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HELP FILE FOR

:

DESIGN OF PLATE TYPE LIFTING LUGS:

DEFINITION:
Plate lugs are used to lift horizontal equipment such as storage tanks,
equipment skids, modules, structures, etc. They are also used to lift
vertical equipment that must be upended such as cold boxes, refinery
vessels, etc. The lower part of the lug plate is welded to the side of a
structure, equipment skid, beam or vessel shell with a three or four
sided weld.
The design of a lifting lug is made up of four parts; the lug plate, the
weld size used to connect it to a shell or structure, the bearing stress
at the pin hole and the end area of the lug. The design of a lifting lug
is very critical and must be done to the latest standards and codes.
For design reference, the program assumes that the lug is in the
vertical position with the pin hole at the top. Further, the line of the
force is assumed to be in the plane of the strong axis and the angle of
the force on the lug is measured from a horizontal reference line thru
the center of the pin hole. For example, at zero (0) degrees, the force
would be at a right angle to the longitudinal centerline of the lug. At
ninety (90) degrees, it would coincide with the longitudinal centerline
of the lug. See the plate lug drawing below.

It can also be used to check these same values for an existing lug design. These stresses are based on the width of the lug base. It will also check the bearing stress at the pin hole and the combined stress of the lug plate and the weld.The design of the end area and bearing of the lifting lug are based on the total force on the lug applied in the vertical. ie. If the plate lug is being used to upend a piece of equipment. PROGRAM OBJECTIVE: The objective of this program is to provide a design for the end area of a plate type-lifting lug that is efficient and safe. Their design is also based on the radius of the lug and not on the width of the lug base. The combined stress of the lug plate and the weld size are calculated from the vertical and horizontal components of the force at the specified angle. . The output information conforms to the requirements of AISC and ASME B30. See example 2 below to see how the program handles a variable force applied to a plate lug. the lifting force on the lugs increases as the lift angle increases. as top head lugs or cone lugs.20.

A 400 ton vertical vessel with two plate lugs.EXAMPLES OF PLATE LUG USE: 1. as it is not possible to make the fourth weld on the backside of the lug at the tangent line. Six plate lugs were used to lift the jet fuel storage tank shown in the photo below and were connected using three sided welds. . 2. The plate lugs are called top head lugs in this application and are connected to the shell with three sided welds. but the extra capacity was not needed as the force on the lugs was at 90 degrees. as there was access to make a weld on the backside of each lug at the top of the tank. four sided welds could have been used. In this case.

as it is not possible to make the fourth weld on the backside of the lug at the tangent line of the cone. Erecting a vertical vessel with two plate lugs.3. . The plate lugs are called cone lugs in this application and are connected to the shell with three sided welds.

The pad . The reasoning is that the program user might want to decrease the combined stress of the lug plate and the lug weld size by decreasing the eccentricity. as the top weld on the backside of the lug is accessible in this application. Check the sum of the pad radius + pad weld + lug weld for a plate lug to see if it is less than the eccentricity. This could be done by cutting a flat segment off the bottom of the pad next to the lug weld. WHAT THE PROGRAM DOES NOT DO: The program does not: 1. The pad could be cut off as close as 1” (25 mm) to the bottom edge of the lug hole with out structurally affecting the lug design. They are connected to the shell with four sided welds.4. Erecting a cold box with four plate lugs.

so that it fits the purpose and still meets code. The user can select a shackle size from the table based on the force seen by the lug and the dimensions will be imported into the appropriate fields of the program. increase the lug width. the user can then finetune the design. Check the sum of half the width of the lug plus the sling diameter plus 1’’ (2. In any case.2. change the eccentricity. the weld size should not exceed the lug thickness or the shell/support thickness. etc. Compare the required lug weld size to the thickness of shell or support. weld size would then need to be proportionally increased to account for the lose of weld length. FOR A FIRST TRY IN THE DESIGN OF A LIFTING LUG: The dimensions of some Crosby shackles are included in the lookup table in the program. Check a plate lug used as a cone lug or top head lug to see if the shackle eye or the lug pads will interfere with the top of the kicker plate. sizes over 150 Te are G 2140.e. See the top head lug drawing below to see where the kicker plate is located. Analysis the local stresses in the shell or support caused by the force on the lug. This comparison should be made to determine if a lug with a larger cross-sectional area should be used or if a reinforcing pad is required under the lug to lower the weld size. Shackle sizes up to 150 metric ton (Te) are model G 2130. These five checks are left up to the program user. increase and/or reduce the force. 3. all the Crosby shackles are rated in metric tons. . change the angle of the force.54 cm) clearance to see if it is less than the distance from the center of the shackle pin to bearing on the bail. The local stresses should be analyzed to see if a reinforcing pad is required under the lug to spread out the load. Note.. i. 4. or if the structure needs to be stiffened to prevent over stressing. The dimensions of a lug that has been designed for that shackle size will also be imported into the appropriate fields of the program. 5. See example 3 below. If the lug dimensions are not exactly what are required.

