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N e w I n t e r n at i o n a l V e r s i o n

Procl a m ation



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NIV Thinline Reference Bible

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Proclamation Edition: introductory essays, section introductions and introductions to Bible books copyright
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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A4
Editors preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A7
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A8
What is the Bible? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A15
A Bible overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A20
The historical reliability of the Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A25
Finding the melodic line of a book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A32
From text to doctrine: the Bible and theology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A37
From text to life: applying the Old Testament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A42
From text to life: applying the New Testament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A47
From text to sermon: preaching the Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A53
From text to study: small groups and one-to-ones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A58
Biblical interpretation: a short history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A65

The Old Testament

Genesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Exodus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Leviticus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Deuteronomy . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Joshua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Ruth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
1Samuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
2Samuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
1Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
2Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
1Chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

2Chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ezra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nehemiah . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Esther . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Psalms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ecclesiastes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Song of Songs . . . . . . . . . . .
Isaiah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jeremiah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lamentations . . . . . . . . . . .
Ezekiel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Daniel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929
Hosea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948
Joel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
Amos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 968
Obadiah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979
Jonah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983
Micah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988
Nahum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997
Habakkuk . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002
Zephaniah . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
Haggai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
Zechariah . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017
Malachi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029

The New Testament

Matthew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Luke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Romans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1Cor int hia ns . . . . . . . . . .
2Cor int hia ns . . . . . . . . . .
Galatians . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Ephesians . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Philippians . . . . . . . . . . . .
Colossians . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1Thessalon ians . . . . . . . .
2Thessalon ians . . . . . . . .
1Timothy . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2Timothy . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Titus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Philemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Hebrews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1Peter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2Peter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revelation . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Table of Weights and Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375

Concordance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377

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The goal of the New International Version (NIV) is to enable English-speaking people from
around the world to read and hear Gods eternal Word in their own language. Our work as
translators is motivated by our conviction that the Bible is Gods Word in written form. We
believe that the Bible contains the divine answer to the deepest needs of humanity, sheds
unique light on our path in a dark world and sets forth the way to our eternal well-being.
Out of these deep convictions, we have sought to recreate as far as possible the experience
of the original audienceblending transparency to the original text with accessibility for
the millions of English speakers around the world. We have prioritized accuracy, clarity
and literary quality with the goal of creating a translation suitable for public and private
reading, evangelism, teaching, preaching, memorizing and liturgical use. We have also
sought to preserve a measure of continuity with the long tradition of translating the Scriptures into English.
The complete NIV Bible was first published in 1978. It was a completely new translation
made by over a hundred scholars working directly from the best available Hebrew, Aramaic
and Greek texts. The translators came from the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, giving the translation an international scope. They were from many
denominations and churchesincluding Anglican, Assemblies of God, Baptist, Brethren,
Christian Reformed, Church of Christ, Evangelical Covenant, Evangelical Free, Lutheran,
Mennonite, Methodist, Nazarene, Presbyterian, Wesleyan and others. This breadth of denominational and theological perspective helped to safeguard the translation from sectarian
bias. For these reasons, and by the grace of God, the NIV has gained a wide readership in all
parts of the English-speaking world.
The work of translating the Bible is never finished. As good as they are, English translations must be regularly updated so that they will continue to communicate accurately the
meaning of Gods Word. Updates are needed in order to reflect the latest developments in
our understanding of the biblical world and its languages and to keep pace with changes in
English usage. Recognizing, then, that the NIV would retain its ability to communicate Gods
Word accurately only if it were regularly updated, the original translators established The
Committee on Bible Translation (CBT). The committee is a self-perpetuating group of biblical scholars charged with keeping abreast of advances in biblical scholarship and changes
in English and issuing periodic updates to the NIV. CBT is an independent, self-governing
body and has sole responsibility for the NIV text. The committee mirrors the original group
of translators in its diverse international and denominational makeup and in its unifying
commitment to the Bible as Gods inspired Word.
In obedience to its mandate, the committee has issued periodic updates to the NIV. An
initial revision was released in 1984. A more thorough revision process was completed in
2005, resulting in the separately published Todays New International Version (TNIV). The
updated NIV you now have in your hands builds on both the original NIV and the TNIV and
represents the latest effort of the committee to articulate Gods unchanging Word in the way
the original authors might have said it had they been speaking in English to the global English-speaking audience today.
The first concern of the translators has continued to be the accuracy of the translation
and its faithfulness to the intended meaning of the biblical writers. This has moved the translators to go beyond a formal word-for-word rendering of the original texts. Because thought
patterns and syntax differ from language to language, accurate communication of the meaning of the biblical authors demands constant regard for varied contextual uses of words and
idioms and for frequent modifications in sentence structures.
As an aid to the reader, sectional headings have been inserted. They are not to be regarded as part of the biblical text and are not intended for oral reading. It is the committees

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Preface | A5
hope that these headings may prove more helpful to the reader than the traditional chapter
divisions, which were introduced long after the Bible was written.
For the Old Testament the standard Hebrew text, the Masoretic Text as published in the
latest edition of Biblia Hebraica, has been used throughout. The Masoretic Text tradition contains marginal notations that offer variant readings. These have sometimes been followed
instead of the text itself. Because such instances involve variants within the Masoretic tradition, they have not been indicated in the textual notes. In a few cases, words in the basic consonantal text have been divided differently than in the Masoretic Text. Such cases are usually
indicated in the textual footnotes. The Dead Sea Scrolls contain biblical texts that represent
an earlier stage of the transmission of the Hebrew text. They have been consulted, as have
been the Samaritan Pentateuch and the ancient scribal traditions concerning deliberate textual changes. The translators also consulted the more important early versionsthe Greek
Septuagint, Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion, the Latin Vulgate, the Syriac Peshitta, the
Aramaic Targums and, for the Psalms, the Juxta Hebraica of Jerome. Readings from these
versions, the Dead Sea Scrolls and the scribal traditions were occasionally followed where the
Masoretic Text seemed doubtful and where accepted principles of textual criticism showed
that one or more of these textual witnesses appeared to provide the correct reading. In rare
cases, the committee has emended the Hebrew text where it appears to have become corrupted at an even earlier stage of its transmission. These departures from the Masoretic Text
are also indicated in the textual footnotes. Sometimes the vowel indicators (which are later
additions to the basic consonantal text) found in the Masoretic Text did not, in the judgment
of the committee, represent the correct vowels for the original text. Accordingly, some words
have been read with a different set of vowels. These instances are usually not indicated in the
The Greek text used in translating the New Testament is an eclectic one, based on the
latest editions of the Nestle-Aland/United Bible Societies Greek New Testament. The committee has made its choices among the variant readings in accordance with widely accepted
principles of New Testament textual criticism. Footnotes call attention to places where uncertainty remains.
The New Testament authors, writing in Greek, often quote the Old Testament from its
ancient Greek version, the Septuagint. This is one reason why some of the Old Testament
quotations in the NIV New Testament are not identical to the corresponding passages in the
NIV Old Testament. Such quotations in the New Testament are indicated with the footnote
(see Septuagint).
Other footnotes in this version are of several kinds, most of which need no explanation.
Those giving alternative translations begin with Or and generally introduce the alternative
with the last word preceding it in the text, except when it is a single-word alternative. When
poetry is quoted in a footnote, a slash mark indicates a line division.
It should be noted that references to diseases, minerals, flora and fauna, architectural
details, clothing, jewelry, musical instruments and other articles cannot always be identified
with precision. Also, linear measurements and measures of capacity can only be approximated (see the Table of Weights and Measures). Although Selah, used mainly in the Psalms, is
probably a musical term, its meaning is uncertain. Since it may interrupt reading and distract
the reader, this word has not been kept in the English text, but every occurrence has been
signaled by a footnote.
One of the main reasons the task of Bible translation is never finished is the change in our
own language, English. Although a basic core of the language remains relatively stable, many
diverse and complex linguistic factors continue to bring about subtle shifts in the meanings
and/or connotations of even old, well-established words and phrases. One of the shifts that
creates particular challenges to writers and translators alike is the manner in which gender is
presented. The original NIV (1978) was published in a time when a man would naturally be
understood, in many contexts, to be referring to a person, whether male or female. But most
English speakers today tend to hear a distinctly male connotation in this word. In recognition
of this change in English, this edition of the NIV, along with almost all other recent English
translations, substitutes other expressions when the original text intends to refer generically
to men and women equally. Thus, for instance, the NIV (1984) rendering of 1 Corinthians 8:3,
But the man who loves God is known by God becomes in this edition But whoever loves

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A6 |Preface

God is known by God. On the other hand, man and mankind, as ways of denoting the human race, are still widely used. This edition of the NIV therefore continues to use these words,
along with other expressions, in this way.
A related shift in English creates a greater challenge for modern translations: the move
away from using the third-person masculine singular pronounshe/him/histo refer
to men and women equally. This usage does persist at a low level in some forms of English,
and this revision therefore occasionally uses these pronouns in a generic sense. But the tendency, recognized in day-to-day usage and confirmed by extensive research, is away from
the generic use of he, him and his. In recognition of this shift in language and in an
effort to translate into the common English that people are actually using, this revision
of the NIV generally uses other constructions when the biblical text is plainly addressed to
men and women equally. The reader will frequently encounter a they, them or their
to express a generic singular idea. Thus, for instance, Mark 8:36 reads: What good is it for
someone to gain the whole world, yet forfeit their soul? This generic use of the indefinite or
singular they/them/their has a venerable place in English idiom and has quickly become
established as standard English, spoken and written, all over the world. Where an individual
emphasis is deemed to be present, anyone or everyone or some other equivalent is generally used as the antecedent of such pronouns.
Sometimes the chapter and/or verse numbering in English translations of the Old Testament differs from that found in published Hebrew texts. This is particularly the case in the
Psalms, where the traditional titles are often included in the Hebrew verse numbering. Such
differences are indicated in the footnotes at the bottom of the page. In the New Testament,
verse numbers that marked off portions of the traditional English text not supported by the
best Greek manuscripts now appear in brackets, with a footnote indicating the text that has
been omitted (see, for example, Matthew 17:[21]).
Mark 16:920 and John 7:538:11, although long accorded virtually equal status with the
rest of the Gospels in which they stand, have a very questionableand confusedstanding
in the textual history of the New Testament, as noted in the bracketed annotations with which
they are set off. A different typeface has been chosen for these passages to indicate even more
clearly their uncertain status.
Basic formatting of the text, such as lining the poetry, paragraphing (both prose and
poetry), setting up of (administrative-like) lists, indenting letters and lengthy prayers within
narratives and the insertion of sectional headings, has been the work of the committee. However, the choice between single-column and double-column formats has been left to the publishers. Also the issuing of red-letter editions is a publishers choiceone the committee
does not endorse.
The committee has again been reminded that every human effort is flawedincluding
this revision of the NIV. We trust, however, that many will find in it an improved representation of the Word of God, through which they hear his call to faith in our Lord Jesus Christ and
to service in his kingdom. We offer this version of the Bible to him in whose name and for
whose glory it has been made.
The Committee on Bible Translation
September 2010

