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Statistical applications

5

Answers

3

a

f(x)

n–v

n – 2v

n – 3σ

Skills check

1

a

b

**mean = 3.61 standard deviation = 1.21
**

The small standard deviation implies that the

data are close to the mean

mean = 14 standard deviation = 0.643

The mean is the middle data value (14) since

the frequencies are symmetrical about this

value. The standard deviation is very small

since most of the data values equal the mean

and the rest are close to it

0

10

15

n+v

n + 2v

n + 3v

20

25

30

35

Time (min)

4

b

16%

a

f(x)

60 × 0.68 = 40.8 or 41

c

n–v

n – 2v

n – 3σ

0

n

n+v

n + 2v

n + 3v

231 239 247 255 263 271 279

Volume (ml)

b

2

5

n

0.025

c

75 × 0.84 = 63

y

a

6

5

Exercise 5B

4

1

a

f(x)

3

2

y = –3x + 4

1

0

–1 0

–1

1

2

3

4

0.0766

c

365 × 0.0766 = 27.959 or 28 days

a

i

b

P(80 < IQ < 110) = 0.819

P(IQ > 115) = 0.0668, 2000 × 0.0668

= 134

3

a

0.0668

4

a

f(x)

2

–1 0

–2

1

–4

2

3

2

5x

4

–8

Exercise 5A

a

f(x)

n–v

n – 2v

n – 3σ

0

2

0.16

a

f(x)

c

0

b

n+v

n + 2v

n + 3v

0.815

n–v

n – 2v

n – 3σ

48

81.5%

52

n

d

0.00621

c

300 × 0.927 = 278

n + 2v

n + 3v

68

0

**1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
**

Monthly income (euro)

0.0401

c 80 × 0.0122 = 0.976 or 1

5 a 78.9%

b 0.00621

c 100 × 0.0304 = 3.04 or 3

6 0.106

7 a 86.4%

b 30 × 0.0304 = 0.912 or 1

b

200 × 0.16 = 32

n+v

56 60 64

Time (sec)

c

b

n

31 34 37 40 43 46 49

Height (cm)

b

P(IQ < 90) = 0.159

ii P(IQ > 120) = 0.0228

iii

y = 2x – 6

–6

1

70 80 90 100

Time (min)

b

y

b

60

5x

72

100 × 0.5 = 50

© Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute

Worked solutions: Chapter 5

1

99 kg b 180 × 0.159 = 127 a f(x) y 40 30 20 10 b d e 10 a b c d 0 997 999 10011003100510071009 Mass (g) 0.2 or 24 w = 3.8 d 5000 × 0.02 m weak positive linear e none f perfect negative linear g non-linear h weak negative linear d Exercise 5C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 p = 4..93 h = 183 k = 20. c y 40 f(x) 30 20 0 9 10 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Speed (km h–1) 0 5 10 15 20 25 x b 62.8 w = 222 a 3.466% A baby weighing 2.0808 = 24.683 = 123 c 0.34 is nearer the mean than 5..0228 c 0.919 c d = 32.000429 b 0.0 4.2 Weight(kg) 0 4.78 m a 0.5% c p = 106 b strong positive correlation mean of x = 13.75 d 800 × 0.16 b 2 y a.5 5.6246.911 = 729 ii a.0668 400 × 0.0685 d 87. mean of y = 25.5x moderate positive correlation b d mean height = 4.48 a a = 29.47 to 4..854 c t = 5885 a 2 y a 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 x 0 moderate positive linear correlation y b 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 x moderate negative linear correlation Exercise 5E 1 i a.WORKED SOLUTIONS 8 mean = 1. mean of y = 20.5. c = 31 b 0.0668 = 26.00621 b 3 standard deviation = 0. c e 800 × 0. = 3123 (accept 3120 to 3125) a 0. 300 × 0. c 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 0 Exercise 5D 1 a b c strong positive linear moderate negative linear moderate positive linear 12 14 16 18 20 22 x strong negative correlation mean of x = 16.34 kg (2.0 Height (m) 5.5). b = 30.7 or 27 p = 1006 0.7% e w = 5.78 m mean weight = 896 kg 820 kg © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Worked solutions: Chapter 5 2 .