The lug designs are based on a force at 60 degrees. As this information is changed. ie the SWL of the Crosby 2130x85 is 85 metric tons. When the program displays an error message about the lug dimensions. So.85 kips/in (1. For other shackles with dimensions listed in METRIC units. to do this.com lists all of their available shackles with dimensions in ENGLISH and METRIC units. the user will have to refer to other sources.11 Te for the metric version. The Crosby shackles shown in both look up tables are all rated in metric tons.53 Te/cm^2).75”. which in the above case is 187. the force on the lugs in the look up tables have been limited to twice the SWL of the shackles as though they were rated in US tons. using lug material that has a Fy greater than 36 ksi or using a larger angle of the force on the lug. This is without using a smaller safety factor.39 kips or 85 metric tons. it is sometimes helpful to decrease the force on the lug until the output fields are displayed.thecrosbygroup. click on the sample values and note that for a Crosby 2130 x 85 that the force on the lug used is 170 kips for the English version and 77. for example “Crosby G2130x4.8 If a shackle size is not listed that the user would like to consider. Fy = 36 ksi (2.04 Te/cm) and the I. allowable force on the weld = 14. As stated above. ie 90 degrees. and then input its dimensions and appropriate lug dimensions directly into the fields of the program. = 1. it might be necessary to reduce the impact factor or increase the Fy or use an angle on the lug greater than 60 degrees. to keep things simple. The program user is free to design a lug using a force on the lug equal to the SWL of the shackle. then the user can click on the SHACKLE button.F. input the shackle description. it has been found that in several cases the maximum capacity of the shackle could not be used because the required lug is to wide for the shackle. The Crosby Group website www. .) in the English version and metric tons (Te) in the Metric version. the force on the lug can then be increased to its original value TOTAL FORCE: The total force on the lug is input as kips (1 kip = 1. In designing lugs for these shackles. For example. This allows the user to see all of the output results and get an idea of which input information to change.000 lbs.

the impact factor can be determined that was used to calculate the stated allowable load for the lifting lug.8. Also. the force on the lug can then be increased to its original value. it is at 90 degrees. it is at zero degrees.33 cm) greater than the shackle pin diameter for shackles up to 150 . the program user will then have to make a decision as to the structural integrity of the lug based on its application and the risk involved. the eccentricity of the lug plate above the top of a tank or skid frame should be kept as small as possible. ANGLE OF THE FORCE ON THE LUG: With the lifting lug in the vertical position with the pin hole at the top. if the force is acting at a right angle to the lug. a kicker plate should be added to the side of the lug as shown in the top head lug drawing in example 2. IMPACT FACTOR: A minimum impact factor of 1. it is sometimes helpful to decrease the force on the lug until the output fields are displayed. LUG PIN HOLE DIAMETER: It is recommended that a lug pin hole diameter be used that is 0. This will reduce the side loading to the lug plate due to the force not acting in the plane of the strong axis. Therefore. the angle of the force is measured from a horizontal reference line running through the center of the pin hole. By using 1. This allows the user to see all of the output results and get an idea of which input information to change.25 or greater.20 which limits stresses to . the allowable stresses can be used as printed in the AISC Manual. The program limits the impact factor to 1. SIDE LOADING OF THE LUG: When plate lugs are used to upend a vertical vessel. If the impact factor turns out to be less than 1.80. If the force is acting in the vertical direction along the longitudinal centerline of the lug. The program allows a variable impact factor to be used so that when checking an existing design.80 should be used for new design in order to conform to AISC and ASME B30.13” (0.When the program displays error messages about the lug dimensions.33*Fy. As this information is changed.

