω. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering.UPD(s) U(s) KP + Actuator Model which tends to increase the PM. which offsets phase lag caused by integration. Control by means of a PI controller with KP = 0. and L is the dead time or transport delay. But this perception is not always valid.1 s [7]. . As an example. the feedforward-path gain is unity and the overall transfer function from UPD (s) ¯ to U(s) is thus 1 + 1/(αTI s). it has been widely perceived in the control community that the derivative term improves transient performance and stability. 1. Suppose that this plant is controlled by a proportional controller with gain KP and that a derivative term is added. however. are valid for only a limited range of values of the T/L ratio. Therefore. Stabilizing and Destabilizing Effect of the Derivative Term Derivative action is useful for providing phase lead. π/2] for all ω. then by the Nyquist criterion. the same as the last factor of (3). However. when a differentiator is added. gradually FEBRUARY 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. the closed-loop system is unstable.03 s yields reasonable stability margins and time-domain performance. the gain increases by a factor of U(s) 1 + jωTD = 1 + ω2 T2 > 1. ¯ 1 U(s) − U(s) ˜ UI (s) = KP E(s) − . if KP > 1/K and TD > T/K KP . UPD (s) is the control signal from the preceding PD section. Here. Hence. 1 + Ts KKP 1/2 where inequality (13) holds since ((1 + TD2 ω2)/(1 + T2 ω2 )) monotonic in ω. is (14) Inequality (14) implies that the 0-dB gain crossover frequency is at infinity.644 > 1/K and TI = 1. in which KP = (1.0] usually results in satisfactory performance when the PID coefficients are reasonably tuned [7]. (15) Hence.2(T/L)) (1/K) and TD is proportional to L. for all ω. the derivative term is often misunderstood and misused.

A pure differentiator is not proper or causal. a technique often used in preprocessing for data acquisition. The GM peaks when TD approaches 0. but rather averages. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore.2 s). the derivative term becomes G˜ D (s) = KP TD s 1+ TD s β . since MATLAB handles the transport delay factor e−jωL in state space through a Padé approximation.2 dB for all ω.75757 Phase Margin: 53. the closed-loop system can be destabilized if TD increases to 0. In fact. (16) where β is a constant factor. At ω = 30 rad/s. by the Nyquist criterion. the functionality and potential of a PID controller is not fully exploited.2 20 Set 2: Gain Margin: 3.Nichols Chart Nichols Chart Nichols Chart 40 30 Gain (dB) Set 1: Gain Margin: 7. Most industrial PID hardware provides a value ranging from 1 to 33. For example. Remedies for Derivative Action Differentiation increases the high-frequency gain. modifications of the unity negative feedback PID structure are of interest [8].) −1.5 Set 1: TD = 0 −3. the overall open-loop gain becomes greater than 2. care needs to be taken to tune and use the derivative term properly when the plant is subject to delay. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. Hence. which therefore leads to more sluggish transients. Hence.0303 −3. Linear Lowpass Filter The filtering remedy most commonly adopted is to cascade the differentiator with a first-order.0 −1.2 dB. When a step change of the setpoint or disturbance occurs. This variant uses PIDeasy(TM) II . the phase decreases to −π while the gain remains above 2. This destabilizing phenomenon can contribute to difficulties in designing PID controllers. this value of TD maximizes the speed of the transient response without oscillation.72558 Set 3: TD = 0. impulse derivative signals caused by sudden changes of the setpoint or disturbance.155.5 0. as shown in (9) and demonstrated by the four sets of frequency responses in Figure 2. differentiation results in a theoretically infinite control signal. measured in the frequency domain by GM and PM.1 s. Filtering is particularly useful in a noisy environment. A second-order Butterworth filter is recommended in [13] if further attenuation of highfrequency gains is required. the GM deteriorates and the transient exhibits oscillation. if TD is increased further to 0.0 ×102 FIGURE 2 Destabilizing effect of the derivative term.2 with T/KKP = 0.39067 Set 2: TD = 0. Downloaded on June 26.0 −0. with the majority falling between 8 and 16 [12].5 −2. To block the effect of sudden changes of the setpoint.26496 Phase Margin: – ∞ 0 −10 −20 PIDeasy: TD = 0. Velocity Feedback Because a lowpass filter does not completely remove. FEBRUARY 2006 « IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE 35 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. lowpass filter.0 −2. However. Adding a derivative term increases both the GM and PM.03 s. Hence. Thus. if the derivative gain is increased to 20% of the proportional gain (TD = 0.16494 Phase Margin: 64. To prevent this impulse control signal. while proper use of a derivative term can increase stability and help maximize the integral gain for better performance [11]. Sometimes.41323 Phase Margin: 86. .1 10 Set 3: Gain Margin: −2. These difficulties help explain why 80% of PID controllers in use have the derivative part switched off or omitted completely [5]. the lowpass filter is cascaded to the entire GPID in internal-model-control (IMC)based design. Restrictions apply.increasing TD from zero improves both GM and PM.5 Phase (deg. we consider a variant of the standard feedback. most PID software packages and hardware modules add a filter to the differentiator. It is interesting to note that MATLAB does not compute the frequency response as shown here. although raising the derivative gain further tends to reverse the GM and destabilize the closed-loop system. the closed-loop system is unstable.37157 Set 1 PIDeasy Set 2 Set 3 PIDeasy: Gain Margin: 9.

