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WAP Architecture

An overview of the WAP architecture, its protocols and components, and compares this architecture with the
typical internet architecture when using the world wide web.
 The basis for transmission of data is formed by different bearer services. WAP does not specify bearer
services, but uses existing data services and will integrate further services.
 No special interface has been specified between the bearer service and the next higher layer, the transport
layer with its wireless datagram protocol (WDP) and the additional wireless control message protocol
(WCMP), because the adaptation of these protocols are bearer-specific
 The transport layer offers a bearer independent, consistent datagram-oriented service to the higher
layers of the WAP architecture. Communication is done transparently over one of the available bearer
 The transport layer service access point (T-SAP) is the common interface to be used by higher layers
independent of the underlying network.
 The next higher layer, the security layer with its wireless transport layer security protocol WTLS offers
its service at the security SAP (SEC-SAP). It can offer data integrity, privacy, authentication, and (some)
denial-of-service protection.
 The WAP transaction layer with its wireless transaction protocol (WTP) offers a lightweight transaction
service at the transaction SAP (TR-SAP). This service efficiently provides reliable or unreliable requests
and asynchronous transactions.
 The session layer with the wireless session protocol (WSP) currently offers two services at the sessionSAP (S-SAP), one connection-oriented and one connectionless if used directly on top of WDP
 Finally the application layer with the wireless application environment (WAE) offers a framework for
the integration of different www and mobile telephony applications.
WAP does not always force all applications to use the whole protocol architecture. Applications can use
only a part of the architecture
Components and interface of the WAP 1.x architecture

Different scenarios are possible for the
wireless and fixed networks.
On the left side, different fixed
traditional internet and the
public switched telephone
network (PSTN), are shown.
One cannot change protocols
and services of these existing
networks so several new
elements will be implemented
IV IT – SKEC , IT2402 –Mobile Communication, UNIT V Notes .

Mrs. S.Arumugadevi,


source port (SP). These gateways not only filter pages but also act as proxies for web access.  WDP hides details of the various bearer networks from the other layers of WAP  At the T-SAP WDP offers a consistent datagram transport service. IT2402 –Mobile Communication. TDUnitdata. and UD) The service primitive to send a datagram is TDUnitdata. port. 2 . parameter problem (errors in the packet header). The service primitive to send a datagram is. req with the destination address (DA). such messages are. the adaptation needed in the transport layer  WDP offers more or less the same services as UDP. reassembly failure.An error code (EC) is returned indicating the reason for the error to the higherlayer. mobile devices in a wireless networkon the righthand side.between these networks and the WAP-enabled wireless.Destination and source address are unique addresses for the receiver and sender of the user data. Here destination address and port are only optional parameters. or echo request/reply. web servers can already provide pages in WML.  WDP offers source and destination port numbers used for multiplexing and demultiplexing of data respectively. Error is indicated with the T-DError. IV IT – SKEC . Special filters within the fixed network can now translate HTML into WML. address unreachable). Mrs. (Typical WCMP messages are destination unreachable (route. S. or the gateways between the fixed and wireless network can translate HTML into WML. UNIT V Notes .Arumugadevi. The current www in the internet offers web pages with the help of HTML and web servers. SA.destination port (DP). and user data (UD) as mandatory parameters.ind service primitive . To offer this consistent service. To be able to browse these pages or additional pages with handheld devices. a wireless markup language (WML) has been defined in WAP. • WCMP error messages must not be sent as response to other WCMP error messages.ind service primitive indicates the reception of data. The wireless control message protocol (WCMP) provides error handling mechanisms for WDP used by WDP nodes and gateways to report errors. Wireless datagram protocol  The wireless datagram protocol (WDP) operates on top of many different bearer services capable of carrying data. The T-DUnitdata. Source address (SA).req with (DA. 1. WML is additionally converted into binary WML for more efficient transmission.. SP. WDP is not allowed to use this primitive to indicate problems with the bearer service. message too big.DP.

can be integrated into the WAP architecture on top of WDP. a security service. SP of the originator. the session identifier IV IT – SKEC . IDEA) and a compression method (CM) • SEC-Create res: The peer answers with parameters for the sequence number mode (SNM).e. Mrs.Arumugadevi. UDP in this case) relies on the segmentation (called fragmentation in the IP context) and reassembly capabilities An additional WDP management entity supports WDP and provides information about changes in the environment 2.called f ull handshake service primitives • SEC-Create req: to initiate the session(SA. how often keys are refreshed within this secure session).. WTLS can provide different levels of security WTLS is based on the TLS/SSL (Transport Layer Security) protocol – optimized for low-bandwidth communication channels – provides • privacy (encryption) • data integrity (MACs) • authentication (public-key and symmetric) – Employs special adapted mechanisms for wireless usage • secure sessions is established b/w nodes to exchange data(Full Handshake) • Optimised algorithms for low BW • Provides low processing power and limited memory • Supports datagram and connection oriented transport layer protocols. IT2402 –Mobile Communication. a cipher suite (CS-DES. 3 .) The originator proposes a key exchange suite (KES-RSA). a secure session has to be established. WDP (i. DA. the key refresh cycle (KR) (i. This session establishment consists of several steps. WTLS establishing a secure session Before data can be exchanged via WTLS.If the bearer already offers IP transmission. S.e. the wireless transport layersecurity (WTLS). UNIT V Notes . DP of the peer. Wireless transport layer security If requested by an application..

