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Competing for Advantage

Robert E. Hoskisson
Arizona State University

Michael A. Hitt
Texas A&M University

R. Duane Ireland
Texas A&M University

Jeffrey S. Harrison
University of Richmond

Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Licensed to: iChapters User

Competing for Advantage, Second Edition
Robert E. Hoskisson, Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, Jeff rey S. Harrison
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Hoskisson. . Duane Ireland To Marie for her pure heart and her willingness to give me a place in it. Inc. Claude W. May not be copied. Harrison Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Over the years. Robert E. Hoskisson To my family.Licensed to: iChapters User To my father. or duplicated. Papa Hitt. R. scanned. Jeffrey S. Michael. We are blessed by your grace and kindness. in whole or in part. I love you. a great example of honesty and hard work. and PaPa To my loving wife Mary Ann. you have given so much of yourself to me and to our children. All Rights Reserved. Dad. I love each and every one of you.

May not be copied. Professor Hoskisson’s research topics focus on corporate governance. Academy of Management Executive. Foster Chair in Business Leadership at Texas A&M University. Strategic Management Journal (currently associate editor). Carey School of Business at Arizona State University.D. Journal of Management Studies (guest editor of a special issue).D. Dyer Distinguished Alumni Award given at the Marriott School of Management. from the University of California–Irvine. Hoskisson is the W. He also received the William G. and cooperative strategy. Hitt Michael A. He is also a consulting editor for a series of graduate-level texts on strategic management topics for Oxford University Press. He received his Ph. Professor Hoskisson is a Fellow of the Academy of Management and a charter member of the Academy of Management Journal’s Hall of Fame. P. Strategic Management Journal. international diversification. He recently completed three years of service as a representative at large on the Board of Governors of the Academy of Management and currently is on the Board of Directors of the Strategic Management Society. Professor Hoskisson has served on several editorial boards for such publications as the Academy of Management Journal (consulting editor and guest editor of a special issue). In 1998. in whole or in part. privatization. Michael A. Carey Chair and Professor of Management in the W. and Organization Science. acquisitions and divestitures. Hoskisson Robert E. He received his Ph. or duplicated. Organization Science. All Rights Reserved. he received an award for Outstanding Academic Contributions to Competitiveness from the American Society for Competitiveness. . Journal of Management Studies. from the University of Colorado. and Downscoping: How to Tame the Diversified Form (Oxford University Press). He has co-authored several books including Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. Journal of Management. P. and California Management Review. 8th edition (forthcoming from Thomson/South-Western). Journal of International Business Studies (currently consulting editor). Hitt is a Distinguished Professor of Management and holds the Joe B. Brigham Young University. Professor Hoskisson’s research has appeared in numerous publications including the Academy of Management Journal.Licensed to: iChapters User About the Authors Robert E. Journal of Management (associate editor). iv Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Understanding Business Strategy (Thomson/South-Western). Academy of Management Review. He has authored or co-authored several books and book chapters. Inc. scanned.

or duplicated. and Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. He received the 1996 Award for Outstanding Academic Contributions to Competitiveness and the 1999 Award for Outstanding Intellectual Contributions to Competitiveness Research. Journal of Applied Psychology. Bennett Chair in Business and is a Professor of Management in the Mays Business School at Texas A&M University. Strategic Management Journal. and Academy of Management Executive. He has also served on the editorial review boards of several journals. Human Relations. He received an honorary doctorate (Doctor Honoris Causa) from the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid for his contributions to the field. Journal of Applied Psychology. Inc. v . Professor Hitt is a past president of the Academy of Management and is the current president of the Strategic Management Society. He is currently co-editor of the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. Baylor University. Academy of Management Review. Business Horizons. and as an associate editor for Academy of Management Journal. Academy of Management Review. He received his Ph. Additionally. and Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences. and Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. Organization Science. He has been a co-editor for special issues of Strategic Management Journal. He is interested in research questions related to both the entrepreneurship and strategic management disciplines. Administrative Science Quarterly. Journal of Business Venturing. and Understanding Business Strategy. and Journal of Management. Journal of Management. Journal of Management Studies. Furthermore. Academy of Management Executive. both awarded by the American Society for Competitiveness. Currently.Licensed to: iChapters User His recent publications include four books: Downscoping: How to Tame the Diversified Firm (Oxford University Press). including Academy of Management Review.D. Journal of Management. he is the editor elect ABOUT THE AUTHORS Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. from Texas Tech University. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. He has also served in various editorial capacities including terms as a member of the editorial review boards for Academy of Management Review. Journal of Management Studies. scanned. May not be copied. All Rights Reserved. Academy of Management Journal. Strategic Management Journal. R. Academy of Management Executive. including Academy of Management Journal. Duane Ireland R. Academy of Management Executive. Academy of Management Journal. His numerous journal articles have appeared in such publications as the Academy of Management Journal. Working with colleagues. Journal of World Business. and Mergers and Acquisitions: Creating Value for Stakeholders (Oxford University Press). as consulting editor for Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. British Journal of Management. including Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization (8th edition. Decision Sciences. in whole or in part. Professor Hitt served as consulting editor (1988–1990) and editor (1991–1993) of Academy of Management Journal. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization (Thomson/South-Western). where he previously served as head of the management department. Understanding Business Strategy (Thomson/South-Western). forthcoming). Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures (2nd edition). He is co-author of nearly a dozen books. among others. and Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. and Ruby S. and Oklahoma State University. he previously completed terms as an associate editor for Academy of Management Executive. He is a member of the Academy of Management Journals Hall of Fame and a Fellow of the Academy of Management and of the Strategic Management Society. Prior to joining Texas A&M University. he held positions at University of Richmond. Journal of Business Venturing. Strategic Management Journal. Duane Ireland holds the Foreman R. he has served as a guest editor for special issues of Academy of Management Review. Journal of Business Venturing. Academy of Management Executive. His work has been published in a range of journals.

Harrison has also provided consulting and executive training services to many companies on a wide range of strategic. Dr. Strategic Management Journal. Two of his papers received Best Paper awards from Academy of Management Journal (2000) and Academy of Management Executive (1999). Harrison’s research interests include strategic management and business ethics. Much of his work has been published in prestigious academic journals such as Academy of Management Journal. He has served on several review boards. Harrison is the W. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Management. Prior to his current appointment. scanned. Jeffrey S. He also has served as a member of the Academy of Management’s Board of Governors. including the Academy of Management Journal and the Academy of Management Executive. He has authored or co-authored numerous books. Peelen Professor of Global Hospitality Strategy at Cornell University. and other business issues. Strategic Management of Organizations and Stakeholders. He received the 1999 award for Outstanding Intellectual Contribution to Competitiveness Research from the American Society for Competitiveness. with particular expertise in the areas of mergers and acquisitions. and Journal of Business Ethics. he served as the Fred G. Harrison Jeffrey S. in whole or in part. David Robbins Chair of Strategic Management in the Robins School of Business at the University of Richmond. including Foundations of Strategic Management (4th edition). Inc. diversification. . May not be copied. and stakeholder management. and Mergers and Acquisitions: A Guide to Creating Value for Stakeholders. Dr. entrepreneurial. or duplicated. strategic alliances. vi ABOUT THE AUTHORS Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. All Rights Reserved.Licensed to: iChapters User for Academy of Management Journal.

Licensed to: iChapters User Brief Contents Part 1: Strategic Thinking 1 1. and Core Competencies 96 Part 3: Creating Competitive Advantage 5. Business-Level Strategy 127 128 6. Strategic Leadership 30 Part 2: Strategic Analysis 65 3. Corporate Governance 302 12. or duplicated. May not be copied. Inc. All Rights Reserved. and Competitor Analysis 66 4. The Internal Organization: Resources. International Strategy 267 Part 4: Monitoring and Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities 11. Introduction to Strategic Management 2 2. in whole or in part. Capabilities. scanned. Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics 158 7. Strategic Flexibility and Real Options Analysis 354 Name Index 385 Company Index 000 Subject Index 000 vii Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Industry Competition. Cooperative Strategy 183 8. Acquisition and Restructuring Strategies 243 10. Strategic Entrepreneurship 334 13. Threats. Corporate-Level Strategy 211 9. 301 . The External Environment: Opportunities.

Licensed to: iChapters User Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. in whole or in part. scanned. Inc. All Rights Reserved. or duplicated. May not be copied. .

36 The CEO and Top Management Team Power. 39 Key Strategic Leadership Responsibilities and Actions. and Manage Key Resources.Licensed to: iChapters User Contents Part 1: Strategic Thinking Chapter 1: Introduction to Strategic Management 1 2 The Competitive Landscape. 4 Technological Advances. 7 Early Influences on the Strategy Concept. 10 The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns. 9 Three Perspectives on Value Creation. 22 Ethics Questions. 3 Globalization of Markets and Industries. 43 Acquire. 41 Ensure That the Firm Is Well Positioned Economically. 18 The Strategic Management Process. May not be copied. Inc. 10 The I/O Model of Above-Average Returns. 23 Chapter 2: Strategic Leadership 30 Individual Strategic Leaders and Influences on Their Decisions. 36 Top Management Team Heterogeneity. 31 Strategic Leadership Style. 48 Determine and Communicate Strategic Direction. 20 Summary. in whole or in part. 8 Modern Strategic Management. . 38 Executive Succession Processes. 49 ix Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 45 Develop and Manage Relationships with External Stakeholders. 15 Strategic Thinking and the Strategic Management Process. or duplicated. 18 Strategic Thinking. All Rights Reserved. 11 The Stakeholder Model of Responsible Firm Behavior and Firm Performance. 32 Managerial Discretion and Decision Biases. scanned. Develop. 33 Top Management Teams. 5 The Emergence of Strategic Management as a Business Discipline.

78 Threat of New Entrants. 70 Monitoring. 82 Bargaining Power of Buyers. 71 The Demographic Segment. 74 The Sociocultural Segment. 91 Chapter 4: The Internal Organization: Resources. 55 Ethics Questions. 80 Bargaining Power of Suppliers. 98 Creating Value. or duplicated. 84 Complementors. 86 Analysis of Direct Competitors. 67 External Environmental Analysis. 75 The Technological Segment. Industry. 77 Industry Environment Analysis. 87 Understanding Competitors and Their Intentions. 83 Intensity of Rivalry among Competitors. 74 The Political/Legal Segment. . 70 Forecasting. scanned. 100 Resources. 87 Strategic Groups. in whole or in part. 76 The Global Segment. 98 Conditions Influencing Internal Analysis. 53 Summary. and Competitor Environments. 107 x CONTENTS Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 69 Scanning. 56 Part 2: Strategic Analysis Chapter 3: The External Environment: Opportunities. and Competitor Analysis 65 66 The General. Threats. 102 Capabilities. Inc. Capabilities. 71 Assessing. May not be copied. Capabilities. and Core Competencies. 71 Segments of the General Environment. 90 Ethics Questions. 102 Resources. 104 Core Competencies. All Rights Reserved. Industry Competition. 83 Threat of Substitute Products. 72 The Economic Segment. 52 Establish Balanced Controls. 106 Building Core Competencies. 107 Four Criteria of Sustainable Competitive Advantage.Licensed to: iChapters User Oversee Formulation and Implementation of Specific Strategies. 86 Interpreting Industry Analyses. 88 Summary. and Core Competencies 96 Internal Analysis and Value Creation.

162 Market Commonality. 147 Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy. 135 Successful Execution of the Cost Leadership Strategy. 133 Cost Leadership Strategy. 144 Focus Strategies. 147 Successful Execution of the Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy. 164 Competitive Rivalry. 121 Part 3: Creating Competitive Advantage Chapter 5: Business-Level Strategy 127 128 Economic Logic and Business-Level Strategy. 153 Chapter 6: Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics 158 A Model of Competitive Rivalry. 165 Strategic and Tactical Actions. 115 Measures of Firm Performance. 152 Ethics Questions. . 145 Focused Differentiation Strategy. 146 Using the Simple or Functional Structures to Implement Focus Strategies. 162 Resource Similarity. 116 Balancing Stakeholder Performance. 131 Strategy and Structure. 143 Competitive Risks of the Differentiation Strategy. 120 Ethics Questions. 151 Summary. 114 Firm Performance. 147 Competitive Risks of Focus Strategies. 130 Serving Customers. 145 Focused Cost Leadership Strategy.Licensed to: iChapters User Value Chain Analysis. 166 CONTENTS xi Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Inc. 113 When Core Competencies Lose Their Value. 118 Sustainable Development. 138 Competitive Risks of the Cost Leadership Strategy. 140 Successful Execution of the Differentiation Strategy. 135 Using the Functional Structure to Implement the Cost Leadership Strategy. 114 Stakeholder Objectives and Power. 119 Summary. 129 Types of Business-Level Strategy. 149 Competitive Risks of the Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy. 148 Using a Flexible Structure to Implement the Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy. in whole or in part. scanned. 160 Competitor Analysis. 163 Drivers of Competitive Actions and Responses. May not be copied. or duplicated. 139 Differentiation Strategy. 110 Outsourcing. 140 Using the Functional Structure to Implement the Differentiation Strategy. All Rights Reserved.

199 Implementing and Managing Cooperative Strategies. 172 Competitive Dynamics. 186 Strategic Alliances in Fast-Cycle Markets. 169 Likelihood of Response. or duplicated. 203 Ethics Questions. 184 Strategic Alliances in Slow-Cycle Markets. 194 Associations and Consortia. 191 Cooperative Strategies That Address Forces in the External Environment.Licensed to: iChapters User Likelihood of Attack. 187 Cooperative Strategies That Enhance Differentiation or Reduce Costs. 174 Standard-Cycle Markets. 219 xii CONTENTS Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 168 Quality. in whole or in part. 201 Summary. scanned. May not be copied. 197 International Cooperative Strategies. 195 Cooperative Strategies That Promote Growth and/or Diversification. 171 Actor’s Reputation. 170 Type of Competitive Action. 173 Fast-Cycle Markets. 171 Dependence on the Market. 189 Complementary Strategic Alliances. 166 First-Mover Incentives. 204 Chapter 8: Corporate-Level Strategy 211 Levels of Diversification. . 218 Operational Relatedness: Sharing Activities. 196 Diversifying Strategic Alliances. 178 Chapter 7: Cooperative Strategy 183 The Importance of Cooperative Strategy. 218 Using the Cooperative Form of the Multidivisional Structure to Implement the Related Constrained Strategy. All Rights Reserved. 213 Reasons for Diversification. 212 Moderate and High Levels of Diversification. 215 Diversification and the Multidivisional Structure. 186 Types of Alliances and Other Cooperative Strategies. 196 Franchising. 189 Network Cooperative Strategies. 176 Summary. 193 Uncertainty-Reducing Alliances. 193 Competitive Response Alliances. 194 Competition-Reducing Cooperative Strategies. 172 Slow-Cycle Markets. 197 Competitive Risks of Cooperative Strategies. 166 Organizational Size. Inc. 212 Low Levels of Diversification. 186 Strategic Alliances in Standard-Cycle Markets. 217 Related Diversification. 177 Ethics Questions.

. 221 Market Power through Multimarket Competition and Vertical Integration. or duplicated. 229 Incentives to Diversify. 252 Large or Extraordinary Debt. 254 Firm Becomes Too Large. in whole or in part. 225 Efficient Internal Capital Market Allocation. 251 Inadequate Evaluation of Target. 234 Ethics Questions. 249 Problems in Achieving Acquisition Success. 244 Reasons for Acquisitions. 223 Simultaneous Operational Relatedness and Corporate Relatedness. 245 Overcome Entry Barriers.Licensed to: iChapters User Corporate Relatedness: Transferring of Core Competencies. 254 Effective Acquisitions. 258 Outcomes from Restructuring. 248 Learn and Develop New Capabilities. and Learning. 232 Summary. 268 Increased Market Size. 221 Using the Strategic Business-Unit Form of the Multidivisional Structure to Implement the Related Linked Strategy. 257 Leveraged Buyouts. 255 Restructuring. 269 Economies of Scale. Scope. 258 Summary. 227 Using the Competitive Form of the Multidivisional Structure to Implement the Unrelated Diversification Strategy. 248 Increase Speed to Market. 229 Resources and Diversification. 249 Integration Difficulties and an Inability to Achieve Synergy. 256 Downsizing. 260 Ethics Questions. and Takeovers: What Are the Differences?. 232 Value-Reducing Diversification: Managerial Motives to Diversify. 248 Increase Diversification and Reshape the Firm’s Competitive Scope. 244 Mergers. May not be copied. 268 Return on Investment. 270 CONTENTS xiii Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. All Rights Reserved. scanned. Inc. 228 Value-Neutral Diversification: Incentives and Resources. Acquisitions. 257 Downscoping. 236 Chapter 9: Acquisition and Restructuring Strategies 243 The Popularity of Merger and Acquisition Strategies. 252 Too Much Diversification. 226 Restructuring. 247 Reduce Costs and Risks Associated with New Product Development. 261 Chapter 10: International Strategy 267 Incentives for Using an International Strategy. 245 Increase Market Power. 253 Managers Too Focused on Acquisitions. 225 Unrelated Diversification.

314 A Complicated Governance Mechanism. 318 International Corporate Governance. 283 Acquisitions. 284 New Wholly Owned Subsidiary. 285 Dynamics of Mode of Entry. 307 Agency Costs and Governance Mechanisms. Inc. 287 Risks in an International Environment. 285 Strategic Competitiveness Outcomes. 316 Market for Corporate Control. 291 Part 4: Monitoring and Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities Chapter 11: Corporate Governance 301 302 Separation of Ownership and Managerial Control. 317 Managerial Defense Tactics. 279 Choice of International Entry Mode. Stakeholder Management. 282 Strategic Alliances. scanned. 305 Agency Relationships. 313 Executive Compensation. 312 Board Independence. 272 International Scope: Worldwide Presence or Regionalization. 322 Governance Mechanisms. or duplicated. 288 Complexity of Managing Multinational Firms. 286 International Diversification and Returns. 276 Transnational Strategy. 306 Product Diversification as an Example of an Agency Problem. 271 International Corporate-Level Strategy. All Rights Reserved. 281 Licensing. 286 International Diversification and Innovation. 274 Global Strategy. 311 Board of Directors. May not be copied. 281 Exporting. in whole or in part. 308 Ownership Concentration. 290 Ethics Questions. 289 Summary. and Ethical Behavior. 277 International Business-Level Strategy. 272 Multidomestic Strategy. 323 xiv CONTENTS Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 320 Corporate Governance in Germany. 310 Institutional Owners. 310 Shareholder Activism. . 320 Corporate Governance in Japan. 312 Board Effectiveness. 321 Global Corporate Governance.Licensed to: iChapters User Obtain Resources and Achieve Other Location Advantages. 315 The Effectiveness of Executive Compensation.

385 Company Index. 346 Summary. 370 Name Index. 348 Chapter 13: Strategic Flexibility and Real Options Analysis 354 Real Options Analysis. Inc. 335 Innovation. 339 Implementing Internal Innovation. 340 Cross-Functional Product Development Teams. 411 Subject Index. 359 Value Drivers for Real Options. 337 Internal Innovation. or duplicated. 344 Innovation through Acquisitions. . 325 Chapter 12: Strategic Entrepreneurship 334 Strategic Entrepreneurship and Innovation. All Rights Reserved. 417 CONTENTS xv Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 356 Types of Real Options. 363 Valuation of Real Options. 324 Ethics Questions. 343 Innovation through Cooperative Strategies. 369 Appendix: Detailed Valuation Guidelines. 367 Implementation Requirements of Real Options. 336 International Entrepreneurship. 339 Incremental Innovations. 343 Creating Value from Internal Innovation.Licensed to: iChapters User Summary. 347 Ethics Questions. May not be copied. 368 Ethics Questions. scanned. 339 Radical Innovations. 345 Creating Value through Strategic Entrepreneurship. in whole or in part. 335 Entrepreneurs. 342 Facilitating Integration and Implementation. 367 Summary. 357 Purpose and Importance of Real Options Analysis.

or duplicated. in whole or in part. Inc. May not be copied. scanned. All Rights Reserved.Licensed to: iChapters User Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. .

Written to meet the educational needs of full-time and part-time MBA students as well as those pursuing an Executive MBA degree. . These three perspectives form the foundation upon which other important ideas and tools for developing strategy are built. finance. the resource-based view. and standard-cycle markets. and the stakeholder perspective. consultant. All Rights Reserved. line managers. fast-cycle. For example. Inc. responsive to multiple stakeholders and capable of sustaining high financial performance over the long term. in whole or in part. Also. scanned. and social psychology in addition to strategic management. business ethics. To ensure that our descriptions of the core concepts of strategic management are accurate and up-to-date. this book will also serve the practicing manager. we draw extensively from both current and classic academic research. CEOs. including traditional industrial organization economics. Another distinguishing feature of this book is that strategies and methods for implementing them are treated within the same chapters. entrepreneurship. May not be copied. using as guides the literature in economics. The net effect is an integrated approach that demonstrates how firms can simultaneously be ethical and efficient. This approach provides students with a more complete understanding of the organizational implications of selecting a particular strategy. Our examination of strategic management is distinctive in several important ways. the organizational structures required for implementing each of the business-level strategies are discussed in the chapter on business strategies. The book contains a detailed treatment of multiple perspectives. we use numerous current xvii Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.Licensed to: iChapters User Preface Purpose of the Book The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive yet concise description of the core concepts of strategic management that firms need to use to meet the challenge of competing in the current fast-paced and globally competitive environment. or corporate trainer whose firms or clients are faced with global economic challenges in achieving competitive advantage over their rivals. because these phenomena occur as firms implement business strategies to compete in their chosen markets. We also describe patterns of competitive rivalry and competitive dynamics. The chapter in which these important topics are considered discusses concisely yet thoroughly the competitive dynamics in slow-cycle. or duplicated. and especially executives charged with developing and implementing strategic initiatives will find much to challenge their thinking and put to prescriptive use while reading and studying this book. socially responsible and profitable. to fulfill our purpose of providing contemporary insights and analysis. marketing.

These questions challenge readers to place chapter-specific strategic management practices within an ethical context. Monitoring and Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities. In Chapter 1. All Rights Reserved. cooperative. and international strategies. Part 1—Strategic Thinking Strategic thinking and the strategic leadership resulting from it are critical inputs to an effective strategic management process. May not be copied. strategic entrepreneurship. in whole or in part. as are prominent contemporary ideas in the field. Inc. which is based in industrial organization economics. and real options analysis.Licensed to: iChapters User examples from the business press to illustrate how companies make use of the concepts presented here to achieve multiple goals and especially to improve firm performance. We then focus on the principles and techniques of Strategic Analysis in Part 2. it is the first of this book’s themes. we integrate a discussion of strategic entrepreneurship into this section. ethics questions are presented at the end of each chapter. we also discuss globalization and technological change in a separate chapter on international strategy. Some of the important early work in the field is reviewed. This discussion shows how firms create competitive advantage by developing and implementing effective business-level. strategic entrepreneurship. This relationship is more critical in the current competitive environment. xviii PREFACE Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Integrating these topics allows us to show how increased governance can in turn create a need for firms to actively identify and exploit entrepreneurial opportunities. capabilities. This book also fully incorporates concepts of globalization and technological change. In Part 3 we examine the topic of Creating Competitive Advantage. competitive rivalry and competitive dynamics. Additionally. focuses on how competitive forces in the firm’s external environment shape the firm’s strategy. Increasing globalization and rapid technological change in the 21st century make the strategic management process highly challenging for managers. which is characterized by globalization and increased technological change. as such. The Industrial Organization (IO) model of value creation. Three major perspectives that influence strategic thinking are introduced in Chapter 1. In Part 4. The resource-based model of value creation focuses on how strategy is shaped by the firm’s idiosyncratic and valuable resources. because the strategic management process is most effective when grounded in ethical practices. Parts of the Strategic Management Process Strategic Thinking is the foundation for the effective use of strategic management. Because more intensive corporate governance tends to make firms more conservative. corporate-level. These trends create a high level of complexity and turbulence during the strategy development process and also increase the need for speed in making strategic decisions. We end with a chapter on real options that flows naturally from strategic entrepreneurship. or duplicated. this is the only leading MBA-level strategic management text with separate chapters on corporate governance. scanned. We tackle the critical issues of the day: strategic leadership. we discuss strategic thinking and its link with effective strategic management. and real options. Chapter 1 also examines the emergence of Strategic Management as a discipline. corporate governance. we emphasize the important trend toward increased corporate governance that emerged in the post-Enron era. We integrate issues associated with globalization and technological change in the chapters throughout the book. business ethics. To emphasize their importance. In fact. .