However. Readers may refer to [17] and [18] for detailed discussions on the use of various PID structures. PID hardware vendors have developed artificial intelligence techniques to suppress overshoots [15]. Downloaded on June 26.0278 Td: 0 ITAE: 228. Setpoint Filter To further reduce sensitivity to setpoint changes and avoid overshoot.2 1.2 Set 3: 0. parallel. and r(t) is the setpoint or reference signal.6439 Ti: 1.) 1.4 Kp: 0.0 0.2 PIDeasy: Set 3 Kp: 0.4 0. Types B and C introduce more structures. and modified PID controller structures can be found in many software packages and hardware modules. structure (18) is known as Type C PID (or I-PD) control.4 PIDeasy: TD = 0. Techmation’s Applications Manual [12] documents the structures employed in many industrial PID controllers. series.0 1. hence. To calculate the proportional action. Restrictions apply. a setpoint filter may be adopted. However.6439 Ti: 1. this trend soon reverses and the oscillation grows into instability. and structures (1)–(3) constitute Type A PID control. [16].0278 Td: 0.69 Set 2: TD = 0.0278 Td: 0. the ideal. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore.02781 Td: 0. confirmed in the time domain by the closed-loop step response.93 Step Response Plot Set 1 PIDeasy Set 2 1. e(t) = r(t) − y(t) is the error signal.2 FIGURE 3 Destabilizing effect of the derivative term. To meet this need.03025 ITAE: 104.0303 0. (18) This modification results in a bumpless control signal and improved transients if the value of b is carefully chosen [2]. an extra loop that is not directly affected by a sudden change in the setpoint. or switching between. Although increasing the derivative gain initially decreases the oscillation. Nevertheless.6439 Ti: 1. 36 IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE » FEBRUARY 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. continuous output of the prefilter helps achieve soft start and bumpless control [8].00014 sec.86 Output 1. The last term of (17) forms velocity feedback and. as in [8] and [14] t d u(t) = KP b r(t) − y(t) + KI 0 e(τ ) dτ − KD y(t). dt tively using standard techniques of stability and robustness analysis. Step Response Set 1: Kp: 0.6 Kp: 0. sudden changes in disturbance or noise at the plant output can cause the differentiator to produce a theoretically infinite control signal.2 0. When a step change in the setpoint occurs.2 ITAE: 52.1 0.83 Set 3: TD = 0.4 Set 1: TD = 0 1.6439 Ti: 1.0 0. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. [19]. dt Prefilter For setpoint tracking applications. a prefilter does not solve the problem caused by sudden changes in the disturbance since it is not embedded in the feedback loop. an alternative to using a Type B or C structure is to cascade the setpoint with a prefilter that has critically damped dynamics. and the need for preselection of.8 Set 2: 0.the process variable instead of the error signal for the derivative action [14]. as in t u(t) = KP e(t) + KI e(τ ) dτ − KD 0 d y(t). . (17) where y(t) is the process variable. Structure (17) is referred to as Type B PID (or PI-D) control. the setpoint signal is weighted by a factor b < 1. However. tuning rules for a specific structure do not necessarily perform well with other structures.547. Since vendors often recommend their own controller structures.8 Time (Sec. modification (18) is difficult to analyze quantita- PIDeasy(TM) II .1 ITAE: 247. suitable structures can pose a design challenge.0 0.Step and Control Signal Response Dialog View Both Responses Sampling Rate: 0.6 0.