2. LUG PLATE THICKNESS: The selection of the thickness of the lug plate should be limited to those sizes available. . ie subject to buckling. If a smaller shackle pin diameter is used than the above recommendation. 3. only an increase in the actual end area. “The maximum allowable end area” is calculated using the “maximum effective lug radius”. the user can select the appropriate shackle from the lookup table in the program based on the force on the lug. the program will check to make sure that the “lug radius” is equal to or greater than the output value for the “maximum effective lug radius”. NOTE: 1. If the program allowed a lug radius to be used that is smaller than the maximum effective lug radius. LUG RADIUS: After the user enters all of the input values and clicks on calculate.25” (0.tons (136 Te) and 0. so using a “lug radius” that is larger than the maximum effective lug radius will not result in an increase in the maximum allowable end area. If a larger shackle pin diameter is used than the above recommendation. the pin might not fit up with the hole in the lug due to manufacturer and fabrication tolerances. the program will prompt the user to enter a larger radius. For the first try in the design of a lifting lug. The maximum effective lug radius is a requirement per AISC to prevent the design of the lug beyond the pin hole from being long and thin. Installing pads is an additional cost. then the “maximum allowable end area” would be smaller than the area required past the pin hole. so generally it is more economical to use a thicker lug plate whenever possible in lieu of using pads. If the lug radius is smaller. the bearing stresses will be higher.64 cm) for shackles sizes larger than that. The dimensions of the shackle and a pre-designed lug will automatically be entered into the appropriate input fields in the program.

etc. The ratio between the side weld length and the width of the lug base can be smaller or greater than 0.64 cm to 1. NOTE: Increasing the eccentricity to satisfy the above check will increase both the combined stress and lug weld size. depending on the designer’s criteria and the application.7.5” (0. the radius of the shackle eyes. The program checks to make sure that the eccentricity is greater than the sum of the shackle eye radius plus the actual lug weld. No matter what the shape of the lug is. but a higher ratio yields a lower required weld size.25” to 0. This is why most designs are very conservative concerning the area of the lugacross the pin hole and the most important consideration is the area past the pin hole. Therefore the eccentricity will probably need to be increased in increments of 0. The lugs are connected to the side of a skid. the lug weld size. an obstruction on the structure. This value is used to calculate the bending in the lug plate and the lug weld size due to the horizontal component of the force. WIDTH OF THE LUG PLATE AT THE BASE: Plate lug dimensions vary from lug to lug. The most common type of plate lug is where the width of the lug plate equals two times the radius of the lug and the distance from the top of the weld group to the pin hole (the eccentricity) is determined by the radius of the pads. . the pad weld size.7 * width of the lug base. more bending strength. Some lugs are wider at the base than two times the lug radius. etc. due to the need for additional weld length. the design of the end area is based on the lug radius and not on the width of the base. See sections A-A and B-B on the lug sketch above. ECCENTRICITY: The eccentricity is the dimension from the top of the weld group to the center of the lug pinhole.27 cm). structure or vessel shell with a three sided or a four sided weld configuration. LUG SIDE WELD LENGTH: It is recommended that the side weld length be approximately equal to 0.It is not recommended to weld two lug plates together to get the desired lug plate thickness.

64 cm) clearance be equal to or smaller than the actual inside width of the shackle measured at the pin. There is a DIN standard that allows the I.15 in.If the angle of the force on the lug is increased to say 90 degrees. LUG PAD WELDS: . (0.D. then the lug weld size will decrease and the eccentricity can be decreased accordingly. The user can fool the program and decrease the 0. To see how this can be done.27 cm) smaller than the lug radius. Using pads of this design will provide more end area but will do nothing for bearing.25 cm) larger than it actually is. of the pad holes to be larger than the I. This example applies to plate lugs as well. In looking at the output information. In order to allow sufficient room for the weld between the lug and the pad.25 in. The pads should be welded to the lug plate and then the pinhole line bored so that even bearing is obtained between the pads and the lug plate. of the lughole.10 in. (0. the user can then increase the pad radius if there is more than enough room for the pad weld. The program will check to see if the sum of the pad radius plus the pad weld is greater than the lug radius. (0. LUG PADS: Pads are usually designed and welded to the lug plate when the actual bearing stress is greater than the allowable bearing stress.25 in. Some times they are used to increase both the end area and to reduce the bearing stress. it is recommended that for an initial try the user should use a pad radius 0. INSIDE WIDTH OF THE SHACKLE: It is recommended that the sum of the thickness of the lug plate plus the thickness of the pads plus 0. This can be done by cutting off the bottom segment of the lug pads. go to example 3 in the HELP file for the pad eye lugs. Lowering the eccentricity can reduce the combined stress of the lug plate and the lug weld size.5 in (1. The program will check this clearance.38 cm) by entering the shackle width 0. (0.D.64 cm) clearance to say 0.

