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Laboratory Manual

Subject: Automobile Engineering Lab
Index No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
8
9
10

Title of Content
Study of engine components
Study of clutches
Study of gear boxes
Study of differential
Study of rear axle
Study of ignition system
Study of charging system
Study of alternator
Study of battery
Study of starting system,
Study of brakes
Study of suspension system
Study of basic dimension and vehicle layout
Study of computer control engine

Page No.

2. List of additional experiments/jobs planned (if any) :
Expt.
No.
01
02

Brief description about the experiment
Study and Demonstration of distributor less ignition
system
---------------------Nil---------------------

No. of Lab. Slots
per batch
(estimate)
01
-----

3. List of open ended experiments/jobs planned (if any):
Expt.
No.
01

Brief description about the experiment
Introduction to Driving Practice on a six Wheeler

No. of Lab. Slots
per batch
(estimate)
-----

0

2. INTRODUCTION TO THE LABORATORY
The Automobile Engineering Laboratory mainly deals with the idea of exposing the students to
FOUR main areas.
They are,
1.
2.
3.
4.

Exposure to various automotive systems
Exposure to servicing of various automotive systems.
Study of most of chassis components.
To impart knowledge of using various measuring instruments, used in an automotive
garage.

The laboratory experiments fully concentrate on the servicing aspects of an automobile. Here the
students are exposed to all the above mentioned areas, which make a student to enable himself to
understand the concepts of servicing and testing in detail.
3. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS:
(how to use the equipment or facilities and how to avoid misuse, safety measures, laboratory code,
dress code, standard accessories to be possessed by the students)
I. How to use the Equipments:
a) The students should handle following Equipment and instruments only in presence of lab
instructor or staff member.
i) Auto electrical Test Bench.
ii) Gear box.
iii) Steering gear box
iv) Rear axle
v) Braking system (Drum, master and wheel cylinder)
vi) Micrometers
b) While testing Battery following points should be kept in mind.
1) While testing the battery the battery, it should be kept always on the wooden surface.
2) While inspecting the battery care should be taken not spill out the electrolyte.
3) While testing the battery disconnect the charging circuit.

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II. How to avoid misuse:





Make a list of the tools/instruments and indent the same to instructor before carrying out
the experiment and the same should be returned to the lab in- charge after completion.
Care should be taken that student should handle the instrument properly and operate as per
the instructions given by the staff or instructor.
Suitable size spanner/screw driver, instruments and tools should be used for
dismantling/inspection of the given component.
After the completion experiments all the connections should be checked and make sure
that they are in their proper position.
Slowly remove the bottom oil cap while draining out the gear oil
The removed oil in the gearbox should be returned to the instructor.

III Safety Precautions







Before starting the equipment contact the lab instructors.
Do not start the equipment or instrument of which the operation is not known, which can
lead to accidents as well as damage to the equipment.
Never tilt the battery during inspection. It causes fall of electrolyte and possibility of injury
and damage.
Avoid loose clothing and long unbuttoned sleeves.
Wear boots or shoes in the laboratory.
At the end of the practical, clean your equipment with cotton waste.
Handle your instrument properly and carefully as per the instructions given.
Pay attention to posters displayed for dismantling procedure.

Dress code:
Student should wear blue trouser and apron with shoes during his laboratory session.
Standard accessories possessed by student:
Steel roll, Scale, pencil, calculator, Journal papers, observation book.

2

Instruction to the students:
All students are required to

Be present in the laboratory in time.

Note down the dismantling procedure, specifications of the equipment, if required
calculations, and observations from lab manual before the commencement of each lab.

Follow the procedure, which is given in the laboratory manual to conduct respective
experiment.

Come with the observation book, write- up and results of the previous experiment without
fail for conducting the next experiment.

Conduct each experiment in presence of staff member or lab instructor.

Take the required spanners and tools to conduct each experiment and must return them on
completion of that experiment without fail. If students are unable to return the tools and
instruments in good conditions, a suitable penalty will be imposed on them.

4

List of all equipments with specifications from manuals with neat drawings:

Part A:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.

Engine
Clutch assembly
Gear box
Rear axle and Differential assembly
Ignition system
Charging system
Braking system
Suspension system
Battery (12 volts)
stator motor
Computer control module

Part B:
Micrometer (0 to 25mm)
Gear tooth vernier
Sine bar
Slip gauge box
Filler guage
5.

Specimen/material required to conduct the experiment with specifications:
Petrol and Diesel, kerosene fuel, cotton waste
3

6.

Procedure for procurement of specimen/material
Materials are purchased from marked through enquiry of quotations by department amount.