Median filters are widely adopted in image processing but not yet in control system design. and evolutionary computation [19]. } else { max_d=previous_derivative. this method requires that transport delays be replaced by Padé approximations. including rise time. Most methods target one objective or a weighted composite of the objectives listed above. // median found if (derivative > previous_derivative) { max_d=derivative.5 T 0. TABLE 2 ABB’s Easy-Tune PID formulas mapping the three parameters K. Another benefit of this method is that extra parameters are not needed to devise the filter. Usually expressed in percentage. such as pole placement. [8].04K TI PB PID TI TD PD PB Analytical Methods Because of the simplicity of PID control. derivative = (error -previous_error) / sampling_period. or disturbance are removed completely. } previous_derivative = derivative.164K T 0. noise. To derive a rational. respectively.995 T L 157. Heuristic Methods Heuristic methods evolve from empirical tuning (such as the ZN tuning rule). controller parameters are usually tuned so that the closed-loop system meets the following five objectives: 1) stability and stability robustness. [22]. PID. and [21]. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore. IMC. usually measured in the frequency domain 2) transient response. T. // median found else if (derivative < min_d) new_derivative = min_d. // median found else new_derivative=derivative. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. PM. where Umax and Umin are the upper and lower saturation levels of the control signal. // for next cycle TD FEBRUARY 2006 « IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE 37 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. [20]. and sensitivities. frequency-domain measurements require time-frequency. min_d=previous_derivative. unlike a lowpass filter. and PD controllers. With a given objective. which is nonlinear and widely applied in image processing. fuzzy logic. except the PD formula for which empirical estimates are used.68 T L 40. min_d=derivative. Downloaded on June 26. Mode Action P PB PI PB Value 1. [3]. overly smooth underdamped processes. The formulas are obtained by minimizing the integral of time-weighted error index. [8]. Design Objectives and Methods Design Objectives and Existing Methods Excellent summaries of PID design and tuning methods can be found in [4]. Restrictions apply. such as GM. or lambda tuning.5438K T 0.7369K T 0. PB = (Umax − Umin )/K P is the proportional band.02 T 0. and L of the first-order delayed plant (10) to coefficients of P. if (derivative > max_d) new_derivative = max_d. closed-loop transfer function.44 T 0. parameters can be derived analytically using algebraic relations between a plant // for next cycle FIGURE 4 Pseudocode for a three-point median filter to illustrate the mechanism of complete removal of impulse spikes. Median filters are easily realized. often with a tradeoff among design objectives. since almost all PID controllers are now implemented in a digital processor. A median filter outperforms a prefilter as the median filter is embedded in the feedback loop and. Frequency Response Methods Frequency-domain constraints. a median filter may. design methods can be grouped according to their underlying nature listed below [7]. usually measured in the frequency domain.947 L 0. While matters concerning commissioning and maintenance (such as pre. Heuristic search now involves expert systems. localization-based methods such as wavelets. unusual or unwanted spikes resulting from a step command. neural networks. often at steady state 5) robustness against plant modeling uncertainty.738 T L 51. respectively [23].Nonlinear Median Filter Another method for smoothing the derivative action is to use a median filter [7]. and |Umax − Umin | is usually normalized to one.977 L 1. model and a targeted closed-loop transfer function with an indirect performance objective. . can deal with sudden changes in both the setpoint and the disturbance. Consequently.995 T L 157.947 L 0. overshoot. Such a filter compares several data points around the current point and selects their median for the control action.and postprocessing as well as fault tolerance) also need to be considered in a complete PID design. This nonlinear filter completely removes extraordinary derivative values resulting from sudden changes in the error signal.5 T 2. PI. which averages past values.084 L T 0. however. For real-time applications. hence. as illustrated in Figure 4. are used to synthesize PID controllers offline [2]. and settling time 3) steady-state accuracy 4) disturbance attenuation and robustness against environmental uncertainty.