In the top head lug drawing below.6 kips/in. note that the shell is 0. EXAMPLE 1: Using the program with English Units. By then clicking on “calculate”. Often. This distance must be used to determine the bending stress in the lug plate and the required lug weld size. then this weld configuration is called a four-sided weld. .75” thick doubler pad is welded to the shell with a four-sided weld size of 0. THREE SIDED LUG WELDS VS FOUR SIDED LUG WELDS: Welding vertically down both sides and horizontally across the bottom of a plate lug is called a three-sided weld. The eccentricity of 26” is required to provide shackle clearance between the vessel head/insulation. The dimensions of the doubler pad would have to be large enough so that the weld size required to connect it to the shell of the vessel would be equal to or less than the shell thickness. The “sample values” button at the bottom of the input screen contains input for a typical plate lug problem where the force on the lug is at a specific angle. By clicking on “sample values” the input values are shown with the output values blank. This is usually done when the shell thickness is less than the required size of the three-sided weld. The thickness of the doubler pad would have to be equal to or greater than the size of the three-sided weld.The weld sizes for the pads in this program are based on using LH 60 rod and a force on the weld of 9.38” thick and the required three-sided lug weld size is 0. a doubler pad is welded to the side of a vertical vessel with a four-sided weld and a lug plate is welded to the doubler pad with a three-sided weld. If access is available to make an additional horizontal weld on the backside of the lug and at the top of the frame/structure. The program calculates the weld size required for both a three-sided weld and a four-sided weld configuration. The kicker plate shown on the right side of the drawing is used to stiffen the lug plate extending beyond the tangent line. This is the most commonly used weld configuration. It is measured from the top of the weld configuration (in this case from the top tangent line) up to the centerline of the lug pinhole. A 0.75”.38”. Bending in the weak axis would then be about this kicker plate and not at the tangent line. both the input and output values are shown. The program user must decide which weld configuration is applicable for his application.

The photo shows two plate type-lifting lugs with three sided welds being used to lift a 170-ton vertical vessel. The following procedure shows how to calculate the bearing and end area of the lug. In this case. the force on the lugs increases as the lift angle of the equipment increases. the vertical force on each plate lug will be 170 kips at the set position. the combined stress on the lug plate and the weld for this type of lift. . .EXAMPLE 2: UPENDING A VERTICAL VESSEL WITH TWO PLATE LUGS (The plate lugs are called Top Head lugs in this application) Plate lugs are welded to the shell of a vertical vessel and are then used to upend the piece of equipment from the horizontal to the vertical as shown in the photos above. For this example.

change the lift angle from 60 degrees to 90 degrees. Change the width of the lug to 26”.It requires two runs of the plate lug program to determine the required output values. use the sample input values from example 1 where the force on the lug is 170 kips. This drawing is very similar to the top head lug drawing actually used for the lugs in the photos. Leave all of the other input values as they are. It requires three runs if a doubler plate is required between the plate lug and the shell. See the top head lug drawing below for all of the dimensions. the side weld length to 16” and the eccentricity to 26”. . For the first run of the plate lug program. In order to simplify data entry. Leave the 170 kips as the force on the lug because this value will be the load on the lug with the vessel in the vertical position.

the three-sided weld size is 0.TYPICAL TOP HEAD LUG DRAWING Calculate and note that the combined stress check on the lug plate is 0.36”. but note on it that the values for the combined stress and lug weld size are not . and the bearing and the lug calculations are acceptable. Make a printout of this run.22.