cipher suite (CS’). WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol • • • WTP manages transactions by conveying requests and responses between a user agent. After setting up a secure connection between two peers. the peer requests a client certificate (CC) from the originator • SEC-Commit req: The indicator answers with its certificate and issues the above primitives This primitive indicates that the handshake is complete.the originator can switch to new state. • Asynchronous transactions. WTP offers several advantages to higher layers. • WTP is on the top of either WDP or WTL • Transaction –request/response is called Three classes of transaction service WTP includes the following features: • Three classes of transaction service.Arumugadevi. ADVANTAGE: • Secure association b/w client and server DISADVANTAGE: • Encryption algorithm is NOT very strong 3. Now data can be transferred. Mrs.cnf: Confirmation about the establishment of the session. • Concatenation and separation of messages. compression method (CM’). Data transfer is secure but unreliable. Now the full handshake is established for secure session.(peer wishes to perform public-key authentication with the client) • i. and support for transaction-oriented services such as web browsing.(SID) (which is unique with each peer). • Optional user-to-user reliability: WTP user triggers the confirmation of each received message. there is no explicit connection setup or teardown but rather a reliable connectionless service. • SEC-Exchange req: The peer also issues a SEC-Exchange primitive. including an improved reliability over datagram services. WTP Transaction Classes Class 0 Class 1 provides unreliable message transfer without any result message. WTP has been designed to run on very thin clients. asynchronous transactions with up to 215 transactions outstanding • WTP is transaction oriented rather than connection oriented. IT2402 –Mobile Communication. 4 . such as mobile phones. S. provide reliable message transfer without exactly one reliable result Message IV IT – SKEC . • SEC-Commit. This is done using the simple SEC-Unitdata primitive • • SEC-Unit data: The data transfer is done via this primitive. and the selected key exchange suite (KES’). • Optional out-of-band data on acknowledgments. • PDU concatenation and delayed acknowledgment to reduce the number of messages sent. UNIT V Notes .ind: The certificate is delivered and commited • SEC-Commit. • With WTp. improved efficiency over connection-oriented services. user data can be exchanged.e..

TR-Invoke.UD.Arumugadevi.A.req: The initiator of request primitive does the same as class 1 but with automatic ack. exactly one reliable result Message WTP achieves reliability using duplicate removal. Mrs. H’->Local handle for transaction in the responder side Basic transaction.ind: upon the receipt of request the responder generates the primitive.Class 2 provide reliable message transfer.ind primitive to the higher layer and acknowledges automatically without user intervention. 5 . IT2402 –Mobile Communication. TR-Invoke.DA.SP. with.H) A->flag using this user can determine the ack is automatic/user ack UD->user data C->class type(now it is 0. retransmission.This primitive is received by responder. C=0) H->transaction handle simple index to identify the transaction. For the initiator the transaction ends after receiving the ack but the responder maintains this ack for sometime to retransmit.DP. acknowledgements and unique transaction identifiers WTP class 0 Unreliable message transfer without any result message Transaction is stateless and cannot be aborted Primitives: TR-Invoke req(SA. UNIT V Notes . S. WTP class 0 WTP Class 1: Class 1 offers a reliable transaction service but without a result message Automatic Ack TR-Invoke req: This time class=1 The responder signals the incoming invoke PDU via the TR-Invoke. User ack This is used when the initiator requests an user ack Primitive: TR-Invoke.ind: IV IT – SKEC .C=O.

req • The result.The responder will not send the ack automatically but waits for TR-Invoke.Arumugadevi.res: The user responds to the result with TR-Result.req: The responder gives the result to WTP entry using TR-Result. with user acknowledgement IV IT – SKEC . IT2402 –Mobile Communication.cnf: confirmation on the receiver side.res service primitive from the user. no user acknowledgement Basic transaction. Mrs. 6 . WTP class 2.cnf: This primitive is used to confirm the request • TR-Result. • TR-Invoke.PDU is sent back to initiator which is implicitly acknowledged. S. UNIT V Notes .ind: The initiator or user indicates the request with this primitive. TR-Result.ind: The indicator can indicate the result • TR-Result. Basic transaction. WTP class 2. WTP Class 2: • Provides reliable service without user ack • TR-Invoke. • TR-Result.