This analysis also provides information suggesting when a firm should outsource an activity in the value chain to a supplier. scanned. The resource-based view of the firm is the underlying theoretical framework for Chapter 4’s discussions. Finally. Part 2—Strategic Analysis In Part 2 of the book. yields information that allows the firm to know more about its competitors and about the actions and responses each competitor might take while competing in different markets. the industry environment. we focus on how firms analyze their external environment and internal organization. managing relationships with external stakeholders. the firm can identify opportunities and threats. in whole or in part. capabilities. firms that recognize the needs of stakeholders and that effectively manage relationships with a broad group of stakeholders are more likely to achieve high performance over the long term. The emphasis in Chapter 4 is on internal analysis. According to this model. This process is described in detail. Competitor analysis. The primary purpose of examining this part of the external environment is to determine the profitability potential of an industry or a segment of it. the results of these analyses provide the information and knowledge needed to achieve competitive advantages by selecting and using particular strategies. foster better strategic thinking throughout the organization. which include ensuring that the firm is well positioned economically. rarity. managing strategic resources. and the purpose is to identify the resources.Licensed to: iChapters User and core competencies. as strategic leaders. and the strategic management model described in Chapter 1 serves as an outline for the rest of the book. overseeing formulation and implementation of specific strategies. Chapter 3 examines the different tools the firm uses to analyze the three parts (the general environment. and core competencies that can help a firm to achieve competitive advantages. Chapter 2 uses a comprehensive model to describe how managers. team power. Inc. and establishing balanced controls. All Rights Reserved. After managers are oriented toward strategic thinking and understand principles of effective strategic leadership. and nonsubstitutability—are described. The IO model provides the foundation that firms use to study industries. and core competencies. The first chapter closes with a discussion of the key elements of strategic thinking and how it can be effectively integrated into the strategic management process. their decision-making styles. Whereas Chapter 3 focused on what a firm might do as suggested by the external environment. and executive succession processes. By studying its general environment. the final part of the firm’s external environment. or duplicated. including the influence of team heterogeneity. this chapter focuses on what a firm can do as suggested by its resources. In addition. The stakeholder model of responsible firm behavior and firm performance envisions the firm at the center of a network of stakeholders. Four criteria that firms use to identify core competencies—value. determining strategic direction. and factors that influence their strategic decisions. Because of the important role of managers in the strategic management process. May not be copied. The rest of the chapter explains key strategic leadership responsibilities and actions. we examine the value chain in terms of primary and support activities to show how firms determine those activities with which they can or cannot create value. The chapter then broadens to a discussion of top management teams. capabilities. imperfect imitability. This chapter opens with a discussion of individual strategic leaders. . firms are cautioned to remain flexible so that core competencies do not become PREFACE xix Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. and competitors) of its external environment.

e.g. The demands and needs of multiple stakeholders. Dominant approaches for managing strategic alliances are also explored to explain how risk is managed when the firm cooperates with others to create value. The chapter closes with a discussion of sustainable performance. and ability as drivers of a firm’s competitive behavior) and the dimensions of competitive dynamics (e. These strategies range from one with relatively little diversification (single business) to one xx PREFACE Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. opportunism. or duplicated. This chapter examines strategies that have evolved in response to the challenges and opportunities created by increasing globalization and technological change. the chapter’s analysis of rivalry and dynamics highlights their influences on firms’ competitive actions and competitive responses. the selection of a business-level strategy) with implementation (i. focused cost leadership. After explaining the characteristics of each strategy.. Cooperative strategy is another path that firms follow when gaining access to and developing new resources and capabilities as well as exploiting current ones. This important and unique pattern of linking strategy with structure is followed in the remaining chapters of Part 3. in whole or in part. An important reason for the firm to understand competitive rivalry and competitive dynamics is to learn how to predict the actions that competitors might take against it as well as how the competitor might respond in retaliation against the focal firm’s competitive action. including both financial and nonfinancial measures. including inadequate contracts. The chapter examines factors that are important to competitive rivalry (e. Multiple measures of firm performance are introduced. Cooperative strategies such as strategic alliances. and network strategies have become increasingly important in the 21st-century competitive landscape. Part 3—Creating Competitive Advantage In Part 3’s chapters we simultaneously discuss formulation and implementation. differentiation.. are described. Thus. as well as their power to influence the firm. and integrated cost leadership/differentiation strategies. the effects of varying rates of competitive speed in different markets). . In this manner.Licensed to: iChapters User core rigidities. and misrepresentation of competencies by partners. we link formulation (i. Chapter 6 also focuses on business-level strategy in describing patterns of competitive rivalry between individual firms as well as patterns of competitive dynamics among all firms that compete within an industry.. Chapter 4 concludes with a detailed examination of firm performance from multiple perspectives. our study of business-level strategies in Chapter 5 includes analyses of cost leadership. awareness. Concerned with the businesses in which the diversified firm intends to compete—and with how it will manage its portfolio of businesses—we discuss four major corporate-level strategies in this chapter. May not be copied. scanned. Chapter 8 begins our discussion of corporate-level strategy. Inc. All Rights Reserved. joint ventures.e. motivation. An understanding derived from strategic analysis is the foundation needed to focus on the strategies firms can use to create competitive advantages. we describe the unique organizational structure that firms match to each type of business-level strategy. in total. components of the strategic management process that are examined separately in other books. The chapter also explains the risks associated with cooperative strategies. We focus on cooperative strategies in Chapter 7.. the appropriate organizational structure matched with individual business-level strategies). Our joint treatment of formulation and implementation actions is comprehensive and integrated. For example. A key reason for this importance is that few if any firms have the resources necessary to either internally develop or acquire from external sources all of the resources needed to create value.g. focused differentiation.

The chapter examines large institutional investors. we discuss trends in international corporate governance along with the need for continuous displays of ethical behavior by top-level managers and members of the firm’s board of directors. Mergers and acquisitions have been popular for many decades. boards of directors. Exporting. Chapter 9 presents reasons that account for failure as well as those that contribute to merger and acquisition success. and real options analysis are examined in Part 4. Part 4—Monitoring and Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities Corporate governance.Licensed to: iChapters User with substantial diversification (unrelated diversification). scanned. acquisitions. some do succeed. the book’s final section. Successful firms restructure their portfolio of businesses as necessary. and recent trends suggest that their popularity is unlikely to decline much in the next few years. In addition. given the post-Enron environment and the challenges many firms experience. We also discuss some of the implications of implementing business-level strategies in a particular country. All Rights Reserved. Although many mergers and acquisitions fail. licensing. As in the previous chapters in Part 3. we provide several company-specific examples to enhance understanding of how these principles can be successfully applied in today’s business organizations. . Inc. After selecting an international strategy. we describe the organizational structures necessary to implement each of the corporate-level strategies. Chapter 12 emphaPREFACE xxi Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Therefore. May not be copied. A highly conservative approach to the strategic management process increases the need for firms to pursue aggressively the identification and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. The dominant approaches to restructuring (downsizing. and executive compensation as dominant governance mechanisms and indicates how they can be effectively used in the current business environment. and leveraged buyouts) are also discussed in this chapter. strategic entrepreneurship. a firm must decide which mode of entry to pursue when implementing the chosen strategy. in whole or in part. particularly in the selection and implementation of the firm’s strategies. strategic alliances. Chapter 10 explores both corporate-level and business-level international strategies. Restructuring can be initiated to deal with merger and acquisition failures or to adjust the firm’s portfolio of businesses in response to emerging opportunities in its external environment. Chapter 11 describes major corporate governance mechanisms and how they can be effectively used to ensure that the actions of the firm’s agents (key decision makers) are aligned with the principals’ (owners’) best interests. Accordingly. increasingly stringent governance can create a more conservative strategic management process. In addition to grounding the analysis of effective corporate governance and strategic leadership in current research. In addition. Corporate governance. the unique organizational structures required to successfully implement each corporate-level strategy are described. where we discuss mergers and acquisitions. The analysis of corporate-level strategy and diversification is extended in Chapter 9. Combining Chapter 11’s examination of effective corporate governance mechanisms with Chapter 2’s study of successful strategic leadership practices yields a comprehensive treatment of how the strategic management process can be used to ethically achieve a competitive advantage. or duplicated. and establishing a new wholly owned subsidiary are entry modes that firms consider when entering markets. Although corporate governance is important. We also discuss outcomes of international diversification and the attendant political and economic risks. downscoping. is a critically important topic warranting a separate chapter.

Furthermore. Inc. and case scenarios (problem-solving application questions). including a map to relevant Harvard Business School cases. All Rights Broad online support is provided on the text’s dedicated Website.g. and Monitoring and Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities—are the foundation for providing readers with an integrated traditional and contemporary analysis of an effective strategic management process. and real options) to help prepare students for a successful managerial career. Successful use of these methods increases the firm’s flexibility when making decisions within the context of uncertain technological. The book’s four themes—Strategic Thinking. corporate governance. students. . we examine how cooperative strategies and merger and acquisition strategies can be used in a more entrepreneurial manner to create competitive advantages. competitive rivalry and competitive dynamics.thomsonedu. strategic leadership. Test Bank. and market environments. PowerPoint slides for each chapter of the text provide a complete chapter overview combined with figures and tables from the text. The final chapter focuses on how to manage entrepreneurial opportunities in an uncertain environment using real options tools. in whole or in part. Test questions are provided in several formats: true/false.g. Entrepreneurship is commonly practiced in existing firms to renew current competitive advantages while simultaneously enhancing the firm’s ability to create new competitive advantages for future success. this new chapter provides up-to-date methods for planning and calculating the value of potential entrepreneurial projects. multiple-choice. and its core presentation graphics program. May not be copied. and PowerPoint®—are provided on CD-ROM for easy customization in files formatted for Microsoft Office’s core word processor. We wish you well with your careers and with your use of the strategic management process. This chapter... strategic entrepreneurship. which is new to this edition of Competing for Advantage. Summary This book offers comprehensive yet concise coverage of the core concepts in strategic management as well as an explanation of the strategic management process that professional managers and those pursuing an MBA or EMBA degree will find useful. or duplicated. We hope that all readers—instructors. sample syllabi. and managers—will find the book helpful in understanding and successfully using strategic management concepts. Contributed by Jeff Reuer and edited by the authors. scanned. The book is comprehensive in that it examines traditional strategic management topics (e. is of significant value for readers interested in understanding all aspects the strategic management process. Tools for Teaching and Learning Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM (ISBN 0-324-654979) Key ancillaries—Instructor’s Manual. The Instructor’s Manual contains outlines. industry analysis) along with other important topics (e. Microsoft Word. PowerPoint. and discussion prompts.Licensed to: iChapters User sizes actions that firms can take to create entrepreneurial opportunities and to manage them strategically in order to gain and sustain a competitive advantage. Creating Competitive Advantage. Strategic Analysis. essay. Competing for Advantage Website (www. product. xxii PREFACE Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.

This book reflects the work of numerous scholars with a common purpose of discovering and disseminating valuable research findings that help foster understanding and improve the strategic management process.Licensed to: iChapters User Business & Company Resource Center (BCRC) BCRC puts a complete business library at your students’ fingertips. company histories. Hoskisson Michael A. classroom activities. We sincerely hope that we have presented the material in a way that is useful to graduate business students and others who are interested in learning how to help a firm “Compete for Advantage. We would be remiss if we did not also thank the many hundreds of authors we have cited in this volume for adding so much to the field through their thoughtful observations and rigorous research. TextChoice: Management Exercises and Cases TextChoice is the home of Thomson Learning’s online digital content. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the team at Thomson for working diligently on this project and to our students and colleagues (including many reviewers) who have provided valuable insights helping us to improve the overall quality of the book. and much more. Hitt R. Inc. references. BCRC is a premier online business research tool that allows students to seamlessly search thousands of periodicals. Choose as many exercises as you like. and cases to enhance any management course. In particular. . exercises. financial information sources. We are especially appreciative of our families for giving us support and encouragement and to our academic institutions for allowing us to pursue this and other book projects. Duane Ireland Jeffrey S. All Rights Reserved. easiest way for you to create your own learning materials. in whole or in part. or duplicated. or add your own material to create a supplement tailor-fitted to your course.” Robert E. scanned. market share reports. Contact your South-Western/Thomson Learning sales representative for more information. Thomson’s Management Exercises and Cases database includes a variety of experiential exercises. Harrison PREFACE xxiii Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. we are grateful to Jeff rey Reuer for his insights on real options. May not be copied. journals. TextChoice provides the fastest.

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Harrison University of Richmond Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. May not be copied. in whole or in part. Inc. . Hitt Texas A&M University R. or duplicated. All Rights Reserved. Duane Ireland Texas A&M University Jeffrey S. Hoskisson Arizona State University Michael A. scanned.Licensed to: iChapters User SECOND EDITION Competing for Advantage Robert E.

taping. Bookworm Editorial Services Marketing Manager: Clint Kernen Manager. May not be copied. For permission to use material from this text or product. . electronic. the Star logo.thomsonrights.Licensed to: iChapters User Competing for Advantage. in whole or in part. and SouthWestern are trademarks used herein under license. recording. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 10 09 08 07 Student Edition (Package) ISBN 13: 978-0-324-31661-2 Student Edition (Package) ISBN 10: 0-324-31661-5 Student Edition (Book) ISBN 13: 978-0-324-31666-7 Student Edition (Book) ISBN 10: 0-324-31666-6 Library of Congress Control Number: 2007926819 For more information about our products. 2004 Thomson South-Western. Ann Arbor. MI COPYRIGHT © Hoskisson. Thomson. contact us at: Thomson Learning Academic Resource Center 1-800-423-0563 Thomson Higher Education 5191 Natorp Boulevard Mason. or in any other manner—without the written permission of the publisher. OH 45040 USA ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. or mechanical. Stone/Getty Images Printer: Edwards Brothers. Ramsdell Design Cover Images: Stephen Johnson. Michael A. scanned. Hitt. Inc. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic. Jeff rey S. Editorial Media: John Barans Technology Project Manager: Kristen Meere Associate Content Project Manager: Joanna Grote Senior Frontlist Buyer: Doug Wilke Production House: Newgen–Austin Senior Art Director: Tippy McIntosh Cover and Internal Designer: Craig Ramsdell. including photocopying. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Harrison VP/Editorial Director: Jack W. or duplicated. Calhoun Editor-in-Chief: Melissa Acuña Senior Acquisitions Editor: Michele Rhoades Developmental Editor: Rebecca von Gillern. Duane Ireland. submit a request online at http://www. a part of The Thomson Corporation. R. Web distribution or information storage and retrieval systems. Second Edition Robert E. All Rights Reserved.

350n61 Allen. S. R.. V.. 61n149. 265n122 Airey. 327nn26. 124n65. 327n27 Audia. 92n30. J.. 265n126. 262n16 Antikarov. 297n129. R.. 124n73 Ames..... 94n104 Anquan.... 240n100... 24n17 Ajinkya. 332n180 Ahmadjian. 209n139 Acedo. 122n6.. 95n120... S.. J. A. B. C. 241n147. J. T. L. 332n175 Baiman.. K. 94n108 Agle... A. 96. A. 209n145 Axelrod... D. 350n52 Andersson. 180n54. W. V. 27n106.. 331nn136. 94n80 Baljko. 93n76. 208n98 Babakus. 210n158. A.. M. A. 126n127 Andal-Ancion. 299n183 Angwin. 94n91. N. 62n182 Ashkanasy.. 24n3. 351n78 Aiello. or duplicated.. 123n48. 349n12. 293n24. 298n170 Ashford... 208n118. 296n124... J. 25n48. A. 122n29... 26n62 Anthony. 57n17. 36 Allen. R. A. 28n148 Adler. 294n51 Allison. 58n35 Asakawa.. R. 123n49. 298n166 Andrews. 123n32. P. 123n38. 207n72 Baek. 299n177 Baek. 92n9. 58n44... 262n19. 351n80 Asin. 329n78 Ahlstrom... E.. 122n19 Aukutsionek.. 146 Anand. 296n103.. 332n180 Aulakh. 296n108 Auster. 296n115 Arregle. 382nn11.. E. J. L. . 353n130 Awazu. 326n5. B. 295n85 Abell. 181n85 Armstrong. 59n72 Alcacer. J.. 61n137. 328n50 Arnold.. 264n80 Athanassiou. T. 209n155 Arvids. D. May not be copied. 28n132. 157n124 Arndt. 61n155 Ashforth.. 60n94 Ashton. J.. J.. 124n68 Balfour.. A. A.. E... 61n146 Argenti. J. K. 261n1.. 24n6. 26n86 Baden-Fuller. 293n12 Arnott. H. 205n12.. S. 206n63. 332n166 Ahuja.. 62n182 Ancona. S.. R... 326n17.. 8.. 353n135 Artz. C. D. 326n6 Agrawal. G. F. 25n43. 263n52.. 326n21. C. J. S. J. 62n180. K. 27n112.. P. W. B.. P. H. R. 293n14 Afuah. L. 155n38 Abbott. 328n43 Alexander. L. V... 27n118. J. 40. E. G. All Rights Reserved. K.. 122n8 Abrahamson. 263n45 Angwin. 296n110 Backmann. 264n73. U... A... 64 Andrews. T. 125n97. Y. V. M. 262n10 Autio. J.. 295n65 Alvarez.. 352n103 Aeppel. R. 237n25 Albanese. A. H. R. 296n99 Ardichvilli. 241n150. 328n49 Baldwin. J. 297n134 Armstrong. Y... 332n182 Argote. G. 263n51 Anderson... A. 25n41 Anderson. I. 262n32. E. 122n19. W. R. D. F. N.. R. 263n65. 121n1 Anders.. 25n40. 25n41. D. 236n7 Allard.-S. K. 12 Anand. 27n102. 63nn63. D. 27n112. 155n70 Baker.. in whole or in part. 352n126 Amason. T. 329n98 Anderson. 205n4. E. 328n62 Akbar. 156n110 385 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.. 61n155 Axelrod.. 298n173 Ambrosini. 328n59 Andersson. A. 180n29 Abratt. R. M.. W... C.. J. 157 Amram.. B. M. 293n19.. M. 349n6.. Y. P. 8. 126n123.. 350n41 Aguilera. W. A.. 93n74. 60n108. 326n10. C.. 123n41. 293n20 Alessandri. 353nn143. M. 352n110 Ambos. 327n39 Amit. 125nn90.. P. N. S.Licensed to: iChapters User Name Index Aaker. 59n93. Inc. 27n99 Ackoff. 122n6 Alred. B. 29n157 Ansoff.. 27nn94. D. B. B.. 26n65. 94n93 Arikan. C. 26n82... F. G. R.. 331n143 Arora. R. 124n65 Argyres. Y. 330n123 Almeida. L. G. S. 241n147. R. T. scanned. 122n14.. 99 Arino. 209n152. 124n75 Amihud. 383n36 Aoyama.. E.

295nn64. L.. F. 261n1. 181n64 Bowen. 265n128. in whole or in part. M. B. 328n43. 74 Bowman. D. J. B.. S. A.Licensed to: iChapters User Ballmer. 263n71. K. 181n69 Beal. B. 210n158. H. 206nn45. W. 298nn162. T.. 350nn47.. 299n186. B. 59n65 Boynton. R.. 262nn25. E. J. 179n1.. M. 63n192. 60n127.-P. 331n146 Boyd. 78... 326n21... 350nn39. 264n104 Barefield.. 90. 59. 328n61 Berman. 335 Bhambri. 241n146 Bluedorn. 241n150. K. 60n129 Baron. R. 62n161 Belderbos. 9... 328n50 Borza. 196... H.... 299n190 Berle. 7. 58n53 Barber. 26. 352n126 Barnir. T. K.. All Rights Reserved. 154n7. 299n180 Battelle. 349n11 Bluetow. E.. N. J. 32. 41 Barnes.. E.. 28n137 Barney.. 293n37 Blyler. 265n118 Bethel.. 180n49. C. 293n30.. K.. 383n50 Boyd. M. 93n53 Best.. 262n26 Bauerschmidt. 58nn50. 207n67 Bellman. 238n54. 59n81 Brass... L. G. A.. S. 263n62. 295n85 Bannert. 351n70 Bauerlein. M. 299n186. 240n109 Barkema. 123n45 Bolton. W. 62n168 Baumgartner. Jeffrey. 49 Beinhocker. 10... C. 332n184. J. 142.. 28n132. 27n107. N. 297n127 Banerji.. 107.. 206n48. H.. 26n65. 330n118 Bjorkman. R. B. 297n125. 350n39 Boyd. P. Steven. 26n78. J. W. A.. 36 Bamford. 208n97 Boyle. P.. P. H.. R. 24n17. Inc. 205n11. P. 263n46. 156n111 Bishop.. W.. G. 209n129 Borison. M. S. P.. May not be copied. S. 123n42. 327n40 Batson. 239n92. 27n124 Boeker. 41 Berman. R... 206n44 Bernardo.. 28n136. 330n120 Brannen. B. 154n12 Blankson. 164. 32. 80–83. B. B. 181n88 Birkinshaw... 11 Barroso. 296n95 Beamish.. 181n68 Bouquet. D.... E. 382n27. K. 299n193 Barringer. 208n118.. 103. I.. 27n103 Bantel. 240n112. 93n78. 330n100 Becerra. J. A. 349nn12. 91n3. Brenda. 56n9. 60n104 Bergh.. 24n24.. 300n196.. R.. M. L.. 351n67 Barker. 352n126 Barnes.... D.. 292n5. V. J. D. 57n16. 329n81 Bayus.. A.. 27n130. 294n45 Bower.. 155n47 Bartlett. A. W. V. J. B. 126n136 Bodwell. W. E. 181n61 Bengtsson. R. 350n43 Brandenburger.. 156nn72.. 241n144. 238n47 Bates. 208n98 Bennis. E. 207n88.. 179n8 Bates. 24nn1. 350nn32. III. 297n148 Bourgeois. L. 207n77 Bazerman.. or duplicated. D.. 122nn12–14. 29n158 Borgatti.. 62n167. 205n33 Berfield. 382n21 Bliss. 56n2 Barnett. K. 47 Bierman. 27n105. 27n99 Barsade. 62n182 386 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. K. G. 299n191 Black. 326n21. L. C. 59n77 Berentson. 60n98 Bezos. H. 297n151 Bell.. 236n4. 236n8. 33. 78. C. 58n50 Bogner.. 209n140 Benner. C.. M. N. 294n42. B. 93n79. L.. 59nn69. 353n135 Boswell. L.. 156n111 Binkley. J.. 61n144. D. 93n67 Beck. 63n199 Beer. A... E. 240n121... 27n108 Botosan. E. 58n57 Barth... 242n156 Benson. H. 329n75. 239n95 Boubarkri. 208n117... 24nn19. J. 352n106 Bradley. 352n111 Borrus. 295n75 Bhojraj. W. L.. 154n33 Bonabeau. 151. D. 207n87. E. 293n35 Berry.. 122n22. 265n127 Bettis. 122n22.. D. 241n147... 327n40. 80. B. A.... 94n108 Brandes. 330n118 Bettis. 238n47. 383n52 Borrelli.. J. W. A. 298n173 Brady. J.. 350n49 Bebchuk. G. 349nn7. R. 205n12. T. 293n24 Bleeke. 99. 61n135. G. 328n50 Brailsford. 58n43 Begley... A.. D. S. C. 238n61 Branson.. S. C. M. 332n178 Boudette. 353n147 Biller. 124nn76. A. P. J. D. 174. Richard. L. 61nn137. A. 265n123. 20 Boulding.. 53 Beck. 154n7. 83. 58n60 Bizjak. K. 57n22 Beal. E.. 240n116 Bowman. S. C. 296n120 Barton. 262n28 Belson. L. 297n129. A. 63n191.. L. J. 19 Brant. P. J. C. 295n74 Barnard. 27nn94. 241n150. F. S. 25n34. 26n83. 94n85. 154n25 Berument.. 125n91 Bennett. 236nn9. 145. R.. G. 142. 328n62 Bierly. Y. 59n91 Bhappu. 332n182 Becker. C. 241n133 Bernstein. 93n70. A. 350n41 Bish.. L. 205n11. 139.. D.. 383n44 Black. A.. scanned. W. R. C.. B.. 123nn31. 9. 123n47.. 264n81. 27n97. I. W.. H. K. M.. 331n137 Bergmann.. 88. J. 299n191 Barnes. S. 263n50 Bansal. A.. 28nn134. A. 208n124. P.. R.. 155n51 Baum.. C. 124nn73. 296n122. 208n97 Barner-Rasmussen. M. S. 94n100 Baumol. I. 292n5.. 264n88. M. 348n2 Baysinger.. 124n59. 93n59 Bonn... 327n41. A. 24n3 Bonardi. M. A. 125n89.. A. 205n1. J. B.. 349n11 Barr. 266n143. III. 209nn150. E. . 299nn189.. N.. 295nn70. 241n131. P.. 123n38. M.

D. Y. 241n153.. J. S. 262n16 Caldwell. J.. 240n118 Chan. R. S. M. J. A. 206n64 Cannella. T. B. D. 155n51 Buck.. L. 58n57 Burns.. E. 8. 352n126 Chen. 126n125. F. 35. D. 38. K. 327n31 Ceylan. or duplicated. 296n104. 179n9. R.... 236n5. R. N. 382n2 Chang. 238n53.. R. R. 331n140 Carroll.. 293n24 Chan. M. 83.. 123n34. 330n124 Chakraborty... R. T.. 262n41 Busby. 329n75. 328n46 Brooks. A. 125n102 Bruderer. 236n7. 326n1. 157 Campa. A. 299n187.. 94n84 Burton. 326n16 Cairo. G. 327n37. W. 296n122 Brouthers. 263n44 Chattopadhyay. 239n75 Briody. M. George W. 92n17. May not be copied.. J. 266n158 Bryan. A. 60n95 Butterfield. 179n2. T. 131. T. 330n119 Chandar. A. 91n2 Chattopadhyay. 326n20 Burt.. 13 Cantwell. 236n8.. 327n41 Butler. N. scanned. 208n104 Checa. 154n5. 348n4. C. J. 61n133 Camerer. 264n98. A.... 264n78 Buchholtz.. A. 59n85. 327n24 Chandler.. 298n158 Chen. M. 181n64 Casio. 294n40 Carpenter. 59n88. J. 24n6. 165 Brennan. 330n120 NAME INDEX 387 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.. 123n48 Brush. B. M. S. 300n198. 382n29 Cavusgil. 332n179 Chang. 331n159 Charns.. 95n110. D. 155n43 Burr. 59nn63. 326n12 Charkham. J. 261n6 Charan. 241n139. Warren. C.. K. 350n60. 126n132 Champlin. B. G. C. 93n53 Chai. 383n48 Busenitz.. 58n48 Bupta. 240n121. J. L. 332nn164.... M.. 263n43.. D. H. H. R. 265n130 Bremner. A. 237n23. 206n57 Calantone... 126n137. N.. A.... 265n112 Camp. 61n147 Browne. R. R. 24n24. 265n131. 56n9 Bromiley. 272 Bush. D. J. 62. S.. 205n12.. 26n61. 237nn30. 94n107. H.. C. 61n154.. 73. 60n118.. B. J. G. 122n14 Checker. 119. 123n32. 353nn144. W. 29n157. B.. 122n30. S. 332n183 Chen.. L. 331n143 Chakravarthy.. P. L.. D. 205n4 Canina. 326n4. 329n83 Capell.. S. 126n127. E... E.. T. 242n156.... L. R. 62n172. 93n63 Carter. N. 298n163 Chang. 298nn153. B.. 326nn7. 94n97 Brousseau. 121n1 Cashen. J. 331n141 Byrnes. D. P. 333n189 Caligiuri. 241n141. D. 351n73 Burke. 293n31. J. 29. 217... 62n182 Buysse. 327n24 Bricklin. 266n152 Castanias. 326n12. K. 28n142... Lisa. F. R. 207n83. N. E... 331n137 Chatterji. A. 122n4. C.. G. 262n17 Chaudhuri. 58n41 Castrogiovanni.. J.... P. M. 124n85 Burt. 237n21. 295n69. 350n37 Cardoza. 109.. 264n80. H. in whole or in part. 37 Brush.. C.. A. 24n15 Certo.. 349n28. 326n15. M. J. A.. 237n29 Chambers.. 382n26 Bresman. 241nn145. 207n83... R. 95n110. 61n146 Carey. J. 298n164. 207n75 Chatterjee. 329nn82.. S. K. 331n150 Carney. R. 179n16. 266nn149. D. D. 60n98. 314 Bunderson.. 349n30. 328n60. J. 300n197. L. B. John.... C. 239n97 Campbell. L. J. A. L. J. D. 93n76. 265n128. M. 147. All Rights Reserved. L.. 159. Inc. S. 45. 332n180 Buckley. G. J. 329n80. 36 Chandra... 206n41. M. F. 263n62 Cardinal.. 351n85 Bush.. 79. B. 297n146 Brown.. E. P. G.. 156n109 Caves. M. B. M. 123n38. 57n18.. T. K. 92.. 123n34 Buffett. 93n45 Bryan. 353n155 Byrne.. P. S. 155n59 Capron. T. 182n110. 264n78 Carney. D.. 125n116. 156n107 Bruce.. 330nn103. P. 154n28 Brodwin. Jr. 123n34 Cartwright.. 295n71. T. 238nn61.. A.. 297n146 Brouthers.. M. J. 179n1 Caulfield. 24n15 Brodsky. 293n32. 57n12. 238n49 Burgelman... P. 349n17. 326n2 Cadbury... L.. 26n87. 205n16.. W. S. 262nn19. E. 327nn27. 62n161. 159.. E. 150. F.. 352n98 Chen. M. .. 349n20 Chance. A.. 154n24. E. 208n98 Brummel. 92n35 Brown. 237n20 Cardon. 181n72 Carson. 330n119 Carter. 265n128 Campbell. K. 56n8 Carter... 295n87 Canyon... A.. A. 238n55. 60n129. 94n101 Carleton.. N.... J. M.. M.. 236n8..Licensed to: iChapters User Brauer. D. Y... 241n142 Bucerius.. S.. 94n92. 61n136 Buckley. 97n7. E. R.. 240n129 Chappuis. 293n30 Bricker.. 25n27. D.. 156n119 Chen.. 330n110 Bryce. 92n28 Bygrave. 59nn81. 240n105. K. B. 156n120 Chattopadhyay. 237n29. 294n55 Chang. 7 Bruce. 28n140. 60n112 Brown. S. M.-C.. 60n124 Carini. K. 352n120. 92n9. C. R. 27n104 Butterfield. 328n69 Bushman. 180n40. 155n56.. 57n10. 34. 25n31. R. 94n82. 328n46 Bruton. 295n91 Bushee.. 239n80 Chang. M. J. J.