7.1.1 Title of experiment: Study of Engine components
7.1.2 Aim or objective of the experiment: To dismantle a given egine study all the camponents
and assemble the same
7.1.3 List of equipment required conducting the experiment with their specifications:
Equipment: - Manufacturers manuals of engine

7.2.1 Title of the experiment: - Dismantling, Inspection & Assembly of Clutch.

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7.2.2 Aim or objectives of the experiment: To dismantle, inspect and assemble the given clutch assembly.
7.2.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:Equipment- Clutch plate Assembly
Vehicle Make
Vehicle Model
Type of clutch

Tata/Ambassodar car
1210 LPTata / Ambassador Nova
Single plate

Tools and gauges:Spanners (size-6 to 22mm), combination pliers, screwdriver (medium size),
Consumables and others:- sand paper, cotton waste.
7.2.4 Theoretical background the experiment: Basically the clutch consists of three parts. These are flywheel, friction disc, and
pressure plate. When engine is running, the flywheel and pressure plate rotate. The clutch
plate is placed between flywheel and pressure plate. When the driver operates the clutch
pedal the pressure plate along with the clutch plate moves away making a gap in between
them and there is no power transmitted from the flywheel to the gearbox. When the driver
releases the clutch pedal, power is transmitted through the clutch springs, forces the
pressure the plate against the friction disc. The action clamps the friction disc tightly
between the flywheel and pressure plate. Now the pressure plate and friction disc rotate
with flywheel .The friction disc is assembled on the splined shaft that carries the rotary
motion to the gearbox.
7.2.5 Step by step procedure to carry out the experiment: 1) Loosen the clutch-housing nut.
2) Remove the clutch assembly and lay on the ground.
3) Loosen the nut of pressure plate assembly.
4) Inspect the spring tension, if worn replace it.
5) Inspect the wear and tear of friction disc if, worn out replace it.
6) Inspect the release lever and release bearing for wear and tear.
7) Check cracks, uneven wear on pressure plate if necessary replace it.
8) After inspecting all the parts, replace the necessary parts.
9) Assemble all clutch assembly in reverse order.
10) Inspect clutch assembly for correct operation.

7.2.6 Table of observation: Clutch Assembly Belongs to Vehicle: Permissible Spring pressure: Sl.
No.

Spring Size

Spring
pressure

Can be used/ Replaced
5

1
2
3
4
5
6

First
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth

7.2.7 Discussion of results and conclusion: - Clutch assembly is dismantled, cleaned checked for
visual damages and reported the problems.

7.3.1 Title of experiment: Dismantling, Inspection, Assembly of constant mesh gear box &
Calculation of Gear ratios.
7.3.2 Aim or objective of the experiment:
Dismantle, clean and inspect the various parts of the given gearbox and also give the
detailed report of it. Also calculate the different gear ratios in different gear drives.
7.3.3 List of equipment required for conducting the experiment with their specifications:
Equipment: - constant mesh Gear Box
6

Make
Model
Type

Tata
Tata sync 40
Syncro mesh

Tools and Gauges:Set of open end spanners (size- 6 to 28 mm)
Screwdrivers (size-150, 250 mm)
Bearing pullers
Consumables and others:Kerosene, cotton waste.
7.3.4 Theoretical background for the experiment:
Gearbox is necessary to provide different speed and torque at the driving wheels. After using
the gearbox for certain mileage, on the vehicle, the components get wear and teared.
Therefore the components have to be inspected regularly. During the inspection, if found
defective or broken such components will have to be replaced immediately. The level of
lubricant and quality has to be checked regularly, if found contaminated it should be
replaced.
7.3.5 Formulae required:
Number of teeth on driven gears
Gear ratio = __________________________
Number of teeth on driving gears
7.3.6 Step by step procedure to carry out experiment:
1. Loosen the gear box drain plug.
2. Drain out all the oil from the gearbox in a container.
3. With suitable spanner loosen the gear box top cover bolts & keep the bolts into the tray.
4. Remove the gear box top cover.
5. Take out the clutch shaft & bearing by tapping method from the gear box.
6. Take out the main shaft and all the gears and keep into the tray.
7. Take out the lay shaft and idler shaft (reverse gear).
8. Wash all the parts in kerosene and flush out all the dirt and dust with compressed air.
9. Arrange all the parts in a proper order.
10. Inspect the parts for wear and breakage; replace the defective parts if necessary.
11. If necessary replace the rubber bushes.
12. Replace the gear box oil with new SAE90 grade oil
13. Assemble the gearbox and check for the correct operation
7.3.7 Table of observations:
1. Note down the specifications of the given gearbox
a) No of speeds ---------b) No of teeth on the pinion, fixed to clutch shaft =
___________
c) No of teeth on the counter gear connected with pinion of clutch shaft
=___________
Sl No Gear drive