c Cost($) 2000 1500 Exercise 5H 1000 1 a 500 0 30 40 50 60 x Size (inches) moderate positive correlation b mean screen size = 45.860 c strong negative correlation d y = −0.97 H0: Genre of book is independent of age H1: Genre of book is dependent on age 130 300 b 97 300 c (3 − 1) (3 − 1) = 4 d χ2calc = 26. 137 seconds a r = 0.784x + 192 e y = −0.9 a y = 0.580.0000207 < 0.0127x + 0.688 = 1.5 cm a x = 68. strong positive correlation 8 r = 0.0 H1: Hair color and eye color are dependent.5 7 8 4.9 e 26.53 b y = 1.936.04 (60) − 2.6 = 19.6 b y = 0.751x + 11.792 b y = 0.279x + 2.891. 1.36.6 = 49.22 = 4.47 (1000) + 116 = 1586.464.1 52% y a. b c d e 85 227 × 90 227 × 227 = 33. 59.f) a r = 0. 13.WORKED SOLUTIONS Exercise 5G y a.3 44.53 = 59. strong positive correlation b y = 1.931. strong positive correlation 2 a r = 0.7 (3 − 1) (3 − 1) = 4 χ2calc = 44. c a r = 0.58 AUD a y = 0.193 (15) + 1.04x − 2. 19.05) a H0: Hair color and eye color are independent × × 300 = 42. There is enough evidence to conclude that genre of book is dependent on age.6 b r = −0. c ITGS(%) 3 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 1 2 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 x Chemistry (%) 0 weak positive correlation b d 4 3 chemistry mean = 65.483(8) + 15.279(40) + 2.20 = 13. very weak positive correlation 7 r = 0.200.880 b strong positive correlation 3 r = −0. moderate positive correlation 2 sx = 6.488.115. therefore we reject the null hypothesis.3 > 7. £ 1590 (3 s.1) © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Worked solutions: Chapter 5 3 . strong positive correlation 6 r = 0.751 (50) + 11. ( p-value = 0.193x + 1.12.5 hours y a.6 inches mean cost = $ 1100 d $1540 Exercise 5F 1 r = 0.994. ( p-value = 0.20 b y = 0.55 y = 138 sy = 5. strong positive correlation 5 r = 0. 49 situps a y = 1.779.4 hours.47x + 116 c y = 1.577.9 > 9.3 ITGS mean = 65.985.974 b y = 0.0127x (70) + 0.83 mean number of hours spent crying = 3. There is enough evidence to conclude that hair colour and eye color are dependent.87. strong negative correlation 4 r = 0.00000000556 < 0.6 c y = 0.990.12 a y = 0.784 (70) + 192 = 137. 4. therefore we reject the null hypothesis.15.688 b y = 0.483x + 15. Baby cried(hours) 6 5 4 4 3 2 5 1 2 4 6 8 10 x Baby held (hours) 0 6 moderate negative correlation b d 5 mean number of hours held = 4.22 c y = 0.