.. 298nn161. 62n175. 25n39.. A. 61n140 Crossan. 57n18. 239n80 Das. 155n51 Chrisman. 123n39. K. S. 292n11 Choi. J. 207n68 Chung.. 262n43 Chen. 91n6. 329n88 Collies. 181n57 Cheng.-R. 327n27 Crosby. 206n65 Colarelli.. 24nn12. 28n141.. 124n73. J.. 181n77 Croson.-C. S. P. 92n38 Cochran. 327n35 Daneshkhu.. 297nn129. 63n193 Cullen. 74. S... J. 94n105 Collingwood. 59n70... 349n28 Christen. J.. W. S. J. C... F. 299n187 Chingos. 60n125.. J. R. 208n112 Darr. 207n70. 296n123 Da Silva. 58n44. T. 23. R.. 326n8. P. J... 122n11 Cornell. 382n3 Coutu. C. 124n85 Datta.. J. 60n125. 333n190.. 59n81. P. H. 329n78.. 206n64 Cordeiro. 349n18 Cooper. 125n117 Coff. B. 205n3. 351n67 Clark. 326n7. 122n15 Collins. 32. D. 332n179 Clifford. C. 328n50.. 327n31. 32 Conger. 59n69... 266n148. 25n47. H. 125n104 Dalton. 330n117 Chiu.. A. 241n144. 56n7. Y. J. D. 293n24 Chi. 61n143 Couvelaire. K.. L. 27n101 Cummings.. 349n6 Cline. 207n91 Contractor.. 57n13. J. G. 209n136 Chompusri.. 59n72. J.. S. W. J.. 329n80 Child. H. 326n7. M. 155n35 Crainer. 350n60. 92n27 Dahya. I. 61n143.. 48. J. 332n183 Cheng. 241n138. May not be copied. B. J.. 133. 58n48 Dahlsten.. D. C.. 208n109. C. 294n55 Chvyrkov.. 123n57. 327n33 Cross. 353n155 Coy. O. S. K. 38. 91. A. 262n17. T. 266n148. scanned. 331n146 Choi. A. P.. N.. 263n53.. 293n31. R. S..-S. 155n47. P.. 94n96 Cotterill... U..... T.. 264n93 Cummings. J. L. P. J. 349n20 Clarke. L. M.. 123n40... A.. 28. 351n79 Colella.. 241n134 Coates... 89–91 Chen. M. 332n178 Costa.. 351n77 Chidley. 241n152 Dalsace. 26nn63. 181nn73. 181n68 Christensen. 299n190 Conyon. 94n97 Chi.... C.. D. 91n5...... Jr. S. S. 209nn133. W. 349n20 Collins.-S. P. W. J. S. 240n108. 136. J. J. 293n15 Danielson. 58n48. 60n125. D.. 58n53. B. C. 332n180. 207n73 Coakley. 93n55 Chowdhry. 352nn122.. K. 61n141 Dacin. 326n3 Corley. C. 352nn101. 298n164. 383n33 Chiang.. 94nn90. 350n44 Cho. 93n55 Chrisman. R. 179n20 Coombs. 296n106 Chung. 124n67 Coyne. R. 237n27 Colquitt. 295n85. 327n31. C. 209n155 Christophe. 58n49. J. J. W... 329n78. M..-H. 179n17 Cramer.. 180nn27. A. P. R. 28n140. 26. M. 63n188.. G. or duplicated. Y. K.-J. T. 179n6.. 329n90 Connelly. 62n186. S. 25n47. 330n126 Cogdill. B. 175 Connor. F.. 59n77. 292n3. L.. S. 266n148. 241n145 Core. E. 262n19. 56n6. S. 206n46 Das. 64 Christodouloy. 59n74. T. 181n88 Clark. K. 353n135 daCosta. 299n188 Cho. 122n13. G. 330n105 Cook. 237n23 Chung.Licensed to: iChapters User Chen. 349n16 Dalziel. A.. 241n133 Chozick. 62n188 Cohen. G. 62n171 Collis. All Rights Reserved. T. 58n53. K.. 59n70. 23. 351n80 Cool. 349n16 Dallenbach. U. 58n39. 329n96 Conant. 297n134.. 22. 209n131 Coles. Q. 91n5. 126n136..... J. K. 349n16 Cox. G. G.. L.. M. G. S. 180n55.. F. 108 Christensen. 327n37. 181n80 Crosby... 262n19 Combs. 125n97 Cyert. Doug. Alexander. T. M. 59n75. F. 292n8 Chiu... 299n189 Daellenbach. L. N. L... H. W. 241n134. 293n24 Chen. M. A. 383nn36. 264n80 Daus. 328n50 Dalton.. R.... Richard. C. G. 199–200 Covin. 60n121 Coleman.. 92n43. J. J. 24n23. J.. 58n49 Choi. L.. 125n91. D. R. 327n41 Chen.. 299n187 Chung. F. 125 Copeland. E. 59n91 Cunningham. 100–102. B. 328n63.. M.. 125n106. 205n15.. C. E. D. S. 94n107. D.. 123n39. 27n105. M. S. S. 349n29 Crotts.. 154n15. 123n42... 208n99. 209n138. 245 Cohen. 382n11. 161. S.. Y. J.. 93n73 Cusumano. 265n124. R. R.. 207n79. 8. 95n123 Crittenden. R. L.. 293nn20. L. Y.. 63n205.-Y.. X. C. 352n119 Colvin. Jr. 298n163 Chu.. 332n185 Cosset. 159. D. C. 61n137. J. J.. in whole or in part. 206n38. 208n118. 42–44. M. 296n124. 328n56. M. 181n81 Cullinan. 265n114 Cyr. 57nn19. 182n103. R. C.-J. S.. M. 330n115 Daily. Inc....-F. T. 154n15. 58n43. J. 349n6 Craft. A.... 299n183 Chon. . J. 328n57 Chen. 262n37 Courtney. C.. J. C. M. 124n68 Dant. C. 93n61 Crane. 164. 54 Copp. J.. 60n94 388 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 124n65. 206n54.. B. J. T. C. T. 236n5 Chui. W. F. J. P..

154n27 Dou. 351n84 DiMicco. P. E. 25n34. Michael. 298n163 Dous.. 94n105 Dutton. 57n18. 181n73. 352n121 Driver. D. 94n106. J.. T. A. 61n150-152. 328n46 DeAngelo. H. V. 181n94 Down. 20 Dawar. M. 352n111 Douglas. A. 266n138 Drazin. A. 297n134 Delio...Licensed to: iChapters User D’Aveni. 328n69 Davidson. T.. 92n9 de Miguel. 238n61 Donaldson. 209nn143. 63n193 Di Gregorio.. 348n1 Dobrev.. 61n147 Davies... 13. P. 349n19 Drucker.. 293n31 Durand.. P. 297n150 Denis. 330n120 Dhesbrough. A. W. 297n139. J... R. T. 57n27 Devers. J. 206n44 Doz. A. 25n53. 125n87 Dehaene. D. 92n41. 43 D’Innocenzio. Dan.. 329n72. 205n20 Desai.. S.. H. F. J. 353n137 Deephouse... R... 208n122 Dharwadkar. A. G. 329n74 de Kluyver. I. 298n158 Easterwood.. 58 de la Torre.. S. 264n86 Domoto. 25n27.. J. 350n41 Echols. 207n72. 123n42 DeCastro... K. 266n147 Echambadi.. 241n136 Di Benedetto. J.. 83 DeVito. J... Walt. 352n122. 333n188 De Cremer... 348n2 Devan. 240n100 DeNisi. 294n56 Edgecliffe-Johnson. 382n25 Dobni.. 210n158. J... 27n122 Egelhoff.. 29n165 Einhorn. 294n41 DeMarie. R... 299n177. J.. M. G.. T. 122n20. 210n159. 208n104.. 207n80. 156n120 Davidsson... G. 25n27. T.. 333n187 Deng. 60n122 Dent. 58 Deming. 266nn149. 326n14 Dowell. 351n86 David. T. 25n32. 349nn7. 326n8 Dunning. 179n2 Dow.. 326nn7. 94n106. 328n46 Deans. J. 240n100 Denis.. 309 Donkin. 28n134. 331n128 DeYoung. 263n60 Dollinger. 331n136 Dell. H. C. G. C. D. 155n67 Dino. 237n26 de Wied. G. 328n71. 59n72. 122n13. 28n140. in whole or in part. 173 Disney.. R. 45. 61n137. 58n54 Dixit. P. 154nn6. L. 350n61 Davis. 92n22 Dorf. 326nn7.. 328n43. H. 332n176 Eesley. 25n44.. 25n46. 123n54. 241n147.. N.. S.... Andy. A. 25nn32. 94n103 Day. 93n66 De Carolis. S.. 240n109 Dougherty. 91n4 Du. B. R.. D.. R. 154n15. 60n114 NAME INDEX 389 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. A. M. H. 97 Delong. N. 179n2.. 328n51 Edwards.. 197 Ehrenfeld. V. T. D. 295n84.. P. J... 180n53 Dean. A. 101. J. 299n187 Drucker. 298n168 Dolbeck. 207n68 Eden. J. 328nn56. 24n15 Doh. 294n37 Dutra. 27n107. N. C. 63n196 Deng. Guerrino. R. 266n157 Dess. C. G. D.. 125nn93. Y. K. C. 27n117 Donaldson.. 181n78 Demise. 327n23 Davis. R.. 156nn98. G. W. 299n187 Davis.. E... 124n66. 261n6 Debaise. 57n12 Duhaime. D. Dave. 349n29 Dutta. 91n7. 297n148. 125n114 DeCecco. J.. A.. D.... G. 237n28 Desbrieres. 124n60. 16.. 383n34 Dyomina. Jr. C. 20 Donaldson. E. W. 238n53 De Luca.. 154nn3. 93n48 DeTienne. 60n120. G. 335.. H.. 61n155 Duysters. K. P. 346 de Luque. M. S. 24n2. 263n45.. 207nn80. R. W. D. C. J... A. D. 266n154 Dhanaraj. G. W. Jr. J.. S. R.. 350n37 Davis.. S. P. 182n110 Drori. 180n29. M. 58n55 Dirks. 34... 350n36 Duh. K... J. 242n156. 236n5.. 124n64. D.. 238n60. 179n11. A. 28n143 Doukas. C.. May not be copied. J... H. 123n53 DeFillippi. S. 27n125.. 111. 206n51 Delios. R. J.. 173 Distefano. scanned. Inc. 62n185. 89 Deckop. L... R. 61n137. J.. W. 169 DeAngelo... C... 181n80 De Vuyst. R. J.. K. 351n79 Dranikoff. M. 209n144. R. L. G. G. J. H. C. 210n160. L. 265n116 Dickson. A. 181n70 Edwards. 298n162. F. 326n7. P... 238n61 Dutkowsky. William. M.. 154n10 Dobosz-Bourne.. 181n66 Dowling. Roy. M. J... V. L. 207n66. W. L.... 351n71 Dial. 293n12. G. 28n131 Donaldson. D.. B. 328nn56. D.. 122n26. R. C. D. . K.. 265n120. A. E. or duplicated. 125n115. 208n118 Dyer. R. 61n133 Disney. 95n117 de la Torre. 242n156. A. L. A.. 237n28 Dickerson. 382n6 Edwards. M. 153. J. 144... W... G. 329n74 Dewenter. 296n122 Droge. B. H. 332n179 Duffy. Y.. 159 Diamantopoulos. 328n48 Desarbo. A. A. 332n180 Dysters.. 95n125 Drummond. R. 23 Dessler.. 59n72.... 206n61. 296n109 Doucet. 332n183 Deeds... 263n44 Dawson. 123n42. 60n129. W.. A. 264n82.. 154n34 Dutta. 209n155 Di Santo.. M. 23... 181n72 Dodurova. I. 206n40.. 123n42. 331n151 Edwards. A. 91n7. 123n37 Eggleston.. 241n146. S. 61n154. 382n5 Davenport.. 157n125 de la Fuente Sabate. D. 57n33 Dussauge.. 26n93 Dunfee. L..-R. D. C. All Rights Reserved.

C. 350n53 Fealey. 28n141. 327n30 Faraci. 263nn59. A. 231 Fischer. M.. D. R. 61n135 Fiegenbaum.. S. N. Anne. 206n48. 326n9. or duplicated. 94n88 Fuller. 9. M. L. K.. 25n31. C. 352n115 Ernst. 124n60 Gainey.. 382n19 Fombrun. G. C. 154n34 Fraser. 352n106 Fischer. M. D.. 180nn24. 59n79. 298n176 Foust. A. 60n112. 208n107. 94n86 Fontaine. 155n40. 180n40. 298n166 Forsyth. 156n107 Ferguson. L. D. 146. 58n53. 62n162 Evans. J... C.. C. I. 43. 156n104. 329n78 Franko.. R. 206n40. 297n126 Fowler. 349n22 Frary. 116 Eisenstat. H.. A. T. P. 239n96 Forbes.. 28n136. 87... J. M. P. T.. 125n119 Filatotchev. 294n49 Elango. K.. 237n28. 329n80 Ford. S. 299n186 Fowler.. R.. 95. 58n43. 58n56. 331nn152. 205n31... 240n122 Forsgren.. S.. 236n9. J... G. 60n101. 264n77 Fowler.. 29n161. S. 169 Evans.. 181n59. 28n150. 24n8. S.... A. J. 60n102. 207n83 Field. D. 329n76. 299n194 Feldman. F.. 299n187. M... 300n198. 34.. A.. M.. 12. 156n107 Farjoun... 89. 298n162 Esterl. 179n16. J.. S.. 265n128 Fiss. 206n64 Epstein. 297n127 Fuchs. 62n178 Feldman. 242n156. M. T. 262n31.... J. S. 332n185 Gardner. 326n8. L.. 329n93. J. O. F. 62n163. 329n78. 162. 126–128. M. 37. G. 292n9 Ensher. B. 237n12 Fisher. 60n119 Evan. 239n96 Elango.. G. 123n49.. V. J.. M. R. C.. I. 351n68 Fruin. 29n162 Fenn. A.. G.. 326n3. 181n61 Elloumi. P. 297n149 Eldomiaty... 25n48. 292nn3. 62n167. 205n10 Frick. 123. 180n29. M. 107.. 263n72 Ganesan.. M. E. S. S. 330n100 Fried. 25n42 Fernandez. 61n148. 330n105 Ellstrand. 156 Fladmoe-Lindquist. 239n88 Gambardella. 154n25 Gannon.. H. C. 330n119 Fischer. 182n100. 182n97. J. 294n47. D... 62n160. 327nn32. 124n65 Finkelstein. 93n52. 263n68. 94n107.. 58n47 Floyd. 261n6 Fried. 27n112 Gammelgaard. 239n88. 154n15. 95n128 Fairclough. 60n95 Folta. D. S. 205n27 Fuerbringer. 295n90.. J. 208n103.. W. 297n126 Fama. 331n139 Fields. 92n92. 123n38.. 154n9.. C. 295n90 Enz. 36. 331n146 Fram. D. 25. G. E. A. L. D. A. G. 122nn5.. 41. 205n30. R.. E. S. A.. E. S. J. 123n44 Felo. A. 382n21 Eroglu... K. W. R. 25n44...... J.. B.. 240nn100. 297n127. 351n95 Fredrickson. 295n71. 31. M. M. M. E. 262n36 Feeney. J. J. 16.. in whole or in part. 47. W. 331n146 Elenkov. R. W. 57n35 Gardberg. 208n114 Espitia-Escuer. 123n31. 351n80 Fleming. 93n71 Flood. O.. S. 349n7 Foley. 247–248 Frooman. 327n42 Elgin. 350n51 Engardio.. T. R. 154n6. L.. Carly. 331n158 Fisher... S. 328n52 Fox. C. 351n83 Fleisher. 61n154 Fuentelsaz. P. P.. H. 295n69 Gaertner.. 265n128 Faria. 241n151. 61n149. 382n30 Fleming. 327n24 Eisenhardt. 209n155 Fey. J. Alexander. 330n102 Freeman. P. 333n186 Enright. 352n120 Fox. 125n112 Freeman. 58n60. B. D. S. 28n138. 241nn144.. W. L. 179n15. 181n92 390 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.. T. 60nn106. 180n37 Ferrary... A. G.. 298n168.. 59n77. J. 57n17. M.. A. 34. J. 44.. L. 15. 25nn33. 298n173 García. A. K. 119. 239n80 Fee. E.. 236n2.. 26n87 Feldman. 261n3 Farrell. 299n181 Fubini. E.. J. N. 57nn10. 121n2. J. 52 Galunic.. B. 261n5 Gadiesh. 180n33.. J.. 383n47 Ferrin. 206n65 Ferrier. D. 30. 300n198. 25. C. W. J. 58n40.. D. J.. H. 27n99 Galbraith. W. D.. J. 24n10 Eren. 63n193 Forest. 330n100 Fiol. 125n118. L... G. S. M. . 25nn30. 300n198. 155nn45. 181nn72. 53... 350n53 Fassbender. T. E.... May not be copied. 299n186 Engel. K. P. T.. 93n48.. H. F.Licensed to: iChapters User Eisenberg. 92nn8. 332n180 Finegold... P. 94n92. 60n100. N. A. 263n67. Inc. F... 297n132. S. 62n177. 333n189 Felton. 62nn159. 295n84. All Rights Reserved. 27nn114. 352n105 Fahey.. 62n179 Ethiraj. T. N. M. 125n98 Galan.. 329n90 Fink. 181n69. F. M. 93. 93n49. 63 Eisenmann... 94n93. L... A. 57n11... 327n41 Englander. 296n115 Foss. 52. 332n184 Fong. 61n144 Fiorina. 206n65 Fiet. E. 62n161 Frolov. 60n97 Ensign. 25n54. 239n91 Galbraith.. 59n86. C. 238n61 Frynas. 61n149. scanned. M. 328n42. C. 179n15. M. L... C.. 147 Foote.. 237n13. 126nn122. M. 126n121 Frost. 266n140 Fosfuri. 95n121 Fleming. 93n77..

. 181n69... 181n73 Griffin. R. 209n130 Goffee. 262n9 Gleason.. B. R. 60nn98. Kirk S. A. J. scanned. 326n3. 181n59. All Rights Reserved. A. 263n67. 90. 15. J.. 61nn144. 169. 208n95 Garnham. P. S. 24nn25. 181n64 Geletkanycz... 327n29. 181n71 Grewal. I. 154n12. 58n48 Gutierrez. 91n3. R. S. A. 57nn14. D. 241n144.. D. 237n13. W. 241n129 Gratton. 122n24 Grohmann. Clifford M.... 58nn36. M. 24nn25. 157n123 Hadjimarcou. 180nn33. A. 296n103. M.. 209n133. 125n94 Gillin. 329nn81. 112... W. P. R. D. 156n71 Hall.. 125nn88.. 299nn183. 351n81 Goldsborough. 298n164... 145. 125n102 Hafner. 91n3. 36. 246 Hackman.. 326n3. 205n29. R. 179n18.. 265n116 Gilbert. 124n60 Grimm. 298n159 Garud... 327nn22. 48.Licensed to: iChapters User Garg. J. D. G. M. J. 329n91 Geringer. 40 Gertner. 39. M. J. 154n34 Haleblian. 62 Hagedoorn. J. 295n71 Gerchak. 62 Gepp. R. A. 142. 10. R. 61nn137.. 91n2. S. S. K. 60n105. K. 265nn106. 179nn4.. R. P. M. 154n1 Gawer.... 180n33. 92n21 Garland. 330n105 Guilley. 208n122. Jr. 52.. 328n69 Gingrich. 263n50.. A. 331n151 Geiger.. L. 122n24 Guthrie. 104. 241n147. 146. S. H. 145. 28n130. L. R.. 382n1 Gertsen.. J. 26. 95n117 Gonzalez. 209n127.... 13. 330n100 Hamel. 345 Grosse.. Bill. 37 Gatignon. 180nn22. 105... 237n31 Green. 148 Graves.. K. 34. 104. 328n42... D.. 205n27 Gomez-Mejia. 330 nn101.... C. 154n6. 353n154 Garvin. M. 58n44... Y..-P. 207n79. Terence. K. 36.. W. J. 263n44 Gittell. M. 330n127 Goldstein. 155n70. 64.. 295n79 Gibson. A. 343 Gorman. D. 125 Halevy. I. J. 154nn10. 193 Grossman. 89. S. 125n88. 43. 26n59. 56n4. or duplicated.. H. 329n91. 208n94. J. 28nn145. 5. M. 265n110.. B. 205n21 Goold. 62n173 Golden. 75.. 63n195 Glader.. 59n93. 382n17 Ghoshal. 63nn63. 57n18. 239n77 Ghemawat. 236n2. 154n24 Hafeez. 124n72.. 5 Gupta.. J.... D. J. 56n5 Greene... T. 26n56. 58n41 Gupta. 116 Gompers. 296n110 Hachigian. D. 60n113. Inc. 57n15. 261n1.. 239n73 George. 93. 292nn4. J.. 122n23 Gove. K. H. 207n72 Garten... M. 294n60... H. J. B. May not be copied. 58n57. 36. 332n180 Genesove.. 327n32. 122nn20. W. M. M. 263n51 Gavetti. 103. D. 328n57 Glick.. J. R.. V... 292nn4. A. 238n49 Gerety... 382n10. 59n91 Greve.. A. 182n97 Grinstein. 156n82 Goll. S. M. P. 265n120... C. S. O. . R... 95n127 Halligan. A. 294n47 Griffith. 329n96 Gilson. G. 236n7 Goranova. P. 182n109 Gudridge. 93n70. 56. 124n61 Greiner. G. 181n84 Green. 182n101 Greene. R. 95. 118. I.. 27n96 Gore. H. 206n40 Haliinan. 328n44. 208n113 Gerstner. 326n6 Goldenberg. M. K.. 110. 328nn63. 155n57.. 181nn69.. 64.. J. 14. 27n124. J. J. 352n127 Hair.. 294n44. 181nn60. C. 27... 8. P. 93n48. R. C. T.. 179n15. 57n16. 83. 265n123 Haahti. 24n17 Geppert. 23. 145. 57nn13. 262n17 Glynn. Y.. 61n155. R.. 156n101. B. R. 352n114 Gary. 210n159. Y. C. R. 32. 326n13.. L. D. 34. 95nn113. 240n126 Gimeno. 92n92 Gomes. 25n39 Gile. 61nn144. 206n61. 38. J.. P. A. 123n57.. 181n81 Hambrick... 239n80 Griffith. P. 5 Graffin.. T. NAME INDEX 391 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 327n41 Gelfer. 122n4 Greening. 284 Hall. H. 59n62. 61n131 Graves. A.. 156n100 Hallaq.. 92n10 Gibson. 58n42. 69. 94n104 Hall.. 58n45. 125n97 Gedajlovic... 328n43 Gordon. 295nn65.. A.. 106. 328n62 Gong. 37.. K. M. W.... 179n3. 328n44 Gwynne. 297n132 Gonzalez. 17. Louis. J. 61n132. 352n121 Gnyawali. S. 300n198. L.. P.. K. B. 333n190 Guirguis.. 25n48. S. J. 49. 207n81. 101.. 50.. W. 299n193. 207n93. E. G. 28n142 Gray. S. D. 299n189 Gerstenhaber. L. 330n107 Gomez. 333n188 Guth. 107.. 93n57 Garrette. 350nn46. S. 241n144. 240n122 Guedhami.. 60n99 Govindarajan. L. 241n144. 292n9. 26n56. 156n99. 296n95. 297n133. 327n42 Grinyer. P. R. I. 26. 125n102. 70. 298n158. 58n37 Grant. 180n21 Goerzen. M. H.. in whole or in part. 28n138. E. 208n106 Gross.. H. H. F. F. 63n203 Gunz. W. 145. 25n52. 332n178 Gueyie. 238n45 Gates. W. H. 92n24 Goldstein. 327nn25. 59n86. 31. C.... 107. 154n9. 19.. R. D. 352n97 Geyskens. 155n68 Grant. 181n73. 208n96 Gulati.. 241nn131. 351n69 Grundei. 239n77 Gunkel.. 179n7. 327n37 Gibbert. 124n72. 241n145 Greco.. 327n32. A. 351n66 Hall. S. 239n73. 154.. William. Michael. R. E. V. D. 209n155 Gillis. R.