No of teeth on

No of teeth on

Gear ratio
7

the driving gear
01
02
03
04
05
06

driven gear

First gear
Second gear
Third gear
Fourth gear
Fifth gear
Reverse gear

7.3.8 Specimen calculations:
For reading No: 01
Gear ratio =
No of teeth on counter gear of pinion clutch shaft *No of teeth on driven gear (1stgear)
No of teeth on pinion of clutch shaft * No of teeth on driving gear (1stgear)
7.3.9 Discussion of results and conclusion:
The different gear ratios are---------List out the components found defective/broken/replaced.
Also make the analysis of the defect, thus find out the cause for it.

7.4.1 T itle of experiment: -- Dismantling, Inspection, Assembly of Differential & Calculation
Final drive and differential gear ratios.
7.4.2 Aim or objective of the experiment: -- To dismantle, inspect and assemble the differential
system.
7.4.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:-Equipment:-Tata vehicle differential
Vehicle Make
Vehicle Model
Type of Differential

Tata
1210 LP
1210 LP Std. type

Tools and gauges: - Box spanner, double ended spanners, hammer,
8

Consumables and others:- SAE 90 oil, kerosene, cotton wate.
7.4.4 Theoretical background for the experiment:
Differential gear box is used to provide the difference in speed of the driving wheels,
when the vehicle is steered on a curve. Because the distance traversed by the outer wheels
will be more than the inner wheels. It is also important that the clearance between the
mesh teethes should be maintained properly. The differential consists of a system of gear
arranged in such away that connect the propeller shaft with the rear axle. The purpose of
the differential is to provide the relative movement of the two rear axle wheels when the
vehicle is taking turn .
7.4.5 Formulae required nature of graph if any:
Final reduction

= No of teeth on crown wheel
No of teeth on the pinion

7.4.6 Step by step procedure to carry out experiment:-1) Open the differential cover by using double-ended spanners.
2) Remove the check nut and keep them aside.
3) Remove the pinion shaft from the assembly.
4) Remove the crown from the assembly.
5) Dismantle the bevel gear arrangement consisting of sun wheel and planet wheels.
6) Inspect all the wear & tear.
7) If necessary replace the worn out parts.
8) Check the bearings for proper functioning if worn out replace it.
9) Grease & Lubricate all the necessary parts.
10) Resemble it in the descending order and check for proper functioning.

7.4.7 Table of observations:
Sl No
01

No of teeth on
pinion
07

No of teeth on
crown wheel
43

Gear reduction ratio
6.142

7.4.8 Specimen calculations:
Final reduction

= No of teeth on crown wheel
No of teeth on the pinion
=
=

43
07
6.142

7.4.9 Discussion of results and conclusion:
1. Make the list of missing/defective/broken components
2. The final gear reduction ratio is = 6.142
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7.5.1 Title of the experiment: - Rear Axle (Hub Greasing)
7.5.2 Aim or objectives of the experiment: To study, dismantle, inspect and replace the worn out parts and grease necessary parts and
reassemble the rear axle
7.5.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:Equipment – Tata Rear Axle
Make
Vehicle Model
Type

Tata
1210 LP
1210 LP Rear axle

Tools and gauges:Spanners (size-10 to 28 mm), Ball peen hammer, Bearing puller, chuck nut puller, wooden
hammer, Jack, and supporting wood block, metal tray,
Consumables and others:- oil seal, Grease, kerosene, cotton waste.
7.5.4 Theoretical background the experiment: 10

Rear axles are used to transmit power to the wheels and takes drive from the differential .It is
also called as final drive. The rear axle always carries complete vehicle load hence the
regular maintenance of rear axle is very important factor. The wear and tear of axle bearings,
chuck nuts and wear and tear of rear half axle & its splines are the major problems found in
this system, due to lack of maintenance. Hence it is required to carry out regular maintenance
at regular time of interval as recommended by the manufacturer in his chart.
7.5.5 Step by step procedure to carry out the experiment: 1) Loosen the bolts of the rear half axle hub cover plate.
2) Remove the cover plate without damaging the cover plate hub packing.
3) With the help of wooden hammer tap the rear half axle which is present inside the hub
by tapping it will come out side.
4) Remove the half axle and wash it in cleaned kerosene.
5) Check the condition of the half axle gear teeth’s and splines on the axle shaft.
6) If the gear teeth’s fond damaged and splines were worn out then, replace the axle shaft.
7) Remove the check nut with the help of check nut spanner.
8) Remove the drum with Hub.
10) With the help of bearing puller remove the hub bearings.
11) Wash the Hub and hub bearings in cleaned kerosene, with cotton waste make it dry
12) Check the bearings and if the balls or cone of the bearing is found damaged then
replace the bearings.
13) Grease the hub and bearings with recommended bearing grease.
14) Remove the old oil seal from hub shaft.
15) Clean the hub shaft with kerosene and make it dry with cotton waste.
16) Fit the new oil seal on the hub to the big end side of the bearing.
17) Clean the drum inside portion with sand paper.
18) Check the brake liners for wear and tear if necessary replace it.
19) Fit the drum and hub on the hub shaft.
20) Tighten the chuck nut on hub shaft.
21) Fit the half axle.
22) Fix the hub cover plate and tighten the bolts.
7.5.6 Discussion of results and conclusion: Rear axle is dismantled, inspected and replaced the necessary parts, reassembled.