5 α = 2. Over the past half century.15 2. While requirements of fast transient response.53 2.50 1.4 16.30 2.1 α = 0.1 FEBRUARY 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: St.31 0. no overshoot.49 8. hence.57 0.17 52.79 0.03 1. Restrictions apply. enabling simulations to be carried out automatically so as to search for the best possible PID settings for the application at hand [22]. . the corresponding gain and phase margins are given to assess frequency-domain properties. The search is initially performed offline in a batch mode [19] using artificial evolution techniques that evolve both TABLE 3 Multioptimal PID settings for normalized typical high-order plants.2 61.07 3.2 32.0022 0. computerizing simulation-based designs is gaining momentum.12 0.42 1.4 50. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore. multiple design methods can be combined within a single software or firmware package to support various plant types and PID structures. Since PIDeasy’s search priorities are time-domain tracking and regulation.47 0.01 ∞ ∞ 26.92 1.33 0.0 1.17 0. [22].7 66.9 58.4 10.7 61 58. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering.04 0.6 19. With simulation packages widely available and heavily adopted. so that designs are automatically performed online once the plant is identified.4 62.0 1.45 2.43 1.49 1.19 1. multiobjective design goals provide frequency-domain margins in the range of 9–11 dB and 65–66◦ .28 0. [3]. and zero steady-state error are accommodated by time-domain criteria.9 α = 0.87 1.03 0.14 0.8 66 65. PID parameters are obtained by numerical optimization for a weighted objective in the time domain.6 62.0 α = 5.36 0.61 2. Kp Plants α α α α α 1 G1 (s) = (s + 1)α G2 (s) = G3 (s) = 1 (s + 1)(1 + αs)(1 + α 2 s)(1 + α 3 s) 1 − αs (s + 1)3 1 e−s G4 (s) = (1 + sα)2 38 IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE » PID Coefficients Ti (s) Td (s) Resultant Margins GM (dB) PM (◦ ) =1 =2 =3 =4 =8 92.52 7.6 α α α α α α = 0.32 16. PIDeasy [7] is a software package that uses automatic simulations to search globally for controllers that meet all five design objectives in both the time and frequency domains.08 1.72 19.65 0. these designs are suitable for adaptive tuning.12 0.18 2.1 = 0.39 2.95 1.83 0.2 = 0.59 1.4 60.26 0. a self-learning evolutionary algorithm (EA) can be used to search for both the parameters and their associated structure or to meet multiple design objectives in both the 15 10 5 10−3 10−2 10−1 100 101 102 103 10−2 10−1 100 101 102 103 80 70 60 50 10−3 time and frequency domains [19].39 0. The most widely adopted initial tuning methods are based on the Z-N empirical formulas and their extensions.31 0.6 62. Some design methods can be computerized.36 2.4 10.1 68.69 61.1 62.48 0.04 1.23 0.1 α = 0.96 0.49 0.05 102 62. such as those shown in Table 2 [23].0 = 2.8 38.58 0.5 15 24.1 1. there are few techniques that are as widely applicable as Z-N tuning [2]. These formulas offer a direct mapping from plant parameters to controller coefficients.59 10. researchers have sought the next key technology for PID tuning and modular realization [6]. By using a computerized approach.0 = 5.13 2.0 α = 10 0.Numerical Optimization Methods Phase Margin (°) Gain Margin (dB) Optimization-based methods can be regarded as a special type of optimal control.4 α = 0. Alternatively.2 α = 0.3 62.2 α = 0.9 9.8 13. While PID design has progressed from analysis-based methods to numerical optimization-based methods.35 0.5 = 1. Downloaded on June 26.63 0.8 65.43 0.30 0.23 2.5 5.6 40.61 4.07 0.6 13 7. A Computerized Simulation Approach L/T FIGURE 5 Gain and phase margins resulting from PIDeasy designs for firstorder delayed plants with various L/T ratios.