165. 58n41. 128. A. 205n10. 120. A. 60nn98. 113 Hebert.. 352nn107.. 238nn41. 121. K. 129. 95n125 Hodgetts. 69. 266n147 Harrison. W. 327n38 Hejazi. C. 6 Ho. 75. 50–52. 265nn110.. 328n55 Hassan. R. 109. 261nn1. 151. 61. H. 263nn45.. 143. C. 264n72. 330n104 Hill. W. 76. 132. 329n75. J. 206n41. 25n44. . 135. All Rights Reserved. 180n40.. B. 92n38 Hitt. 14. 90.. 239n92.. 350nn39. 205n1 Henderson. S. 296nn114... 141. 264nn74.. 332nn178.. 181n61 Hof. 139. 57n22 Hogler. W. A.. 120. J. 59n76. 16. 26n80. 237n16. C. M. W. 234.. Brian. 329n91 Hoiweg. 350n40 Hayward.. 89. 208nn118. M.. 241n132 Hammonds.. 61. W. 161. H. 191. 240nn115. 59n69. 100. M. 241n134 Harrigan. 59. 26n55. 118. 47. 63n192. 341. 4. 91n7. 208n97 Hannan. 296n105.. 108. M. 29. 112. 240nn110. 46. 205nn3.. 157. M. 61n155 Hayton. 331n137 Harlan. 24. 115. 206nn54.. 122. 141. 26nn58. 295n71 Hesterly. 330n111 Hill.. C. J. D. S. 123n58. F.. S. 146–148.. (continued) 298n169. W. E. 72. 60. J. 156n101. 125n117 Harrison. 240nn110. 155. D. 117–119. 69. C. 172. 179n14. 155n51 Hoffmann. 113. 138.. D. in whole or in part. G. 331nn134. 205n11. 111. 123n42. 77. G. H. 299nn189. R.. 55. 6.. N. 141. 349n15 Hofer. B. N.. 263n63 Hemphill.. 91nn1. 207n83. 5. J. 296n102.. 123n39 Hay. 58nn43. 62n175. 52. 206n45 Hochwarter.. E. J. 206nn38. 182n110 Harback. 262n30 Hass. 56. 115. 122n4 Hart. 28nn136. 239n95 Harris. W. 56. S. B.. W. 329n79 Hoi. 5. 125n93. 299n194. W. 329nn81. 331n137. 6. 109. R. 57nn13. G. M.. 95. 125n107 Harford. 61n139. 327n35. 349n17 Hayashi. 351n82 Hendrickx. 124. 297n141. A. 209nn150. B. 293n28 Handfield-Jones. W. R. 58n38.. 332n183 Heide. T. 81. 332n181 Hilton. 150. 298n167 Harrison. 207n71 Hart. 26n83. N. 123. 382nn4. 95n120. K. 328nn63. 96. 194 Hennart. 28n147 Harder.. 207nn82... 125. 299nn177.. M. 61n136. 103. S. H. 332n172 Hayes.. 156n105.. 155n35 Hatch. 265nn105. 180n45 Hoetker. 58n43 Harbison. E.. 28n147. C. 64. 210n158 Hansen. M. 29n159. S.. 266n146 Henry. 300n200. 142. A. 95n124 Harper. F. L. 91. 3. R. 88 Hart. 64. 209n140 Henriques. 349nn6.. 25n36. H.. Clare. 239n76 Hawawini.. 93nn61. 382n2 Hamm. J.. J. B. 351n71. 124n60. 185. L. L. 111. J. E.. 154n6. 64. R. B. 64.. 24nn1... 57n26. 326n1 Henisz. M. 89. N. 7. 348nn2. 76. M. L.. 206n44. 5. 330n102 Henderson. 264n80 Hardee. 61. 108. 62n165. 293n31. 125. J. 239nn78. 207n66. 92nn9. G.. T.. 51. 295nn65... K. 141– 144. 62n167. 292n8. 292nn9. 150. 72.. 331n146 Himelstein. 151. L. 180. 330nn111. 9. A. 329n88 Hill. J. G. 209n144 Haveman.. F. 261nn1. 349n22. 93nn59. 154n6. 36. 332nn184. 17.. 238nn43. 37 Handfield. K. 117. 28n140. 125n119. 94n107. 128. 332n182 Hartel. 265nn105. T. 326n6. 353nn134. 262n11. 330n108 Hegtvedt. 99.. 56n6. 328n57 Hoang. 237n35. 207n85 Hof. May not be copied. 264nn74. J.. 99. 332n181 Henry. R. 208n104 Henriksson.. 125n112 Hansen. 344 Harrison. 12.. 239n84 Harris. R. 26n93 Hendricks... 300n196. 330n114 Harvey.. 60n94 Hartzell.. 327nn22. A. 93n74. 27n113. 121. 61. 27n117. 121. H. M.. Y. 26. 180n45 Herbert. 62nn169. 155n47 Hegarty. 296n123. 263nn45. T. 207n87. 51. C. P. 126. 141... R. 77. 26nn57. S. 100. 125n93.... 297nn129. 298nn161. 205n7. K. 241n140. 297n139 Hogarth. 28nn134.. 27n127 Hiller.. L. 94nn82.Licensed to: iChapters User Hamel. 127. S. 175. 77.. 129.. M. 264n77 Hayes. 69. W. 27nn95. A. G. E. 297n146 Haspeslagh. C. 70.. 124n69 Hanvanich. 351nn68.. 155n40. 124nn59. 264n83 Hegarty. 79.-W.. 61n155 Hanlon. 28n132. M. H. 5. 25nn35. 54. 236n8. D. W. 181n73 Holbein. 156n101. 133. 130. C. 25nn34. 87. M. 292n9 Helfat. H. S. C. 295n62 Hodgkinson. 123n36 Hines. 326n19. 297n148 Heeley. 331n132 Hindo. 294n47 Harzing. 206n54. 353n141 Harryson. 262n11... 328n46 Hendry. W. 154nn7. 24n17 Harris. 59n72 Harris. 56n5 Hassan. 382n31 Hamilton. P. I.. C. 209nn134. 63n207. 205nn13. 124n77. A. A. 352n98.. 264n102. 236n4. T. M.. 89. A. Inc. A. 89. 205n8. 171. 60n100. 44. 266nn137. R. 157n125. C. 166. N. 179n16. 154nn5.. 27nn120. K.. 12... 90.. 59. 139.. L. 9. 58n36 Hillman.. 50. 209n129. C. 119. 94n79.. or duplicated. 123nn39. 266n143 392 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. F. 238n59. 237n12. 292nn3. 64. 62n172 Hodges. 266n147.. J. 56.. 39... scanned. 12. I. C. J. W. 60n96 Harris. 60n96. 92. 236nn4.

59nn76. 238n42 Ingram. M. R.. 264nn74. L. 61.. 124n69. D... 93n77. N. 155n34. 82. 150 Hough. 167. 242n153. 124nn59.. 112.Licensed to: iChapters User Holcomb. 103. 123. 292n1 Ito. 119. 206n40. 119. G. T. 295nn68. 122n30. 337 Johaansson. 93n60 Jacoby. 24n1. 91n1. 295n94 Jacobides.. R. H. L.. 126. U. 172. 91n3. 108. 293n25 Joachimsthaler. 181n69. 262n17 Huey. 155n44 Jeong. 265n132 Jermias. 141. R. 125. 207n83. L. 46 Jenster. 27n115. I. 242n156. 27nn95. 115..... 124n65 Hollenbeck. 44.. 353n133 Hulland. 9. 332nn163. 150. 84. R. B. 180. 154n13. N. 329n78 Huselid. 61nn141.. 156n114 Ireland. 59n81.. M. J. 263nn50. P. 209n154. 69. 89. 241n129 Jankowicz. 92. Jensen. N. 208n106. M. K. 350n50. J. L. 92nn9. 16. M. S. May not be copied. L. 69. F. 299n185.. 264n97. 142. 124n84 Huff.. 22.. 205n30. 298n176 Janney.. 239n83. 46.. 331n148 Jacque.. 54. E.. 181n92 Hwang. E. R. 56.. J. M. 141. 100. C. J. 208n121. 351nn68. 331nn147. 56n5.. M. 29. 293n31. 206n54. 58n53. A. 180n45 Johnson. 237n23. 296n111 House. 295n66 Hoopes. 292n6.. 92n21 Houghton. 332nn163. D. 180n38. E. 238n40. 352nn117. 128. 180n54. Steve. 292nn3. 264nn74. M. D. 64. 299n191 Holmes. 297n141. 296n99 Jackson. P. 144. 327n31. 4 Iaquito. 64. 125n102 Jiang. P. 348n1 Jevnaker. 298nn159. R. J. 95n112 Hurry. M. S. 63. R. 124n60 Homberg. C. 296nn95. A... 326n3 Hom. 352nn107. S. 262n11. 39. 25n49.. 382n27 Huse. S. 43. 299n190 Huang. 264n85 Huber. 240n125. 240n128.. J. Carl.. 118.. D. 327nn22. 28n132. 295n75 Johnson. G. J. A. 94n82. 300n200. 294nn44. A. J. 18.. 329nn81. C. H. 25n49. 129. 173. 296n122 Hong.. 206nn38.. J.. 63n199 Hussey. 109.. J.. 60nn98. 265n108... 326n17 Jackson. 331n158 Hoskisson. 29. 237n32 Ivy. 9. 125n101 Jassawalla. 264n78 Homqvist. ... 205nn3. L. 124n59 Hopkins.. D. 333n191. 139.. E. or duplicated.. 93n77.. 298n165. 44. 348n1 Janne. 207n93 Jenkins.. R. 298n166 Holcombe. M. P. A. T. 19. P. 205n4.... 206n64 Izushi. 349nn24. 95n114 Huff. 353n154 Jalland.. 237n16. W. 77. P. H. N. C. 208n105.. M. 35. A. 181n85 Immelt. 26.. 180n45 Jennings. K. 89... 266n139 Incandela. M. 293n35 Itoh. 261nn1. 326n11 Iacocca.. 63n207. 124n70 Hribar. D. 57n18.. 59. 155n44. 123. S. P. 154n26 Isaac. 240nn105. K. 352n106 Javidan. 58n40 Icahn.. 61nn134.-H. 95n120. 29n159. 238nn43. 79 Jobs. 353n156 Jarillo. L. 153. 171.. 330nn111. 241n148. 207n69. 209nn134.. 297n135 Hughes. S. R. A.. L.. 266nn137.. W. E.. 349n7 Jardins. 293n12. A. Inc. 9.. 26n59. 157 Irwin. 329n78. 58n61. 299n189.. G. 5. 351n90. 327n42 Hsieh. 30. 351n89 Hutzschenreuter. 89. 109. 61n146. M. M. 328nn57. 294n41 Howell. 351n81 Hoshi.. 155. A. 13. N.. 326n9. 26n81. 151. J. F. 241n141 Hult. 299n182 Jagersma.. 26n72. 141. 94n94 Hunt. 92n28 Jayachandran.. 25n46.. 293n30. C.. 12. 69.. J.. 123n52. M. H. 263n52 Hsu. J. J. Lee. 238nn40. G. 299n189. 177 Insinga. 61.... 349n9 Jarvenpaa. 121. S. 154nn5. 148. 88. 239nn78. S.. 109. S. M. Q. T.. G. E. 146. 154. 349n16 Holden. 4. 261n1. 296nn114. N. 179n7. 159. 91n2. 155n44 Hutt. 348nn2. M. 351n88 Howell. 52. 69.. 328nn45. L. J. M. 209nn150. 26n60. 332n182 Hrebiniak. 327n33 Jacoby. 5. C. 55.. C. 26n77... M. 149. 237nn16. C.. T. 41.. J. D.. 292n5 Jawahar. 265n125 Huyghebaert. G. M. G. All Rights Reserved. M... 350nn39. 94n79. R. E. M. 142. 126n129. 262n21. 102. 297n133 Jain. 17. 64. J. 132. 265nn105. 153. 111. R. 265nn105. 25n46... 40. 122n19 Jobe. 298n159 Hood. D. R. S.. 298n166 Holmes. 236n5 Hubbard.. 28nn134. 51. 329n91 Jackson. 138 Holm.. 125n108 Irarvani. 330n110 Hymowitz. scanned. K. 56. 349nn7. 51.. 57n16. 209n155 Jensen. 236nn3. 52. 296n105 Isobe. L. 115. 234. S. 353nn134. 27n96 Howell. R.... 57nn18. 63n190. R.. 113. D. 353nn139. 206n50. 92. 60n122 Jacob. 86. 179n11. P. 326nn16. 257. R. R. 311–312 Ihlwan. 36. 350n51 NAME INDEX 393 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. C. 155n44. 350n41 Horowitz. G. G. 124n65 Inkpen. 160. A. 146. 241nn144. 29n159 Huy. C. 205nn6. 4. 93n76. 151. 108. 295n75 Hornsby. T.. 60n115 Holthausen.. 40. 4. 58n41 Jammine. O.. in whole or in part. P. 110. 70.. D.-F. 263nn45.. T. 26. 120. 62nn169. 85. 156n116 Isaak. 40.

J. 208n104. L. 241n142 Knott. 112. 55. 181n79 Kaplan.. L.. C. T. 261n4 Joyce.. 32 Kakabadse. 125 Kim. 94n94. 125n98 Klein. J. 264nn92. M.. J.. J. 114 Kawaura. W. 126n131 Katila... 53 Kedia. . 352n106 Kirkpatrick. W. L. 239n82 Kim. 58n47 Knight.. 333n189 Kashuk. L. 205n3.. 326n6. or duplicated. 49. 155n44. John. 61n148. 126n127 Kahan. 352n123. 327n27 Kelly. D. 350n40 Kelley. 331n129 Kirkland. 57nn20. Klaus. 142.. M. 26n68 Kahneman.. R. 241n152. 123n41. M. 352n121 Keats. 331n146. 93n59. S.. 327nn22. M. 206n54 Kini. 332n163. P.. P. I. T. G.. 332n175 Kang.. F. 127... 331n139 Karri.-K. R. W... 240n110. 266n158 Keenan..... 39. 205n5 Jones. J.. R. 257 King. W. 332n173 Kiymaz. 326n19. in whole or in part... R. M. F. 237n35. 124n87. K. G. G.. G. 63n195 Kisfalvi. 207n68 Kim. 352n120 King. 60n127. 122n18 Keim.. 62n172 Kerwin.. 241n149 Kahn.-H. 27nn116. 266n135. C. 59n82 Kakabadse. B. 181n86 Jones.. Aaron. 123n41. 109. M... D. M. 25n48. K. 208n121.. W. J. E. 298n157 Keller. 62n182 Joshi.. 181n57 Kessler. W. 237n33 Karlgaard.. G. 298n171. 240n122 Kline. M.. 383n40 Ketchen.. 69 Kelley. M. 18. 206n38...-J.. A. W. 25n39 Johnson. H.. 236n3. 242n153. May not be copied.. 205n34 Knight. H. 331n158 Kassinis. F. 29n160.... 103 Kennedy.. 297n138 Knoedler.. 94n107. D. 240nn102.. 349n16 Karnitschnig. 236n11 Kim. A. R. 128. J. R.. 329n93 Junttila. K.. H... 155n42 Kidder. S. 333n186 Kaufmann. J. 51 Kleinman. M... 25n29. J. All Rights Reserved. S. Y.. R. 60n123 Keuslein. 92n9. 239n84 Johnson. 300n200. D. 352n129 Kline. 63. A.. D. 27n130. L.. 292n4. C.. 57n11. 154n4.. 182n96 Kalnins. M. S. 292n9 Khermouch. R. 332n181 Keister. 122n4. 237n23 Keith. M. M. 241n140. 28n131. 332n180 Kaplan. 298n159. 103. 61n155. K. E. T. 350n53 Knell. 240n105. 200– 202. 155n44 Kirsch. 108. T. 333n191.. 123n55 Kline. 208nn112.. 264n82 Kay. 205n10 Joshi. 352nn107. B. 61n139.. 265nn105. M. J. 59n62.. C. D. S. 107. O. 205n23. 59n82 Kale.. 353n150 Kim. 349n24.. K. 330n116 Katz. D. 331n150 Kleindienst. J. 62n168 Kirsch. 63nn198. T. 351n69.. 239n95. S. 182n103 Kandemir. 58n61. A. 123n47.. 21.. 113.. A. M.. 329nn81. 63n207. T. B. A. P. S. 8.. 125n109 Kaufman. 326n16. T. R. 239n91. 353n147 Kogut. B. 327n32. 239n97 Keeble.. 130.. 263n58. 94n79.Licensed to: iChapters User Johnson. 63n190 Judge. Q. A. Jr. 382n2 Kim. D... 331n132 Keil. 26n68 Katz.. B. 180n54.. I... 237nn22. 91n5 Kapelyushnikov. R.. 103. 353n139 Jonacas. 294n46. 181n85 Kesner.. K. D. H. 156n81. M... 209n143. S.. 25n34... W. 349n23 Kendrick. K. M.. 350n50.. L. M. 331n155 Karpoff. G. 127.. 241n140 Khanna. 60n119.. 296n114. 297n139. M. 296n104 394 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 125n99 Jones. 89. I. 236n11 Kim. M.. A. 69. 241n136 Kayworth. 124n59. 62n173 Jones. 238n56 Konopaske. 263nn50. 300n198. Inc. 29n159 Kleinfeld. S. 197 Kern. 351n75 Kim. A. 58n43.. K. R. W.. 330n126. N. 64. 238n47 Kaeufer. 296n108 Kim. 240n118 Knolt. 326n8 Kneip. 297n135 Kelly. M.. 206nn39. 155nn63. R.. J.. 326n13 Killman. 265n114 Kanter.. 63n196 Katz. B. 292n7 Kedia. J. J. 264n81. 263n52. 332n164 Kay.. C. J.. D. S. 60n95 Kiel. R. 123n44 Koberstein. B. A. 24 Koka. 326n1. Jr.. W. 328nn57. 329n80. 148 Kashyap. Sonia. G.. 131. 36. 382n3 Kirkman. 266nn141.. 59n75. 59n84.. 205n5 Kelm. F.. 58n59 Kochhar. A. V.... R.. M. S.. 351n68. 52. 207n79 Kang. 26... L. 296n118 Johnson.. D. 58–59n61.. 262n27.. 299n189. 25n45... 25n49 Kazanjian. 155nn45. 242n156 Kitamura. 47 Kester. 383n34 Kallendar. R. 207n69. J. 156n121. 209n129 Jones. 62n170. A.. D. 62n161 Karim. 349n27 Kato. Judge. S. N.. 206nn45. 125n116. L.. 182n99 Karnik. M. D.. 350n47. 352–353n129 Koller. A.. D. S. 25n38 Karnani. 237n23... 156n102 Kim. A. 265nn106. L. 296n117 Kindler. 382nn2.. 208n122 Keels. M. Jeffrey B. P. A. 62n161 Kerr.. 26n77. S. 266n138 Kono. scanned.. M. 154n5. 40. 155n40. 236n4. J. 328n49 Klaas.. 208n109 Kets de Vries. T. T. Y.

M. 327n37. L.. 382n6 Lee. 154n1 Levitas. 122n20. J.. J. P. 142 Kostova. 236n5. in whole or in part. 8.. 332nn163. 297n128. 330n118 Lengnick-Hall. 353n145 Lawler. D. S. E. Y.. M.... 155nn43. S. 351nn79. K. L. 294n56 Kotabe. 326n20. 64 Leavitt. Y.. F.-U. R.. 236n6. scanned. C. F. 349n14. 296n122 Kraatz. 206n40. 208n118. 264n81 Krug.. O. 348n3 Lieberman. 264n98.. 327n42... 326n19.. J. D. 28n143. 262n39 Kuemmerle. A. L. C. 293nn18. 27n107. Y.. M. B. M. 209n140. K. 329n90 Lawrence... M... 266n145 NAME INDEX 395 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.. P. 330n121. M.. H. 170 Kopczak. 265n131 Kuczynski... R. 27n110. L. 112 Larsson. D. C. 294n59 Leonard-Barton.-W. 62n187 Leleux. 298n170 Lei. 10 Lam. S. 205n11. L. 262n42 Le Roux. P. 298n163. C. 236n11 Lewin. A. M... A.. 299n189. A. D. L.. G. 123n56... 295n63 Kothandaraman. 293n24 Lau. 349n10... 295n89 Kranhold.. 25n40. R.Licensed to: iChapters User Koo. Ku Taek. R. 239n77. 155n50 Levin. 299n190 Kunii. 24n6.. 328n47 Li.-M.. 300n199 Krishnan. R.. 156n82 Lawrence. 181n63.. D. V. 352n114 Levicki. M. 328n50. 262nn25. Y. 331nn131.. M. 332n169 Kotha. 155n46 Le Breton-Miller. R. 351n90 Lerner. 63n197 Lavie. 264n83.. 296n105 Lakshman. A. H. H. . Y. Inc... M.. W. S. 207n74. 332n179 Lamb... 27n112. 238n46. V.... E. B.. 330nn105.. 295n75. I. 122n8. 266n151. 124n69. 123n57.. 191 Li. W.. 295n69 Lee. 210n158 Krishnan. 180n29. 330n120 Lemmon. H. G. 94n83. Kenneth. 94n81 Kranton. 353n148. H. 329n74 Kosnik. 237n24. 60n126 Leno. 332n165 Kuratko. 265n114 Kumar.. D. M. 352n110 Lawrence. E. 179nn4. 326n21. D. 238n61. 298n173 Kotaro. 296n105 Lages.. 239n84 Kor. E. 25n48. 330n108 Kruse. A. 295nn65.. 57n33 Laponsky. I. L. I. 293n24 Koza. 28n144 Leifer. 350n53 Lado. 353n131 Lee. 15. A. 155n70. 60n119 Krishnan.. N. 95n110. 194 Lee. 205n13. 91n3. R. S. 296n124. 205n28 Kundu... 261n6 Kroll... J. P. 62n171 Levinthal. F... 328n48 Krug. 239n97 Lampert. 264n73.. 353n149 Lavelle. 208n110 Lages. 25n49.-R. Chung Mong. 265n108 Langer. S. M. N. 349n7 Lang. M. 294n38 Larraza-Kintana. 180n53.. P.. H. 121n1 Leiblein. 92n29 Kriesel.. A... A.. 262n25. B. A. 181n65 Liebeskind. J. 330n101.. P. 238nn50... 242n156. 331n161. 332n180.. M. 298n176 Lichtenstein.. J.. Y.. W.. 326n3 Larimo. 265n132 Lee. T. J. 62n184 Li. 124n59. 293n19. 5. 352n128 Laverty.. 297n133.. 27n102. 330n119 Kumaraswamy. 326n7. 241n147. 29n164. 299n186 Krishnan. 27n107. 350n53 Kripalani. C. 266n151. 125n113. 61n139 Lee. 299n177 Kwon.. B. E.. 351n78 Landauer.. A.. M. S.. 331n129 Kramer... 353n140 Larcker. 125n98. T.. M. 296n122 Ley.. III. J.. Z. J. 295n84 Lay.. J. D.. S. 350n41 Kwak. 32.. R. 72.... 209n133. P... 239n85 Krapfel. M. Jr. 292n11.. 327n39 Levav. C. B.. F. M. K. All Rights Reserved.. T.. 298n155 Li. 238n40. 94n91. M. 133. L. 208n119 Kowk.. 51 Leahy. T. S. J.. 328n48 Lafley. T. 27n130. 327n29. 352n97 Lau. F. 154n34 Lamont. B. N. 95n116. 27n102. A. W. 206n58. Y. 353n135 Lewellen. 293n32. 297nn129. C. 60n98. 208n97. 326n8. 383n46 Lev.. M. 92n23 Lehrer. S. C. 262n33 Lee. E. 27n122 Lenway. 156n96 Leidtka. R. J. C. Jay. H. C. 236n6. 208n106 Lee. 31. 351n81 Levesque.. 155n46. J. A.. E. 63nn63. 262n19. 30.. M. 327n29 Lee.. 264n93 Leuhrman. C. 87 Leinicke. B... 353n131 Lee. 171.. 293nn12. 237n12 Liao. P.. 295n75 Lee. J.. 350n59 Kulatilaka. A.. 292nn1. P. 24n2. J. 134 Kramer.... K. 31 Lau. J. 298n163 Lang. 239n87 Kovaleski. M. C. K.. A.. 299nn187... W. 332n175 Lee. R.. 62n166. 219. 126nn130. 297n136. 93n76. 57 Lafontaine. 207n79. 59n77. 209n139.. 296n108. 296n122 Lassen.. 261n4. 180n51. 207n82 Kracaw. or duplicated.. R. 353n154 Kumari.. 351n90. R. 207n90 Learned. 241n150.-W. H. Y.. R.. A. M. D.. 62n172 Lane. F. L. 24 Kumar. 263n45. 59n65. May not be copied. 61nn146. R.. T.. A. 332n179 Li. J.. 265n127. 349n20 Laursen. 155. 299n187 Liang. M. K. 239n97 Kwan. 146 Lenox.-S.. T. 62n180 Labaye. 54. M. 179n20 Lemesis. 239n77 Kumar. 261n2 Kwok. 12. 327n40. W. 382nn8. 382nn14. 351n95 Lee. 10. 261n4 Kroeger. 28 Leibold. 125n104.