933 > 0. a H0: Music preference is independent of age H1: Music preference is dependent on age 101 419 b 137 419 c (3 − 1) (4 − 1) = 6 d χ2calc = 31. ( p-value = 0.05) H0: Employment grade is independent of gender 9 46 141 c (3 − 1)(3 − 1) = 4 d χ2calc = 13.5 e 10 a H1: Employment grade is dependent on gender Directors 11. ( p-value = 0. ( p = 6. There is enough evidence to conclude that the amount of sushi sold is independent of the day of the week.1) × 41 141 × 141 = 13.7 > 13. b c d e 4 a 35 140 × 44 140 H1: Amount of sushi sold is dependent on the day of the week. H1: Age at which a baby is potty trained is dependent on gender. ( p-value = 8.000276 < 0.0 > 11.1 b 145 470 × H1: A puppy’s weight is dependent on its parent’s weight H1: Grade is dependent on the number of hours b H0: Amount of sushi sold is independent the day of the week × × 419 = 33.4 e 13. 69 300 b 140 300 c (2 − 1) (3 − 1) = 2 d χ2calc = 51.675 < 12.08 × 10−40 < 0.6 > 4. 7 a H1: Favorite ﬂavor is dependent on race. × © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute × 300 = 32.345.5 × 470 = 52.6 e 51.5 > 12.0 e 5 a × 21 80 8 × 30 = 10. H0: Film genre is independent of gender H1: Film genre is dependent on gender b 39 80 c (2 − 1) (4 − 1) = 3 d χ2calc = 19.23 × 10−12 < 0.WORKED SOLUTIONS 3 a H0: Favorite ﬂavor is independent of race. therefore we reject the null hypothesis.2 19. therefore we do not reject the null hypothesis.000 000 015 9 < 0. Male Female c d e Management Teachers 71. There is enough evidence to conclude that employment grade is dependent on grade. There is enough evidence to conclude that music preference is dependent on age. therefore we reject the null hypothesis.840 e 0.05) b 70 470 c (3 − 1) (3 − 1) = 4 d χ2calc = 0.0000204 < 0.488.9 127.3 (3 − 1) (3 − 1) = 4 χ2calc = 42.675 0. ( p-value 0.1). There is enough evidence to conclude that grade is dependent on number of hours spents playing computer games.995 > 0.5 538.605.605. × 140 = 11 (4 − 1) (3 − 1) = 6 χ2calc = 0.05) H0: Age at which a baby is potty trained is independent of gender.01) H0: Grade is independent of the number of hours c d e 6 a 90 220 × 96 220 42. ( p-value = 0. There is enough evidence to conclude that favourite flavor is independent of race. therefore we reject the null hypothesis. therefore we do not reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to conclude that the age at which a baby in potty trained is dependent on gender. There is enough evidence to conclude that a puppy’s weight is dependent on its parent’s weight. There is enough evidence to conclude that film genre is dependent on gender.4 b × 220 = 39.488.05) a H0: A puppy’s weight is independent of its parent’s weight. therefore we reject the null hypothesis. therefore we reject the null hypothesis.840 < 9.2 Worked solutions: Chapter 5 4 . therefore we reject the null hypothesis.0 31.1 > 9.59.277.1 (2 − 1)(3 − 1) = 2 χ2calc = 180 180 > 4.5 960. ( p-value = 0.59.5 20.

(critical value = 9. There is enough evidence to conclude that grade is independent of gender. There is enough evidence to conclude that the outcome is independent of the time spent preparing for a test.9 seconds c e 0. 4 men k = 166 a f(x) b c y = 25 d 2 154 163 172 181 190 199 208 Height (cm) 0 244 247 250 253 256 259 262 Weight (g) b 0.6 15. (χ2calc = 0.00982 = 58.0599 = 3. 58.96 11.991.2 66.1 8.77. (3 − 1)(2 − 1) = 2 p-value = 0. strong positive correlation b y = 0.9 H1: Flavor of ice creams is dependent on age Expected values x < 25 Vanilla Strawberry Chocolate χ2calc = 0.467 < 5.8 cm a r = 0.4 14.3% c 4 a strong positive correlation b no correlation c moderate negative correlation c 100 × 0.604 0. b (2 − 1)(3 − 1) = 2 c 20 120 d 0 349 354 Volume (ml) 359 b 0.5 d Paper 1 style questions 6 x ≥ 45 (2 − 1) (3 − 1) = 2 Review exercise 2 14.1 Female 24.604 < 9.1 (significance value).731 60 × 0.6 or 7 b 3 or 4 1 or 2 Male 25.05.159 c 300 × 0.963 > 0.252 0.64 13.4 c y = 0. therefore we do not reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to conclude that the number of pins knocked down is independent of which hand is used. therefore we do not reject the null hypothesis.488.WORKED SOLUTIONS H0: Grade is independent of gender 11 a 8 H1: Grade in dependent on gender 5.801x − 77.4 = 58.8 65.48. 59 people b 3 a 93.3 = 22.05) We do not reject the null hypothesis.801 (170) − 77.980. χ2calc = 0.2% b 6000 × 0.467 degrees of freedom = (3 − 1) (3 − 1) = 4 p-value = 0.488) 9 f(x) a a H0: The number of pins knocked down is independent of which hand is used.069 > 0.215x (40) +14. H0: The outcome is independent of the time spent preparing for a test.4 10.01 y 5 7 11. Therefore we do not reject the null hypothesis.3 25 ≤ x < 45 11.2 c e 1 H0: Flavor of ice creams is independent of age 1 a f(x) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 x a strong positive correlation b x = 11 d 23 a r = 0. There is enough evidence to conclude that ﬂavor of ice cream is independent of age. Paper 2 style questions 30 28 26 24 22 20 0 10 a p = 1.84 8. ( p = 0.810.05.06 10.422 > 0.59. 5 cans b × 60 120 × 120 = 10 p-value = 0. strong positive correlation b y = 0.252 = 75.0548 a 32.215x + 14.6.792 > 0.9.0548 = 5.3 c y = 0. 76 sweets © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Worked solutions: Chapter 5 5 .

