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An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that

creates seismic waves. The seismicity,
seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.Earthquakes are measured using
observations from seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire
globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude
scale, also referred to as the Richter scale. These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes are mostly almost
imperceptible or weak and magnitude 7 and over potentially cause serious damage over larger areas, depending on their depth. The largest earthquakes in historic
times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the possible magnitude. The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger was a
9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011 (as of March 2014), and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records began. Intensity of shaking is measured on
the modified Mercalli scale. The shallower an earthquake, the more damage to structures it causes, all else being equal.At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest
themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced
sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.In its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to
describe any seismic event — whether natural or caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults,
but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter.
The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic
strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. The sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities
or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behaviour.
Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault
surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the
stored energy.[2] This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus
causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound
theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the
earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its
temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior.[3]The majority of
tectonic earthquakes originate at the ring of fire in depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. Earthquakes occurring at a depth of less than 70 km are
classified as 'shallow-focus' earthquakes, while those with a focal-depth between 70 and 300 km are commonly termed 'mid-focus' or 'intermediatedepth' earthquakes. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, deep-focus earthquakes may
[15]
occur at much greater depths (ranging from 300 up to 700 kilometers). These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati-Benioff
zones. Deep-focus earthquakes occur at a depth where the subducted lithosphere should no longer be brittle, due to the high temperature and pressure.
A possible mechanism for the generation of deep-focus earthquakes is faulting caused by olivine undergoing a phase transition into a spinel structure.

Most earthquakes form part of a sequence, related to each other in terms of location and time. [24] Most earthquake clusters consist of small tremors that cause little to no damage, but there is a
theory that earthquakes can recur in a regular pattern.

Drought is an extended period when a region receives a deficiency in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water. A drought can
[1]
last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below
average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. Although droughts can persist for several
[2]
years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage and harm to the local economy.













1900 India killing between 250,000 to 3.25 million.
1921-22 Soviet Union in which over 5 million perished from starvation due to drought
1928-30 Northwest China resulting in over 3 million deaths by famine.
1936 and 1941 Sichuan Province China resulting in 5 million and 2.5 million deaths respectively.
The 1997-2009 Millenium Drought in Australia led to a water supply crisis across much of the country. As a result many desalination plants were built
for the first time
Meteorological drought is brought about when there is a prolonged period with less than average precipitation. Meteorological drought usually
precedes the other kinds of drought.
Agricultural droughts are droughts that affect crop production or the ecology of the range. This condition can also arise independently from any
change in precipitation levels when soil conditions and erosion triggered by poorly planned agricultural endeavors cause a shortfall in water available
to the crops. However, in a traditional drought, it is caused by an extended period of below average precipitation.
Hydrological drought is brought about when the water reserves available in sources such as aquifers, lakes and reservoirs fall below
the statistical average. Hydrological drought tends to show up more slowly because it involves stored water that is used but not replenished. Like an
agricultural drought, this can be triggered by more than just a loss of rainfall. For instance, Kazakhstan was recently awarded a large amount of
[44]
money by the World Bank to restore water that had been diverted to other nations from the Aral Sea under Soviet rule. Similar circumstances also
place their largest lake, Balkhash, at risk of completely drying out.
Dams - many dams and their associated reservoirs supply additional water in times of drought.
[46]
Cloud seeding - a form of intentional weather modification to induce rainfall.
Desalination - of sea water for irrigation or consumption.
Drought monitoring - Continuous observation of rainfall levels and comparisons with current usage levels can help prevent man-made drought. For
instance, analysis of water usage in Yemen has revealed that their water table (underground water level) is put at grave risk by over-use to fertilize
[47]
their Khat crop. Careful monitoring of moisture levels can also help predict increased risk for wildfires, using such metrics as theKeetch-Byram
[10]
Drought Index or Palmer Drought Index.
Land use - Carefully planned crop rotation can help to minimize erosion and allow farmers to plant less water-dependent crops in drier years.
Outdoor water-use restriction - Regulating the use of sprinklers, hoses or buckets on outdoor plants, filling pools, and other water-intensive home
maintenance tasks.
Rainwater harvesting - Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other suitable catchments.
Recycled water - Former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse.