α = 0. forming a pseudolinear controller network comprised of three PIDs to be interweighted by scheduling functions S1 (y). Due to nonlinearity. While requirements of fast transient response. and 3. The resulting designs and their corresponding gain and PMs are summarized in Table 3.4 0. (s + 1)(1 + αs)(1 + α 2 s)(1 + α 3 s) α = 0.2. PIDeasy’s multiobjective goals provide frequency-domain margins in the range of 9–11 dB and 65–66◦ .1 0. two more controllers can be added at nodes or setpoints 1 and 3. .4 0. (19) 1 . FEBRUARY 2006 « IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE 39 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. 2. while allowing augmentation with either lowpass or median filtering for the differentiator and with explicit antiwindup for the integrator. respectively.5.2. 0. V = reactor volume ( ). (21) G3 (s) = (s + 1)3 1 e−s. 2.3 0. 10. Downloaded on June 26. α = 0. dt V S2 S1 1 Consider the constant-temperature reaction process 0. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. 0.74 0.8 (23) Weighting dy(t) 1 = −Ky2 (t) + d − y(t) u(t). To assess the robustness of design using PIDeasy. two more controllers can be added at nodes 1 and 3. 5. an initial PID controller can be placed effectively at y = 0. GMs and PMs resulting from designs for plants with various L/T ratios are shown in Figure 5 [19].controller parameters and their associated structures. 0. A PID controller is first placed at y = 0. d = concentration in the inlet stream (mol/ ).31 1 0. (22) G4 (s) = (1 + sα)2 G2 (s) = 0 0 1 2 3 Input (l/h) 4 5 6 FIGURE 6 Operating trajectory (bold curve) of the nonlinear chemical process (23) for setpoints ranging from 0 to 1 mol/.2 0 0 0.74 0.5.31 0. equilibrium.2 Higher Order Plants 3 α = 1. The setpoint. Similar to gain scheduling. linear interpolation suffices for setpoint scheduling.3 0. Restrictions apply. 8. (20) 1 − αs . 1 First-Order Delayed Plants 0.5 0. V V (24) For setpoints ranging from 0 to 1 mol/.8 0. or obtained jointly by using an evolutionary algorithm [22].5. and S3 (y). 0. S2 (y).8 0. ear projection linking the starting and ending points of the operating envelope. 0. 4. For practical simplicity and reliability. S2 (y).49 0. these functions are often asymmetric. and zero steady-state error are accommodated by timedomain criteria.1 For higher order plants. 2.7 Scheduling Variable y (mol/l) 0.6 ∆dmax 0. 0. 2.49 by using the maximum distance from the nonlinear trajectory to the lin- S3 0. Setpoint-Scheduled PID Network where y(t) = concentration in the outlet stream (mol/).6 0. no overshoot. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore.2 0. or steady-state operating trajectory of the plant is governed by Ky2 + 1 d u y − u = 0. Similarly. forming a pseudo-linear controller network comprised of three PIDs.7 0. examples of which are shown in Figure 7.1. and S3 (y) for individual PID controllers contributing to the PID network at nodes 1. (s + 1)α 2 0. as illustrated by node 2 in Figure 6 [22]. as given by (24). The resulting designs are then embedded in the PIDeasy package.1. K = rate of reaction (/mol-h). Similarly.2.9 Output (mol/l ) An example of PIDeasy for a first-order delayed plant is shown in Figures 2 and 3.5 0. these PID controllers can be obtained individually by PIDeasy or other PID software directly through step-response data.1.6 0. Without the need for linearization.9 FIGURE 7 Fuzzy logic membership-like scheduling functions S1 (y). Further specific tuning can be continued by local.49 (node 2) by using the maximum distance from the nonlinear trajectory to the linear projection (thin dotted line) linking the starting and ending points of the operating envelope. 1. 0. 3. fast numerical optimization if the plant differs from its model or data used in the initial design. we obtain multioptimal designs for the 20 benchmark plants [24] G1 (s) = 1 .49 0. the standard PID structure is maintained as much as possible. u(t) = flow rate of the feed stream (/h). 5.4 0.