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7.6.1

Title of experiment: Testing of Ignition System and Spark Plug

7.6.2

Aim or objective of the experiment:
To dismantle, inspect and also diagonise the fault in the ignition system.

7.6.3

List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:
Spark plug spanner, double end spanner, cutting pliers, screwdriver, cotton waste, spark
plug testing equipment (Elgi), sand, etc.

7.6.4

Theoretical background for the experiment:
The ignition system consists of a battery, a switch, ignition coil, contact breaker assembly
distributor, spark plug and wiring. Apart from these, the generator is also a part of the
system. Initially the current is drawn from the battery and is made to pass through the
induction coil, which is nothing but a step up transformer. In order to produce the spark at
the spark plug, voltage should be stepped up from 12volts to 20,000 volts instantaneously.
This voltage is then passed to the distributor, which supplies the necessary voltage at the
respective spark plug according to the firing order of the engine.
The spark should occur at an appropriate moment i.e., at some degrees of crank
rotation before the piston reaches the TDC during compression stroke. When the speed of
the engine increases, the spark should appear somewhat earlier to that of the normal
operation so that this ignited charge gets ample time to burn and deliver full power.
Similarly when the speed falls, it should appear somewhat later.

7.6.5 Step by step procedure to carry out experiment:
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1. Lubricating, cleaning of contact points and their adjustment constitute servicing the
moulded distributor points with dry cloth.
2. Check the carbon brushes for their movement in its holder, examine the contact points
of the contact breaker, clean the points with emery paper and adjust the gap between the
points. Also check the condenser.
3. Check the primary and secondary coils. If they are defective, replace them.
4. Remove the spark plug and clean the accumulated dirt and carbon with help of spark
plug cleaner. And check the gap between the electrodes by feeler gauge.
5. After setting the gap, the spark pug is placed into the spark plug tester to check the
intensity, continuous spark, and for proper placing
7.6.6 Table of observations:
1.Engine – 4 stroke petrol
a) Number of cylinders = 4
b) Type of ignition system,
c) Type of battery, = Lead acid 12 volt
d) Number of spark plugs = 4

Sl No

Name of the
Component
Battery
Ignition switch
Ignition coil
Contact breaker
High tension cable
Distributor (cover,
rotor contact
points).

01
02
03
04
05
06

Condition of the
component
charged
working
Good condition
Gap adjusted
Good condition
Normal

Remarks
No replacement
-do-do-do-do-do-

Testing of spark plug: Spark plug
No.
01
02
03
04

Intensity of spark

Continuity of spark

Good
Normal
Good
Bad

Correct
Not correct
Not correct
Not correct

Spark position
Correct
Correct
Correct
Correct

Remarks
Use it
Replace
- Do- Do -

7.6.7 Discussion of results and conclusion:
The fault in the ignition system is ---failure of spark plug
The condition of the ignition system is rectified