991.36 a r = 0.163 (170) − 15.4 4.8 e 69 kg a r = 0.400 < 5.613 > 4. There is enough evidence to conclude that extra-curricular activity is dependent on gender.229 = 1.437. There is enough evidence to conclude that choice of game is independent of gender.6 b i 5 6 7 8 (2 − 1)(3 − 1) = 2 χ = 4.400 0.44 euros a y = 0.8 i b 12 a 39.71.9 > 5.9 (1 d. ii 58.866 = 0. d 9 90 weight(y kg) 80 a p = 21.6 H0: The extra-curricular activity is independent of gender 70 0 q = 14.4 Badminton Table tennis 10 a b c 11 a 26.0 = 12.4 > 9. therefore we do not reject the null hypothesis.719x − 52.3 d i y = 0. χcalc = 0.887 = 0.163x − 15.p.) b strong positive correlation c y = 0.605.05 We do not reject the null hypothesis.8 Female 29.29(35) + 3.219x + 3. H1: The choice of candidate is dependent on where the voter lives. H1: position in upper management is dependent on gender Darts Male 2 calc c 90 200 × × 3680 8000 110 200 × 8000 = 1711 × 200 = 49.667 < 5. 3720 8000 c i χ2calc = 58.6 11.717 > 0.015x + 0. therefore we reject the null hypothesis.229 d y = 0.991. d b 14.823 b strong positive correlation c y = 0.21. therefore we reject the null hypothesis. therefore we reject the null hypothesis.741 d moderate positive correlation H0: Choice of game is independent of gender H1: Choice of game depends on gender Expected values: b 4 r = 13.0 b y = 0.9 ii (2 − 1)(3 − 1) = 2 iii 54. There is enough evidence to conclude that position in upper management is dependent on gender.) b strong positive correlation c y = 0.0666x − 2. 2 (critical value = 5.85 = 11.613 ii 60 50 c 40 d 150 160 170 180 190 x Height (x cm) x = 166. There is enough evidence to conclude that grade is independent of gender © Oxford University Press 2012: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchaser’s institute Worked solutions: Chapter 5 6 .0151(80) + 0.991) 300 500 ii b = 12 × 180 500 × 500 = 108 c = 132 d = 88 H0: position in upper management is independent of gender i χ2calc = 54.991.85 d y = 0.5 i H0: Grade is independent of gender ii (2 − 1)(3 − 1) = 2 iii χ2calc = 0.4 ii (3 − 1)(2 − 1) = 2 i The choice of candidate is dependent on gender.89 = 0.667 p-value = 0.2 degrees of freedom = (2 − 1) (3 − 1) = 2 χ2calc = 0. 1.WORKED SOLUTIONS 3 y a.p. dress size 13 c r = 0.9 c y = 67.89 (2 d.515 = 12 hours (nearest hr) a r = 0.2 20.

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