238n39 Marin. 156n98. 297n138 Liker. or duplicated. P. 297n128 Lynall. 210n158. 352n110 Lott.. 122n5. 125n99 Madsen... 295n71 Mattern. T. 208n118 Lorenzoni.. T. 118. 348n3. D.. 326n5... Y. T. P. F. 125n91 396 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 59n87 Mauborgne. 28n133. 180n23.. A. 154n23. 123n57.. J... C. L. 181n89. C.. P. 62n168. J.. S. J. A. S. A. 237n39. M. 56n5.. 330n119 Lynch. 25n28..... E. P. R. K. 349n23 Lundquist. 299n192 Mangel. 179n12 Maguire. 330n110 Lim. 382n2 Luffman. 330nn101.. F... in whole or in part. J.. 262n34 Lu. 330n115 Loomis.. 240n116 Marginson. L.. G. 94n83.. E.. B.... A. 240n100 Locke... C. 327n27 Marr. P. 208n124. A. D.. 28n142. D. S.. J.. J... 205n15.. 25. 122n14 Mahaffie. 60n125 MacDonald. 93n79. I. 154n10 Luft. S. 236n5 Lin. 239n96 Lowe. 326n21. 25n48. 146. 126n128 Matsusaka. 58n35 Lowry.. J. 154n25 Man. 374. 299n183 Mathur. 329n96 Martin. C. V. 299n187 Livnat. M. 122n7 Makino. C. 24n1. 299n196. K. 46... T. 28n134. 105. 6.. 92n38 Mahmood. J. 298n162.. S.. 209n156 Markham. 298n174 Makri. J. 58n54 Mazursky. 208n94 Maccoby. 209n149 Lovallo. M... 328n51 Maremont. 238n61 Massini.. M. 57n11. 210n160 Maynard. 298nn155. 57n12 Linder. 122n21 Liu. 241n148. E.. W.. 156n89 Ma. 156n117 Liu.. T. 94n99. 208n103 Lu. P. 293n28 Madhavan.. 61nn150–152.... 28n134. 264n78 Linton. R.. 265n133. J. I. 262n37 Lubit. E. 174... 125n99 Manev. S.. 206n37 Marden. A. 238n61.. X. 326n6. 293nn28. C. 28n151 Mayer. 125n101 Lineberry.. H. 24n10 Manolova. R. R. 328n57 Mathur. W. B. 382n11 Madan.. 57n32 Love. T. 241n139 Matta. 296n122. 155nn43. J. P. J. 209n134 Madigan. G. 180n37 Marino.. 8. J.. 264n77. 237n24 Mankins...... R.... J. 155nn63. P. T. 207n72 Lorsch. 294n59 Mahoney.. 157 Ludema. 28nn153... 58n55. 94n90. 293n32 Mackey. M. 210n157. M.... 349n20 Mandel. A. 69. I. 69 Lynch... 123n45 Luce. S. H. 62n172 Matilis. 297n125. K.. 294n51 Luehrman.. 57nn23. 295n75 Masters. 265n124 Marquez. 156n115 McCabe. 296n102 March. 265n125 Marks. Y. M.. Y. 156 Luo.. C. 295n73. 238n55. L. 155n38 Marshall. D. 24n11 Lopez. A. 122n8. 154n7 MacMillan. J. 330n103 Matten.... S. G.. R. 209n139.. 27n102.. 112 Malak. H. 264n103. 27n125.. T.. scanned. 156n102 Lin. J. 236n3. 107. W. J. 330n121 Machalba. 180n21 Madhok.. D. 329n91 Martin. W. S. S. 208n124. All Rights Reserved. D. A. A. A. A.. 208n122. G. 331n139 Mahoney. 156n112 Maznevski. 121. 330n125 Mauri. 27n117. D. P... 326n21. M. 298n166 Malter.. J. L. F. 28n143. 240nn117. R....-S. J. 59n71. 353nn143. F. 239n91 Marcus.Licensed to: iChapters User Liedtka. 293n31. M. C.. E.. A. J. C.. B.. G.. J. J.. 26n87 Manz. 62n185. 329n79 Malnight. W. 238n52. M.. 26n65. 349n6.. 296n110 Magretta. 298n157 Lilien. 92n27. S. J. 294n43. M.. 292n1. J. 170. 240n123 Lord. T. 327n39 Lioukas. C. M. 263n46.. 94n101 Madupu. R. 350n37 Mathews. D. 208n121. 36 May. 332n178 Marcel. A. W. 266n136 Lowe. 262n37 Makadok. R. K. 156n92. A. 352nn96. 295n67. 25n42 Mathys. 125n102 Malburg. 297n132... 57n13 Litteral. S. K. 156n112 Martin. R. 59n93 Mar. 125n105 Mattila. T. 58nn40. L. 294nn43. 92n15 Macharzina. A. J. Y... Inc. 351n87 Markides. . M. A. 24n9 Liesch. 125n120. 331n139 Mainkar. W.. D. 156n115 Matthews. L.. 207n79.. D. 266n158 Lonie. 54.. C. R. L. J. 296n111 Lumpkin.. 352n120 Marshall. H. J. 351n83 Marsh. C.. E. 29.. 326n6 Lynch. C. 238n59. B. M... M. 299n188 Lyles. 180n41 Matusik.. May not be copied.. F. 94n53 Litschert. W.. 93n61. 295n81. M. 206n65 Matthyssens. 28n142 Mackey. E. K... 293n18.. G.. M. 45. J. 27n109... 351n81 McAfee. L.. 292n12 Long... L. J. G. J. 124n72. 48. N. 239n90 Marsh. 238n47. 351n75 Maurer. M. C. S. 122n19 London. N. 330n123 Matheren. 209n131 Mathis. 296nn104.. 122n5 Makhija. 332n181 Lucier.. 155n62 Mallette. I. 327n34 Manikutty. 266n143 Markoczy. 26nn66. M. J. J. 236nn5.. 350n49 Lubatkin. A. 350n38. 58n52.

.. R.. 329n76 Moran. 39 NAME INDEX 397 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Jerry. 198 Moeller. A. M.. 8–9. B.. E. M. Craig. 60n103. 208n124. R. 299n191 Milliken. J.. 353n139 Moffett.. P. X. 155n44 Mittal. 326n10 McNulty. H. 63n204 Mishra. 122nn18. A. J.. R. K. 330n101 Miller. E. 25n29 Montgomery. 207n83. F. F. R.. 352n111 Mundie. 297n152. R... 208n107. 154n23 McMillan.. C.-G. K. D. M. M. A. 349n16. 382n13. 329n80 Milton. 294n56 Miller. 329nn87. 58n57. K... J. 24n21 McDaniel. J. 58n48 McCarthy. 332n179 Moyes. 238n42 McMahan. P. 330n126 Moesel. 93n72 McCracken. K. K. 258 Mudambi.. May not be copied. 28n142. 206n36 Moy. 292n7 Mulally.. N. 138 McCardle. 25n44 Mullin.. 25n32. Alan. 383n45 Miller. S.. 327n37 Morgensen. 262n38. E. 59n69. 57n27 Millar.. 292n7 Mol. 205n12.. K. 261n1.. 41 Mullaney. 209n139 Mount. S. 121 Mercken.. 294n48 Monczka. R. 59n92. 331n146 Miller. 207n80 McNamee. 61n155 Michalisin. 266n148. K. 299n183 Mukherjee. W. 326n19.. 239n96.. 6... 28. 24n8.... 352nn96... 26n93. C. 383nn47. K. 209n130 Mian.. 60n121.. T.... B. 294n59 Muth.Licensed to: iChapters User McCall. G. William. 209n131 Millan. V.. M... T. W.. 126n123 McWilliams. M. 206n48.. 206n37. 181n65.. 240nn117.. 330n113 Meyer. 62n186 Minehart. 62n158 Mirabal.. 92. L. 126n125. 327n29 Miller.. 154n13. 326n14. 24n3 Meyer.. 207n72. 61n154 Miles.. M.. 382nn11. 265n133 McKinnon. 154. H. J. 156n111 Murphy. Sunil Bharti. 126n123. Claudia Fan. E. 93n44.. G. 156n109 Mowery. 265n108 Metrick. 208n98. A. C. A. S. C... 9. 182n116 Morris.. G. 265n124 Mische. 122n14. 265n131 Morse. 38. C. D.. A. Jr. E. Akio. 328n62 Meulbroek. 263n58 McCarthy. S. A. 266n154 Mirvis. Y. K. J. T.. S. G. R. P. S. 242n154. J..... 118. 239n95. 92n28 McLaughlin... S. 24. W. M. E.. 28n133. M. 26nn82. 350n38. G. K. 56n6. M.. C. 95 McTague. 125n118. A. 154n23. M. B.. 349n13 Mintzberg. D... K.. 328n49 Mukherji. 237n27 Montgomery. 154n6. 326n6 Mitchell. T.. 350n56 McMillan. L. L. 61nn139. T. 26nn70. 24nn4. 238n61. 125n116. 263nn52. III.. 383nn35. C. F. C. M. 263n62 Mitsuhashi. 71. 326n19. T. 209n156 McEvily.. 60n97 Murray. 61n149. G. J. 239n85 Minniti. J... E. 94n98. 61n149. 25n27. 383n47 Menipaz. 30 Morris.. K. M. 332n183 Merriman. 293n31... 350n61 Morrison. scanned. 265n108. 155n68 Moskowitz. C. 292n1 Montoya-Weiss. 182n98 McWilliams. 328n56 Means.. H... 292n7 McWilliams. 57n13 Mifflin. 351n94 Moon.. All Rights Reserved. C. P.. D. K. 237n25 Mitchell. or duplicated. S. .. 95n126 Motlana. 298nn161. 122nn8. 237n29 McGahan. 382n2 Mitchell. 331n129 Michael. 156n98 McGrath. 264n92. G.. 91. M. L. 265n121 McGee. Anne. 341 McLaughlin. J. 125n105 Molina-Morales. 264n78 Merchant. K. 179n2.. B. W. 295n77 McKenna.. T. 294n56 Moses. 56n5 Mellahi. P.. D.. 91n4... P. G.. 181n83. William. A. D. J. 330n103 McGuire. I... 331n146 Myer. V. P. 298n154 Myers. E. 383n50 Moss.. 295n88 Morrow. 37 Muriel. 327n32.. H. 123n44 McKendrick. B. 175... 265n108 Moon. S. 123n34.. T. M.. 262n23 Moeller. 297n129 Mok. 4 Mulcahy. D. M. 295n73.. 53 McGregor. 121n2. 154n34 McDougall. 60n125 McDougall.. F. J. 24n15. 338 Muncir.. R.... 92n29. 292n7 Meckling. L. 48. 19. C. 383n51 Mooney.. A. 382nn19.. 351n65 McEvily. 327n31 Meiland. 332n168 Mohr. 63n189 Murphy. Inc. R. E. 93n77. J. 298n167 McNamara.. 63.. 332n178 Mezias. 238n63 Miller. J. E.. C. 328n57.. 292n3. 351n72 Michaels. D.. 26n81. 206nn61. A. 24n17 Mendelow. 30... L. M. R. 27n115.. 115. 239n73 Munce. G.. L.. R. G. M. D. 206n56 McGuire. 61n130. 123n41 Michel. P. 264n83 McKelvey. 295n84 Mosakowski.. L. 181nn74.. F.. 55. J. E. G. 209n131 Miles. Y. 27n121. J. J. G. G. 328n61 Mecham. 91n1. S. 26n57. A. W. 93n54 McKnight. 26n72. 208nn112. W.. K. H. J. in whole or in part.. 328n53 McVea. 299n181 Menard.. Jr.. 94n93. H. A. D.. 295n87 Mudd. J.. A.. 238n52. 28n140.. 329n84 Milton-Smith. 125n91.. A. 299n186 Miller. 237n20 Miller. 61nn134... C. J. J. 125n98 Murtha. S. T. 314 McIntyre. L. 330n126. 333n188 Mester. 92n19 McKinley.. J. 329n97 Morita. M.. T. D.

94n108 Nambisan. 207n74 Olian. G. 69 Paez. 351n82 O’Connor. 240nn102... 239n76 Noorderhaven. 264n87 Nielsen. 94n93.. 352n111 Overdorf. R. 206n54 Parker. D. M. 210n158 Norburn.. 154n4. 331n151 Nicholls. J. A. 181n81 Nicholson. 93n52.. J. 349nn6. May not be copied.. 332n178 Penner-Hahn. 240n109 Nanchum. C. 294n44 Olsen.. 28n134.. 238n53.. K.. 92n29 Perry-Smith. 349n23 Narula. W. L. 265n132. 296n109 Nigh. A. 328n50 Ostrosky. H. 184. 58n44. 237n26 Novicevic.. Inc. 353n155 Neilson. D. N. 47. H. 296n121 398 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. S. B... 327n32. 181n79 Novaes.. V. 171. T. T.. A. 330n106 Ogden. 294n56 Parnell. A. 180nn25. 331n132 Palmisano. 157n128 Patrick. 95n114.. R.. 180n41 O’Neill. 103 Palia. 241n131 Nielsen. 353n131 Penrose... W. 26n93. N. 292n9 Pauwels... 155nn63. L... 294n46 Palmeri. T. M. 93n56 Pant. Michael.. J.... 27n98 Peppers. 154n11 O’Neill.... 24. 296n105. 332nn163.. 333n190 Odland. Lou. 265n133. 293n18. 292nn3. J. N. T. O. 63nn198. J. J. H. or duplicated. J. C. D.. 186 Pan. 51 Parent... W.. 350n60. 94n94. 25n29. 125n100 Park. 206n55 Ooghe. 155n61.. J. 296n101 Nair... 94n96. 351n65 Oxley.. J. 205n7 Pelled.. A. J. 383n41 Ocasio. 180n47. Stephen. 62n187 O’Sullivan.. 179n2. 92n18 Netter. M. B. 319 Pearson. 94n105 Narayanan. 93n49 Pelpu. M. 206n39. 207n90 Pearce. 56n5 Petersen.. K. L. 326n13 Nickel... D. L.. J. M. 58n43. J.. A.. 93. 51. 154n27 Pereira. H. O. 24n6... 95n116 Nalebuff. 181n80 Peck. 326n18 Ordonez. 125n97 Nixon. 57n28 Norman. 231 Perlmutter. C. S. 265n108 Paik. 94n89 O’Leary. L. S. 352nn107. 179n8 Newman. C. 60n121 Ozment.. 58n47 Pearce. III... 123n39. 349n21 Peteraf.. H. 12. J. 155nn45. M. M... 180n44 O’Connell. 298n176. E. J.. P. 330n105 Pedersen. P. 329n77 Pegels. W.. 209n137 Norton. 156n108 Olgun. 45. 300n199 Park. 109.. E. 240n115... J. 297n132 O’Brien. 95n115.. 172 Pennings. 44.. A. 332n182 Nyaw.. H.. 146 Nelson. 200– 202. 295n78 Parkhe.. H. 92n36. A. K. 298nn169. K. C. D. 293n34. 294nn50. J. L. 60n95 Park. 53.. 61n136 Numagami. S. II. P. K. J.. 266n136 Nonnemaker.. C.. 125n97 Pehrsson. J. 61n155 Ong. J.. N. 179n15.. 299n177 Paladeau. 124n69 Nibler.. 329n74 Oosterveld. D. T. 240n122 Pagano. 155n38 Perez... 130. K. A. 332n175 Park. J.... 87. Cook. P. 331n146 Nord.. 123n45.. 349n25 O’Byrne. 58n44. V.. L. 179n14. 295n75 Nummeia. S. 27n102. 206n36. D. 94n105 Noe. A.. 58n47 Oliver. 332n180 Perrone.. Y. F.. V..Licensed to: iChapters User Nachum. D. G. 295n66.-K. 95n120. 238n49 Pekar. T. 331n138 Nerad. 300n197 Park. P.. M. 25n48. Y. 37. J.. 332n181 Olsen. P. D. G.. K. H. 112. Jr.. L. K. 237n23 Peng... All Rights Reserved.. 208n122. H. scanned. 170–171 Palepu. U. 61n137.. W. 40. 62n188 Pantzalis. M. M.. J.. 57n11. M. 59n61. 122n14. 350n62 Nunez-Nickel. 295n75. 25n27. 57n13. M. 93n77.. C. L.. 156n121. 331n149 Narasimhan. V.. 208n99 Oliver.. 236n3. 170 Nerer. H. 263n63 Park. A. N. I. 327nn35. 89. A. 59n88. C. A. J. 352n123 Perotti.. 124n65 Nohria.. 93n53 Olhager. A.. M. Y. M. 57n11. A.. M. W. 209n138. 125n105 Pavelin. 297n152 Nhoria. S. R.. 266n151. S... 261n5 Neupert. M.. 209n156 Perry. 91n6.. M. .. 95n117 Osheroff. B. W. 181nn72. R. 352nn101. 293n30 Noda. 94n97.. 60n120. E. 157 Nobel. 135 Olexa. M. D. 49.. 294n42.. 330n99 Patton. 181n63 Nerkar. G. R. M. M. 297n136 Panchal. A. P... A.. 28n151 Newell. 297nn124. 60n124 O’Grady. E... D. S. 11–12. 182n100 Neal. 58n54. P. 296n102. 154n24 O’Donnell. 94n90. 124n70 Palich. J. R. S. R.. M. 113. E. D.. 237n27 Peters. 208n124. 93n46 O’Reilly. 351n95 O’Neill. 233 O’Donnell. 123n31. 92n27. 353nn143. E. 94n88 Nguyen. D. Samuel J..... 208n118 Ndofor. 240n129.. 92n19 Pauly. 205n19. 28n147.. 155n41 Osborne. in whole or in part. N. R. E. L. P. P. S. 264n104 Palmer.. R. 296n116 O’Connor. 328n44 Nutt.. 154n34 Neck. S. 122n17.. M... 238n46. G.. 237n20 Palmer. B.. B... 94n90. 209n126 Oxman.. R. E. C. A. Jack. M. 296n104 Neustadt.. 108 Oviatt. J. M... 236n11. 154n6 Park.

209n154 Reinhardt. 15. P. 125n100 Reddy. 91. J. 382n2 Pisano. 328n59 Reed.. 83.... G. 25n50 Rajagopalan. 328n47. 28n136.. 170 Power. 60n98. C. 58nn37. 167. L. 239n93. 327n28 Reddy. L. 363. 297nn141. 382n30 Rao.. 297n129 Pugh.. J. 94n96. M. 327n39. 382n25 Pine. 351nn79. K. 298n162 Ranft. 123n33.. C. J. 94n100 Ping.. 60n95 Powell. 124n59 Quinn.. 21.. S. M.. T. 24n3. D. 92n20 Rau. 349n23 Pindado. F... S. P. J. 24. 126n125 Raubitschek. M. J. P. 160. 293n28 Petitt. K. 30. E. J. 205n4. 152... 25n27. S. 294n47... 27n104. A. A. M. 292n8 Pisano.. 59n75. K.. S. 125n104. C.. F. P. 206n65 Powell. 293n12 Quinlan. G.. 146. 38.. 329n86 Petrick. A. S. 125nn92. 65.. 28nn145.. D. A. M. P... R. A. 294n48. 60n123 Price. 57n28... V. B. 241n142 Post. 154n6. R. 82. 36 Phene. 328n49 Rajand. 62n185 Pettigrew. 263nn47. F.. A. 332n184 Ring. 352n97 Rindova. 262nn22.. 8. N.. R.. 61n130. 299n185. 262nn19. 20. 328nn56. R. 27nn126. 364. H. U. 22 Prahalad. 87 Rifkin. C.. 86. F. 208n104 Rediker. M. S. P. 297n140 Porter.. W. O. K. G... H. 93n61 Reibstein.. . L.. J.. 93n73 Porter. 328n47 Petkova.. 182n117 Reinert. 327n26. 266n140 Rajiv. J. C. 332n184 Petra. All Rights Reserved. 296nn96–98 Portlono.. 206nn53. I. K. 239n97 Pollock.. S. 328n65.. A. 154n33 Reed.. E. 240n121. R. 68.. 296n120. G.. 332nn163. 124n72. H. P.. A.. 107. T. 10–11. 293nn28. 154. 24n8. 126nn130. J. 28n136. 88. M. G. 153. 156n122. G. 123n58 Ravenscraft. 208n100.. V. K.... 26nn67. M... 156nn74. 60n105. 293n14 Quinn. J.. 63n203 Prusak. S. in whole or in part. 238n62.. 333n190 Prince. 295nn68. 265n121. 130. 28nn130... 209nn142. 94n102. 180nn22. 261n7. A. 125n115 Prior. 241n148 Picken. J. K. 140. J. 297n145 Quelch... 180n45 Porras. 162 Phatak. S. 90. 24n4. 57n18. 279. 124n59 Pouder. 180n26 Puumalainen.. 93... 205n4. 293n28 Prescott... 127. 57n13. 26nn88. S. P. J. 57n28. 11. 91n4. 45 Rexroad.. 299n177. 179n20. M. M. 24nn4.. 59n81 Ramirez.. 112. P. 96. A. E. 92n14 Probst.. W. C. 179n2. T. 297n134 NAME INDEX 399 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.. 265n121.. 299n178 Porac. A. G. S. 136. 328n55 Pucik. 179n11 Reilly. S. G. 266n158 Ray. May not be copied. 25n39. 327n42 Pettway. 58n38.. 383n48 Polk. 125n87 Reger. 297nn137. D. D. 57n18. J. K. 327n21 Reeb. 88. Y.. 293n30. P. 280–281. A. 299n182 Reingen. L. A.. P.. 84–86. 238n46. 29n164. scanned. 61n146 Raymond. 330n119 Polo... 95n114 Rehbein. 350n44 Puck. V. 157nn126. 350n62 Quah. D. 154nn8. 326n18 Prasad. S. or duplicated. 62n171 Porrini.. 155n70. 353n136. V.. 326n20. M. G. L.. 122n23. D.. 155n51. S. V.. 181n73 Pinch... G. 122n13. 138. P. 155n44.. 92nn8.. A. II. 63n205.. 266n147. 262nn18. A. S. P. 292n9 Rice. 28n142. 177 Ramirez. J. 92. 292n11 Rajan. L. P. R. G. P. 58n37. 207n93 Rajan.. R.. D. 123n55 Rigby. 100. J.. 142. 296n119 Riis. 155n46.. R. N. A. G.. 205n27 Pompitakpan. 353n129 Preston. 60n123 Postrel.. 239n77. 25n50. 263n45. 265nn106. 125n110 Power. 91n6.. 292n11. 263n66 Ready. 296n108 Raynor. 119. 299n181 Pil. 293n32. 123n57... 30. K. J. 155n41. 351n86 Pryor. 125 Rajan. 330n107. R. V. E. B.. J. K. 42. 70 Putsis. 25. 20. 262n37. 58 Pindyck. J. 236n1. 351n83 Phillips. 242n156 Pitts. 296n121.. H. 142.. L. G. 59n81. A. S. S. A. IV. Inc. Jr. T. N. 207nn91. E. S. 330n115 Power. J. 265n111 Phan. 95n117 Ramaswamy. A. R.. 207n83. 24n8. 56n1 Rebeiz. 293n28 Ragozzino. D. G. 61n140. 94n105 Ramaprasad. J. 329n73 Rectin. 62n187 Reynolds. 208n118 Rangan... 17–22.. 331nn148. T.. 155n58. 121n2. W.. 94 Rasheed.. III. 35 Pitcher. 382nn14. 298n152. E. 95nn111. 6. E. 131. 125n102. R. K..Licensed to: iChapters User Petersen. 331nn147. 76. C. 264nn90. 180n45 Pinches. 134.. 207n89 Redding. D.. 79. 82. 60n103.. K. 383nn32. E. 208n95 Reuer. 263nn58. 349n17 Ricart. 237n26 Pfeffer. 24nn20. R.. 351n92 Rappaport.. R. 239n97. 207n83. 182n107 Puranam.. C. E. 128 Pick. 125n111 Pigman. 125n105 Ragatz. 295n75. 48. 60n120.. 331n134 Pistre.. 123n37 Ramirez-Aleson. J. 326n13 Pettit. 298n152 Raisch. 124n66. P. J. 123n49. 92 Priem... J... 123n31. 241n143.... 331n144 Pose. E. 62n185 Quintens. M.

345 Rosen. 89 Scherer. T. 261n8. F. 242n156 Rowley.. 298n153 Ross. B. 135 Sengul.. R.. 25n42 400 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. S. 121n1 Rufin. M. T. C. S.. 265n117 Sen. K. T. A.. 75. S. 240n100 Sarkar.. 266n158 Scott. R. 332n166 Roberson. R. G... 126. A. 206n46 Sender. 125n90 Schoenberg. R. M.. C. 179n2. C. C. 294n37 Robin... 331nn140.. M... 92n30. N. 298n157 Roy. 262n23 Schmidt.. M.. T...... J. 154n5. 295n84. 241n150. 180n30 Sambharya. 59n72.. L. M.. 296n103. A. 93n61 Schulze. S.. 241n130 Rust. C.. 327n34 Ryman. R. 94n83.. H. M. 319 Robinson. H. 352n120. 328n49 Seth. 335. K. 181nn63. 122n7. 68 Salk. 24n5. Jr. 157 Seybold. 8. 20 Schrage. 241n134 Sangiorgi. 59n68. M. 213.. 28n136. 125n100 Sashittal. 349n28 Schaan.. 57nn19. 329n73 Sexton. E. 265n128 Saigol. 350n49 Schoemaker. 123n54. D. C.. 61n138 Sanders. 209nn126. A. 92n17.. W. W..... 327nn21. 210n160.. 265n110 Roller. 263n72. 207n85 Sakurai. B. A.. E. R. . P. 297n132 Robinson. 240n106 Robertson. 156n117 Rondinelli. S... B. D. P. W. B. J. R.. 209n143 Sampson. P. 326nn7.. M. H. 351n79 Saparito. G.. 299n187... A. 328n62 Sengupta. R. 208n99 Royer. 151. G. 182n114. 180n46 Semadeni. in whole or in part. 93n50 Rudberg... 239n97. L. L. 240n104 Sanchez. 154n27 Schroeder. 122n21. 93n74. F. 122n29.. 382n26. 208n106 Sakakibara. 92n29.. K.. M.. G. A. All Rights Reserved. 205n6 Rossetti. 240n126. 58n42 Samhi. M. V. 299n190 Rose. 157 Sandvig. 95 Roberts. 207n74 Ruefli. 208n99 Sebenius. 331nn134... 123n47.. W.. 383n51 Schwartz. H. 241n146 Rosenfield. 240n122 Sanders.. C. P. S. C.. 328n56 Sen.. 263n45 Savsar.. 9. H. 266n138 Schneider. M. 241n131 Roengpitya. F. J... 186 Salancik.. J. 25n54... 179n20 Rondeau. scanned.. D. 349nn8.. B.. 240n119 Ross. 154n27 Rogoff. 353n137 Rouse. A. 297n139 Schatt. 154n1. 57n35 Santos. S.. L. 351n77 Roche.. E. 350n62 Sachs. 262n12 Saini. 207n83.. J. J. 154n29 Shaffer. 352n119 Roberts. N. 330n122 Sauter-Sachs. 156n106. 144 Sams. 294n49. G. A. J. 42 Sever.. J. W. 350n37 Sapienza. 156n82 Roth. 353n130 Sarasvathy. 26n84. 330nn103. 238n47 Schuler.. A. 329n91 Robins. A... 328n54 Schweizer.-P. Inc. J. 240nn119... 28n130.... 26nn67. 351n89 Sergesketter.. 155n48 Sengupta. 383n44 Schonwalder. P. May not be copied.. W. 209n139. 59n80 Schoch. 264n86 Sayles. K. D... 352n104 Rubenstein.. 60n123 Sadtler. S.. 25n27.. R. 24n5.. 207n76. R. 156n115 Schoorman. E. 93n51 Roberts. 25n53. 24n15 Selden.. 57n17... R. 208n100 Sammer... 239nn78. F. E. L. P. M. 352n106 Sasseen. E.. A. J. J. 206n45. 59n69. B. S.. 352nn122. 205n5 Schaper-Rinkel. L. 58n48 Scholes. D. K.. R. B. 63n206. Rob... L. 352n127 Roll.. R. 327n31 Rogers. H. 62n172. B.. F. W. 28n134. 262n18 Schlingemann. 24 Scifres. J. 94n82. 294n55. T. 93n77. 26 Schwartz. 266n157 Schendel. P. 28n137 Salter.. H. 62n185. K. S.. H.. P.. 25n48. 299n187 Rose. D. 353n149 Salter. P.. L. G. W. 209n128 Segrestin.. A. J. A. J... 382n7 Sandberg. S. P. A. A.. T.. 348n4.. J. 125n106. 297n128 Salmador. P. 330n106 Rothaermel.. J. 265n133 Ryan. 327n37. 79. T. 262n37 Schumpeter. R. J. 28n143 Saarenketo...... Jr.. 350n41 Sen. 239n89 Schoenecker.. B. H. 238n58.. W. E. 294n39 Rodriguez. C. 349n18. B. 180n56. J. 109. E... B.. 94 Robertson.. 182n113.-L. J. 299n194 Shah.. 350n41 Sarkar. M.. J. A. 261n6 Rock. 24n8. J. 295n63. 238n60. or duplicated.. J. M. 326n8 Schwartz. 336. 262n19 Selva. 295n62 Rumelt. 382n1 Rosenkopf. 26nn58.. 299n182 Rowe. R.. J. 329nn87. 24n2. 206n41. I.Licensed to: iChapters User Ritholz.. 326n2. W.. D... 76. R. M. 94n98 Robinson. M. 156n113 Saxton. L. 263nn47.. R. G. 166. E. M. 350n34 Sarin. C. 332n184 Seward. E. 240n102 Robbins. 57n28 Savill. 122n6. Masamitsu... 180n55. I. D. 237n38. A. E. 264n78 Schwenk. 353nn144. 92n18 Rosenzweig. 266n147.. M.. M. S. L. 237n14. B. 169 Roberts.. 264n76 Schmitz. Q. 296n113. R. 299n191 Salomon. 206n46 Seph.. 48. 208n96 Roijakkers. 62n186 Robertson. 27n106. D. E. G.. M... 241n149 Rocks. K.. 294n59 Rugman. D... 351n80 Schneider. P. 121 Schilling. 293n35 Rose... 92n42 Rivkin. 155n40. 169 Servaes. 205n16. 263n43. J. P. 352n106 Rosen. 181n87. 209n136 Roth.. R.