13

14

7.7.1 Title of the experiment: - Servicing of an Automobile Generator
7.7.2 Aim or objectives of the experiment: - To dismantle, check, service and assemble
the generator assembly.
7.7.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:Generator (dynamo), Spanners (sizes -6 to 14 mm), kerosene oil, petrol, cotton waste,
Growler, multi-meter.
7.7.4 Theoretical background the experiment: An automobile has a number of electrical equipments. To operate these
electrical equipments, electrical power is required and also to recharge the storage battery.
The storage battery can supply power only for a limited period. Hence it is necessary to
have a built in system, which can deliver necessary power for the electrical system in the
vehicle, while it is in motion, and also for charging the battery. Such system for an
automobile is known as power generating system. This consists of a generator coupled to
the engine through a belt drive and a controlling unit, to control the out put of the generator.
7.7.5 Step by step procedure to carry out the experiment: 1.
Clean the outside surface of the given generator with clean waste.
2.
Remove the top cover by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
3.
Remove the generator pulley by removing the locking nut and key.
4.
Take out the armature assembly from the body by unscrewing the nuts and bolts.
5.
Clean all the parts inspect and attend the following test.
Armature test: 1. Check the armature for short circuit test, continuity and faulty insulation.
2. The armature is kept on the growler and it is energized by main supply.
3. A thin hacksaw blade is placed over the core of armature and the armature is turned by
hand.
4. It is said to be faulty, if the blade starts vibrating or sticks to the core of the armature.
.
5. To check the continuity test, connect one probe of main 110 volts supply to one of the
segments of the commutator and the other probe to other segments of commutator, if the
lamp glows the winding is said to be correct.
6. Similarly, check for other segments of the commentator for continuity.
7. To check the insulation, connect one probe of 110 volts main supply to one of the segments
of commutator and the other probe to the armature core. If the bulb glows then there is a
fault in the insulation.
7.7.6 Table of observation: Sl.
No.
1

Short circuit test
Vibrates hacksaw

Continuity test
Bulb glows

Insulation
test
Bulb glows

Remark
Armature Failure

7.7.7 Discussion of results and conclusion: 15

Generator (dynamo) is dismantled; checked, inspected and reassembled the same for
working condition.

7.8.1 Title of the experiment: - Servicing of an Automobile Alternator
7.8.2 Aim or objectives of the experiment: - To dismantle, check, service and assemble
the Alternator assembly.
16

7.8.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:Alternator assembly, Spanners (sizes -6 to 14 mm), kerosene oil, petrol, cotton waste,
multi-meter.
7.8.4 Theoretical background the experiment: An automobile has a number of electrical equipments. To operate these
electrical equipments, electrical power is required and also to recharge the storage battery.
The storage battery can supply power only for a limited period. Hence it is necessary to
have a built in generating system, which can deliver necessary power for the electrical
system in the vehicle, while it is in motion, and also for charging the battery. Such system
for an automobile is known as power generating system. This consists of a generator
coupled to the engine through a belt drive and a controlling unit, to control the out put of
the generator. The alternator is type of generator which has advantage of getting charged at
lower speeds of automobile over conventional generator.
7.8.5 Step by step procedure to carry out the experiment: 6.
Clean the outside surface of the given alternator with clean waste.
7.
Remove the top cover by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
8.
Remove the alternator pulley by removing the locking nut and key.
9.
Take out the field assembly (rotor assembly) from the body by unscrewing the nuts
and bolts.
10.
Clean all the parts inspect and attend the following test.
Rotor test: 1. Check the armature for short circuit test, continuity and faulty insulation.
2. The armature is kept on the growler and it is energized by main supply.
.
3. To check the continuity test, connect one probe of main 110 volts supply to one of the
segments of the field coil and the other probe to other segments of slip ring, if the
lamp glows the winding is said to be correct.
4. Similarly, check the stator fpr continuity
.

7.8.6 Table of observation: Sl.
No.
1
2
3

Short circuit test

Continuity test

Insulation test

7.8.7 Discussion of results and conclusion: Alternator is dismantled; checked, inspected and reassembled the same for working
condition.
17

7.9.1 Title of experiment: Testing of a lead acid Battery
7.9.2 Aim or objective of the experiment:
To conduct the test and charge the given battery, also state the condition of the same.
7.9.3 List of equipment required conducting the experiment with their specifications:
Equipment:- Battery
Battery
Voltage tester

12volts,13 plate
Range of 2.2 volts
18

Hydrometer
Charging unit

1.0 to 1.3 volts
6 volts & 12volts capacity

7.9.4Tools and consumables: Distilled water, sulphuric acid, wires, spanners (size- 10 to 16 mm), and cotton waste.
7.9.5 Theoretical background for the experiment:
The battery supplies necessary electrical power to operate various electrical equipments, like
starting system, headlamps, electrical gauges etc in a vehicle. Therefore it is essential that the
battery has to be kept in very good condition. The battery tests helps to know the state of
charge of the battery. If the battery is in poor state of charge then it has to be charged suitably.
7.9.6

Formulae required nature of graph if any:

a) Standard temperature at which specific gravity are to be noted ------ 15oc and 27oc
b) Correction to be applied is 0.0004 should be added/subtracted for every degree
above/below the standard temperature.
7.9.7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Step by step procedure to carry out experiment:
First of all remove the battery connections and the holding clamps.
Take the battery to the working table and place the same on a wooden platform.
Remove the entire cell stopper and check the level of electrolyte in the cells, if
required top-up with distilled water.
Do not take the readings immediately; charge the battery for some period (thirty
minutes).
Now note down the specific gravity and cell voltage readings for all the cells.
If the battery is partially discharged, then keep the battery for charging with
necessary connections.
Voltage should be selected according to the battery voltage rating and one ampere
per positive plate in a cell should be selected.
It is to be noted, temperature should not exceed beyond 500c during charging.
After completion of charging, the final readings are to be noted.