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Editors preface
The apostle Paul encouraged Timothy to do his best to present [himself] to God as one approved, a worker who does not need to be ashamed and who correctly handles the word of
truth (2Tim. 2:15). The NIV Proclamation Bible is a resource to help Bible teachers at all
levels do just that, whether that is in a Sunday school, vacation Bible school, a small group
interactive Bible study, a one-to-one study, a Bible talk at a camp or school, an evangelistic
event, or in the pulpit.
This Bible includes a range of essays on interpreting and applying the Bible, and introductions to each section and book of Scripture with a particular eye on how to handle the
word correctly as we teach and preach from it. Rather than giving a full running commentary
on the whole text, we hope that this carefully chosen additional material will open up the
main themes, melodic line and particular challenges of each portion of Scripture, and so
prepare p
eople to read and study the unerring word of truth for themselves.
If you have ever wished you could have just a few minutes with an expert at the start of
your journey into a passage of the Bible, then here is a study resource that provides just that.
It will give you a steer, keep you on track, tell you what you should not missbut without
overwhelming you. Seasoned evangelical scholars and preachers, men and women from
around the world who have the experience (and have made the mistakes!), give us the benefit
of their wisdom on each section and book of the Bible.
Every Bible book introduction summarizes the main message of the book in a sentence, and shows how the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle fit together to make that big picture.
They put forward an outline structure for each book, which may suggest possible sermon
or study series you could try (and titles or headings you could borrow). Finally, they note
the most important points to consider when teaching and applying that portion of Gods
word. Often they will demonstrate here how a grasp of the main thrust or melodic line of
a book can help us correctly handle the trickier passages and verses in a way that is most
satisfying and edifying; at other times they will warn of false trails and potential pitfalls to
avoid, or fruitful avenues to explore, as you turn the page and start each fresh adventure
into the God-breathed word yourself. Each also suggests some further reading, if you want
to pursue things in more detail later (though without endorsing every word in every commentary and book recommended, of course).
And when you need to refresh your understanding of what the whole thing is about
How do I apply the Old Testament and point people to Christ? Is the history here reliable?
Where does this all fit in Gods plan for the world? How do I turn all my researches into a talk
or an interactive Bible study?t here is guidance here too, in the longer opening essays that
will inspire, strengthen and equip us to correctly handle the word that God has spoken.
I have really enjoyed assembling what I think is a terrific cast of contributors to make
this Bible teachers dream into a reality with the NIV Proclamation Bible. But more than that,
I am looking forward to using it regularly to sharpen up my ownteaching. I pray it will help
you, too, as we do our best to present ourselves to God as a pproved and unashamed workers,
thoroughly equipped for every good work (2Tim. 3:17).
Lee Gatiss, EDITOR
Director of Church Society, Cambridge, UK, and Adjunct Lecturer in
Church History at Wales Evangelical School of Theology

Consultant Editors
Peter Adam (Melbourne)
Moore Casement (Belfast)
Kerry Gatiss (Cambridge)

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David Jackman (London)

Gavin Perkins (Sydney)
Adrian Reynolds (London)

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Peter Adam is Vicar Emeritus of St Judes Carlton, and Canon of St Pauls Cathedral,
Melbourne. He served as Principal of Ridley Melbourne from 2002 to 2012 and has
written many books, including Speaking Gods Words (IVP, 1998), Hearing Gods Words
(Apollos, 2004) and commentaries on various books of the Bible, including Walking
in Gods Words: Reading Ezra and Nehemiah Today (Aquila, 2013) and The Message of
Malachi (IVP, 2013). From text to doctrine: the Bible and theology. Ezra-Nehemiah.
Malachi. Consultant Editor.
T. Desmond Alexander is Senior Lecturer in Biblical Studies at Union Theological
College, Belfast, Northern Ireland, having been Director of Christ ian Training for the
Presbyterian Church in Ireland for ten years. He has written and contributed to a wide
variety of academic and reference books on the Bible, including From Eden to the New
Jerusalem (IVP). Introduction to the Pentateuch.
Charles Anderson is a teaching pastor at The Crossing, a Presbyterian church in Columbia, Missouri. He taught New Testament and Biblical Languages for five years at
Oak Hill Theological College in London, and has served as managing editor of Themelios. He has written on Hebrews, Philo and cultural hermeneutics, and is the co-editor
of Everyday Theology (Baker Academic, 2007). Introduction to the New Testament
Christopher Ash serves as Director of The Proclamation Trusts Cornhill Training
Course. He is the author of a number of books, including The Priority of Preaching
(Christ ian Focus, 2009), Listen Up! A Practical Guide to Listening to Sermons (Good
Book Company, 2009) and Hearing the Spirit (Christ ian Focus, 2011), as well as books
on Job and Romans. From text to sermon: preaching the Bible. Job. Romans.
Simon Austen is Rector of St Leonards Church, Exeter. He has contributed to various
conferences, written a number of books and articles, and served on a number of national church bodies. Zephaniah.
Craig Bartholomew is the H. Evan Runner Professor of Philosophy at Redeemer University College in Ontario, Canada and formerly a lecturer at George Whitefield College, Cape Town, South Africa. He is the author/editor of a number of books and articles on biblical interpretation, including a commentary on Ecclesiastes (Baker, 2009).
Introduction to Old Testament Wisdom Literature.
G. K. Beale is Professor of New Testament and Biblical Theology at Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. He is the author of a number of books on biblical interpretation, including A New Testament Biblical Theology: The Unfolding of the Old
Testament in the New (Baker, 2011), and the editor (with D. A. Carson) of Commentary
on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Baker, 2007), as well as commentaries
on 1 and 2Thessalon ians and Revelation. Revelation.
Graham Beynon is Minister of Grace Church in Cambridge. He has been involved in
church planting and church leadership in Leicester and Cambridge. He is the Director
of TEAM (Training for East Anglia Ministry) and is a visiting lecturer at Oak Hill Theological College. He is also the author of a number of books, including Last Things First

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Contributors | A9
(IVP, 2010) and Planting for the Gospel: A Hands-on Guide to Church Planting (Christ ian
Focus, 2011). Daniel. 1Thessalonians.
Daniel I. Block is the Gunther H. Knoedler Professor of Old Testament at Wheaton
College, Illinois, and has written many books, articles and commentaries particularly
on Ezekiel, Judges, Ruth and Deuteronomy. In recent years he has also lectured and
preached in Russia, England, Denmark, China, Greece, Singapore, Hong Kong, Kenya
and his home country, Canada. Judges. Ruth.
Peter Bolt is the Head of New Testament at Moore Theological College, Sydney, Australia. He has written several books and articles on the Gospels, including The Cross from
a Distance (IVP, 2004) and Living with the Underworld (Matthias Media, 2007), with
a special interest in how these magnificent accounts of J esus communicate his good
news to our lost world. Introduction to the Gospels.
Gerald Bray is Research Professor of Divinity at Beeson Divinity School in Birmingham, Alabama, and Director of Research at the Latimer Trust. He has written and edited many books on history, theology and the Bible, including several volumes in the
Ancient Christ ian Commentary on Scripture series, and Galatians, Ephesians in the
Reformation Commentary on Scripture series (IVP). Biblical interpretation: a short
Seulgi Byun is Lecturer in Old Testament at Oak Hill Theological College. Prior to his
move to the UK, he ministered in a number of churches in the US and taught at Gordon
College, Massachusetts. Genesis. Haggai.
Moore Casement has been the Director of the Cornhill Training Course in Belfast
since it began in September 2009. He qualified and worked as a solicitor for a number of
years, before being ordained as a minister within the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
1John. Consultant Editor.
Ros Clarke is Discipleship and Training Pastor at Castle Church, Stafford and is completing a PhD on the Song of Songs at Highland Theological College. In her spare time
she is a romantic novelist, a knitter and a lazy gardener. Song of Songs.
Ben Cooper is Minister for Training at Christ Church Fulwood and Course Director of
Fulwood Bible Training in Sheffield. He has PhDs in both economics and biblical studies and is the author of Incorporated Servanthood: Commitment and Discipleship in the
Gospel of Matthew (T&T Clark, 2013), Just Love (Good Book Company, 2005), Paul in 3D:
Preaching Paul as Pastor, Story-teller and Sage (Latimer Trust, 2008) and The Ethics of
Usury (Latimer Trust, 2012). Matthew.
Martyn Cowan is a licentiate minister of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. He
trained at Oak Hill Theological College and his doctoral research at the University of
Cambridge was on the preaching of the Puritan divine John Owen. At present he teaches at the Cornhill Training Course in Belfast. Introduction to the Historical Books.
Paul Darlington is the Vicar of Oswestry Holy Trinity in the Church of England, and
the author of Evangelical Ministry in a Non-Evangelical Parish (Church Society, 2009).
He is also Chairman of the Church Society. Habakkuk.
Sophie de Witt and her husband minister at a multicultural community church in
Cape Town, South Africa called The Message (Church of England in South Africa).
Before that she completed the Cornhill Training Course in London and was a student