B. C. J. J. 122n19. J. F.. R. 240n120 Shook. 154n12. 209n154 Stalk. 209n131 Snyder. 348n5. M. 25. 295n63 Steers. B. 123n43 Shepherd. 24n2. C. 59n81 Sorenson.. 297nn130... 240n102 Sinha. M. 25n29. M. 327n42 Song. A. 299n190 Shirke. 28n141..... J. 54 Smith... 26nn84. 27n117.. 293n25 Shane.. 351n80 Soule.. 63n196 Simons. E. M. 327n41 Smith.. C. 57n27 Shirouzu. 182 Sharp. Z.. 205n4. T. 125n117 Stevens. L. 24n24. 238n65. A. A. W. 328n57 Sinha. H. 29n160.. M. 58nn47. P.. 333n185 Shapiro. W. 208n109. 94n94 Shortell. 349n20. 328n54 Stern. 299n186 Smith. S. . 57n34 Stander.. 263nn65. D.. F. 349n21 Shamsie. 60n99.. 207n79 Sinatra. 57nn10.. 23.. H. A. J. 207n75 Shrader. 85. E.. 262nn22. 124n65 Simmers. 87. 292n5 Stegemoller. 94n98. III. 294n48 Stevens. 351n84 Smith. 261n5 Stein. B. 92nn9. A. 122n11. 328n49 Sharma. H. S. 353nn142.. M. M.. J.. 330n127. 264n84. J. 62n175. 239n77 Steensma. 349n23 Spulber. 240n127 Steinhorst. 58n54 Sims. M. 297n147.. 62n182 Skill. G. S. J.. 264n94 Skaggs. 72. 181n68 Shankar. 60n96 Starbuck.. 179n1. 24n6. 58n47. 19. C. 264n99 Smirchich. D. 24n10 Steenkamp. W. K. M. 62n163 Shao. 209n144.. 297n129 Shrivastava. 36 Sirmon. K. S. 298n170 Somaya.. 60n127. M.. M. 57n11. A. 295n66 Shi. 25n47. S.. D. 25... 91n1. G.. K. 93. 154n23. W. 262n18.. 100... A. 44. G.. 240n105. C.. 266n143. 237n27 Simmering. 7. B. 294n47 Siegel.. 25n47. 328n62 Smith. R. S. 239n72 Sheth. H.-B. 348n2 Shepherd. M. O. 382n17 Stanley. M. W. M. J... D. 28n132.. I... Jr.. M. W. 48. K. 57nn11. L. 299n195 Shleifer. scanned. 330n104 Stevenson.. M. 294n59. M. 263n45.. P.. 29. 28 Singh.. G. 298n160 Song. J. 264n82 Shen. 210n159. 349n31 Song. 15. 180nn22. 59n89. 36. H. 237n28. O. 383n34 Singh. 329n91 Shenkar. 154n5. 143.. G... 208n104. 89. J. L. D... 25n27. M. 47. J. R. 62n186 Soupata. A.... S. 241n142 Smith. 31.... R. 62n188 Sharpe. T. 122n18 Starks. C. 24n3. P. L... 24n3. 95n115 Shank. J. 25. Inc... P. N. R... K.. 155n47 Slocum. 126n124 Shuen. Slocum. M. 294n55. 123n38. 296n108 Shapira. 349n9 NAME INDEX 401 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 125n97 Songini. 128.. 180n49 Slevin. 59. 293n34. 181nn69. 297n141.. R.. 124n86 Spanos. R. 146 Sirower. 265n109 Sine. J. L. 241n134 Smith. A. S. 263nn47.. H.. 75. Y. J. E. J. 26n65 Simonin.. R. 181n63 Stadter. P. A. 62n175.. 353n136. 58n57 Sorcher. 351n94 Song. 58n55. 349n28 Sharma.. 262n16. 172 Shaw. 155n44 Singer. 156n118 Sonnenfeld. H... 240nn117. 352n123. L.. May not be copied.. 294nn41.. 206nn39... 125n116. 27 Shanely. C. 155n60 Srinivasan.. 123n54. 24nn1. 58n44... 63n196 Shimizu. 91n1. L. 59n85. 241n144 Slater. 136 Sinofsky. 207n77 Shanley. G. D. P. 132. 61n137. J. 262nn9. 331nn130... 205n4. 298n157 Sohi.. 26n79 Smit. D. 181n94 Shan. J. 350nn47. T.. 123n41. 5. F... J. T. 182nn97. 60n103 Short. 5. 34 Shapiro. 19. 293n18 Stein. 50. D. 91n7. 60n128 Snow. T. 179nn10. 91nn3. D.. 263n51 Snell. 264n77. W.... D.. 90. 155n44. 10. V. M. O. D. 238n42 Shields. 293n25. M. 208n122. W.. 124n70. 21 Smart. or duplicated. 121n1 Slovic. K. II. S. 241n147. S.. E. 156n115 Steindel. J. 237n28 Sinha. 331n151 Sharma.. 353n147 Shimoni. 55. 31. 298n152 Shepard.. A. in whole or in part.. 126n126 Shaver. 122n6. 95n127 Stephens.. 382n2 Sparks.. 25n48. P.. 209nn142. W. 154n11 Sleuwaegen.. 94n53 Spar. 57nn23...Licensed to: iChapters User Shahrur. 29. 352n114 Sobek. 237n21 Singh. 261n5 Shalley. 206n36.. S. G. H. T.. W. 59n74. K. K. Jr. 180nn22. 349nn10. 265nn109. T. G. D.. 209n156. H.. C. 40.. L. 238n69 Stalker.. 36 Simon. 24. 124n67 Solvell. 182n110. 330n114 Steele. Y. 70. Steven.. S. P. 57n11. 57nn20. 121 Srivastava. 332nn181. 266n147 Silverman. 262n18 Smith. 293n27. V. 179nn4. 92n11. 329n94 Simon. D... 179n2. W. A. 297n139. K. 125n117. E. 124n70 Stafford. 264n82 Shelton. A. 156n114 Sims.. 16. D. C. H.. M. 52. H. 60n119 Singh. C. L... All Rights Reserved.. 297n128 Simons.. C... 154n6. B. L. J. 31. 124n59. R. 209n140 Spencer. 13. 58n47 Sims.. 264n81. 155n43 Stallen.. J. Z. D. P.. 298nn169. J. D... 262n10. C. 122n15 Smith. M. A.. 13. 61n153 Simsek. 95. W. 237n28. 266n155. R.

58nn53... 299n189 Talmud. G.. 297n133 Tucci. S. 95 Stimpert. 209n138 Ucbasaran. 26n68 Thompson. 209n133.. 23. T.. 329n77 Thornton. A.. R. 332n185 Stoll. T.. A. 264n95. W. 209n135 Turner. 180n54 Tsai. 332n180 Swaminathan. H. E.. J. 125nn100.. 299n192 Stewart. 293n28 Tau. 57n12 Tapscott. A. E. 327n34.. 265n116 Tsang. 364. K.. 26n93 Stinglhamber. G.. E. E. 122n25 Tierney... I. 351n72 Thomas.. 181n82 Sutton. R.. I.. 292nn3. 241n145. J. M.. 27n101.. 331nn151. 122n23. L.. D. N. 237nn22. A. 296n108 Tekie. III. 263n50 Tse. 122n21... G. 93n69 Tedeschi. 91n2. J. E. 24n24... J. R. 26n80. 62n184. 104.. P. E. 383n52 Trigeorgis. 126n126 Triantis. 124n85 Thomas. C. 57n13. 122n14. 292n8 Tooker. 180n45.. H. B. 330nn110. H.. G. 351n72 Strebel. 296n104 Sullivan. 296n109 Tan. L. H. 95n114. 332n183 Stipp. 92n34.. J. 331n132. 205n30... P.. 327n23 Thomsen.. 266n144. 29n163. M. 63n188 Treynor. 155n44. III. M. 326n3. John. H.. R.. D. 350nn50. S.. 125n107.. 28n147. Inc.. J. 294n38 Takeishi. J. 293n31.. III.... B. R. 363. 57nn20. 26n74. 329n93 Tong. 24nn3. 62 Stopford. 56n3 Tong. 154n15.. S. 181nn60. 382n20 Tong. A. 124n61 Turk. 26n54. H. 27n113. B... E. 296n112 Uhlenbruck. 28n138. 296n121.. C. H. 350n59 Ullman. 294n43 Tan. 383n41 Stewart. 206n39. 161. 145 Sutcliffe.. 296n123.. 350n45 Tsai. A. R. 383n54 Turban. 329nn87... R. D. 326n21. All Rights Reserved. 207n68. 237n21 Stiles. 154n5 Stubbart. 58n57 Tuschke. 57n13 Thomas. 263n51 Tversky. 26n84.. 94n79.. 295n75 Tan. L. 154n32 Teece.-S.. 94n83. Y.. 210n160 Tan. 27n97. 171. W. W. P. B.. 156n116 Tosi. 25n46... 208n122. J.-J. A. R. 29. 60n97 Sundaramurthy. D. H. 182n109 Talbott. 351n93 Subramanian.. 328n64 402 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.. 353n132 Talaulicar. I. M. 29n165. 382n16 Tripsas. K. T. T. 330n119 Toffler. 351n91 Taylor. 125n91.. L. 180. 236n5 Tetrick. 205n12. J. L..... 383n43 Street. 331nn139. 262n36 Thompson.. 28n140. L. 28n134 Taylor. A.. 294nn44. S. 295n65 Tabrizi. 157n125... 266n156. A. 58n51 Toms. S. 157 Tushman. 382n20. 328n69. 297n132. B. L. L. E. B. 95n114. 350n49 Tanriverdi. scanned. H. 357.. 62n181. 29n160.. 51 Timmons.. 154n2 Storey. 293n29. 208n120 Tippins.. B. 240–241n129. 265n128. M. H. 351n83 Suzukamo... D. M. B. 327n40 Turner. W. M. 24n16 Trent. N. L. 238nn41. 59n68. J.. 62n172 Thompson. B... W. 350n58 Tschirky. 24n22 Stone. 5. 156n96 Teng.... 51. 56n3 Tong. 292n8.. T. M. V. 179n1 Tata. 180n45.-T. 238n45 Taplin. J... 383n42 Tongli.. B. L. 327n39. M. 299n176. 266n153. 296n124... 26. 26n79.. S.. 326n7. L. J. 61n129. M. R.. 124n77. 262n18. M. 92n43 St. 95n117 Stulz.. B. 295n66 Tahir.. 14. 28nn141. 94n91. 350n63 Ungson. 332n180. 141 Tallman. 299n193 Thomas. 4. 294n43. 180n34 Stevenson. E. 208n104 Taggart. 122n27 Truett.... .. S.. 207n79. H. 25n29 Trevino. I. E. B. 208n111 Sullivan. 263n52 Tsakalotos. C. S. M. 265n117. D.. 263n62 Swan. 239n85 Subramaniam. 332nn178.. 205nn13. J.. 329n96 Thomas. May not be copied.. 205n30. P. 266n142. D. 206n58.. 207n83. R. 62n157 Ulrich. K. 57nn19.. L. T... 263n72. A. A. K. 242n156 Thomas. D. 57n35 Useem.-L. A.. L. R. 62n165. W. 209n133. J. 60n122. A. 262n23 Subramani. 61. L. 382n11. or duplicated. 241n148. 21 Tyler. H. 124n67 Todd. 26n57. Robert. D. 116 Treece. 47–48. C. 62n177. W. 206n54 Urosˇevic´.. B. 262nn15. in whole or in part. R. K.. S. B. J. 239n80 Tan. 155n44. 124n69 Tihanyi. 298n156.. 207n79. D. D. D.-I.. 332n165 Tichy. 94n88 Stevenson. M.. R. 62n184 Tomie. 175. T.. 181n66. D. S.. 327n32.. K. 297n136 Tsui. H. 264n75 Svobodina.. 60n129 Stickel. 123n39 Suh. J. 143. R. P.. 125n95 Stewart. 25n54.Licensed to: iChapters User Stevenson. 239n99 Thomas... F. 93n67 Thomas. R.. V. 82. 207nn65. K. 262n38. 294n47 Teegen. 58n42 Tufano.. 239n96 Taylor. J. 94n90.. R. J. 209n134. 298nn159.. 58n61 Taylor... 63n199 Underwood. L. C.. 208n98 Thomas. 47. 352n121 Teng..

. L. D. 61n154 Whittington. Rick. C. 91.. 46. 240n101 Wicks. B. W.. 208n100 van Wincoop. T. 62n184. 156n114 van Putten. 72 Vernon. 121n1 Wiklund.. 115 NAME INDEX 403 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 50.. 155n42. 94n101. 142 Wade. . J. 328n50. 299n176. 327n38 Watkins. C. 353n134 Valikangas.. 299n182 Vafeas. 265n123. 207n80... E. Leslie.. 298n163 Wang. 326n20.. 208n106.. 182nn101. 92nn8.... R. D. 106. B.... D. 63n207. R. 326nn1. 241n152 Williams. R. 351n93 Verbeke.. 51 Webber... 330nn104. 292n2. or duplicated. 64. S. 296n111 Walker. 179n2 Von Krogh. L. in whole or in part. S. 330n107 Vella. L. 295n73 Van Wassenhove. W. 95n110. 206n39. 292n7 van Knippenberg. 58nn50. C. M. 142 Walters. 53.. 27nn116. 296n104. 60n129 Weaver. D. 62n183 Waller. R. B. 299n194 Vestring. A. 208n108 Velocci. F. 61n130. 264n78 Webster. G. 241n150. 209nn134.. 182n99. 114 White. 4 Waldman. 3 Watson.. 156n96... S. M. L. 92.. A. O. R. 329n73. 237nn22. E. 295n85. 208n119 Venkat. M.. 91n2 Victor... R.. R. 330nn110. 297n130. 51 Weber. 107–108.. 181n69. A. P. III. B. 73. 238n45. P. 87. Jr.. K. 326n3. 295n71 Williams. 111.. 264n80 Vlek. D. D.. 157n123 Wagoner. Jack. 128. 298n159 Whitford. 294nn44. 123n39 Vermeulen. 298n157 Warner. 237n38. 94n83. P. 209n154 Walker.. R. A.. 84. M.... 92n23 Wierba.. 24n8. 265n112 Weber. B.. K. N. scanned. 130 Wie. M. D. 329nn82. 116 Wernerfelt. 184 Welch. B. P. 297n141. 61n147 Wildstrom. R.. 352n120 Viguerie.. 241n145.. P. N. 294n45 Wiggins. A. 92n21. 238n60. 37 Vassolo. 61n149 Veiga. A. 92n10 Van. 58n50 West.. 94n85. M.. B.. 242n155. W. Y.. 122n21. 126n131 Vaidyanath. L. B. R. J. 263nn71. 125n108 Werner.. Jr. 29n162 Watson. T. 263n45. R. A. G. P. Inc... 24n18 Weddigen. 206n49 Weinstein. 57n16. A. 182n98 Waddock. 28nn 130. 123n52. 57n18 Wally. 240n105.. 328n48 Van Oijen. 182n109 Werle. K. 29n165. Meg. A. M. M. 180n38 Vasella. 156n81. 105. 58n53. B.. 265n128 White. 26n54.. 125n114 Westbrook.. 236n6.. 58n37. 122n20. C. L. 264n93 Weick. K.. 160.. D. 141. A. D. Y. 182n104. J. J. 68. R. E. 156nn90. 30 Wan. R. J. M. 125n94. L. A.. 26n60. F. S. E. A. 59n62. S. Y.. K.. All Rights Reserved. J. 58n57. 239n85. 122n8. F. 94nn81. 59nn63. Jr.. 182n96 Williams. A. 331nn131. D. Thomas J.. 38.. 266n142. 206n38. Sam. 105. 21 Walton. F. 181n58 Wang. 349n10 Venkatraman.Licensed to: iChapters User Vaaler. 297n134 van de Gucht. 294n41 Wathne.. E. 264n80 Vishny.. A. May not be copied.. 238n56 van Oyen. 182nn103. 331n134 Viscio. 382n9 Van Fleet. 30. 27n124. 26... D. 332n174 White. H. 265n109 Vranica.. 326n19. 181n92 Van der Heijden... 122n28 Whitman. 57n18.. S.. 296n105 Wang. 156n96. 262n24. III. 299n189... L. P. 123nn46. 207n69. 27n113. 154n25 Webster. 236n3. 352n114 Werder. R.. 61n141.. 27nn123... 351n66 Van. G. 327n34 Welch. S. 25n27. 265n122 Watson. D. 266n134 Weiss. S.. R. A. 328n47. 122n14..... G. 179n7. 129. E. 296n121 Wenger.. 241n134. 57n28. 263nn54. 262n19. J. 293n35 Weintraub... 262n25. 24n10 Westhead. 327n34 Wiggins. 13. A. 205n26. S. P. 61n155 Wiersema. 154n31 Wallace. 265n128.. G. 241n139 Werther.. A. J. 40. 91n1 Williams. 93n78. R.-F. 57. 126... 112. 332n163 Wang. 205n3. W. W. Daniel. 331n133 Weber. 180n23 Walsh. 292n4.. P. E. 294n49 Verdin.. J. 299n182 Vicente-Lorente. C. 27n100..... 353n133 Welbourne. 264n80. 67. M. B.. A. 102 Willard. 299n187 Ward. A. 330n99 White.. 293n23.. 62n170. S. E.. 122n14..-M. A. 181n82 Weinreb. C. F. 57n34 Voelpel. P. P. 330n119 Wageman. 41 Whitney. E. 349n18. 25n52. 331n140 Wexner. 205n4. 292n1 Venkataraman. 209n156 Webb. 181n84. 93n77. 296n121 Welch.. 241n150. 350nn39.. 331n146 Walker. S. M. 91n3. 58n55 Veliyath. J. E.. 240n120 Viswanathan. S. N. 92n34 Weber.. 240n122 Williams.. 296n112 Westphal. M. 262n14. C.. 59n81. R. N. J... 331n134. 266n145.. T. B. 296n95. M... R.. J. 92n28. 238n46.. 266n142. P. 25n47 Washburn. J.. 27n108. K.. 299n190 Varadarajan. W. J. 294n41 Walker. 265n121 Vincenzo. F. C. 25n32. J.. 382n3 Villalonga.. V. 209n144 Van Ness.. M. 63n188 Weaver.. G. 263n58 Vitaro.

J. 327n29.. 296n110 Yeh. 92n30. P. S. 155n43 Wooldridge. 94n95.. B. 326n13. 180n47 Zhou. 73. 298n165.. 124n71. 126n123.. L.. 125n96 Zuckerman. M.. 239n87 Wilson. 150.. K. 61n148. 352n105 Wolf. 261n6 Zeithaml. G. 327n42. A. P. L. 123n37 Wolfe. 208n106 Yu. 331n161... J. Zajac. 122n7 Yeung. 294nn41. 331nn148. 265n128. S. Oprah. 262n43 Zhang. 64 Zajac. L.. 295n75 Yip. 239nn81. 331nn140. J. M. N. S. 180n29.. 296n116 Zander. 155n55. R. 55 Yafeh. D. 351n86 Wind. 294nn56. 94nn81.. 95n117 Zweig... 293n24 Wu.... 239n97. 209n153. V.. 61n132.. M.. L. Randall L. 92n16. 292n7 Yeung. 25n43. C. 207n75 Young.. 48. 351n79 Willis. P. 154n34 Xin. E. 140 Wingfield. R. 9. B. L. 93n49 Xu. D.. 92n12. 103. 122n21 Yaprak. 329n93 Zelleke.. B. 241n148 Zellmer-Bruhn.. 58n44. 237nn34. 265n133 Zhao. 240n105. I. 331n148 Yago. M. 263n58. 189 Wilson.. 353n148 Zacharachis.-H. 292n7 Wright.. 239n73. 264n87. A. 328n49 Zolli.. M... 292n6. 157n124 Yip. Y. 59n71. L. O. 382n6 Zuniga-Vicente. 181n73 Winfrey. 156n82 Young-Ybarra. 353n130 Yoffie. 240n122 Zamiska. 236n3. 207n79. 27n108. 62n164. 42. 295n79 Zellner. 159. 29n157 Zhu.... 351n66 Zietsma. Y.. 173 Wolff.Licensed to: iChapters User Williamson. 237n14 Wu. 28n136. 57n18. 179n8 Wilson. 209n156. 59n61. 296n104 Zhao. 241n152 Wood. D.. 28n140. 294n57 Zaheer.. 38. 328n48 Wright. M. R. P. 180 Wright. S. 329n88. H.. 261n7. 330n101 Witt... W. 298n174 Zhao. 295n84. 123n38 Woyke. D.. A. 332n175 Yeoh.. T. 207n83.. 61n139.. 121n1. 353n155 Zack. 300n198. C. 123n56. 294n46. 292nn3.. J. 329n82. Y. 26n73. 327n25. H. C. 205n29. 326n14 Wujin. U. 27n105 Wise... H. . A. J. 329n79.. 94n100. C. 350nn46.. 124n87. 93n77. 332n184 Williamson. J. A.. 39. 264n96 Yan.. 349n7. 25n52. 92n30 Zaheer. 208n115 Wu.. 124n72. G. 205n4. G. J. 36. 296n112... 25n51 Wonacott. E. 350n37 Zineldin. 180n51 Yoshikawa.. 206n63 Zhou. S. 266nn147. G. D. 60n128 Young.. 156 Zalewski. 292n1 Woo. E. P. 62n177. 295n77 Yavas. 93n75 Winklhofer. D.. 327n36 Williamson... L.. 24n15 Zingales. 352n115 Zeisel. 105.. C. 25n53.... Z. M. N. D. 91n2. 125n102 Zhao. 236n3. B. 156. 238n59. 331n149 Wolf. I. N.... 266n142.. M. 293n32. A. A... K. P. R. S. S. 12. 209n133. B... 332n178 Young. W. X. 122n14.. 92n26 Yiu. 37. scanned. 162 Youndt. 27n107.. 297n133. B. 179nn10.. 298n170 Zehir. 180nn22. 332n183 Xin. T. in whole or in part. M. P.. 236n6. 293n31 Yeh. D.. E. 181n83. 293n12. A. 332n163 Yli-Renko. 353n136 Zook... E. 327n39. 241n153. 382n2 Young.. 326n10 Zelner. 181n75.. J... R. 328n46. 330nn104. 94. 326n16.. 264nn77. 31. T. 57 Zahra. D.. J. J. 262n28.. 383n41 Young. Sid. L. 262n25 Wrigley. 23. May not be copied. 299n194 Zeng. 62. 26n60. C. 94n95. A. 296nn102. 63n207. C. 59n61. 59n84.. J. 125n97 Yang. 209n142. 181n76 Wright. A. 241n131. 264n91. C. 237n32 Zhou. 326n6 Woodward... 123n45. H. 60n96 Wolpert. 28n155 Zollo. 79. G. 240n122 404 NAME INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 326n18 Wright. 13. 236n6. 64. 61n130. or duplicated... P.. 297n137. Z.. P. 350n60. All Rights Reserved.. 210n159 Wurst. 19. J. S.. 326n7. 240n126 Wolfson. 61n155. 352n102 Yucel.. H. 60n126 Wolfson. 155n40. R. 122n14. G. 154n34 Wiseman. 29n161. Inc. 93n76. O. 263n70. 296n119 Zott. H. 205n30. 294n46. T. S. C. 262n31... Y. M. 297n145. 154n23. M. 238n53 Zhang. H. S. B. P... 149. A. P. X.. 180nn33. J. A. 93n62.. 296n111 Winter. 61n132 Yang. 59nn62. J.. 87. P.. 332nn173..