7.9.8 Table of observations:
1. Room temperature =_30oC
2. Specifications of the battery:
a) Make: Prestolite__________; reference No: ___________
b) Battery voltage: ___12 volts_________
c) Battery rating: _____01________
d) No of cells: _______06________
e) No of plates: ______13________

19

Sl Cell
No No

01
02
03
04
05
06
7.9.9

01
02
03
04
05
06

Specific
gravity
readings
Initial Final
1.200 1.300
1.250 1.300
1.170 1.300
1.175 1.300
1.184 1.300
1.80
1.300

Cell voltage
reading
Initial
1.7
1.8
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7

Average
gravity

Final
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.300
1.9
1.9
1.9

Average
cell
voltage

Remarks

1.9

Battery
charged

Specimen calculations:
For reading no--------- 01
If Specific gravity reading is---- 1.23,
The temperature is --- 30oc,
Then the corrected reading, for std temperature--- 27oc is given by
= 1.23 + 0.0004(30-27)
= 1.2312

7.9.10 Discussion of results and conclusion:
Results:
1) Average specific gravity of the electrolyte = ___1.300_________
2) Average cell voltage =______19 volts_____
Hence it can be concluded that the state of the given battery is. Discharged & after charging
became fully charged.

7.10.1 Title of the experiment: - Servicing of an Automobile starter Motor
7.10.2 Aim or objectives of the experiment: To dismantle, inspect and assemble the various parts of a given starter motor.
7.10.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications: Equipment: Willis Jeep Starter Motor
Tools and consumables:Growler, testing lamp, Spanners ( 6 to 22 mm),screw driver, multi_ meter, hacksaw blade.
7.10.4 Theoretical background the experiment: 20

The starter motor is used to crank the engine.
7.10.5 Step by step procedure to carry out the experiment: 1 Clean the out side surface of the given starter motor with clean waste.
2 Remove the top cover by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
3 Remove the starter motor bendix drive by removing the locking nut and key.
4 Take out the armature assembly from the body by unscrewing the nuts and bolts.
5 Clean all the parts, inspect and attend the following test
Armature Growler Test:1 Check the armature for short circuit test, continuity and faulty insulation.
2 The armature is kept on the growler and it is energized by main supply.
3 A thin hack saw blade is placed over the core of armature and the armature is turned by
hand.
4 It is said to be faulty, if the blade starts vibrating or sticks to the core of the armature.
5 To check the continuity, connect one probe of main 110 volts supply to one of the
segments of the commutator and the other probe to other segments of commutator, if the
lamp glows the winding is said to be correct.
6. Similarly, check for other segments of the commutator for continuity.
7 To check the insulation, connect one probe of 110 volts main supply to one of the
segments of commutator and the other probe to the armature core. If the bulb glows then
there is a fault in the insulation.
7.10.6 Table of observation :Sl. Short circuit test Continuity test
No.
1 Hacksaw vibrates Bulb not glows

Insulation test
Bulb not glows

Bendix drive
condition
Working
condition

Remarks
Failure of
Armature

7.10.7 Discussion of results and conclusion:Starter motor is dismantled; checked in detail, and made the necessary repairs, and
reassembled the same for working condition.
7.11.1 Title of the experiment: - Dismantling, Inspection, Assembly Hydraulic Breaking system
7.11.2 Aim or objectives of the experiment: - To dismantle, check, service and assemble
the Hydraulic Breaking system
7.11.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:Spanners (sizes -6 to 14 mm), kerosene oil, petrol, cotton waste & Hydraulic Breaking
system
7.11.4 Theoretical background the experiment: Many types of breaking systems are used in automobiles now days. Among all these the
hydraulic breaking system fins wide application on most of the automobiles. Most of the
advanced braking systems are having the base and fundamental as this system only.
7.11.5 Step by step procedure to carry out the experiment: 1. Clean all the components like master cylinder, pipe lines & wheel cylinder with clean
waste and kerosene..
21

2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove the top cover of Master cylinder by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
Remove the side covers of Master cylinder by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
Remove the side covers of wheel cylinder by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
Cheek the physical conditions of all the components like, cylinder pistons, springs, gaskets,
pistons seals etc
6. Replace the worn out and damaged components if necessary
7. Reassemble the systejm.
7.11.6 Table of observation: Not required.
7.11.7 Discussion of results and conclusion: Hydraulic breaking system is dismantled; checked, inspected and reassembled the same for
working condition.