WSP provides applications with an interface for two session services  The wireless session protocol (WSP) has been designed to operate on top of the datagram service WDP or the transaction service WTP.1 offers. Mrs. The capabilities of suspending and resuming a session are important to mobile applications.If the calculation of the result takes some time. Additionally.Arumugadevi. Parameters are the server address (SA). 4. WSP/B offers the following features adapted to web browsing: HTTP/1.1 functionality: WSP/B supports the functions HTTP/1. WSP/B supports a client that can send multiple requests to a server simultaneously. session resume. and a non-confirmed data push without an existing session context.1 ● Exchange of session headers: Client and server can exchange request/reply headers that remain constant over the lifetime of the session.HTTP/1. a nonconfirmed data push within an existing session context. ● Push and pull data transfer: Pulling data from a server is the traditional mechanism of the web. such as extensible request/reply methods. Class 0 is used for unconfirmed push. a client can request a new session. Sessions can also be released in an orderly manner. WSP/B session establishment S-Connect. session resume. Wireless session protocol  WSP provides a shared state between a client and a server to optimize content transfer. Confirmed push uses class 1. the IV IT – SKEC . WSP/B over WTP WSP/B uses the three service classes of WTP. UNIT V Notes . ● Asynchronous requests: Optionally.1. WSP offers the following general features needed for content exchange between cooperating clients and servers: Session management: WSP introduces sessions that can be established from a client to a server and may be long lived.  WSP provides a shared state between a client and a server to optimize content transfer. Content encoding: WSP also defines the efficient binary encoding for the content it transfers. Wireless session protocol/browsing (WSP/B) which comprises protocols and services most suited for browsing-type applications. Capability negotiation: Clients and servers can agree upon a common level of protocol functionality during session establishment. S. composite objects.1. and session management class 2. WSP/B is a binary form of HTTP/1. WSP/B supports three push mechanisms for data transfer: a confirmed data push within an existing session context.req primitive. and session management. IT2402 –Mobile Communication. This is also supported by WSP/B using the request/response mechanism from HTTP/1. method invocation. 7 .and content type negotiation. the responder can put the initiator on “hold on” to prevent a retransmission of the invoke PDU as the initiator might assume packet loss if no result is sent back within a certain timeframe.

e.. Disconnection is indicated on both sides using S-Disconnect. If the server accepts the new session it answers with an SConnect.res. UNIT V Notes . WTP now transfers the connreply PDU back to the client. network error.cnf confirms the session establishment.Arumugadevi. e. S-Connect. A client can later resume a suspended session with S-Resume. and the optional client header (CH) and requested capabilities (RC). WSP/B session suspension and resume If. and maximum SDU size exceeded.req service primitive .req. protocol error. the client can suspend the session. peer request. The only parameter is the reason R for suspension. WSP/B will signal the suspension with S-Suspend. a client notices that it will soon be unavailable. Mrs.g. This primitive aborts all current method or push transactions used to transfer data.. the bearer network will be unavailable due to roaming to another network or the user switches off the device.client address (CA).ind primitive indicates a new session. WTP transfers the suspend PDU to the server. The reason R for disconnection can be.req.ind. WSP/B session termination : IV IT – SKEC . S-Connect.g. IT2402 –Mobile Communication. congestion.req service primitive. 8 . negotiated capabilities (NC) needed for capability negotiation.ind on the client and server side. A client suspends a session with S-Suspend. Parameters are server address (SA) and client address (CA). Session suspension will automatically abort all data transmission and freeze the current state of the session on the client and server side. Terminating a session is done by using the S-Disconnect. Terminating a session is done by using the S-Disconnect. for example. S.

S.WSP/B completed Transaction WSP/B non-confirmed push IV IT – SKEC .Arumugadevi. Mrs. 9 . UNIT V Notes . IT2402 –Mobile Communication.

req to request an operation on a server.req to push data onto a client. Mrs.WSP/B asynchronous. Transfer of the PDUs (method.Arumugadevi. S-Unit-MethodResult. and S-Unit-Push. reply and push) is done with the help of the standard unreliable datagram transfer service of WDP. 10 . S. UNIT V Notes .req to return results to a client. WSP/B as connectionless session service IV IT – SKEC . IT2402 –Mobile Communication. unordered requests WSP/B as connectionless session service The three service primitives available for connectionless session service: S-Unit-MethodInvoke.

which describes the capabilities of a user agent. the handheld device markup language HDML.Arumugadevi. operating system. memory size. The origin servers will respond to the request. WAE does not specify the number of user agents or their functionality Aa user agent profile (UAProf). A client issues an encoded request for an operation on a remote server. IV IT – SKEC . Capabilities may be related to hardware or software. 11 . Mrs. This environment should allow service providers. Agateway now translate this encoded request into a standard request as understood by the origin servers.Wireless application environment The main idea behind the wireless application environment (WAE) is to create a general-purpose application environment based mainly on existing technologies and philosophies of the world wide web. The exchange formats for business cards and phone books vCard and for calendars vCalendar have been included. IT2402 –Mobile Communication. URLs from the web can be used. wireless markup language (WML) and the scripting language WMLscript. software manufacturers. User agents include such items as: browsers. processor. wireless telephony application (WTA) WAE logical model       One global goal of the WAE is to minimize over-the-air traffic and resource consumption on the handheld device. S. HTML . message editors etc. UNIT V Notes . The gateway now encodes the response and its content (if there is any) and transfers the encoded response with the content to the client. phonebooks. browser version. WAE has already integrated the following technologies and adapted them for use in a wireless environment with low power handheld devices. or hardware vendors to integrate their applications so they can reach a wide variety of different wireless platforms in an efficient way. audio/video codec. Examples are: display size. or supported network types. Several user agents can reside within a client.