Licensed to: iChapters User

Company Index

Note: Italic page numbers indicate material in tables or figures.
Aaon, 148, 149, 151
ABB, 359
Abbott Laboratories, 223
ABC, 5
Accenture, 189
Accor, 163
Acura, 4, 133
Advanced Micro Devices, 175
Airbus, 84, 85, 88, 183
Airbus Industrie, 281
Air Canada, 185
AirTran Airways, 135
Allis-Chalmers, 358
Altria Group, 282, 70, 102, 112, 335
AmCham, 269
American Airlines, 172
American Family Life Assurance
Company (AFLAC), 314
American Honda Motor Co.,
American International Group
(AIG), 186
AmeriSuites, 227
AmSouth Bancorp, 245
Andersen Windows, 149
Animal Kingdom, 144
AOL, 257
Apple Computer, 133, 184, 232,
316, 317, 337
Arcelor, 244
Arcelor Mittal, 244
Arcelor SA, 194
Arthur Andersen, 51, 309

AT&T, 5, 256
Austrian Airlines, 185
Aviall, 150
Bain & Co., 173
BASF, 279, 280
Bausch & Lomb, 279
Bayer Schering Pharma, 188
Benco Pet Foods, 158
Berkshire Hathaway, 314
Beverly Enterprises, 311
Bharti Enterprises, 198
Big Dog Motorcycles, 147
Big Lots Capital, 137
Big Lots Furniture, 137
Big Lots Inc., 137
Big Lots Wholesale, 137
Blackstone Private Equity Group,
BMW, 4, 195
Boeing, 44, 84, 85, 88, 183, 184,
Borders, 102
Bose, 140
Boston Consulting Group, 7, 269
Brasca Homes, 273
Bridgestone, 271
Brinker International, 231
British Petroleum (BP), 7, 105,
198, 313
Broadcom, 317
Bucyrus International, 283
Buick, 132
Burger King, 162–163
Burlington Northern Santa Fe
Corp., 246

Cadillac, 4, 132, 133
California Public Employees’
Retirement System (CalPERS), 311
Callaway Golf Company, 141, 145
Campbell Soup Company, 32, 213
Canada Mortgage and Housing
Corporation, 272–273
Canon, 184
Cantrex Group, 187
Carrefour, 164
Caterpillar, 140, 189–190, 283
Cayuse Technologies, 189
CBS, 5
Celequest, 345
CEMEX SA, 119, 131–132
Cendant, 213
Chanel, 106
Chaparral Steel, 106
Chevrolet, 132
Chili’s Grill & Bar, 231
China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), 283
China Petroleum and Chemical
Corp., 189
Chipotle Mexican Grill, 311
Chiquita Brands International,
Inc., 119
Chrysler, 3, 4. See also
Chubb, 89
Ciba-Geigy, 37
Cigna, 89, 163
Cisco Systems, 78, 119, 196, 199,
Citibank, 252


Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Licensed to: iChapters User
Citigroup, 187, 314
Clear Channel Communications,
Coca-Cola, 81, 89, 104, 110, 176,
Cognos, 345
Comcast, 213
Commerzbank, 320
Companhia Siderurgica Nacional
(CSN), 245
Compaq, 171, 246
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation,
Consolidated International, 137
Continental Airlines, 185
Cooper Industries, 221, 246
Corel, 256
Corning, 106
Corus, 84
Corus Group, 245, 252
Cox, 5
Crate & Barrel, 106
Credit Suisse First Boston, 252
Cummins, 283
C&W, 322
Cyworld, 168–169
Daimler-Benz, 4
DaimlerChrysler, 4, 78, 188,
195, 245
Datsun, 3. See also Nissan
Dell Inc., 45, 97, 133, 164, 171,
175, 224, 246
Deutsche Bank, 320
DHL Worldwide Express, 271
Dillard’s, 140
Dimension Films, 225
DirectTV, 5
Disney. See Walt Disney
Disney Channel, 225
Disneyland, 144
Dresdner Bank, 320
Duane Reader, 258
Duffy & McGovern Accommodations Services, 284
DuPont, 217
Eastman Kodak Co., 184, 231
eBay, 41, 167
Eclipse Aviation, 100
Eddie Bauer, 148
Electrolux, 198–199
Eli Lilly and Company, 185, 361
Engineering Inc., 106


Engineering Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, 273
Enron Corporation, 51, 252, 303,
309, 323
Enterprise Ireland, 337–338
ENV, 197
Epcot, 144
Ericsson, 198–199
Euralair Airport Services (EAS),
Evraz Group, 247–248
Exxon Mobil, 106
Factiva, 88
Fairmont Hotels and Resorts,
Federal Express (FedEx), 111–
112, 158–159, 163
Fiat, 358
Flying Group, 199–200
Foamix, 188
Ford Europe, 197
Ford Motor Company, 3, 4, 131,
188, 195, 224, 270, 278
Formation Capital, 311
Forth & Towne, 147
Foxconn Technology, 271
Frontier Airlines, 43
Fuji, 84, 85, 88, 184
Fuji Television Network, 194,
Gaines Pet Food, 158
Gap, Inc., 147
GateHouse Media, 246
Gateway, 171
GE Health Care, 223
GE Industrial, 223
Genentech, 105
General Electric (GE), 30, 39, 40,
43, 44, 46, 104, 107–108,
160, 184, 213, 223, 226, 249,
253, 257, 340, 359
General Mills, 195
General Motors (GM), 3, 4, 73,
132, 188, 195, 217, 224, 270,
289, 358
Gilead Sciences, 244, 248
Gillette, 106, 219
GlaxoSmithKline, 173
GMC, 132
Gold Kist, 245
Goodyear, 149
Google, 86, 248
Gruma, 270

Habitat Design and Consulting, 272
Hansen Trust, 227
Harley-Davidson, 82, 104, 146,
Harley-Davidson MotorClothes,
HBO, 5
Health Research Group, 173
HealthSouth, 323
Heinz ketchup, 143
Henkel, 221
Hewlett-Packard, 14, 97, 133,
164, 175, 184, 231, 246
Hilton, 160, 163
Hilton International, 197
Hitachi, 85
Hoechst, 280
Hollywood Pictures, 225
Home Depot, 148
Honda, 3, 4, 82, 133, 146, 188,
221, 270, 286
Hospira, 246
Hugo Boss, 73
Hummer, 132
Hyatt Corp., 227
Hyundai Motor Co., 4, 166, 170
IBM, 3, 40, 69, 77–78, 145, 171–
172, 175, 186, 193, 202
IBM Venture Capital Group,
Ikea, 145–146
IKEA International, 276
ImClone Systems, 312
IM Flash, 344
Indian Hotels Company, 190
Infiniti, 4
InfoPrint Solutions Company,
Infosys Technologies Ltd., 78
Intel, 18, 45, 78, 167, 170, 175,
193, 196, 199, 224, 344
Intelligent Energy, 196–197
Intercontinental, 163
International Harvester, 283
International Telegraph & Telephone Corp., 322
Islands of Adventure, 144
ITT, 227
iTunes, 232
Jaguar, 169
J.C. Penney, 47–48
JetBlue Airways Corp., 135,


Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Licensed to: iChapters User
Johnson & Johnson, 213
Johnson Controls, 202
KB Home, 317
Kelley Blue Book, 170
Kellogg, 195
Kentucky Fried Chicken, 270
Kia, 4
Kleenex tissues, 143
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, 185
Kmart, 137
Knight Ridder, 312
Knightspoint, 312
Kobe Steel, 194
Kodak, 84, 85, 88, 213
Komatsu, 106, 283
Krispy Kreme, 197
Kyowa Hakko, 276
La Clef de Sol, 187
Lamborghini, 100
Lands’ End, 132
Legg Mason, 312
Lenovo Group, 145, 171
Levi Strauss, 149
Lexus, 4, 133, 141
Limited Brands Inc., 114
Lincoln Electric, 20, 109, 172
Livedoor, 322
Live Nation Inc., 146
Lockheed Martin, 184, 187
Logitech, 346
Logoworks, 146
Look-Look, 168
Louis Vuitton, 143
Macy’s, 140
Maggiano’s Little Italy, 231
Magic Kingdom, 144
Magna International, 188
Marlboro, 282
Marriott, 160, 163, 170–171
Mary Frances Accessories, 140
Masco Corporation, 86
Matsushita, 85
Mayne Pharma, 246
Mazda, 106
McAfee, 316, 317
McClatchy Company, 312
McDonald’s, 43, 44, 78, 162–163,
189, 197, 201–202, 283, 311
McKinsey & Co., 106, 107, 109,
140, 141
Mercedes Benz, 4
Merck & Co., 213
Metro, 273

Micron Technology, 344
Microsoft, 5, 36–37, 44, 75, 78,
88, 106, 161, 172, 184
Mitsubishi, 85, 191, 322
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,
Mittal Steel, 194, 244
Mossimo, 148
Motion Control, 106
Motley Fool, 131
Motorola, 71
Myogen, 244, 248, 168–169
National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA), 187, 196
Native Instinct, 168
NBC, 5
NBC Universal, 144
NCR, 256
NEC, 85
New York Motors, 278
Nippon Broadcasting System
(NBS), 322
Nippon Steel, 194
Nippon Telegraph & Telephone
Corp., 322
Nippon Television Network, 194
Nissan, 3, 83, 286
Nissan North America, 195
Nokia, 78, 96
Nomura Securities, 322
Noodles & Company, 197
Nordstrom, 106
Norrell Corporation, 106
Northrop Grumman, 314
Northwest Airlines, 185, 202
Norwest, 106
Novartis, 37, 49–50, 50, 52, 271
Novell, 256
NTT DoCoMo, 194
Nucor Steel, 18, 43, 100, 109,
194, 357
NutraSweet, 83
Oak Hill Capital Partners, 258
Office Depot, 233
Olay, 73
Omni Hotels, 170
On the Border Mexican Grill &
Cantina, 231
Opel, 132
Oracle, 196, 249
Oregon Steel Mills, 247
Outsourcing Institute, 113
Oxford Bookstore, 198

Palo Alto Research Center, 13
PepsiCo, 81, 89, 106, 110, 176
Pershing Square, 311
Peugeot, 191
Pfizer, 75, 257
Philip Morris International,
282–283, 285
Philips, 226
Pilgrim’s Pride, 245
Pirelli, 149
Polaroid Corporation, 69, 99
Pontiac, 132
Porsche, 53–54, 132, 170
Posco, 194
Post, 195
PricewaterhouseCoopers, 257
Pro-Am Transportation Services,
Procter & Gamble (P&G), 20, 73,
213, 218–220
Prudential, 163
Quaker Oats, 158, 195, 256
Quiznos, 43–44
Raffles International, 190
Ralph Lauren, 140
Ralph Lauren Clothing, 106
Ralston, 158
Ratchet, Ratchet & Bingo, 314
Regions Financial Corp., 245
Ricoh, 186
Rockwell, 362
Rolls-Royce, 132
Romano’s Macaroni Grill, 231
Royal Philips Electronics, 211
Ryanair Holdings, 135
Saab, 132
Saks Fifth Avenue, 133
Sam’s Club, 139
Samsung, 85, 214
Sandoz, 37
Sara Lee, 41
SAS, 185
SAS Institute, 133
Saturn, 132
Sears, 137
Sears Canada, 187
Seymourpowell, 196–197
Shanghai Automotive Industry
Corp. (SAIC), 270
Shanghai Pudong Development
Bank, 187
Sharper Image, 312
Sheraton, 170


Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.


186 Tata Steel. 72. 3. 139. 225 Wegmans Food Markets. 314 Wendy’s Restaurants. 273. 184. 162 YouTube. 271 Swift Transportation Co. 343 WordPerfect. 139 Wal-Mart Supercenters. 78. 185 Sinopec. 148. scanned. 253 Universal Studios. 284 Suzuki. 339. 146 SVA Group. 285. 172. 267. 37 Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces. 188. 198 United Airlines. 225 Toyota. 88 Superior Energy Services. 221 Vodafone. 106. 185 Used Fixture Auctions. 284 Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association—College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF).. 170 Stellant. 185. May not be copied. 314. in whole or in part. 190–191 408 Target Corporation. 73 Time Warner. 186–187 Starbucks. 106. 148.. 223 Virgin Group. 78 Tata Group. 44 Yahoo! Japan. 137 W. 289 Toys “R” Us. 224 Snapple Beverage Company. 71. 232. 44. 144 UPS. Inc. 139 UTEK. Airways. 270 Wal-Mart. 51. 73 SK Telecom. 20. 30. 252–253 Tatung.S. 276 Volkswagen. 267. 44. 18. 356–357 South African Airways. 41. 170. 164. 102 Transparency International. 172 Xerox. 109. 133. 173. 133 Verizon. 195. 341 Tiffany and Co. 355 Star Alliance. 106. 45. 336. 362 Studio Entertainment.. 271 TCL. 162. 73. 105 Wells Fargo. 323 WPI Interconnect Products. 316 United Space Alliance. 249 Stern Stewart & Co. 213. 51. 18. 69. 104. 245. 105 Vans Inc. 303. 186 Tata Consultancy Services Ltd.. 258 Sybase. 144. 248 COMPANY INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 214. 286. 311 Westin. 229 Thomson Consumer Electronics. 312 Tim Horton’s Donuts. 323 Tyumen Oil. 335 Wal-Mart Stores. 288 Tyco International. 18. 194 ShoreCap International. 311 Touchstone Pictures. 30. 13–14. 185 Southwest Airlines. 165. 139 Wal-Mart Vacations. 194 Sun Microsystems. 5. 73 Six Flags Corporation. 83. 185 Slim Devices. 212 U. 139 Walt Disney Company. 135. 214. 137. 202 Siemens AG. 43. 184. 256 Solectron Corporation. 19. 106 Starwood. 71. 170 Wisconsin Toy. 189–190 ShoreBank Corporation. 38. 284 3M.. 170 W Hotels.Licensed to: iChapters User Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi (SCM). 162. 184 Yahoo! Inc. 225 Sumitomo Metal Industries. 167–168 Textron. 158–159. 226 Singapore Airlines. 283 Si TV. 198. 106 Thomson Electronics. 354. 84. 257. 345 Valero Energy. 224 Sony. All Rights Reserved.. . 194 Siebel Systems. 346 Smithfield Foods. 198 Systems Equipment Corporation. 109. 13. 144 SK-II. 151 Tata AIG. 43. 163. 133. 187 United Technologies. 167 Yellow Freight System. 309. 185 United Health Group. 71. 4. L. 20. 311 Texas Instruments (TI). 168 SkyTeam. 246 Wrigley Company. or duplicated. Gore & Associates. 141. 149. 256 WorldCom. 106.

244–245 problems with. 135 Actor’s reputation. and competitive rivalry. See Strategic alliances Analysis internal analysis. 135. 110. 98– 102. 12 resource-based model of. 111. 248– 249. 113. 340 Autonomy. 278 Autonomous strategic behavior. 11–15. 191–193 Alliances. 129–130. 247–248 cost-leadership strategy and. 166. in competitive rivalry. 3– 4 competitive rivalry in. 193–194 cross-border acquisitions and. 171 See also Competitive actions Activities operational relatedness and. 254 organizational size and. 129 scope and. or duplicated. 138 differentiation strategy and. 110. 244–245 Actions. 308–309 Agency relationships. 100 sociocultural segment analysis. corporate governance. 338 international strategies and. 75–76 value chain analysis. tactical. 53–54. 256–260 strategic management process and. 230 Antitrust regulation. 193. 129–130. 14 strategic leadership and. 284–285. 248. 97. 72–73 Alliance networks. 9 Age structure. 218–219. 166 industrial organization model of. 358 Ability. 308 Agency theory. corporate governance. 171–172 Agency costs. popularity of. 250 restructuring and. 252–253. 253–255. 166 transnational strategy and. Real options analysis Antitrust Modernization Act of 2002. 269 Assessing. 112. 164 Balanced scorecard. 69. 249 costs and. 253–254 effectiveness of. . 252 Acquisition strategies. 251–252. 255 international entry modes. 80– 82 409 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 112. 345–346 integration and. 129 first movers and. scanned. 10–11. 81 Acquisitions capabilities and. 110–114. 188. All Rights Reserved. Abandonment options. 306. 113. 98 outsourcing and. 97. 248 debt and. 22 target evaluation and. 47 Awareness. 245 diversification and. 243. 42 Access to distribution channels. 21. in whole or in part. 71 Associations. 184 internal analysis and. 255–256 entry barriers and. 141 See also Competitor analysis. 256 defined. 245–249. 230–231 Arenas competitive advantage and. 165 Above-average returns corporate governance and. 135 support. 195–196 Attacks. 111. 166–170 Automobile industry competitive landscape of. 282. 255.Licensed to: iChapters User Subject Index Note: Italic page numbers indicate material in tables or figures. 113 suppliers’ bargaining power. 54 Barriers to entry acquisitions and. 247–248 innovation and. 247 international entrepreneurship in. 224 primary. 22 economic logic and. 10 type of. 83 tactical actions in. 249–255. 254–255 popularity of. May not be copied. 286 managers’ focus on. 250 reasons for. 143 industrial organization model and. 306–307. 85 cooperative strategies and. Inc. 43 Asia competitive response alliances in.

4–5. 5–7. 8 Capital barriers to entry and. 115 responsibilities of. 323 executive succession processes and. 101 Business policy scholarship. 312–313 top management team and. May not be copied. 313–314 ethical behavior and. 194–195 Competitive actions defined. 12–13. 312–313. 6 core competencies and. 134 in German corporate governance. in whole or in part. 140–145 economic logic and. 171 Competitive advantage conventional sources of. 375–380 Black-Scholes approximation. 370– 371. 85 social capital. 72 Collusion. 18 strategic leadership and. 77. 39 Britain corporate governance and. 141. 36. 166–170 model of competitive rivalry and. leveraged buyouts. 2. 107–110. 159. 87. 11 resource-based model and. 270. 249 core competencies as strategic capabilities. 86 five forces model. 323 evolution of. 48. 135–140 customers and. 370 Black-Scholes valuation. 38 Bureaucratic controls. 35 leadership style and. 193. 303. 338 international strategies and. 164–165 likelihood of attack and. 85 See also Customers Buyouts. 81 Causally ambiguous links. 159 induced strategic behavior. 259. 21 types of. 371–372. 5. 83. 7 hypercompetition. 129–134 focus strategies and. 147–151 international business-level strategy. 7. 97 defined. 223 technology and. See Core competencies Competition changes in. 320. 339 profit-maximizing behaviors. 15. 6. 375 Black-Scholes option pricing formula. 313 defined. 5 competitive landscape. 269 strategic leadership and. 226–227 Capital market stakeholders. 171–172 type of. 254–255 Business-level strategies competitive rivalry and. 314 CEO duality. 11 internal competition. 45– 46. scanned. 79. 13. 2 industrial organization model. 137 global marketplace and. 83. 311 boards of directors and. 105. All Rights Reserved. 340 competitive behavior. 11. See CEOs China conglomerates and. 131–133 defined. 212 R&D investment curtailment and. or duplicated. 220–221 CEOs accountability of. 322 international strategies and. 49 separation of ownership and managerial control and. 49 top management team and. 166 drivers of. 158 industrial organization model and. 41. 373–374. 380–381 Boards of directors classification of members. 104–105 examples of. 105 return on invested capital. 303 independence of. 32–33 product diversification and. 49. 116–117 Capital requirements. 305 human capital. 31–32. 258. 38–39 ethical behavior and. 198 globalization and. 11 410 SUBJECT INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 286–290 multimarket. 159–160 cooperative strategies and. 51. 320 hubris and. 372. Inc. 230 Centralization. 138. 133–134 strategic management process and. 32 strategic management and. 160–161 reputation and. 195 Competencies. 86. 48. 345 Capital market allocation. . 130–131 value creation and. 129. 116. 16. 271. 137.Licensed to: iChapters User Behavior autonomous strategic behavior. 3–7 complementors and. 214 corporate governance in. 189 cost-leadership strategies. 79– 80. 104. 109 Celler-Kefauver Act. 312 effectiveness of. 81 corporate governance and. 228–229 international strategies and. 38. 39– 41. 106 industrial organization model and. 271 population size. 78 international entrepreneurship in. 129. 8–9 Buyers bargaining power of. 10 See also Ethical behavior Binomial lattices. 130. 272–273 Capabilities acquisitions and. 20–21. 322–323 cross-border strategic alliances and. 268–269. 41 functional structure and. 145–147 integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy. 108 defined. 279–281 organizational structure and. 10. 259–260 Canada–Mexico partnership. 143 competitive rivalry and. 305 strategic direction and. 128 differentiation strategies and. 5–7 Competition-reducing cooperative strategies. 38–39 See also Executive compensation Chief executive officers.

21 Competitive form. 158 industry environment and. 99 Compound options. 221. 45 Competitive behavior competitive dynamics and. 164 market commonality and. 317–318 strategic leadership and. 254–255 corporate governance and. 54 Cooperative form. 107–114 business-level strategies and. 162–163 resource similarity and. 84– 86 information technology and. 161 organizational characteristics and. . 87–90 components of. 174 standard-cycle markets and. 159. 151 of international strategies. 10 Conglomerates. 188 types of alliances. 68. 170–172 model of. 217–218 financial. 21 strategic objectives of. 172 competitor analysis and. 21. 114 SUBJECT INDEX 411 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 159. 35 Controls acquisitions and. 108 strategic center firms and. 160–161. 195–196 Contingency workers. 163–164 Competitor environment. 106–107 as strategic capabilities. 110 See also Acquisitions. 159 fast-cycle markets and. 172 defined. 188. 88–90 Competitors competitive dynamics and. 86 Complexity. 193. International strategies. 53–54. 359 Concentration of firms. 133 competitive advantage and. 107– 110. 221 value chain analysis and. 147 of integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy. 96 stakeholder model and. All Rights Reserved. 113–114 resource-based model and. 99. 200 defined. 218. 21. 219–221. Corporate-level strategies. 101. 199– 201. 192 transferring of.Licensed to: iChapters User national advantage determinants. 165 differentiation strategy and. 88–90 numerous or equally balanced competitors. scanned. 159 defined. 97 corporate-level. 193–196 implementing and managing. 175–177 strategic management process and. 228–229 Competitive response alliances. 141 factors influencing. 110–114 value creation and. 200 of cost-leadership strategy. 13 resources and. 214. Cooperative strategies. 21 Competitive speed. 13. 76 Control. 2–3. 107–110. Restructuring Competitive aggressiveness. 170–172 model of competitive rivalry and. Inc. 176 relationships in. 106 loss in value of. 201–203 importance of. 159. 228. 137 defined. 20. 344–345 international. 193–194 Competitive responses defined. 114 outsourcing and. 199–201. 255 Complementary strategic alliances. 88–90 framework of. 288–289 Competitive rivalry business-level strategies and. 168–169 strategic groups and. 47 Competitive agility. 21. 224 defined. 68. 184 Core competencies building of. and internal analysis. 162–164 cost-leadership strategy and. 187–188 Co-opetition. 108. 45 Competitor analysis analysis of competitor environment. 189–191. 139–140 of differentiation strategy. 96 sustainable competitive advantage. 18 resources and. 16 strategic management process and. 89 ethical behavior and. 164–165 likelihood of response and. illusion of. 253 market for corporate control. or duplicated. 183 external environment and. Businesslevel strategies. May not be copied. 159. 159. 88. 100. 160–161 Competitive risks of cooperative strategies. 190 Complementors. 159 Competitive dynamics competitive rivalry and. 174– 175. 101. 166 drivers of. 159 creating more value than. 191–193 strategic management process and. 220 Cooperative strategies competitive risks of. 45. 158 intentions of. 163. 2. 6 likelihood of attack and. 144–145 of focus strategies. 279–281. 159. 159 slow-cycle markets and. 305–309 diversification and. 197–199 network. 173– 174. 47 resource-based model and. 254–255 bureaucratic. in whole or in part. 87– 88 strategic management process and. and acquisitions. 21. 102 Core rigidities. 159–160 competitive dynamics and. 227 Consortia. Competitive rivalry. 166–170 likelihood of response. 184–188 innovation and. 222. 87–90 Competitor intelligence. 84 Complementary assets. and industrial organization model. 159. 2 defined. 13–14. 280 organizational culture and.

85 transaction costs. 315–316. 253–254 cooperative strategies and. 225–229. scanned. 129. 272–279. 139–140 execution of. 145–146 functional structure and. 213. 143– 144. 323 ownership concentration and. of general environment. 320–323 managerial defense tactics. . 215. 150 Customers balanced scorecard and. 216. 308 ethical behavior and. 243 levels of. 10 Differentiation competitive rivalry and. 197–198 Cross-functional product development teams. analysis of. 214. 140–141. 144–145 execution of. 53 international. 256 restructuring and. 221 Corporate-level strategies defined. 101 Debt acquisitions and. 202 Costs acquisitions and. 9. 260 Decision biases. 212–215 international. 147–151 value creation and. 137–138 focus strategies and. 258. 196–197 412 SUBJECT INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 302. organizational. 305–309 strategic management process and. 308–309 agency relationships and. 224–225 value creation and. 212–218 firm performance and. 319 market for corporate control. 225–229 value-neutral diversification. 143 firm performance and. 318. as determinants of national advantage. 11–12 Distributed alliance networks. 215. 304. 81 Diversification acquisitions and.Licensed to: iChapters User Corporate governance agency costs and. 217. 213 multidivisional structure and. 189–193 fixed costs. 232–234 Corporate relatedness operational relatedness and. 306–307. 144 integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy. 215 value-neutral. 213. 216. 251–252 Counterfeiting. May not be copied. 217. 243. 87–90 Distinctive competencies approach. 215. 308 boards of directors and. 143 focus strategies and. 72–73 Deterministic perspective. 146–147 functional structure and. 304. 134. 22. 310 Direct competitors. 212–215. 215–217 related diversification. 108–109 Cost minimization. 198–199. 214. 303 diversification and. 217–218 reasons for. 228. and stakeholder model. 249. 253 unrelated diversification. 44 Diffuse ownership. 306. 211. 196–197 corporate governance and. 366–367 Customer relationship management (CRM). 218–225 strategic management process and. 375–380. 252–253. 211 diversification and multidivisional structure. 215. 21. 229–232 value-reducing diversification. 33–36 Decision trees. 323–324 executive compensation and. 43. 135. 217–218 diversification levels and. 280. 249. 314–317 financial control and. 342–343 Culture. 366. 216 Corporate scandals. 284–285 Cross-border strategic alliances. 317–318 mechanisms of. 129 strategic leadership and. 189–193 See also Product differentiation Differentiation strategy competitive risks of. 131–133 cost-leadership strategy and. 253 value-creating. See Organizational culture Cumulative volatility. 312–314 defined. 15–16 Cost disadvantages independent of scale. 85 cooperative strategies and. 218–225. or duplicated. 139 integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy. Inc. 310–312 separation of ownership and managerial control. 232–234 See also International diversification Diversifying strategic alliances. 231. 84– 85 storage costs. 307–308. 308–309. 248– 249. 53 business-level strategies and. 302 Corporate-level core competencies. in whole or in part. access to. 248 cooperative strategies reducing. 141. 234. 135. 215. 199 Distribution channels. 138– 139. 280 Demographic segment. All Rights Reserved. 274 reasons for diversification and. 233. 21–22 unrelated diversification. 21. 142 Differentiators competitive advantage and. 308 corporate-level strategies and. 216. 307–308. 136 Costly-to-imitate capabilities. 216. 247. 81– 82 Cost-leadership strategy competitive risks of. 214. 147–151 international business-level strategies and. 229–232 value-reducing. 279 value creation and. 137 differentiation strategy and. 115 value creation and. 68. 145 Cross-border acquisitions. 303. 214. 215–217 related diversification. 376 Demand conditions.