7.14.1 Title of the experiment:
EXHAUST EMISSION TEST OF PETROL ENGINES.
7.14.2 Aim or objective of the experiment:
To find the amount of HC & CO content in the exhaust gas of a given vehicle.
7.14.3 List of equipments required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:
Automotive emission analyzer, two stroke & four stroke vehicles.
Make
:Horiba
Model
:MEXA-324GB
Application :CO & HC
Ranges:CO : 0 ~ 10.00 vol%
HC: 0 ~ 14,000 ppm*
* n – hexane equivalent
Display:
Digital Meter, LCD
Resolution: 0.01 vol% for CO
22

10 ppm for HC
7.14.4 Theoretical background for the experiment/ validation of the experiment:
In the development of transport the internal combustion engines, both petrol and diesel
engines, occupy a very important position. Exhaust gases let out by automobile cause
problems to people and matter. These substances produce harmful effects on human beings
and pollute environment by adding toxicity.
Air pollution can be defined as addition to our atmosphere of any material, which will have
deleterious effect on life. The main pollutants contributed by automobiles are carbon
monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC), oxides of nitrogen (NO X) and lead and
other particulate emissions.
The various standards are provided for the exhaust emission levels, which provide a
reference for vehicle users to safeguard the environment. In order to check the emission
level, exhaust emission test is employed universally.
Mass Emission Standards for Petrol Driven Vehicles
1. Type approval test
Two & Three Wheelers
Reference Mass
R (kg)
R<150
150≤R≤350
R>350

CO (g/km)

HC (g/km)

12
8
12+(R-150)/200 8+4(R-150)/200
30
12

Light Duty Vehicles
Reference Mass
rw (kg)
rw<1020
1020≤rw≤1250
1250≤rw≤1470
1470≤rw≤1700
1700≤rw≤1930
1930≤rw≤2150
rw>2150

CO (g/km) HC (g/km)
14.3
16.5
18.8
20.7
22.9
24.9
27.1

2.0
2.1
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9

1.
Conformity of production tests
Two & Three Wheelers
Reference Mass CO (g/km)

HC (g/km)
23

R (kg)
R<150
150≤R≤350
R>350

15
10
15+(R-150)/200 10+4(R-150)/200
40
15

Light Duty Vehicles
Reference Mass
rw (kg)
rw<1020
1020≤rw≤1250
1250≤rw≤1470
1470≤rw≤1700
1700≤rw≤1930
1930≤rw≤2150
rw>2150

CO (g/km) HC (g/km)
17.3
19.7
22.5
24.9
27.6
29.9
32.6

2.7
2.7
2.8
3.0
3.3
3.5
3.7

Mass Emission Standards for Petrol Driven Vehicles effective from 1st April 1996
a) Passenger cars
Cubic capacity (Cm3)
<1400
<1400<2000
<2000

CO (g/km)
8.68
11.20
12.40

HC + NOx (g/km)
3.00
3.84
4.36

Note: 1. The test will be as per Indian driving cycle with warm start.
2. There should be no crankcase emission
3. Evaporative Emission should not more than 2.0 g/test
ii) Three wheelers (for all categories)
CO-g/km
6.75
HC + NOx g/km
5.40
iii) Two wheelers (for all categories)
CO-g/km
4.50
HC + NOx g/km
3.60
Light Duty Vehicles
(Passenger cars)
20% relaxation in the standards for CO and 20% in combined HC & NO x for the COP
volumes would be given
Two & Three Wheelers
10% relaxation in the standards for CO and 20% in combined HC & NO x for the COP
volumes would be given
7.14.5 Formulae required, nature of graph if any: Nil
24