To make the second run of the plate lug program. Somewhere in this range. Remember that 0 degrees for the lug is where the vessel is in the horizontal position at 0 degrees lift angle.applicable and their maximum values will be determined by the second run.5’. click on the sample values and change the total weight to170 kips. . The user can calculate the forces by hand or go to the upending forces program in the same section of the website as this program. the vertical force on the lug needs to be known for equipment lift angles from 0 degrees through about 35 degrees. the lower length to 48’ and the offset length to 5. Run the program and make a printout similar to the one below. the worst case for combined stress on the lug plate and the weld will occur when upending a vertical vessel. the total length to 120’. generally around 20 degrees.

from which the second final plate lug run will be selected. This information came from the first row on the left in .0 kips. The input data used for the first run now needs to be changed by setting the lift angle to 0 degrees and the force on the lug to 68.Several trial runs of the plate lug program are required to determine the worst-case lift angle.

0 kips.67 kips. Again. Calculate and note that the four-sided weld size required is now 0. . the three sided weld size required is 0.38”. this is a big lug. In the second run above.75” three sided weld as shown on the top head drawing. ie the arc length = 0.74” and the four sided weld size is 0.42”.74”. then the three sided weld size of 0.38” thick.42”.67 kips. so we need to size a doubler pad such that the four sided weld size required is 0. Note that the for a lift angle of 20 degrees and a force on the lug of 69. change the width of the lug base to 30.0”. After calculating. Make a similar trial run for each lift angle up thru 35 degrees and make a note of the combined stress values and the weld sizes. Disregard the output information on the bearing and the end area because of the reduced weight being used of 68. Again. Make a printout of this run where the lift angle is 20 degrees and the force on the lug is 69.33”. that the combined stress is 0. The side weld length could be increased to 40. But.52 and the three sided weld size is 0. Therefore a third run is required. Use this run as your second pad eye lug run.53. as you can see.38” or less.74” is to large. this would yield a three-sided lug weld size of 0. Calculate and note that the combined stress on the lug plate is now 0. This is the maximum recommended arc length for this diameter of vessel based on a 30 degree included angle. and in some cases it would be hard to find room to weld two of these lugs to the shell. So the lift angle for the worst case for combined stress for the lug plate and the weld for this lug is approximately 20 degrees. mark out the information on the bearing and end area as not being applicable for this lift angle and load. a 0. These will be the dimensions of the doubler pad and not the lug plate. To solve this problem. Note from the second run that the four sided weld size is 0. As the shell thickness of the vertical vessel in this example is only 0.38” four sided weld and the lug plate could be welded to it with a 0.75” thick x 18” high x 30” wide double pad could be welded to the shell with a 0. mark out the information on the bearing and end area as not being applicable for this lift angle and load.the printout above from the upending program. A second and much better method would be to weld a doubler pad to the shell with a four sided weld and weld the lug plate to it with a three sided weld as shown in the top head drawing above.0”. Therefore.0” and the side weld length to 18.0”.01745 * 57”outside radius of vessel * 30 degrees = 30”. the width of the lug plate could be increased to 30. Save this as a third run for your documentation.

67 kips occurred when the vessel was at a lift angle of 20 degrees. This example applies to plate lugs as well as pad eye lugs.8. Cutting off the bottom segment of the lug pads can accomplish this. ie 1. END OF HELP FILE . Just for information. the bearing and the end area of the lug were calculated from the first run where the maximum force of 170 kips occurred when the vessel was in the vertical. the opposite lift angle from the lifting lug. go to example 3 in the HELP file for the pad eye lugs. Note that the difference between the combined stress and the weld required at initial pick (when the vessel is in the horizontal at 0 degrees lift angle) and when it is at 20 degrees is approximately 1 % for this lift. this would be the angle of maximum combined stress for the tail lug plate and weld.13 kips. note on the printout of the upending forces. If the forces on the tail lug were being analyzed. that the maximum longitudinal tail load occurs at 70 degrees at 85.67 kips occurred when the vessel was at a lift angle of 20 degrees.To recap. When designing top head lugs. EXAMPLE 3: Lowering the eccentricity can reduce the combined stress of the lug plate and the lug weld size. a good case could be made that it is okay to just use the initial pick load per lug if a large impact factor is used. The four-sided weld size required to weld a doubler pad to the shell was calculated from the third run where the force on the lug of 69. The maximum combined stress for the lug plate and the weld were calculated from the second run where the force on the lug of 69. To see how this can be done.