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worker at St Helens, Bishopsgate. She is the author of One-to-One: A Discipleship Handbook (Authentic, 2003) and Compared to Her... How to Experience True Contentment
(Good Book Company, 2012). 2Timothy.
Mervyn Eloff is the Rector of St James Church, Kenilworth in Cape Town and an associate lecturer and former vice principal of George Whitefield College, Cape Town. He
is the founding chairman of the Bible Teachers Network, an organization whose aim is
to encourage expository preaching in the South African context. He has written on the
theology of Matthews Gospel. Lamentations.
Bob Fyall is Senior Tutor at Cornhill Scotland and Associate Minister at the Tron
Church, Glasgow. He taught Old Testament in Cranmer Hall, Durham, also pastoring
a church there. He has written a number of books, including work on Job, Daniel, Ezra
and Haggai. He is currently working on the volume on 1 and 2Kings in the Teach the
Bible series. 1 and 2Kings. Jonah.
Simon Gathercole is Senior Lecturer in New Testament at the University of Cambridge.
He has written books and articles on Paul, the Gospels and non-canonical literature,
including Where Is Boasting? (Eerdmans, 2002) and The Pre-Existent Son (Eerdmans,
2006). He is an elder at Eden Baptist Church, Cambridge. Galatians.
Kerry Gatiss studied modern languages at New College, Oxford and in addition to
freelance German translation work has served on the staff of various Christ ian organizations, including All Souls, Langham Place, and St Helens, Bishopsgate, and as a
leader on CYFA Ventures. She is a graduate of The Proclamation Trust Cornhill Training Course and Oak Hill Theological College in London and regularly leads Bible studies and evangelistic groups for women. Consultant Editor.
Lee Gatiss is Director of Church Society, Adjunct Lecturer in Church History at Wales
Evangelical School of Theology and Editor of Theologian ( He
is the author/editor of many books and articles on theology, biblical interpretation and
church history and has ministered in several Anglican churches. Ephesians. Editor.
Canon David Gibb is Vicar of St Andrews, Leyland in Lancashire. Hosea.
David Gibson is a Minister of Trinity Church, Aberdeen and an ordained Elder in the
International Presbyterian Church. He is co-author of a book on Ecclesiastes entitled
Destiny: Learning to Live by Preparing to Die (IVP, 2014). Ecclesiastes.
Jonathan Gibson has a PhD in Hebrew Studies from the University of Cambridge, and
is the co-editor of From Heaven He Came and Sought Her: Definite Atonement in Historical, Biblical, Theological, and Pastoral Perspective (Crossway, 2013).
Liam Goligher holds a doctors degree from Reformed Theological Seminary in Jackson, Missouri, and is Senior Minister of Tenth Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. He
has written several books, including Joseph: The Hidden Hand of God (Christ ian Focus,
2008) and The Fellowship of the King: The Quest for Community and Purpose (Christ ian
Focus, 2003). Joshua.
Julian Hardyman trained for pastoral ministry at Cornerstone Church, Nottingham
and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School and has been Senior Pastor of Eden Baptist
Church in Cambridge since 1996. He has written two books: Maximum Life: All for the
Glory of God and Idols: Gods Battle for Our Hearts, both published by IVP. 1Timothy.

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Matthew Harmon is Professor of New Testament Studies at Grace Theological Seminary in Indiana. He is the author of She Must and Shall Go Free: Pauls Isaianic Gospel
in Galatians (DeGruyter, 2010) and a forthcoming commentary on Philippians in the
Mentor Series (Christ ian Focus, 2014). Philippians.
David Helm serves as Lead Pastor of the Hyde Park congregation of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago, Illinois. A graduate of Wheaton College and Gordon-Conwell
Theological Seminary, David is ordained in the PCA. He is also the Chairman of the
Charles Simeon Trust, a ministry devoted to equipping the next generation of Bible
expositors. 2Peter.
James Hely Hutchinson is Director of the Institut Biblique Belge in Brussels, where he
teaches Old Testament, Biblical Theology and Biblical Languages, and where he edits
Le Maillon. He is the author of several articles on the book of Psalms. Psalms.
David Jackman served as Senior Minister at Above Bar Church, Southampton, was
the founding director of the Cornhill Training Course on biblical preaching and the
President of The Proclamation Trust. He has written many books and articles on biblical exposition, including studies of Abraham, Judges, Ruth, Matthew, 1Cor int hia ns, 1
and 2Thessalon ians and Johns epistles, and is still active in preaching and training
preachers around the world. From text to life: applying the Old Testament. Isaiah.
Consultant Editor.
Karen H. Jobes is the Gerald F. Hawthorne Professor of New Testament Greek and Exegesis at Wheaton College, a member of the NIV translation committee and author of
several books and numerous articles on the Greek Old Testament and the New Testament. Esther.
Dirk Jongkind is Research Fellow in New Testament Text and Language at Tyndale
House, Cambridge and Deputy Senior Tutor of St Edmunds College, Cambridge. He
has an MA in Old Testament, an MPhil in New Testament and a PhD on the transmission of the Greek text of the New Testament. He is the author of a number of scholarly
articles and books on the history and social world of the New Testament, and is also
involved in mentoring initiatives of the European Leadership Forum as co-leader of its
Theologians Network. The historical reliability of the Bible.
R. C. Lucas was the Rector of St Helens, Bishopsgate, London, 196198. He established
The Proclamation Trust in 1986 and is the author of The Message of Colossians and
Philemon (IVP, 2000), The Message of 2Peter and Jude, with Chris Green (IVP, 1995),
and Teaching John: Unlocking the Gospel of John for the Expositor, with William Philip
(Christ ian Focus, 2008). Mark.
Angus MacLeay is the Rector of St Nicholas, Sevenoaks, having worked for a few years
as a solicitor before being ordained. He has served in parishes in Manchester, Cumbria
and Sevenoaks. He has also been a Member of the General Synod of the Church of England since 1995 and is the author of Teaching 1Peter and Teaching 1Timothy (Christ ian
Focus). 1Peter.
Leonie Mason helps to train ministry apprentices and Bible study leaders at St Helens,
Bishopsgate, London. She trained for ministry at The Proclamation Trust Cornhill
Training Course, and Oak Hill Theological College in London. From text to study:
small groups and one-to-ones.

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Mark Meynell was formerly Senior Associate Minister at All Souls, Langham Place,
and is (part-time) European Programme Co-ordinator for Langham Preaching and
Chaplain to HM Treasury and HMRC. Between 2001 and 2005 he was a Lecturer and
then Acting Principal at Kampala Evangelical School of Theology in Uganda. He is the
author of a number of books, including The New Testament and Slavery (Latimer Trust,
2007). Philemon.
Douglas Moo is Wessner Chair for Biblical Studies at Wheaton College and chair of the
Committee on Bible Translation (niv). He has written several commentaries on New
Testament books as well as an introduction to the New Testament (with D. A. Carson).
Justin Mote is Director of the North West Ministry Training Course. He has written on
a number of Bible books and has ministered in several Anglican churches. Nahum.
Peter OBrien is Emeritus Faculty Member, and formerly Vice Principal and Senior
Research Fellow in New Testament at Moore Theological College, Sydney, where he
taught for four decades. He and his family served as missionaries in India for ten years,
and he has written commentaries and articles on Pauls letters, as well as on a biblical
theology of mission. Hebrews.
Mark ODonoghue is minister of Christ Church, Kensington. After six years as a corporate lawyer, Mark obtained a first-class degree from Oak Hill Theological College and
was City Minister of St Helens, Bishopsgate for seven years before moving to serve in a
church in West London. He is the author of numerous articles and is currently writing
a book on work. 2Thessalonians.
Gavin Perkins is Course Director of Cornhill Sydney. He is also a Senior Assistant Minister at St Thomas Anglican Church, North Sydney. He trained at Moore Theological
College and is currently completing a Doctor of Ministry degree from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Chicago. John.
David Peterson is an Emeritus Faculty Member at Moore Theological College, Sydney,
where he teaches on a part-time basis. He is also a Director of Cornhill Sydney, where
he teaches preaching and Biblical Theology. He served as Principal of Oak Hill Theological College, London, from 1996 to 2007. He is the author/editor of many books and
articles on theology, biblical interpretation and worship. Acts.
Richard L. Pratt, Jr., is the President of Third Millennium Ministries (,
having taught at Reformed Theological Seminary in Jackson, Mississippi and Orlando,
Florida for twenty-one years. He served as the General Editor for the NIV Spirit of the
Reformation Study Bible and has written many books, including Every Thought Captive
(P&R, 1979), He Gave Us Stories (P&R, 1993) and commentaries on 1 and 2Chronicles
and 1 and 2Cor int hia ns. 1 and 2Chronicles.
Adrian Reynolds is Director of Ministry for The Proclamation Trust and Honorary Associate Minister of East London Tabernacle Baptist Church. He is the author of Teaching Numbers in the Proclamation Trust Teaching series. Before working for the Trust, he
pastored a Baptist church in Hampshire. Numbers. Consultant Editor.
Vaughan Roberts is the Rector of St Ebbes Church, Oxford and President of The Proclamation Trust. He is the author of a number of books, including Turning Points (Authentic, 1999), Lifes Big Questions: Six Major Themes Traced Through the Bible (IVP,
2004), and Battles Christians Face (Authentic, 2007). A Bible overview.