7.14.6 Step by step Procedure to carry out the experiment:
Preparation:
a. Connect the sampling tube to the drain separator and the probe assembly. Tighten each joint
with the hose bands.
b. Plug the drain separator in to the sample inlet and twist to secure
c. Make sure that clean filter elements are mounted in the pre filter, dust filter and strainer.
Warming up:
a. Turn the power switch on & the analyzer will go into the stand by mode within 2 to 3
minutes.
b. Press the PURGE key and keep probe exposed to clean air.
c. Allow about 10 minutes for warm up.
d. Do not leave the probe tip on the floor.
Calibration:
a. Unplug the drain separator from the sample inlet.
b. Press the purge key to let the analyzer take clean air.
c. Press the AUTO ZERO key until meter reads ‘O’
Measurement:
a. Unplug the drain separator from the sample inlet & press the purge key to let the analyzer
take in clean air.
b. Press the AUTOZERO key until the meter reads ‘O’.
c. Plug the drain separator into the sample inlet.
d. Press the MEASURE key.
e. Insert the probe into the tail pipe sufficiently enough.
f. Read the value on meter.
g. Remove the probe from tail pipe & leave it exposed clean air until the meter reads ‘O’.
h. Press the purge key.
i. For accurate results recalibrate the instruments before the sample measurement.
j. After completing all measurements, let the analyzer take clean air for 30 minutes in
PURGE mode.
7.14.7 Table of observations:
Sl. No. Vehicle
Vehicle Number
Make
1
Yamaha RX KA 25 E 2601
100
2
Bajaj Pulsor
KA 25 S 5831
3
KINITIC
KA 25 S 5757
HONDA
4
BBAJAJ
KA25 U 1917
BOXER

CO (%)

HC (ppm)

Remarks

3.37

7820

Under control

3.71
1.65

200
2000

Under control
Under control

0.58

930

Under control

7.14.8 Specimen calculations: Nil
7.14.9 Plotting of the graph: Nil
7.14.10
Discussion of results and conclusion:
25

Based on the emission test results, necessary maintenance / repairs are to be carried out for the
vehicle and confirm the same by repeating the experiment

7.7.1 Title of experiment: Dismantling, Inspection, Assembly Steering gear mechanism &
Calculation of gear ratio of Steering gear box.
7.7.2 Aim or objective of the experiment:
To dismantle, inspect the construction, working and reassemble the steering gear mechanism.
7.7.3 List of equipment required conducting the experiment with their specifications:
Equipment:Model
Make
Type

Tata
Tata 1210 LP
Worm & roller &
recirculating ball type

Tools and gauges:Spanners (size- 6 to 22 mm), Ball peen hammer, Wooden hammer, Screwdriver (size – 100
to 250 mm), Combination pliers,
Consumables and others:- Bearing Grease, steering gear oil, diesel, cotton waste.
7.7.4 Theoretical backgrounds for the experiment:
The main function of the steering mechanism is to steer the vehicle to the left or right as
desired. According to vehicle type, its load capacity, design of the steering mechanism
changes with vehicle to vehicle. There are number of steering gear boxes including worm &
roller, re-circulating ball type steering mechanism, rack & pinion. Worm & gear type
are mainly used in Indian vehicles.
7.7.5 Step by step procedure to carry out experiment:
1. Loose the steering wheel nut and pull out the steering wheel with the help of steering
puller.
2. Loosen the lock on the sector shaft.
3. Drain all the oil from the steering gear box.
4. Remove the sector shaft at the bottom of the steering column.
5. Draw out the worm shaft and nut assembly from the casing
6. Lay the assembly in tray on the bench to prevent the nut assembly from coming out of
the worm shaft
7. Remove the lock from lock adjuster and unscrew the lash adjuster
8. If the sector shaft is worn out then replace new parts and retain in position
9. Clean out face movement of worm after replacing it into the casing
10. Refit it in the reverse direction.
26

7.7.6 Table of observations:
Not required
7.7.7

Discussion of results and conclusion:
The steering gear mechanism is dismantled, inspected and reassembled in reverse order.

7.8.1 Title of the experiment: - Dismantling, Inspection, Assembly Hydraulic Breaking system
7.8.2 Aim or objectives of the experiment: - To dismantle, check, service and assemble
the Hydraulic Breaking system
7.8.3 List of equipment required to conduct the experiment with their specifications:Spanners (sizes -6 to 14 mm), kerosene oil, petrol, cotton waste & Hydraulic Breaking
system
7.8.4 Theoretical background the experiment: Many types of breaking systems are used in automobiles now days. Among all these the
hydraulic breaking system fins wide application on most of the automobiles. Most of the
advanced braking systems are having the base and fundamental as this system only.
7.8.5 Step by step procedure to carry out the experiment: 1.
Clean all the components like master cylinder, pipe lines & wheel cylinder with
clean waste and kerosene..
2.
Remove the top cover of Master cylinder by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
3.
Remove the side covers of Master cylinder by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
4.
Remove the side covers of wheel cylinder by unscrewing nuts & bolts.
5. Cheek the physical conditions of all the components like, cylinder pistons, springs, gaskets,
pistons seals etc
6. Replace the worn out and damaged components if necessary
7. Reassemble the systejm.

7.8.6 Table of observation: Not required.
7.8.7 Discussion of results and conclusion: Hydraulic breaking system is dismantled; checked, inspected and reassembled the same for
working condition.

27

28