33. 149–151 strategic flexibility and. May not be copied. 147 SUBJECT INDEX 413 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 115–116. 286 multidomestic strategies and. All Rights Reserved. 149. 234. 97 internal organization and. 116. 305 corporate-level strategies and. 323–324 stakeholder model and. 355 Focus strategies competitive risks of. 38 capital market perspective on. 6 Enactment. 379 Executive compensation corporate governance and. 281–282 External environment analysis of. 280. 115 Economic risks. and rivalry. 186 Financial controls. 247 industrial organization model and. 275 Economies of scope. 346–347 international. 8 strategic management process and. 11. 114–120 measures of. 118–119 strategic leadership and. See Barriers to entry Environment. 17 strategic direction and. 87–90 composition of. 279. 214. 96. 68. 10. 97 restructuring and. 254 barriers to entry and. 281 First movers. See Organizational size Firm strategy. 67 general environment. 114 factors influencing. 211 diversification and. 69. 116–117. 30 sustainable development and. in whole or in part. 129–134 strategic leadership and. 9 Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. 337. 254. 314 diversification and. 259 Due diligence. 79. 174 first movers and. 288–289 Economic segment. 84– 85 Flexible manufacturing systems. . 257. 74 Economies of scale acquisitions and. 343 Entrepreneurial opportunities. 40. 375. 13 industry environment. 252. 168 integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy and. 256 competitive rivalry and. 322 cross-border acquisitions and. 66. 18 Firm size. 355 See also Strategic entrepreneurship Entry barriers. 269 Event trees. 79– 80. 357–358 Equity strategic alliances. 337. 256 Dynamic alliance networks. 185. 69–71. 224–225. 225–226 Financial options. 270–271. 39. 20. 71–78 industrial organization model and. 356 Firm performance balancing stakeholder performance and. 118 stakeholder model of. 270 E-culture.Licensed to: iChapters User Dominant business diversification strategy. 335–336 institutional. 347 Entrepreneurship defined. 16–18. 150 Entrepreneurial mind-set. 68. 166–168 Five forces model of competition. 335 Entrepreneurs. 257–258. 3. scanned. 82 Explicit collusion. 375. 43. 67– 68 cooperative strategies and. Inc. 88–90 corporate governance and. structure. 115–116 stakeholders and. 378–380. 7. 67– 68. 11. 117. 6 Economic environment. 247 international strategies and. 48– 49 strategic management and. 114. 86. 243 internal analysis and. 256–257 strategic leadership and. 22 Ethnic mix of population. 185. 340–341. 195 Exporting. 314. 314–317 defined. 85– 86 Expected retaliation. 166 strategic alliances in. 8. 233 effectiveness of. 302. strategic management and. 119–120 technology and. 15–18. 315–316 Exit barriers. 341 strategic flexibility and. 193–196 core competencies and. 116. 193 E-business. 47. 74 Economic logic business-level strategy and. 280 Fast-cycle markets competitive dynamics and. 10 international strategies and. 45 Economic power. as determinants of national advantage. 116 corporate governance and. 231. 337–339 organizational culture and. 87. 9–10 See also External environment Equity joint ventures. 118. 259. 176 cooperative strategies in. 336–337. as determinants of national advantage. 73 Europe corporate governance in. 41 Factors of production. 116. 222. 68. 137 Fixed costs. 316–317 as governance mechanism. 118–119 board of directors’ role and. 17 stakeholder objectives and. 212 Downscoping. 97 competitor environment. 51–52 strategic management process and. 183 defined. 218. 78– 86 internal organization and. 253 Financial economies. 80– 81. 258–259. 187 Ethical behavior competitor analysis and. 149–150 Flexible structure acquisitions and. 335 innovation and. 174–175. 259 Downsizing. 21 External managerial labor market. or duplicated. 214. of general environment.

340 Independent board leadership structure. 147 General environment defined. 282 general environment and. 103. 150 Information technology (IT) industry. 10–11. 11. 49. 35 Human capital. 78 international strategies and. 166. 357–358. 45– 46. May not be copied. 336 Incentives for diversification. 12 external environment and. 318. 339 Industrial organization (I/O) model above-average returns and. 147 international diversification and. 186 Inhwa (harmony). 4–5. 249 Horizontal complementary strategic alliances. 104 internal innovation. 143–144. 78 Innovation acquisitions and. 4–5. 167 intangible resources and.Licensed to: iChapters User Focus strategies (continued) cost-leadership strategy and. 244 Globalization corporate governance and. 46 Global mandate. 198 political risks and. 42. 78 Heterogeneous top management teams. 98 Global segment. See Corporate governance Government barriers to entry and. 77–78 integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy. 47 strategic thinking and. 307 Friendly acquisitions. 33–35 Horizontal acquisitions. 70 Global competency. 162 Industry environment analysis of. 3. 40. 79 markets within. 285. 322 retirement trends in. 131 Forecasting. 268–269 population size. 269 retirement trends in. 42. 274. 230. 120 strategic leadership and. 6. 214 cross-border strategic alliances and. 341 first movers and. 140 defined. 43. 334. 283 strategic entrepreneurship and. 70 Franchises. 68. cooperative strategies promoting. 82 cross-border strategic alliances and. 68. 5. 335–339 strategic leadership and. 2. 277 Golden parachutes. 247 internal analysis and. 102. 255. 278 Global markets barriers to entry. 219. 313. of general environment. 77–78 Global strategy. 196–199 Growth options. 52 strategic management and. 144 focus strategies and. 105 Human resources. 10. 344 international diversification and. 288 Greenfield ventures. 286 Greenmail tactic. 103. 69. 36–37 Heuristics. 147 segments of industry and. 18. 245. 276–277. All Rights Reserved. 339. 318 Growth. 67– 68 segments of. 72 Induced strategic behavior. 73 Incremental innovations. liability of. 248. 71–78 Geographic distribution of population. 138–139. 5–7. 312. 362– 363. 158 Hypothesis testing. on boards of directors. 197 Free cash flows. 313 414 SUBJECT INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 344–345 defined. 345–346 competitive dynamics and. 273–274 Formalization. 190 Hostile takeovers. 198 globalization and. 322–323 Global economy cross-border acquisitions and. 246. 77–78 strategic leadership and. . 146–147 functional structures and. 138 Formal power. 8 Industry defined. 253–255. Inc. 320–321 international strategies and. 321 defined. 38 India conglomerates and. 268–271 Income distribution of population. 247 competition and. 68 Information networks. scanned. 335–336 factors influencing. 145–146 differentiation strategy and. 189–191. 98 uncertainty in. 43– 44. 339–344. 267 Global mind-set. 4. 33. 78– 86 defined. 46 Global corporate governance. 77. 197 Franchising. 13 firm performance and. 7 entry mode choice. 319 Hubris. 73 Germany corporate governance in. 68. 281–286. 104 Hypercompetition. 139 defined. in whole or in part. 71 Foreignness. or duplicated. 37. 20 Insiders. 363 Growth vehicles. 115 France corporate governance in. 176–177 cooperative strategies and. 129 Guanxi (personal relationships). 77 of markets. 336 entrepreneurship and. 229–232 for international strategies. 255 Functional structure cost-leadership strategy and. 134 differentiation strategy and. 318 Governance. 19 Imitation cost-leadership strategy and. 287–288 licensing and.

May not be copied. 259–260 Licensing. 322–323 in Japan. 281–282 greenfield ventures. 282 Interorganizational networks. 15 strategic network firms and. 103–104. 258. 232 international strategies and. 96. 149–151 Integration acquisitions and. 97. 34 Managerial competencies. 223 transnational strategy and. 271 return on investment and. 343 taper integration. 271. 339. 267 innovation and. 232 Large-block shareholders. 197–199 International corporate governance in Germany. 346–347 Institutional owners. 271. 286 Long-term thinking. 286–287. 321 Knowledge capabilities and. 282–283 Location advantages. 282. 254 defined. 186. 70. 39– 40. 100. 53 knowledge and. 103. 101. 281–286 market size and. 321–322 International diversification defined. 70 uncertainty and. 286 incentives for using. 307 Market commonality. . 22 Internet. 187. 164–165 Market dependence. 6. 114–120 resources and. 223 related diversification and. 98–102. 337. 286 choice of. 5. 286 reasons for. 79 Market power acquisitions and. 268–271 international entry modes.Licensed to: iChapters User Institutional entrepreneurship. 285–286 exporting. 274 defined. 192 Leveraged buyouts. 98. 9. 33. 21. Inc. 85. 268 economies of scale and. 289 Intraorganizational conflicts. 111. 343. 268 resources and. 223–224 Internal analysis conditions influencing. 259. 13. 10. 270– 271. 272–279. 216. 20. 283– 284. 102–104 strategic management process and. 232 Integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy competitive risks of. 341–342 Internal innovation. 344 Internal managerial labor market. 276 group harmony and. 162–163. 102. 286–287 corporate governance in. 282. See Strategic leadership Learning balanced scorecard and. 285 licensing. 226–227 Internal corporate venturing. 251–252. 97 organizational decision making and. 223–224 SUBJECT INDEX 415 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 191. 97. and strategic leadership. 269–270 strategic competitiveness outcomes. 252 Keiretsu. and international strategies. 13 Managerial opportunism. 286–287 tacit. 98–99. 268–269. 99 Invention. 287–288 international strategies and. 285 International strategies business-level. 336 Investment thresholds. 346 intangible resources and. 98–101 firm performance and. 288–289 corporate-level. 172 Market for corporate control. 284–285. 147–148 execution of. 273. 310–311 Intangible resources. 77. or duplicated. 276–277 innovation and. 337–339 International entry modes acquisitions. selection of. 310–311 Late movers. 97 firm performance and. 321–322 global strategy and. 9. 277 vertical. 267 retirement trends in. 106–114 external environment and. 340. 19 Manager characteristics. See Industrial organization (I/O) model Ireland. 337–338 Japan automobile industry in. 216 downsizing and. 259 innovation and. 3– 4. 188. 105 organizational. 359–360 Junk bonds. 339–344. 245–246. in whole or in part. 282 dynamics of. 104. 97. 255 of cross-functional teams. 286–290 strategic management process and. 41 Internal organization analysis of. 289 International entrepreneurship. 194. 279–281 competitive risks of. 99 outcomes from. 320–321 global corporate governance. 268 returns and. 105 corporate relatedness and. 361–362 I/O model. 102. 272. and outcomes from. All Rights Reserved. 104–105 core competencies and. scanned. 187. 340 Joint ventures. 168 Leadership. 100 capabilities and. 102 Internal capital market allocation. internal analysis. 99. 282. 98. 282–283 strategic alliances. 112. 97 value creation and. 345. 343 global strategy and. 151 defined. 78 international competition and. 148 flexible structure and. 21 International cooperative strategies. 317–318 Market microstructure.

288. 6–7 Political/legal segment acquisitions and. 176. 268–269 industrial organization model and. 174. 19 strategic value of resources and. in value chain. in whole or in part. 188 offshore. 77–78 increased market size. 313 Outsourcing core competencies and. 310–312 Performance standards. 4–5. 51–52 Monitoring. 185. Inc. 307 Opportunities. 110. 68. 274–275. 69. or duplicated. 8 Population size. 340 Product development acquisitions and. 46– 48. 270–271. 133–134 defined. 244–245 diversification strategy combined with. 248 standard-cycle. 72 Primary activities. 76 Mission statements. May not be copied. 302. 7. 191–193 Networks alliance networks. 50. 74–75 Political power. 49. 286 Matrix organizations. 230 defined. 224 value creation and. 183 globalization of. 284 Nonsubstitutable capabilities. 135 Primary stakeholders. 217 Organizational culture defined. 199 information networks. 312. 287 management complexity. 129–130. 115– 116. and strategic direction. 69. 132–133 Market size. 228. 132. 15 Private equity firms. 198 international strategies and. 183. 313. 18 slow-cycle. 186–187 strategic management and. See Multidivisional (M-form) structure Minority groups. 254–255 competitive rivalry and. 15. 358 Organizational characteristics acquisitions and. 222. 279–280 New wholly owned subsidiaries. 46 entrepreneurial culture. 49. 251 Proactiveness. 195 National advantage determinants. 133 See also Structures Outsiders. 33. 37. 228–229 cooperative form and. 216. and international strategies. 8 strategic management process and. 173–174. 166. scanned. 117 strategic leadership and. 185. . 287 Operational relatedness corporate relatedness and. 112. 10 internal analysis and. 168–169 strategic leadership and. 31–36. 47 Product champions. 316–317 Option to defer. 280 Network cooperative strategies. on boards of directors. 104 Organizational size. 200. 48 strategic thinking and. and competition. 99 real options analysis and. 150 interorganizational networks. 268–269. 341 strategic leadership and. 131 Opportunity maximization. 286 Nonequity strategic alliances. 287 strategic. 168–169. 183. 342–343 Product differentiation barriers to entry and. 223 Multinational firms cross-border strategic alliances and. 289 Political strategies. 47. 191–193 distributed alliance networks. 224–225 sharing activities and. 111. 225 defined. 114. 134 diversification and. 187–188. 185. 70–71 Motivation. 247 416 SUBJECT INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 279–281. 248–249 cross-functional product development teams. 275 Multimarket competition. 6 See also Global markets Market segmentation. 118 Organizational structure business-level strategy and. 274. 225 Multidomestic strategy. 254–255 Organizational stakeholders. 16. 307. 219–221. 129. 217–218 strategic business-unit form and. 221–223. 81. 220. 305–306. 202 Options backdating. 191–192 Ownership concentration. 198–199. 3 technology and. 41. 225 Mergers conglomerates and. 164–165 Multidivisional (M-form) structure competitive form and. 13 Offshore outsourcing. 278–279. 21. 285. 117. 243 popularity of. All Rights Reserved. 337. 34 Organizational controls.Licensed to: iChapters User Markets competitor analysis and. 244–245 strategic management process and. 185. 48– 49. 19. 22 M-form structure. 323–324 industrial organization model and. 246 of general environment. 52 Organizational decision making corporate governance and. 109–110 Nonsubstitutable resources. 186 speed to market. 282. 98–99. 176–177. 218–219. 43. 118. 162–163 fast-cycle. 359 strategic leadership and. 113–114 nonequity strategic alliances and. 174–175. 216 Opportunism. on top management teams. 289 transnational strategy and. 355 stakeholders and. 289–290 real options analysis and. 113. 115 Political risks. 258 Private synergy. 46 Mutual forbearance. 134.

118. 366 Real options analysis described. 20. 357 valuation guidelines. 233 See also Competitive risks Rivalry. 309. 18 strategic leadership and. 22 strategic thinking and. 285 innovation and. 108 Real options application issues. 345 international strategies and. 314 SBU. 345 corporate governance and. 259 strategic control and. 9 Resource similarity. 54 unrelated diversification and. 376. 43 Secondary stakeholders. 102. 69. 18 strategic leadership and. 103. 104. 167–168 Shareholder activism. 104–105 competitive advantage and. 364. or duplicated. 11–15 Resource dissimilarity. scanned. 68 R&D investment curtailment and. 218–225. 116–117 industrial organization model and. See Strategic business-unit (SBU) form Scanning. 307–308 Product market stakeholders. 213–214 Related outsiders. 256 downscoping. 271 resource-based model and. 253 Related linked diversification strategy. international corporate-level strategy and. 118 Product substitutes. 289 international strategy and. 84 Quality defined. 8 strategic value of. 269–270 resource-based model of.Licensed to: iChapters User industrial organization model and. 42. 169–170 quality dimensions of goods and services. 49. 169 likelihood of attack and. 367 value drivers for. 380–381 defined. 15 Second movers. 3 capabilities and. 359–363 strategic flexibility and. 257 leveraged buyouts. 47 strategic management process and. 36. 288–289 stakeholder model and. 103. 117. 11 industry environment and. 308 cross-border strategic alliances and. 280–281 Related constrained diversification strategy diversification levels and. 96 core competencies and. 70 Scope acquisitions and. 42. 259–260 outcomes from. 15. May not be copied. 220 Related diversification strategy. 355 strategic leadership and. 198 firm performance and. 106–107 defined. 357–359. 317 Reputation actor’s reputation. 213 multidivisional structure and. 102–103. 367–368 types of. expected. 10. 104. 109 Resource-based model capabilities and. 311–312 SUBJECT INDEX 417 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 14 See also Above-average returns Reward systems. 227–228 Retaliation. 8 value creation and. 258. . 270 strategic leadership and. 370–381 valuation of. 19 Regionalization. 11 intangible. 231 first movers and. 249. 165 Resources acquisition of. 47. 232. 363–367. 98 international strategies and. 3. 11–15. 45– 48 strategic management and. 313 Repricing. 115 slow industry growth and. 102. 14 strategic leadership and. 16. 213. 66 industrial organization model and. 42. 104 socially complex capabilities and. 257–258 downsizing. 286–287. 308. 15–16. 231–232 value-reducing diversification and. 150–151 Radical innovations. 10–11. on boards of directors. in whole or in part. 103–104. 232 internal analysis and. 52 strategic management and. 167 greenfield ventures and. 256–260 defined. 101. as determinants of national advantage. 12–13. 171–172 intangible resources and. 169 total quality management. 212. 246. 11–15. 224–225. 341. 316. 258–260. 249. 13. 356–357 purpose of. 22. 312. 8 diversification and. 163–164 Restructuring acquisitions and. 232 industrial organization model and. 10 Product diversification. 219–221. 82 Returns corporate-level strategies and. 13 dependence on. 339–340 Rare capabilities. 365. 12 international diversification and. 377–378 Risks acquisition and. 249 economies of. 143 Profitability external environment and. 104 tangible. Inc. 234 transaction costs economics and. 249 Related and supporting industries. 12–13. 221 Risk-neutral method. See Competitive rivalry Sarbanes– Oxley Act. 211–212 firm performance and. 280. 18 of returns. 117 value-neutral diversification and. 259. 13. 233. All Rights Reserved. 272–273 Related acquisitions. 356 implementation requirements of. 138. 286.

16–18. 183 defined. 335–339 internal innovation and. 42. 41–54 risks and. 186 in standard-cycle markets. 43. 186 Social capital. 310–311 ownership concentration and. 87 Strategic direction. 2 emergence of. 185. 109 Sociocultural segment. 185. 7. 173–174. 49. 12 Stakeholders corporate governance and. 31–32. 345–346 cooperative strategies and. 16 Strategic intent. 303 defined. 221–223. 217– 218. 43– 45. 323 resource-based model and. 344–345 defined. 7 value creation and. 303. 42. All Rights Reserved. 183–184 in fast-cycle markets. 3. 114. 115–116. 212 Slack. 20. 310–312 Single business strategy. 118. 173 strategic alliances in. 283–284. See Capabilities Strategic center firms. of general environment. 15. 339–344 strategic leadership and. 38–39 Stock options. Internal organization Strategic assets. 316 Storage costs. 305. 3. 190 innovation and. Inc. 33–36. 51. 36– 41 Strategic management competitive advantage and. 3 style of leadership and. 48. scanned. 116. 75–76 South Korea. 185. . 41. and related link strategy. 167. 53–54 hierarchy of capabilities. 308 firm performance and. 185. 20–22. 187–188 vertical complementary. 20. 15 external. 15–18. 185. 345 international entry modes. 7–10 influences on concept of. 78 Specialization. 355 uncertainty and. 302 defined. 21 competitive advantage and. 22 value creation and. 48– 49 strategic direction and. 33. 8–9 modern strategic management. 114. 184 ethical behavior and. 175–177 cooperative strategies in. 185. 9 approach of. 10. 117 skill levels and. 14 stakeholder model and. 285 pervasiveness of. 354–355 Strategic groups. 9 corporate governance and. See External environment. 346–347 Strategic flexibility defined. 20. 18. 129 strategic leadership and. 354 flexible structure and. 185. 184–185 in slow-cycle markets. 48. 118–119 internal. 189–191. 191–192. 9–10 real options analysis and. 8. 32 implementation of strategies. 96 corporate governance and. in whole or in part. 52 strategic management and. 138 Stable alliance networks. 190 Strategic analysis. or duplicated. 117. 16 strategic leadership and. 8. 47 strategic management process and. 116. 52 managerial discretion and. 6. 51 management of relationships with. 192 Strategic controls. 47. 3 strategic management and. 48– 49 firm performance and. 222 Strategic dimensions. 116–117 large-block. 49 establishing controls and. 21. 183 defined. 16–17. 185. 8. 48. 45– 48 responsibilities and actions. 9 Standard-cycle markets competitive dynamics and. 104. 282. May not be copied. 48. 225 Strategic capabilities. 10–18 Strategic management process activities of. 42. 308. 53–54. 42. 334 innovation and. 174 cooperative strategies in. 9. 222. 359 technology and. 2–3. 15. 189–191 defined. 186–187 Stewardship theory. 49–52 strategic management process and. 175 strategic alliances in. 345 Social complexity. 52 stakeholder relationships and. 41. 34 resource management and. 42. 21. globalization and. 18–19 Strategic leadership defined. 31–36 stakeholder model and. 42. 186–187 types of. 189. 44 Stakeholder model cooperative strategies and. 17 firm performance and. 185. 22. 106 Strategic business-unit (SBU) form. 22. 185. 42 strategy-creation process and. 31 economic positioning and. 15–17 strategic leadership and. 256 Slow-cycle markets competitive dynamics and. 186 horizontal complementary. 2–3 strategic leadership and. 17 stakeholder groups. 48– 49. 68. 85 Strategic alliances complementary. 49–52 Strategic entrepreneurship acquisitions and. 334. 20.Licensed to: iChapters User Shareholders agency theory and. 193 Staging competitive advantage and. 42 418 SUBJECT INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 87– 88 Strategic intelligence. 32–33 top management teams and. 42. 149.

319 in Japan. 137–138. 195 Tacit knowledge. Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13–14 strategic center firms and. 3. 13 Valuation Black-Scholes valuation. 381 Uncertainty-reducing alliances. 111. 289 Terrorist attacks of September 11. 232. 354– 355. 368. 100. 230–231 Technological segment. 320 population size. 102 strategic alliances and. 110. 8. 284 Uncertain future cash flows. 234 Taper integration. 214. 10. 36 diversification and. 254 CEO’s role. 255. 270 resource-based model and. defined. 166 Takeovers defined. 9. 83– 84 Suburban growth. 225–229. 277–279 Trust cooperative strategies and. 223 Tax laws. 193. in value chain. 323–324 defined. 102–103. 103. 112. 17 Transformational leadership. 192 strategic management and. 249. 2 internal analysis and. 340. 255. 76 Suppliers bargaining power of. 245 hostile takeovers. 217. 2001. 72 retirement trends in. 129. 99. 251–252 Transaction costs economics. 69 of new entrants. 231–232. 135 Sustainable competitive advantage criteria of. 41. 228. 101. 358 Synergy. May not be copied. 99. 83– 84 Top management teams acquisitions and. 85 Switching options. 289–290 and managerial opportunism. 18–20 encouragement of. 232 Tactical actions. 43 strategic management process and. 338 international strategies and. 138–139. 76–77 Technology in automobile industry. 110–114. 149. 188 Transaction costs. 9 Support activities. 19 Tacit collusion. 38–39 corporate governance and. 119 firm performance and. 187. 15. 194 Unique historical conditions. 219–221. 67. in whole or in part. 135 Value chain analysis. 139. 184 external environment and. 318. 233. 147 strategic flexibility and. 322 organizational size and. 36–37 international entrepreneurship and. 13. 20 strategic leadership and. 230–231 Tax Reform Act of 1986. 372. 251–252. 18 innovation and. 110. 22 worldwide combination structure. 31 Transnational strategy. 341 ethical behavior of. 70 Unrelated diversification strategy. . 144. 212 strategic thinking and. 4 competition and. 308 entrepreneurial culture and. 110 See also Competitive advantage Sustainable development defined. 7 Terrorism. 129–130. 5–7 cooperative strategies and. 171 Tactical responses. 143 firm performance and. 81. 20. 253 Valuable capabilities. 108 defined. 277–278 worldwide geographic area structure. threat of. 287 Systems perspective. 119–120 strategic direction and. 147 international strategy and. 41 heterogeneity in. 21 Structures business-level strategy and. 82– 83. 370–381 Value. 134. 129–130. 275 worldwide product divisional structure. 107–108 Valuable resources. 80– 82 of substitute products. 303. 112. 66 fast-cycle markets and. 355 Threat business-level strategies and. 166. 337. 50 Switching costs. or duplicated. 133–134 cooperative form. 6. 355 strategic management process and. 342–343 firm performance and.Licensed to: iChapters User Strategic thinking characteristics of. 323–324 executive compensation and. 109 United States corporate governance and. 254 Tangible resources. 141 SUBJECT INDEX 419 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 113. 18. 107–110. 110–111. 315 executive succession processes and. 202–203 intangible resources and. 346–347 integrated cost-leadership/ differentiation strategy. 135. 39– 41. scanned. 18 Total quality management (TQM). 143–144. 225 cross-functional development teams and. 276. 120 transaction costs economics and. 150–151 Trade groups. 307 product diversification and. 303–304. 131 defined. 370– 371. 111. economic effect of. of general environment. 245. 174. 216. 101 outcomes from combinations of criteria. 186 firm performance and. 101 See also Value creation Value chain. 380–381 real option valuation guidelines. 231 Uncertainty. 277 Substitute products. 113. 18 functional structure. 275. 339–340. 68.

15–18 strategic entrepreneurship and. 244 Worldwide combination structure. 215. 366 Wa (group harmony). 49. 277 420 SUBJECT INDEX Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 190 Vertical integration. 76 World economies. 10–11 innovation and. 51–52 Vertical acquisitions. 275. 346–347 strategic management process and. 215. 41. Inc. 275. 216. 2 Value-neutral diversification. 189. 3. 343. 344 internal organization and. 343 strategic direction and. or duplicated. 216 industrial organization model of. 223–224 Volatility. 215. 135. 75–76 top management teams and. scanned. 78 Women as entrepreneurs. 22 cost-leadership strategy and. 276. 229–232 Value-reducing diversification. 215 Value creation acquisitions and. 22 innovation and.Value-creating diversification. 142 diversification and. 255 capabilities and. 136 differentiation strategy and. 216. 277 Worldwide product divisional structure. in whole or in part. 347 sociocultural segment analysis and. 277–278 Worldwide geographic area structure. . 9. May not be copied. 13 corporate governance and. 215. 216 resource-based model of. 246 Vertical complementary strategic alliances. 365–367. 11–15 stakeholder model of. 98–102 operational relatedness and. 232–234 Values corporate governance and. 97. All Rights Reserved. 216.