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James Robson is Senior Tutor and Tutor in Old Testament and Hebrew at Wycliffe Hall,
Oxford. Previously he taught at Oak Hill Theological College. His PhD, Word and Spirit
in Ezekiel, was published by T&T Clark (2006). His latest book is Honey from the Rock:
Deuteronomy for the People of God (IVP, 2013). Ezekiel.
Wolter Rose teaches Semitic languages and history and culture of the Ancient Near
East at the Theological University of the Reformed Churches, Kampen, The Netherlands. His commentary (in Dutch) on the book of Zechariah was published in 2010.
Brian Rosner is the Principal of Ridley Melbourne Mission and Ministry College. He
previously taught at Moore Theological College and the University of Aberdeen. He is
the author/editor of many books, including (with Roy Ciampa) the Pillar Commentary
on 1Corinthians (Apollos, 2013). 1Corinthians.
Nat Schluter. After his curacy in the UK, Nat and his family moved to Johannesburg
to start the Johannesburg Bible College in 2005. Nat now serves as the Principal of the
Johannesburg Bible College. He has a masters degree in theology and a doctorate in
neuroscience. Jude.
Andrew Shead is Head of the Old Testament Department at Moore Theological College, Sydney, where he has taught, pastored and preached for twenty years. He is the
author of a number of books and articles on Jeremiah, Hebrew poetry and biblical theology, and has ministered in several Anglican churches. Jeremiah. Amos.
Charlie Skrine is a curate at St Helens, Bishopsgate in London, with responsibility for
ministry among students. He trained for ministry at The Proclamation Trust Cornhill
Training Course and Oak Hill Theological College in London. From text to life: applying the New Testament.
Matthew Sleeman teaches New Testament at Oak Hill Theological College, London,
and is a trustee for Keswick Ministries. An ordained Anglican, he writes on the Gospels
and Acts and on issues linked with living out the gospel in particular places. He has
ministered in several churches in the UK and Australia. Luke.
Douglas Stuart is Professor of Old Testament at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Massachusetts, and Senior Pastor of Linebrook Church in Ipswich, Massachusetts. He holds both a BA magna cum laude and a PhD from Harvard,
and has published many books and articles, including commentaries on Exodus, Ezekiel and the Minor Prophets. Exodus. Introduction to the Prophets.
William Taylor is Rector of St Helens, Bishopsgate in London and the author of Understanding the Times: Living in the Light of the Arrival of the King (Christ ian Focus, 2009).
His sermon series on 2Cor int hia ns can be found in the St Helens online audio library.
Myrto Theocharous is a Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament at the Greek Bible
College in Athens, Greece. She specialized in the Septuagint translation of the Twelve
Prophets and her thesis has been published with T&T Clark. She is currently involved
in commentary writing and also serves in anti-trafficking work in Athens. Micah.
Mark D. Thompson is the Principal of Moore Theological College, Sydney and the
author of A Clear and Present Word: The Clarity of Scripture (IVP, 2006) and Too Big
for Words? The Transcendence of God and Finite Human Speech (Latimer Trust, 2006).
What is the Bible?

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Melvin Tinker is the Vicar of St John Newland, in Hull, England. Melvin read Theology at Oxford University and trained for ordination at Wycliffe Hall. He has previously
been Curate at Wetherby Parish Church, Chaplain to Keele University and Vicar of All
Hallows, Cheadle. As well as speaking around the country and abroad, Melvin is the
author of over fifty published articles dealing with a wide range of subjects relating
to ethics and theology. He is also the author of several books, including Why Do Bad
Things Happen to Good P
eople? (Christ ian Focus, 2009), Reclaiming Genesis (Monarch,
2010) and Intended for GoodThe Providence of God (IVP, 2012). Titus.
Jane Tooher lectures in Ministry at Moore Theological College, where she is also the
Director of the Priscilla and Aquila Center ( Prior to joining the faculty at Moore she was in parish ministry in Sydney and London. 2 and 3John.
Simon Vibert is Vice Principal of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford, where he teaches Homiletics and Hermeneutics. He trained for Anglican ministry at Oak Hill Theological College and has an MTh in New Testament from Glasgow University and a DMin from
Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida. He is the author of various books,
including The Diamond Marriage (Christ ian Focus, 2005) and Lives Jesus Changed
(Christ ian Focus, 2010) as well as Excellence in Preaching: Learning from the Best (IVP,
2011). Proverbs.
Tim Ward is Associate Director of The Proclamation Trust Cornhill Training Course
in London, having previously been senior minister of Holy Trinity Church in Hinckley,
Leicestershire. He is the author of Word and Supplement: Speech Acts, Biblical Texts,
and the Sufficiency of Scripture (Oxford University Press, 2002) and Words of Life: Scripture as the Living and Active Word of God (IVP, 2009). Finding the melodic line of a
Robin Weekes is the Minister of Emmanuel Church, Wimbledon. Prior to this, he
served on the teaching staff of The Proclamation Trust Cornhill Training Course in
London and was the pastor of Delhi Bible Fellowship South in New Delhi while an associate mission partner of Crosslinks. Leviticus.
Paul Williamson is a lecturer at Moore Theological College, Sydney, Australia. He previously taught Old Testament and Hebrew at the Irish Baptist College. He has authored
a number of books and articles focusing on the Old Testament and biblical theology,
including Sealed with an Oath: Covenant in Gods Unfolding Purpose (IVP, 2007). Joel.
John Woodhouse was Principal of Moore Theological College from 2002 to 2013, where
he has taught for many years. He served as senior minister in Christ Church, St Ives (in
Sydney). He has written expository commentaries on 1Samuel, Colossians and Philemon, and is currently writing further Old Testament volumes for the Preaching the
Word series. 1 and 2Samuel. Colossians.
Chris Wright is International Ministries Director of Langham Partnership. He has
taught in India and at All Nations Christ ian College, chaired the Lausanne Theology Working Group for several years, is an honorary Vice-President of Tearfund, has
written a number of books on the Old Testament and mission, and serves in All Souls
Church, Langham Place, London. He is the author of a commentary on Deuteronomy
(Baker, 2012). Deuteronomy.

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A Bible overview
Vaughan Roberts
Rector of St Ebbes Church, Oxford and President of The Proclamation Trust

The unity of the Bible

The Bible can be an intimidating book for many Christ ians. They believe that it is Gods
word, but it is longer than any other book they have read and much of it does not immediately appear either relevant to their lives or even particularly Christ ian. Many may have
tried to read it all through, but soon came to a standstill in the detailed laws of Leviticus and
decided to stick from then on only with the New Testament, especially the Gospels, and a
few favorite Old Testament stories. When they do venture into less familiar territory they
can feel lost, struggling to know how it relates to the rest of Scripture. That will only change
if they are convinced not only of the authority of the whole Bible, but also of its unity.
The Bible is certainly a diverse collection of material, containing sixty-six books,
written by about forty different human authors, in many different styles, over nearly two
thousand years. And yet it is also a unity: one book with one divine author and one supreme subject. All Scripture is God-breathed (2Tim. 3:16), with the Holy Spirit ensuring
that everything the human authors wrote was exactly as he wanted. This explains the
remarkable coherence of the writings, which all focus on Gods plan to save the world
through his Son J esus Christ. Jesus himself made this claim, saying of the Old Testament,
These are the very Scriptures that testify about me (John 5:39) and taking those who
traveled with him to Emmaus on a whistle-stop tour of the Bible: beginning with Moses
and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning
himself (Luke 24:27).

The story of the Bible

Contrary to what many believe, history is not cyclical, going around in repeated circles
and never heading anywhere in particular; it is linear. It had a definite beginning, when
God created everything, and it will have a conclusion, when Christ returns and introduces a perfect new creation. The Bible tells the story of the universe in between these
points. It speaks of Gods authority, as the one who is in complete control despite human
rebellion against him, and of his amazing grace in rescuing a people for himself through
Christ. His sovereignty is underlined by the fact that he had determined on this plan of
salvation even before the creation of the world (Eph. 1:45). There are four main stages in
the gospel story the Bible tells: creation, fall, promise and fulfillment.
1. Creation (Genesis 12)
The first two chapters of the Bible announce Gods creation of everything out of nothing
and give us a picture of the way the world is meant to be. Human beings are, uniquely,
made in Gods image and given authority under him over the rest of creation. Adam and
Eve enjoy perfect relationships with God, one another and the rest of the created order.
Sadly this ideal state does not last for long.
2. Fall (Genesis 3)
Adam and Eve listen to Satans tempting words to them through the mouth of a serpent
and rebel against Gods rightful authority. Ever since, their descendants seek to live independently of him with disastrous results, not just for human beings, but for all creation.
All the originally perfect relationships are fractured. Human beings no longer enjoy the
blessing of intimate fellowship with God but are under the curse of his judgment and
are banished from his presence. Adam and Eve start squabbling, and the battle of the
sexes has begun. The natural world is now experienced not just as a friend, but also as an

