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PART ONE FOUNDATIONS OF TURBULENCE THEORY........................................

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1 The Wind and Atmospheric Turbulence...........................................
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1.1 Atmospheric Forces..................................................
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1.2 Effects of Turbulence...............................................
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1.3 Properties of Turbulence............................................
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1.4 Study of Atmospheric Turbulence.....................................
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2 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow....................................................
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2.1 The Equation of Motion..............................................
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2.2 Energy Equations and Energy Conversions.............................
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2.3 Approximate Equations of Motion.....................................
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2.4 Energetics of Small-Scale Flow......................................
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2.5 Similarity, Physical Modeling, and Dimensionless Equations..........
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3 Statistical Descriptions......................................................
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3.1 Probability and Expectation.........................................
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3.2 Ensembles and Stochastic Processes..................................
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3.3 The Normal or Gaussian Distribution.................................
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3.4 Characieristic Functions and the Operational Calculus...............
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3.5 Transformations of Probability Laws.................................
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3.6 Ensembles and Ergodicity............................................
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3.7 Energy Spectra and Cross Spectra of Time Series.....................
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PART TWO OBSERVED PROPERTIES OF ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE..........................
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4 Some Properties and Probiems of Atmospheric Motions...........................
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4.1 The Planetary Boundary Layer........................................
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4.2 Means and Fluctuations..............................................
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4.3 Variables and Simplified Equations..................................
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4.4 Turbulence Energetics, Simplified...................................
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4.5 Special Turbulence Characteristics: Homogeneity, Stationarity, Isotr
opy.......113
4.6 Coordinates and Taylor's Hypothesis.................................
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4.7 The Closure Problem.................................................
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5 General Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence.............................
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.................. ........ ...............166 6...........148 6.................................................................192 8..........................204 8.......................138 6.......8 Eddy Viscosity and Limiting Forms of <£>m............................................137 6.............................1 Definitions.................9 Ratio of Mixing Coefficients...1 Spectra and Correlation Functions....................................230 ...................135 6 Profiles and Fluxes in the Surface Layer... ......174 7............224 9 Spatial Structure.... .. ..3 Properties in the Inertial Range...13 Wind Profiles Over Hills........ . .3 The Power Law for the Wind Profile.......................................1 Statistics Gathered from Airplanes..................161 6....177 7...2 Variances of Wind Components (z/L = 0).......163 6....................................... .....................................157 6.................................................................................... ...........10 Profiles of Temperature and Other Scalars over Homogeneous Terrain ......................... .......196 8...4 Variances of Scalars......... ...187 8 Spectral Statistics of Turbulent Fluctuations at Fixed Locations......178 7.3 Variances of Wind Components for Non-Zero z/L........... .....................................6 Cospectra....174 7............1 The Planetary Boundary Layer........168 6.....................2 Turbulence above the Planetary Boundary Layer.............4 The Normalized Wind Shear and the Monin-Obukhov L...................... ..................5.230 9..155 6.....................6 Estimation of Winds at Higher Levels.149 6............................2 General Characteristics of One-Dimensional Spectra.................. ................ .......171 7 Variances of Turbulence Characteristics.......5 The Diabatic Wind Profile....................... .......1 Wind Direction and Surface Stress.................... ....................................................................... .......... ................. ......4 Spectra in the Energy-Containing Range in the Surface Layer......... ..........162 6.....5 Extension to the Higher-Level Convective Region........................... .194 8.................222 8.125 5........ ...........................7 Relations Among Stability Parameters and Estimation of L............. ................... . .......... .... .........................2 The Logarithmic Wind Profile.....192 8...11 Determination of Fluxes from Profiles...137 6.....151 6.12 Wind Profiles Over Changing Terrain........... ..................

...291 12............................ ..246 10........... .......356 ....1 Linearization of System Response and Forcing................. .....................2 Description of System Response..2 Vertical Structures......................................................................265 10.........................273 11..................................236 9.................................4 Longitudinal Separation.... ..... ...........................5 Lagrangian Statistics.......... ......273 11............................245 10.........282 12.......269 11 Clear-Air Turbulence....243 10 Atmospheric Dispersion..... ...... .........318 13...................... .5 Simulation of Turbulence...............................................................................................349 14 Aerodynamic Forces and Distributed Loads.....................279 12 Designing for the Effects of Wind and Turbulence.....................3 Modeling the Effects o[ Wind and Turbulence.....................................................................5 Mixtures of Distributions and Realistic Exceedance Statistics...............7 Instantaneous Sources....239 9.....ontal Separation at Right Angles to the Wind..... .................................. ..............276 PART THREE DESIGNING FOR TURBULENCE............3 Hori?.........................5 Monte Carlo Methods............. ................................................... .316 13.....................4 Gaussian Distributions...248 10............................................. ......... ................... ...............281 12.....................................4 Exceedance Statistics...............3 Linear Response to Gaussian Forcing.. ..................................................3 Solutions of Diffusion Equations..............331 13......... .......... ......... ...........272 11...........3 CAT Detection and Warning..253 10.............................................4 Final Form of the Model......2 A Model for CAT....232 9...6 Non-Gaussian Forms.........9................ ............... ............ .....295 13 Linear Responses to Turbulence—The Spectral Design Method.................................... ..287 12.........2 Spectra of Response........1 The Design Problem. .......................322 13....337 13..265 10.........................................248 10.. ..... ....................285 12...................................................................... ............2 Uniform Distributions........ ..................1 Continuity Conditions.............1 CAT Climatology.......... ...................................................

.....4 Standard Deviations...............3 The Response to Distributed Loads...................363 14..........1 Basic Parameters............. ............................... ............................... ........393 A.............399 ...............................3 Wind Maxima.6 Coherence and Phase Delay....................................... .................... ............................. .4 Appendix: The Clamped Beam and Its Normal Modes....................................393 A...............................................395 A..................... ......................... ......2 Statistics of Aerodynamic Forces........2 Vertical Extrapolation of Mean Wind Speed.................394 A.....14.........................372 14...... ................................394 A...........386 Appendix Techniques for Estimating Wind and Turbulence Statistics Near the Surfa ce..........1 Aerodynamic Forces................... ........357 14........... .....395 A.....5 Spectral Densities...............................396 Index..................