2 0 Control Signal (l h−1) point [22]. Furthermore.5 4 4. For example. In practice. Downloaded on June 26.5] h. and 3.481 0. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. To validate tracking performance using a setpoint that is not originally used in the design process.5 1 1.53 mol/ is used to test the control system. It is known that gain scheduling provides advantages over continuous adaptation in most situations [8]. Restrictions apply. because of limited information exchange and problem analysis. by using step-response data from the starting point to node x. controller parameters for each node. The setpointscheduled network utilizes these advantages of gain scheduling.6 0.53 mol/ is used to test the control system.6 0. and scheduling functions can be optimized globally in a single design process by using an EA [22].5 4 4. If a more sophisticated PID network is desirable.5 2 2.Output (mol l−1) The PID controller centered at node 2 can be obtained by PIDeasy or other PID software directly through step-response data without the need for linearization at the current operating 0.5 0. which is widely adopted for preprocessing in image processing but yet to be adopted in controller design.5 5 6 4 2 0 FIGURE 8 Performance of the pseudolinear PID network applied to the nonlinear process example (23).784 0. the setpoint r = 0. confirming load disturbance rejection at steady state. It can be seen that the control effort increases disproportionally to the setpoint change along the nonlinear trajectory. For simplicity. the network does not require discontinuous switching between various controller structures. The remaining PIDs can be obtained similarly.9 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (h) 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (h) 6 7 8 9 10 8 6 4 2 0 FIGURE 9 Performance of the pseudolinear PID network applied to the nonlinear chemical process (23) at multiple operating levels that are not originally used in the design process.4 0. These misconceptions may explain why the argument exists that academically proposed PID tuning rules sometimes do not work well on industrial controllers. is a convenient tool for solving problems that the PI-D and I-PD structures are intended to address.3 0 Control Signal (l h−1) 0.22 0. However. we obtain the controller centered at node x. the setpoint r = 0. compensating for the decreasing gain of the plant when the operating level is raised.0241 p−1 e(t). Embedded FEBRUARY 2006 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. Difficulties in setting optimal derivative action can be eased by complete understanding and careful tuning of the D term.0376 1 S3 ] 15. Figure 9 shows the performance of the network at multiple operating levels not originally encountered in the design. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore.5 2 2. there remain misunderstandings between academia and industry concerning PID control.5 3 Time (h) 3. 40 IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE » PID is a generally applicable control technique that derives its success from simple and easy-to-understand operation. Discussion and Conclusions Output mol (l−1) 1 0. therefore. 2. the message that increasing the derivative gain leads to improved transient response and stability is often wrongly expounded. the number of nodes.5 5 0 0. p 28.8 u(t) = [S1 0. Median filtering. The response is shown in Figure 8. switching between different structures and functional modes is used to optimize transient response and meet multiple objectives.5 1 1. To validate tracking performance using a setpoint that is not originally used in the design process. where x = 1. The resulting PID network is given by 0 0. The network tracks these setpoint changes accurately without oscillation.0137 (25) where p denotes the derivative operator.82 1.6 0. A median filter outperforms a lowpass filter in removing impulse spikes of derivative action resulting from a sudden change of setpoint or disturbance.5] h. where a 10% disturbance occurs during [3. 3. by bumpless scheduling.6 0. The controller network tracks this setpoint change accurately without oscillation and rejects a 10% load disturbance occurring during [3.5 3 Time (h) 3.53 0. S2 9. . 3.