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e nemy, bearing its fruit only through painful toil (Gen. 3:17). That is where God could
have left us, but because of his great love, the Bible does not end here.
3. Promise
Gods covenant promises
Even in the darkness of Genesis 3 the light of Gods grace shines as he promises that the offspring or seed of the woman will one day crush the serpents head so that curse will be
replaced by blessing (Gen. 3:15). Gods grace is seen again when he makes a covenant with
Noah that he will preserve his creation and never again destroy it by a flood (Gen. 9:911).
Covenant is one of the most important concepts in the Bible and is found in our
names for the two parts of Scripture: Old and New Testament (testament is another
word for covenant). A covenant is a solemn commitment. God commits himself by making binding promises. The next time he does this is when he calls Abram to himself and
makes promises to him that will have very far-reaching consequences for his descendants
and the whole world (Gen. 12:17). The apostle Paul later refers to these promises as the
gospel (Gal. 3:8). The whole of the rest of the Bible flows from this covenant with Abram,
as God partially fulfills it in the history of Israel in the Old Testament and then finally
fulfills it through Christ.
There are three elements to Gods covenant in Genesis 12: nation, land and blessing.
He promises that Abram (later known as Abraham) will have many descendants who will
become a great nation. He will give them the land of Canaan to live in and will both bless
them and also bless all nations through them. God later also makes covenants at the time
of Moses and David. These should not be understood as distinct from his covenant with
Abraham, but rather as extensions of it. All these covenants are part of Gods eternal plan
to save the world through Jesus and are finally fulfilled in him: For no matter how many
promises God has made, they are Yes in Christ (2Cor. 1:20).
Old Testament history (Genesis2Chronicles)
The history books of the Old Testament describe how God graciously works on behalf
of Israel in fulfillment of his covenant promises. The focus of much of Genesis is on the
fulfillment of Gods promise that Abraham will have many descendants, as God miraculously enables his wife to give birth to a son, ensures the continuance and expansion of
the family in the next two generations and protects them through Josephs intervention,
despite the threat of famine. By the beginning of Exodus, however, the Israelites are oppressed by the Egyptians and are only rescued because God remembered his covenant
with Abraham (Exod. 2:24). He therefore intervenes to redeem them from slavery and
makes them his very own p
eople. At Mount Sinai he gives them his law so that they might
live under his rule and enjoy his blessing, as Adam and Eve had done before the fall. The
chief mark of this blessing is the presence of God in their midst in the tabernacle. Once
they enter the land of Canaan under Joshua it looks as if the three promises to Abraham of
nation, land and blessing have been fulfilled.
There are signs, however, that all is not well. The p
eople continue to disobey the
Lord, even though he had warned them through Moses before they entered the land that
they would only enjoy his blessing there if they obeyed him; otherwise they would face
his judgment and be evicted from it (Deut. 28:12, 15). Despite their sin, God continues
to bless them and raises up rulers for them, of whom the greatest are David and Solomon.
God makes a remarkable covenant commitment to David that one of his descendants will
also be a son of God, and his throne will be established forever (2Sam. 7:14, 16). This
promise is initially fulfilled in the glory days of Solomon, who builds a temple as the focal
point of Gods presence with his people and enjoys great prosperity. But Solomon turns
from the Lord and, straight after his death, Israel declines rapidly through civil war, idolatry and division.
Old Testament prophecy
The kingdom divides after Solomons reign into Israel in the north and Judah in the south.
God raises up prophets during this period to speak to his p
eople in both kingdoms. The

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prophets are covenant mediators who apply to the people of their day what God had
promised in the past. God had made it clear through Moses, as the p
eople were about to
enter Canaan, that they would only enjoy his blessing within the covenant if they obeyed
him and that they would otherwise be evicted from the land. In the light of this message
the prophets warn of Gods coming judgment against their sin. This judgment comes for
the northern kingdom when they are destroyed by the Assyrians. A little over a hundred
years later the people of Judah are also judged by God when they are defeated by the Babylonians, who destroy the temple and take them into exile.
While the prophets proclaim judgment on the basis of Gods conditional promises
through Moses, they also offer hope for the future because of his unconditional covenant
with Abraham. Ultimately Gods commitment to redeem the world is founded not on their
obedience, but on his grace. The punishment of the exile therefore means discipline, but
not divorce. Despite their sin, God has not abandoned them and will still fulfill his promise
to bless them and, through them, to bless the world. The prophets speak of what God will
do in the future in terms of what he has already done in the past, only next time it will be
better. There will be a new temple that will bring blessing to the whole world (Ezek. 4048),
a new king of Davids line who will reign with justice forever (Isa. 9:67), a new exodus that
will bring salvation to Gentiles as well as Israelites (Isa. 49:6) and, in the end, a new creation
(Isa. 65:1718).
Jeremiah even prophesies a new covenant (Jer. 31:3133). This is in continuity with
the previous covenants, as God is not abandoning the promises he has made in the past.
The difference, however, is that under this covenant God will finally deal with the sin
that kept ensuring p
eople could never fully enjoy his blessing under the old covenant.
When this new covenant is inaugurated God will write his law on his peoples hearts and
completely forgive them. The Old Testament ends with Gods people waiting for the coming of Gods Savior King, the Messiah, through whom all the prophecies will be fulfilled.





4. Fulfillment
Jesus on earth (the Gospels)
Four hundred years pass after the completion of the Old Testament before Jesus begins
his public ministry by announcing, The time has come ... The kingdom of God has come
near (Mark 1:15). He demonstrates in his life, teaching and miracles that he is the divine
Son of God, the Messiah, who has come to bring salvation as the prophets foretold. He has
the power to put everything right again and he chooses a surprising way to do it: by dying
in weakness on the cross. Having lived a perfect life, heu niquelydoes not deserve the
curse of Gods judgment on law-breakers, but he willingly faces it in the place of others. On
the cross Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us so that
the covenant blessings God promised to Abraham can be received by everyone, whether
Jew or Gentile, through faith in him (Gal. 3:1314). In this way he introduces the new covenant, which Jeremiah foretold, by his death (Luke 22:20). He is then raised from the dead
and ascends to heaven, where he reigns over the whole creation at the right hand of his Father, and from where he will return at the end of time to bring judgment and final salvation.
The last days (ActsRevelation)
The Bible calls the time between the first and second comings of Christ the last days
(e.g., 2Tim. 3:1; Jas 5:3). This is the period when the New Testament letters were written and in which we still live today. It lies in the intersection of two ages: this age and
the age to come (e.g., Matt. 12:32). The kingdom of God is both now and not yet. It

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has come with the appearance of J esus on earth and through his death and resurrection,
but it will only come fully at his return. As believers we already enjoy some of the great
blessings of salvation such as justification, adoption and the presence of the Holy Spirit
in our lives, but we also experience much frustration, as our experience of salvation is not
complete. Our bodies are not yet redeemed (Rom. 8:23) and the sinful nature still drags
us down (Gal. 5:17).
The last days begin on the Day of Pentecost when God sends his Holy Spirit to all who
believe in J esus to dwell within them and to equip them for his serv ice (Acts 2). The book
of Acts describes how, in the power of the Spirit, the first Christ ians proclaim the gospel
from Jerusalem to the ends of the earth. In this way God will continue to draw people into
his kingdom until Christs return.
The new creation (Revelation 2122)
There will be a great division at the second coming of Christ. Those who continue to reject
his rule will be judged, but his people will join him in a perfect new creation. This is not
something we ourselves can establish on earth, but will come down out of heaven from
God (Rev.21:2). The unity of the Bible is vividly displayed as its last chapter employs imagery taken from its second. As in Eden in Genesis 2, there will be a river flowing through
the new creation with the tree of life beside it (Rev.22:13). The harmony Adam and Eve
experienced in the garden will be restored and Gods people will again enjoy perfect relationships with their Creator and Savior, one another and the material world. Then, at last,
all Gods promises will be fulfilled and his people from every nation, tribe, people and
language (Rev.7:9) will praise him eternally for his amazing grace.

Biblical theology
Biblical theology is the name given to an approach to the Bible that stresses its unity and
seeks to understand each part in the light of its overarching narrative that focuses, as we
have seen, on Gods gospel plan to redeem the world through J esus Christ. This approach
has many benefits in biblical teaching and preaching.
Providing a map
Many Christ ians are familiar with isolated sections of the Bible, but have little idea of
the framework of the whole book. As a result, they quickly get lost in unfamiliar territory
and feel that large sections are best avoided altogether. A basic grasp of biblical theology
through a simple Bible overview can make an enormous difference and open up previously uncharted territory. It can be the equivalent of a map that helps readers find their
bearings in any part of Scripture and enables them to navigate the text more comfortably.
Focusing on the gospel
A great deal of our reading of the Bible tends to be driven by our personal concerns, as
we look for particular messages for ourselves, addressing our own interests. God does, of
course, speak into the details of our lives through his word, but if we always begin by looking for a personal message we are likely to miss the whole point. The Bible is not, first and
foremost, full of little messages for me, but is rather about God and his plan to save the
world through Christ. Each biblical book fits within that plan and contributes to our understanding of it. We will therefore be helped to get to the heart of its message if we ask what
role it plays within the unfolding revelation of God and his gospel, and only then consider
how it applies to us. This should help to guard us from the moralism that so quickly rears
its head if we approach a text thinking first about ourselves rather than God. The gospel
focus of the whole Bible should remind us that its message is not, first of all, here are lots
of commands you should obey or p
eople you should copy. It rather begins with God and
what he has graciously done for us before it calls on us to respond with faith and obedience.
Exalting Christ
Christ is the heart of the gospel (Eph. 1:10), so if we focus on it in our reading and teaching of the Bible, then we will focus on him. That should be true both in our handling of

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A24 |A Bible overview

the New Testament and of the Old Testament as well. We know that the prophecies point
to him, but the same is also true of the history books, which prefigure him. Everything
the Israelites enjoyed as a partial fulfillment of Gods promises to Abraham is a model
that points to the greater reality that has come in Christ. For example, he is the temple
in whom we meet God (John 2:21), the perfect sacrifice through whom we have access
to God, and the perfect priest who offers it (Heb. 9:1114). He also perfectly fulfills the
wisdom literature as he himself is both the wisdom of God (1Cor. 1:24) and also the one
through whom we can become wise (1Cor. 1:30). The more we see the Bibles presentation
of Christ and his gospel in all its rich variety, the more we will be built up as his disciples.
When we see that Christ reveals the Father and brings us to the Father, we will glorify him,
through his Spirit, in our grateful worship of the triune God.