Transvasement - Building canals or redirecting rivers as massive attempts at irrigation in drought-prone areas. Periods of droughts can have significant
environmental, agricultural, health, economic and social consequences. The effect varies according to vulnerability. For example, subsistence

 Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming. It may also cause the loss of sewage disposal facilities. While these tend to be relatively isolated in their scope. or very large. Areas with populations that depend on as a major food source are more vulnerable to famine.  Damage to roads and transport infrastructure may make it difficult to mobilise aid to those affected or to provide emergency health treatment. making the land unworkable and preventing crops from being planted or harvested. which can lead to shortages of food both for humans and farm animals. the result is a drought. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt.roadways. combined with the upward forcing of the air mass containing that water vapour. solar radiation management through the use of a space sunshade for one. themselves a sign of erosion. rather than oceanic air masses. which further erode the landscape Dust storms. Overall. and especially indeveloping [38][39][40] [41] nations. This includes loss of drinking water treatment and water supply. Along with drought in some areas. dehydration and related diseases Mass migration. which may result in loss of drinking water or severe water contamination. drought provides too little water to support food crops. Additionally. sewerage systems. particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. flooding and erosion will increase in others. these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals. Lack of clean water combined with human sewage in the flood waters raises the risk of waterborne diseases. some proposed solutions to global warming that focus on more active techniques. people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry. Oceanic and atmospheric weather cycles such as the make drought a regular recurring feature of the Americas along the Midwest and Australia. [1]  The primary effects of flooding include loss of life. may also carry with them increased chances of drought. such as Australian bushfires. cryptosporidium. or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. excessive irrigation.  Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel.farmers are more likely to migrate during drought because they do not have alternative food sources. winds carrying continental. rainfall is related to the amount (determined by air temperature) of water vapour carried by regional atmosphere. and canals. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. Some tree species may not survive prolonged flooding of their root systems . can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. global warming will result in increased world rainfall. when drought hits an area suffering from desertification and erosion Famine due to lack of water for irrigation [5] Habitat damage. If these combined factors do not support precipitation volumes sufficient to reach the surface. the word may also be applied to the inflow of thetide. giardia. cholera and many other diseases depending upon the location of the flood. Malnutrition. Paradoxically. in which the water overtops or breaks levees. which then has knock-on effects caused by the loss of power. impacting a neighbourhood or community.  Some floods develop slowly. resulting in [3] some of that water escaping its usual boundaries.  A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry. Common consequences of drought include:               Diminished crop growth or yield productions and carrying capacity for livestock Dust bowls.  Floods also frequently damage power transmission and sometimes power generation. activities resulting in global climate [37] change are expected to trigger droughts with a substantial impact on agriculture throughout the world. floods can be local. which can include typhoid. and erosion adversely impact [36] the ability of the land to capture and hold water. including bridges. resulting in internal displacement and international refugees [6] Reduced electricity production due to reduced water flow through hydroelectric dams [7][8] Shortages of water for industrial users [9] Snake migration. affecting entire river basins. Drought can also reduce water quality. In the sense of "flowing water".  Flood waters typically inundate farm land. such as a river or lake. including water and food Wildfires. This can be triggered by high level of reflected sunlight and above average prevalence of highpressure systems. Entire harvests for a country can be lost in extreme flood circumstances. while others such as flash floods. and ridges of high pressure areas from behaviors which prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over one certain region. [35] deforestation. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies. because lower water flows reduce dilution of pollutants and increase contamination of remaining water sources. While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water. are more common during times of drought and even death of people  Generally. The European Union (EU) Floods Directive defines a flood as a [2] covering by water of land not normally covered by water. affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife Hunger. damage to buildings and other structures. which results in snakebites Social unrest War over natural resources.