no. 34–40. [Online]. vol. 1999. for the nonlinear reaction process model and data. 1998.” in Proc. K. Quevedo and T. 7. China. “The future of PID control.C. Escobet.. A simulation-based approach requires no artificial minimization of the control amplitude and helps improve sluggish transient response without windup. [24] K. He can be contacted at the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering.” Proc. Ang. July 1988. Bohn and D. pp.. Available: http://www.” in Proc. 2001. Contr. Levine. Eng.Acs. 2003. K. Terrassa. 1995.50megs. and G. Ang.ac. no. he has been working on process industry standardization and new technology development. Syst. Design. Tan. 2000. 1. [21] A. PID Controllers: Theory.. Ang.. Hawaii. 38. pp. Yokogawa Engi- neering Asia Pte. 1. He has advised 12 Ph. 1. Hägglund. X.” Int. May 2004. W.in the feedback loop. Gregory Chong received a First-Class Honors B. 29–33.. Singapore. Shinskey. 2001. [9] F.P. Ziegler and N. vol. 62–65. NJ: CRC Press/IEEE Press.H.G. no. G. respectively. His research interests are in parallel processing. no. O’Dwyer. Nichols. Tan. [8] K.Honeywell. Available: http://protuner.E. “A comparison of PID control algorithms.P. Ltd. no. multiobjective learning.com [13] J.” Trans. the entire PID design and tuning process can be automated. 3–10. ABB. London: Imperial College Press. FEBRUARY 2006 « IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE 41 Authorized licensed use limited to: St. Mar. within the same company. computational intelligence. 559–576.” IEEE Contr. Hiroshi Kashiwagi of Kumamoto University and Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. REFERENCES [1] J. “CAutoCSD—Evolutionary search and optimisation enabled computerautomated control system design. software.D. Pract.” Contr. 24. He is currently a visiting professor at the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China. Control and Measurement. pp. By including system identification techniques. pp.. Restrictions apply. [18] A. Available: http://bestune. Downloaded on June 26.J. [17] J. Guan. [25] K.K. [3] L. [5] I. Feng. robustly optimal design methods such as PIDeasy can be developed. Elec. [10] C.C. 5. 1996. and W. Computer Aided Control System. in 1996 and 2005. Åström and T. Eng. Zhu. K.P. May 2004. and a Ph. Eng. he established the IEEE CACSD Evolutionary Computation Working Group and the European Network of Excellence in Evolutionary Computing (EvoNet) Workgroup on Systems. W.” Journal A. vol. vol. 1998. degree in electronics and electrical engineering from the University of Glasgow. pp. 10th IEEE Int. In 1998. London.” IEEE Contr. The authors thank Prof. multiobjective modeling. Xavier's Catholic College of Engineering. degree in electronics and electrical engineering from the University of Glasgow.. pp. Feedback Controllers for the Process Industries. “A survey of PID auto-tuning methods. and engineering design optimization. [2] W. pp. “New frequency-domain design method for PID controllers. pp. “Tuning of PID controls of different structures. 265–271. 1. G..” New Electron.. He is completing his Ph. and H. 2006. Atherton. “Performance indices in evolutionary CACSD automation with application to batch PID generation. 1987. 1163–1175. Spain.uk) is a senior lecturer at the University of Glasgow. 11. “Optimum settings for automatic controllers. This way. In tackling PID problems.D. Modularization around standard PID structures should also help improve the cost effectiveness of PID control and maintenance. Chong. Marsh.. Oct. Tech. 35.expertune. Spain.Eng. Scheib. and Y. design automation. he was a software engineer with Advanced Process Control Group. Åström and T.G. and control for nonlinear systems. it is desirable to use standard PID structures for a reasonable range of plant types and operations.H. “Turn on. 4. 759–768.” Contr. X. vol. and modular code blocks can be made available for timely application and real-time adaptation.” in Digest IEE PG16 Colloquium (96/287). 2000. and technology. [19] W. T. Hägglund. 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Apr. 8. in 1999. which facilitates the search for the best possible PID settings for the application at hand.D. and discovery of engineering systems using evolutionary learning and intelligent search techniques. IFAC Workshop.” white paper [Online]. at the same university in evolutionary. [4] J. 4. and K. vol. 15. in 1989 and 1990. and Tuning. [6] P. 486–491. pp. Glasgow. vol. SS/C355. Techmation [Online]. no. “Digital control: Past. control systems. Wang. 64. pp. ASME. K. D. 2. pt. “Getting the best out of PID in machine control. Hägglund. Amer. no. no. Digest. 2005. Mag. Ang. Kiam Heong Ang received a First-Class Honors B. Eng. 1942. Glasgow G12 8LT. Japan.” in Proc. He worked in the U. [7] Y. 31–32..J. He was a visiting professor at Kumamoto University.. Automat. Li. vol. Since 2005. Kaya and T. 142. 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Computerizing enables simulations to be carried out automatically. where he has taught and conducted research in evolutionary computation and control engineering since 1991. National Engineering Laboratory and Industrial Systems and Control Ltd. Barnes.” in Proc. J. Research Triangle Park.J. 1995.Eng. Shinskey. His research interests include evolutionary. 9.G.com/PIDspec.. [11] K. and Drives. NC: Instrum. 2004. Feng.htm [14] BESTune. P. no. the trend of computerizing simulation-based designs is gaining momentum. 2009 at 00:52 from IEEE Xplore. United Kingdom..R.

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