Further re ading
Graeme Goldsworthy, The Goldsworthy Trilogy (Paternoster, 2000)
Michael Lawrence, Biblical Theology in the Life of the Church (Crossway, 2010)
Vaughan Roberts, Gods Big Picture (IVP, 2002)

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From text to life:

applying the Old Testament
David Jackman
Past President of The Proclamation Trust, London

What is the value of the thirty-nine books of the Old Testament to the twenty-first-century
Christ ian believer? For many Bible readers they seem to be primarily useful background
information, to familiarize us with the context into which the light of the gospel shone at
the dawn of the Christ ian era. We need to know the history of the people of Israel, through
their long wait for the promised Messiah to appear, and so for many the Old Testament is
little more than a collection of narratives and prophecies from a very remote and distant
world, both culturally and historically. This makes it essentially a collection of Jewish
books, for the nation of Israel, of mainly antiquarian interest today. That is certainly how
most Christ ians would view the Apocrypha, and the Old Testament tends to be treated
in a similar wayw itness how comparatively little of it is read or preached. The page
that the translators have inserted between the two Testaments, famously described by
Dr. Alec Motyer as the only uninspired page in your Bible, only serves to emphasize
their separateness.
Yet Bible-believing Christ ians affirm the unity of the sixty-six books, because of
their ultimate divine authorship through the wide variety of human writers. All Scripture is God-breathed (2Tim. 3:16). Paul goes on to point out to Timothy that this is why it
is all useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness. That is the
whole Bibles job description for New Testament believers, since Pauls category must
have included the whole Old Testament, which Timothy had been acquainted with from
childhood (v.15), as well as the growing corpus of the apostolic writings. Similarly, Peter
speaks of the living and enduring word of God on the basis of Isaiahs declaration that
the word of the Lord endures forever (1Pet. 1:2325).
Our approach to the Old Testament must be rooted, therefore, in the New Testaments
acceptance of its continuing divine authority and the apostolic models and methods of its
interpretation and application to the Church, the body of Christ. When we realize that
the whole Bible is one unified grand revelation of Gods character and purposes in timespace history, we start to acquire the keys to unlock its significance for our contemporary
context. Our ultimate authority is our Lord Jesus Christ himself, the Word made flesh,
and when we study in detail his own total confidence in the authority and relevance of
the Old Testament Scriptures, interpreted, passed on and later developed by his Spirit-led
apostles, we begin to realize that their contemporary neglect, or mishandling, constitutes
a major deprivation of Gods intended gracious provision for his p
eople. The Old Testament is not primarily about the history and geography of Israel and the Ancient Near East;
its subject and purpose is the self-revelation of God.
An important passage in the New Testament (2Pet. 1:1618) provides us with a template for our understanding. In this section, Peter is recalling the event that we call the
transfiguration of Christ, described in Matthew 17:18, Mark 9:28 and Luke 9:2836.
He defends the apostles against the charge of following cleverly devised stories by referring to this historical event, which he (and James and John) witnessed personally. We
were eyewitnesses of his majestyt hey saw. And they heard the voice from the Majestic Glory, affirming, This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. So there
was a divine event (we saw) accompanied by a divinely given explanation of it (we
heard). The event together with the explanation (and both parts are vital) constitutes
the revelation. That is the way the Bible always works. God acts in space-time history and
gives to the authors of Scripture the divine explanation of the event, so that their inspired
writing becomes the authoritative account of Gods character and purposes. The Bible

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From text to life: applying the Old Testament | A43

is firstly Gods book about God, before it is his book about us. He is the hero of all the
Old Testament narratives. Christ is the focus and center of all the Scriptures. The Bible is
the divine self-revelation of the only true and living God, with all the implications such
knowledge brings for our life in Gods world. Indeed, we might describe the whole Bible
as God preaching God to us.
Jewish scholars divided the Old Testament Scriptures into three major sections, as
recognized by J esus when he addressed his disciples after his resurrection and told them
that everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms (Luke 24:44). This is the customary threefold division, beginning with
the Pentateuch or Torah (law), the first five books of the Bible, the books of Moses from
Genesis to Deuteronomy.
The Prophets then include what we normally call the narrative or history books
(Joshua to 2Kings), which were known as the former prophets, because the history is
recorded from the divine perspective with the authority of Gods word spoken. The latter
prophets are the fifteen books that are divided into the three major prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel) and the twelve minor prophets (Hosea to Malachi). All the rest of the
books make up the writings, of which the book of Psalms is the leading and the longest
book, and whose title therefore can also stand as the representative name for the whole
section. So the whole Old Testament is included in Jesus affirmation that they all speak of
him and he is their fulfillment. Their relevance to every generation is therefore firmly established by dominical authority. Not surprisingly, the apostles affirm and underline this
teaching. Writing to Christ ian believers in Rome, Paul states that everything that was
written in the past [the Old Testament] was written to teach us, so that through the endurance taught in the Scriptures and the encouragement they provide we might have hope
(Rom. 15:4). Again to a predominantly Gentile church, in Corinth, he reviews the history
of Israel in the wilderness and affirms, Now these things occurred as examples to keep
us from setting our hearts on evil things as they did (1Cor. 10:6) and again, These things
happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the
culmination of the ages has come (1Cor. 10:11).
If Christ is the divider of human history and the focus of all the Scriptures, then he is
the essential key to unlock the continuing message and application of the Old Testament
to the contemporary Church, in every generation. Two thousand years after the greatest event in the history of planet earth, we can only rightly read Gods self-revelation in
the Old Testament through the lens that is Christ. It is Martin Luthers famous point that
while we have to read the Bible forward, we can only understand it backward. On our
side of the incarnation, cross and resurrection, the fact of those great events necessarily
transforms our interpretation and application of Old Testament texts. So when the risen
Lord met up with two of his followers on the road to Emmaus, on Easter Day, beginning
with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures
concerning himself (Luke 24:27). When we realize that the Lord Jesus is the center of
all the antecedent revelation, we are neither committed to a frenetic hunt to find him in
every verse of the Old Testament (Wheres Jesus in this text?), nor to squeeze him in by
some fanciful connections. Rather, we must use the tool to interpret Old Testament Scripture Christ ianly, or Christologically, which is the question, What difference does it make
to this text that Jesus has come? To extend that a little, What do we understand this text
to mean in the light of his coming, his ministry, life, death, resurrection and ascension?
That is the sure way to prevent us from being satisfied with a Jewish rabbinical exegesis.
This is neither guesswork nor fanciful invention. We have some very strong and
detailed examples in the New Testament epistles of the methodology of the apostolic
preachers and teachers in dealing with the Old Testament from a fulfillment motif. Study
Galatians for the relationship of the law to the freedom of the gospel, or Hebrews for the
continuity and discontinuity between the covenants in the two Testaments. Both are not
only providing essential interpretations, they also model the methodology that is applicable to every part of the Old Testament corpus. However, before we examine that in more
detail, it is worth emphasizing that this principle downgrades a number of popular, but
inadequate, models of interpretation and subsequent teaching. For example, it is very
common to take major figures of the Old Testament and to build up character studies

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A44 |From text to life: applying the Old Testament

that use them as a basis for moralizing homilies. This is especially common in teaching
children, where the vivid narratives of the Old Testament are told for all their captivating
interest, only to have a moral tacked onto the end. Boys and girls, we ought to be like
Daniel, or, We ought not to be like Samson. The character then becomes the focus of
the story and God is sidelined. The classic example elevates David as the little guy who
becomes a giant-killer, with appropriate exhortation to be courageous, as he was, in dealing with our giants. But the fact is that God is winning the victory for his p
eople Israel
through his agent, the Lords anointed, upon whom the Spirit of the Lord has come in
power (1Sam. 16:13). This then points forward to the great victory of the anointed Son,
the Messiah, won for his p
eople over all the hosts of wickednessbut that is entirely ignored. The focus is all on us, rather than on God, and so the intended message of Scripture
is muted while we search for the one little stone which we may have in our armory to
deliver the knock-out blow.
The need to be relevant to life is, of course, hugely important in our application of the
biblical text, but the danger is that this becomes so dominant that we rush into it without any justifiable methodology. This is the it reminds me of ... school of interpretation
which, indulged in uncritically, can lead us far away from the intention of the biblical text.
Once the text is removed from its biblical context, historically and theologically, it can
be made to mean many different, sometimes contradictory things. The words on the
Bible page say There is no God (Ps. 14:1), but the context is the fool speaking in his heart.
Detach a character from history, psychologize his or her situation, add some moralizing,
spiritualizing ideas from the framework of our Christ ian subcultural norms, and you can
go anywhere with an Old Testament narrative, but if the meaning and applications are
not engendered by the text, interpreted in its context, the result will be bereft of spiritual
authority and effectiveness.
So, how can we follow a better way? First, we need to let each particular text breathe
its own particular air. Every intended passage is set within a literary context, which relates it to what precedes and follows it. That will have an effect on our understanding of its
meaning. The larger units are themselves part of the context of the whole book, of which
they form building blocks, so they will relate to the major themes and purposes of that
book, in its unique individual contribution to the sixty-six. That means paying attention
to the historical context, both of the writer and the events he may be describing. In turn,
the whole book fits somewhere into the whole sweep of salvation history, on the timeline
that runs throughout the whole Bible, from creation to the new heavens and new earth
of the eternal kingdom. This is the broadest theological context, requiring us to consider
both its antecedent theology and its subsequent fulfillment motif. Please note that this is
fulfillment and not replacement, because the redemptive purposes of God are always
moving forward to their ultimate completion as part of the same story, always growing
deeper, richer and more glorious as the plan of salvation unfolds progressively.
In the light of these convictions, we want to begin by studying the details of our passage carefully to establish its meaning. We do this by asking of its first readers, or hearers,
What did it mean to them then? This will involve treating the genre, or type of literature,
seriously, so that we seek to hear the passage speak in its own authentic voice. Of course,
this was almost entirely in Hebrew originally, with only a few passages in Aramaic. But we
can be thankful that we live in a generation when many years of careful textual research
have served to provide us with a highly accurate and reliable translation of the Hebrew
manuscripts handed down. However, the different genres do have distinctive characteristics and it is helpful to work along with these in order to get the heart of the meaning, to
cut with the grain of the wood rather than against it.
In narrative, for example, most stories are told for more engaging purposes than
simple historical record. The facts are presented within an historical framework, which
is designed for a teaching purpose. The most common structure is the presentation of a
problem, with one or more attempts to solve it, usually unsuccessfully, which brings the
story to its climax in the form of a turning point, resolving the issue and leading to certain
outcomes. The turning point usually provides the major teaching point. So, with the story
of Jonah, the unresolved issue that the prophet does not want to obey God and preach to
Nineveh is not solved by him taking a ship to Tarshish and going below deck to flee from

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From text to life: applying the Old Testament | A45

the Lord. This only produces another problem, the violent storm, which is not solved by
the sailors cries to their gods, or their attempts to row to the land, but only when Jonah is
thrown overboard in recognition of the sovereignty of the God of heaven who made the
sea and the dry land. The sea is calmed. The sailors worship the Lord. But there is a new
problemJonah is in the searesolved by Gods provision of a great fish to swallow the
reluctant preacher. And so the story proceeds in this pattern, each turning point providing a teaching point about the character and purposes of God. This big picture thinking
saves us from becoming fixated on minor details, just because they have some resonance
with a New Testament concept.
Much of the rest of the Old Testament is written in poetic form, where the two parts
of each verse stand in parallel to one another, the second part relating to the first in elaboration, or contrast, or explanation. Many of its effects are produced by plays on words,
puns and rhythmic changes, which are not easy to render in English, but annotation can
considerably deepen our understanding. Of course, it is not always easy for us to catch
the emphasis or tone of voice of the original. However, the more we examine the text in
its context, the more we can be confident that we are not distorting its intended meaning
or significance.
After all this work on text and context, literary and historical, we come to the theological context, which is the continuing spiritual significance of the text to life today. If
we start our application with the question, What is God teaching us about God here?
we can be sure that there is an unbroken, rock-solid line of application from God then to
God now. His word endures forever; his nature is unchanging; his faithfulness is timeless.
The first application of any Old Testament passage is the eternal character, promises and
purposes of God. Reading this through the lens of Christ, we shall see many ways in which
the Old Testament teaching is clarified, focused and brought to fruition in the person and
work of the Lord J esus, full of grace and truth. Another unchanging factor will be the
sinful heart and fallen nature of humanity, lost in rebellion against the Creator. The clothing will be different, the cultural expressions hugely varied, but the heart is still deceitful
above all things and beyond cure (Jer. 17:9) and the applications, of sin in the Old Testament to our contemporary equivalents, will not be difficult to make.
However, there are many points of discontinuity and difference, within the prevailing climate of Gods unchanging faithfulness, because Jesus has come. God always dealt
with his p
eople in the context of the covenant that he foreshadowed in his promise that
the seed of the woman would bruise the serpents head (Gen. 3:15). To Abraham this became the promise that God would make of him a great nation, indeed the father of many
nations, and that to his descendants he would give the land of Canaan. Fulfilled through
the books of Exodus to Joshua, this became the foundation on which everything else is
built in the Bibles story. From this basis comes the constitution of the nation of Israel as a
redeemed people. Rescued both from slavery in Egypt and from Gods judgment, through
the Passover, they are gathered together as one nation under the law of God, given at Sinai. The sacrificial system, the tabernacle and later the temple, the Davidic monarchy, the
exile and return, together with the growing expectation of the coming of the Messiah, are
all examples of the faithfulness of God to his covenant and all have their equivalents in
the new covenant, under Christ. Trust and obedience are still the way to live in the enjoyment of Gods covenant mercy, but the prophets, priests, kings and wise men of the old
order have all now found their completion and fulfillment in Christ.
Paul describes the church of believers in J esus Christ as Lord, both Jew and Gentile, as the Israel of God (Gal. 6:16). God entered into an eternal covenant, sealed with
the blood of his Son through his atoning death and activated by his glorious resurrection
through the gift of the promised Holy Spirit (Gal. 3:14), with all who repent and believe the
gospel. But this covenant needs no sacrificial system, since Christ has once for all made
a full and sufficient atonement. It has no temple, since J esus is in himself the meeting
place between God and man. The promise of land is no longer limited to Canaan, since
the whole earth is the Lords and his kingdom cannot be contained within one nations
borders. As a universal people in this world from every nation, tribe, people and language,
we are awaiting the return of our Savior King to bring in his everlasting kingdom, with
the consummation of all things. The Old Testament must always be read through these

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A46 |From text to life: applying the Old Testament

lenses, so that we do not become diverted into legalistic righteousness by its ritual, regulations and rulesactions that were right for Gods people in Old Testament times, but
are not right for us today. Rather, we are to enjoy the freedom for which Christ has set us
free and grow in our likeness to him, as the image of God is restored in us through the indwelling Holy Spirit. That is our business in living the Christ ian life in todays challenging
world. The more we read, mark, learn and inwardly digest the wonderful teaching of the
Old Testament, the more we shall revel in the glories of Christ to whom it all points. The
more we rejoice in the immeasurable spiritual blessings of the gospel of grace, the more
we shall live out its teaching in our experience as we grow increasingly into the likeness
of our great God and Savior.

Further re ading
Graeme Goldsworthy, Preaching the Whole Bible as Christian Scripture (IVP, 2000)
Sidney Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1999)
David Jackman (ed.), Preaching the Living Word (Christ ian Focus, 1999)
William Philip (ed.), The Practical Preacher (Christ ian Focus, 2002)

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From text to life:

applying the New Testament
Charlie Skrine
Curate at St Helens, Bishopsgate, London

The goal of all our hard work as Bible teachers is application; we hope and pray to be used
by God in connecting his word to his peoples lives. Many of us, however, feel nervous
about application. We feel stuck somewhere between constant calls for more application and our worry that we are not sure what the right application is. Often the available
preparation time for our Bible study or talk seems to get used up in understanding tricky
issues in the text, and we hope our group can work out the application for us.
In part that is because we have picked up the idea that application is the place of
freedom in our Bible work. There are many of us who would never dream of tampering
with the doctrinal message of a passage, but who are tempted to sit much more loosely to
the text when it comes to application. For some that feels positivehere is my chance to
be creative and to say exactly what I think those listening need to hear in their situation.
For others it feels much more negativeI do not feel equipped to decide what God wants
me to do, let alone make those decisions for other p
But as we move into thinking about application, nothing has changed. The big aim is
still to let the Bible speak for itself, because if we do that, then we are allowing our God to
speak for himself. The aim is to make the applications that the biblical author would have
made if he had been writing his book to the p
eople we have in front of us. We want, as in
everything else we do with Gods word, not to get in the way of the text, but to help p
hear Gods voice in the text.
I try and stick to one easy rule (which I call the Roberts Rule after the person who
first put it this clearly to me):
This passage applies to us in the exact same way it applied to them ...
to the extent to which we stand in the same place as them.
The first half of the Roberts Rule reminds me that I am using any brain power and
creativity God has given me in order to get closer to what God has decided is important,
and what God wants people to do; I am not free to make independent decisions about
what I would like the text to be saying. But the second half reminds me that there is still
a great deal of hard work remaining once I have worked out what God was saying to the
first readers in their context. We have already thought about the Old Testament (see the
previous essay by David Jackman) where we stand on a different side of the death of Jesus
from the original readers. But there is still plenty to think about as we come to the New
Testament. We will think, first, about rightly crossing the gap between their situation and
ours, and then, second, about how to go from the broad aim of a passage to the detailed

From their situation to ours

We need to take care to correctly handle the word of truth (2Tim. 2:15), and to give
serious thought to the differences between their situation and ours. But we do not need
to despair. There will be cultural differences between twenty-first-century Shepton Mallet and first-century Rome, for example, but they will not be as big as we might think.
God has not changed, and human beings are essentially the same throughout time. All
cultures will reflect our human condition as those made in the image of God but ruined
by sin and the fall. We also do not need to be held to ransom by experts, as if there are parts
of the New Testament that have been impossible to understand for one thousand eight
hundred years, that only the latest discovery can unlock for us. New discoveries may be

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A48 |From text to life: applying the New Testament

very helpful, but the Bible is a sufficient revelation from God; it contains everything we
need for faith and conduct. That means that even in questions of background and culture,
we should expect the Bible itself to provide us with everything that is essential for understanding our own culture, and the culture to which any passage was addressed.
I would like to share three helpful ways I have been taught for working at the gap
between them and us.
1. Going to Corinth
In the diagram below, the dotted line represents the shortcut route to application that I
am often tempted to take, as if I could go directly from what the passage said then to what
it means now. Far better is to travel round both of the solid lines; I need to go from what
God said to the first audience (in Corinth or wherever the book was addressed), and only
then to what it means for us.




Corinth/ Rome/
Jerusalem etc.)

New York/ Nairobi/

Let me give some examples to explain the difference this makes.

(a) If we read 1Cor int hia ns 13 and come directly to us (dotted line), then all the application will be about encouraging perfect, loving Christ ians to be even better
at love. That is a sermon I have preached at a wedding. But if we spend some time
reading what the Bible tells us about the situation in Corinth in 1 and 2Cor int hi
ans and in Acts, then a very different picture emerges. Just from 1Cor int hia ns 12
and 14 we can see that they have not loved each other very well at all, particularly
in the area of their different gifts. In fact, 1Cor int hia ns 13 is a rebuke; they are
not patient or kind; they are envious, boastful and proud (v.4). The original applications could not have included, Well done for being so loving; keep going
as you are. And as we travel from them to our contemporary situation we will
be looking for ways in which our church groups compete about giftedness or
importance, so that we can apply this passage in our situation in the closest possible way to its intended original application.
(b) Ephesians 2:110 was very important to me as I became a Christ ian. My background was very religious, and I was in danger of thinking my salvation was
from myself, by works so that I could boast (my own version of vv.89). I took
a dotted-line route straight to myself, and applied the passage as a rebukeI
should stop trusting my works, and trust Jesus instead. I praise God that I understood that truth and applied it to myself. But I think that was an example of
Gods kindness in using even imperfect Bible-handling for his purposes. More
recently a colleague has helped me think further about the situation of the Ephesians. From the rest of the letter, the material in Acts about opposition to Paul
and the strong local feeling about the temple of Artemis (Acts 19) we get a very
different impression. It seems that they feel very insecure about their position
and are worried about whether Gods plans will come to anything. The theme
of Ephesians 2:110 would still be something like, God saved you without you
doing anything, but in that context the aim would be much more like Ephesians

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From text to life: applying the New Testament | A49

1:1819, that you may know ... his incomparably great power for us who believe. And the applications that come out of the first situation would be far more
about reassurance that the God who saved you is powerful enough to follow
through on his great plans for you.

In case anyone might mishear me, I do not think it would be wrong to point out
to a religious person that their works will not save them from this passage; but I
would prefer to do that from a passage where that fits the authors aim, and next
time I teach Ephesians 2, I will only make that a secondary application, after I
have applied with the grain of the situation in Ephesus.
(c) Mark 10:4145 is a more complicated example. We might agree on a theme sentence such as, Jesus came to serve by dying as a ransom, but we need to ask
which of the situations in the passage is the right one to go to, to control our
primary applications. In the original sermon by Jesus the situation is made very
clear in verses 3541. Jesus is speaking to proud, competitive disciples and the
aim is, Whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant. But
we also need to think about the situation of the readers of Mark. Mark is the divinely inspired author who has selected this part of J esus teaching in order to
help his readers. Over three chapters Mark has been teaching proud, competitive disciples to serve other Christ ians, but he has also been building a picture
of disciples who are entirely unable to meet J esus very demanding standards of
holiness. And in chapter 10 that is crystallized in verses 2627. They ask, Who
then can be saved? and J esus replies, With man this is impossible, but not with
God; all things are possible with God. With that background the main applications Mark is intending for his first readers have to do with recognizing that we
need J esus to die as a ransom for us. We cannot be good enough, but he will do
the impossible for us.

Again, it might be right to make secondary applications about Christ ian leadership
to a group who needed to hear that, but I would always start by saying that Marks primary
purpose is to teach us about how the death of J esus saves us.
2. Not about you, silly
Even if the situation in the passage maps easily onto some people in our twenty-first-century situation, we might still need to make adjustments before we are applying rightly to
the actual p
eople in our group or congregation. Here are some examples.
(a) Ephesians 5:2233 is addressed to married people, but the vast majority of the
people in the Bible study groups I lead are not married. I could do my best to
apply as if the passage was, in fact, about unmarried p
eople. Those applications might include, Care for other Christ ians as much as you care for yourself
(v.28), or, Be reassured that Jesus loves you (v.25). I have found, however, that
it is far better to take the real primary applications of the passage and think hard
about the extent to which my group stands in the same place as them. The first
audience would have included unmarried p
eople, not least all the children and
the bereaved. Why do they need to know what Paul says to wives and husbands?
These applications include, If you want to marry in the future, look for someone you could live like this with, or, If you want to marry in the future, pray
and work toward a character that would enable you to live like this, or, If you
know any married people, here is what to pray for them and encourage them
in, or even, Here is what to say when someone asks you why Christ ian married
couples are different from everyone else.
(b) 2Timothy is full of wonderful encouragement to Timothy to persevere in suffering for the gospel. But for the vast majority of Christ ians in our groups and
in the first audience when it was written, 2Timothy is not about you, silly. It is
about a senior pastor-teacher with specific responsibilities to an entire region,
in a specific situation just after the arrest of Paul the apostle. That means that
the exhortations Join ... ... in suffering for the gospel (1:8) or Do the work of

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A50 |From text to life: applying the New Testament

an evangelist (4:5) can only ever be secondary applications to most p

eople. The
primary applications to congregations of normal Christ ians include, Encourage your pastor-teacher in their suffering or evangelism, or, Next time you
move churches, look for a church led by someone with a ministry like the one
Paul encourages Timothy to have.
3. Change cultures without changing the meaning
There may very often be times when our culture simply works differently from the culture
of the first century. Our aim is still to apply in the exact same way it applied to them, to
the extent to which we stand in the same place as them. So we want to find the closest
equivalent in our culture to the instruction given to them. This is far from thinking that
because our culture is different we no longer need to do something they were told to do
by God. We are seeking to discover how best to obey the timeless command of God, in our
own situation.
For example, 1Thessalon ians 5:26 delivers a very clear command about how men
should behave in church meetings: Greet all Gods people with a holy kiss. But I have
very rarely observed this command being applied in all the different sorts of churches I
have been to, especially by men. I do not think that is a sign of unfaithfulness to the Bible;
it is just that men kissing communicated one thing in first-century Thessalonica, and it
communicates something very different in our culture.
There is nothing particularly difficult about making this cultural change. The verse
tells us that the aim of the kissing was to greet all Gods p
eople. From wider Bible context we might work out that the meaning we are trying to apply is something like, Greet
other Christ ians warmly, generously and genuinely. If kissing is no longer the best way to
achieve that aim, then we are looking to see if the culture we are in has a way of obeying
the same command. And, happily, the different cultures of the world today have many
different ways of communicating a warm, generous, genuine greeting. I have had my
hand shaken, and my head rubbed, or been hugged, punched, or slapped on the back, all
by p
eople appropriately applying this verse.
The verse still has all the force it had originally, both positively and negatively. If I
see most of the men in a church hugging each other, but they do not hug people from one
particular background, then there is a problem.

Theme, aim and applications

If we have finished all the hard work to get from their situation to ours, we still need to
work out the best way to go from the big aim of a passage to the detailed changes we would
like to see in our lives. If our first section was about crossing from them to us, this section is about the fact that any group of Christ ians includes many different people, many
different sorts of us.
In my preparation I find it very helpful to force myself to be clear at each stage by
writing down short summaries. Often I think I have understood a passage right up until
the point where I have to put something into words. I am going to use a non-Bible example
initially so that we can agree on the principle even if you do not like my specific exegesis.
Lets imagine this is the theme of a piece of writing we are wanting to apply:
Theme: Brussels sprouts taste disgusting.
Once we have worked out the theme, we also need to ask what the authors aim was.
Even with our trivial example you could think of saying the same truth for many different reasons. Perhaps this is a book intending to help young boys make life hard for their
older sisters, so the aim would be, Get Brussels sprouts into as many meals as possible;
pulp them and hide them inside donuts and cakes. Or perhaps this is a book intending
to make everyones mealtimes full of nice-tasting food, so the aim would be, Dont eat
Brussels sprouts. The same truth could be intended to achieve opposite effects by different authors.
If you made a list of all the passages teaching a basic Bible truth like God will judge
in the future, then you would also have to list a wide range of aims. For example, Do not

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From text to life: applying the New Testament | A51

take revenge (Rom. 12:19); Be godly (2Pet. 3:1112); Do evangelism (2Cor. 5:1011);
Be afraid (Luke 23:40); Repent (Acts 17:3031); Do not show favoritism (Jas 2:913);
Do not slander each other (Jas 4:1112). Some of those aims are as opposite in effect as
our food example above, and our job as Bible teachers is not to choose the aim we think
would be best, but to stick with the actual aim of the divinely inspired author. Often it is
thinking about the melodic line of a whole book (see the previous essay by Tim Ward) that
helps most in working out the aim of each smaller section within a book.
Lets say, in our food example, that we are reading the book with this aim and theme:
Theme: Brussels sprouts taste disgusting.
Aim: Dont eat them.
We know what kind of applications we are not free to import into the texta nything that
encourages people to eat Brussels sprouts. But we have not yet thought about how this
theme and aim will apply differently to different specific p
eople. If we were teaching this
on successive days to a Sunday school group, a home group full of parents and a business
peoples breakfast, then we would want the theme and aim to stay the same throughout,
but the detailed applications would look very different.
For the Sunday school we might want to spend lots of time passing on useful strategies for sprout avoidance: the plastic bag in your pocket, good use of the family dog, even
hiding food under a well-placed knife and fork. For the parents you might spend some
time in repentance for leading others into sprout-eating in the past, and some time working on how to fight the peer pressure at Christmas time. And if you had in your business
breakfast a woman who was a national buyer for a supermarket, or a man who was head of
agricultural investment at a pension fund, then you could apply in ways that would make
a difference across the whole country.
Still at every stage the driving force is, What has God said to these people? not,
What would I say if I were God? The creative, pastoral work is in knowing the lives of the
people in our group or congregation really well so we can see the connections between
them and the first readers. I find this a huge relief. It is not my job to decide what other
people should do; it is my job to point people to the aim of the passage and to the applications that flow out naturally in their life situation.
Before we finish, here are two cautions about detailed application.
(a) We need to think carefully about how much detail to do in any given study or
talk. We clearly cannot apply in exhaustive detail to each person in the room
to do that well we would need infinite time and perfect knowledge of every person. It would also work against our goal of training people to read the Bible for
themselves. However, it is normally helpful to give a few examples that work
right down to the level of detail for some p
eople, so that everyone can be helped
to think how they will put the passage into practice. If the student next to me is
being asked to cut back on diet cola and chocolate bars so they can give to gospel
work, then maybe I should go home and work out if I need a less expensive holiday this year.
(b) We must not do detailed practical applications at the expense of the major
worldview shifts that underlie them. Unless I am convinced that Jesus is going
to judge the world and, therefore, evangelism is more urgent and important than
a week on the seashore, then it does not help me much to tell me to spend less on
my holiday. Either I will not make any change because I do not see the point, or
I will donate more money but out of a sense of duty and law, not cheerful grace,
and any change will be short-term only. It is often helpful to ask whether we have
applied to peoples mind (their thinking about God), heart (their love for God)
and hands (the practical changes on Monday morning). If we only make hands
applications then we run the risk of making the Bible more man-centered than
God-centered. The aim is for detailed application to clarify and drive home the
God-centered theme and aim, and to help people work out the kind of changes
this passage requires in the whole of their daily lives.

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A52 |From text to life: applying the New Testament

Right application works with the grain of the text and the intentions of the author. I
find that helps me to apply boldly because I know that the authority and power is in the
text and that it leaves people with real confidence they are obeying God, not the particular priorities of the leader or preacher.

Further re ading
Jay Adams, Truth Applied: Application in Preaching (Wakeman, 1990)
Daniel Doriani, Putting the Truth to Work: The Theory and Practice of Biblical Application
(Presbyterian and Reformed, 2001)
Dave Veerman, How to Apply the Bible (Baker, 1993)
Jack Kuhatschek, Taking the Guesswork Out of Applying the Bible (IVP, 1990)

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John the Baptist Prepares the Way
1:2-8pp Mt3:1-11; Lk3:2-16

The beg inn ing of the good news

about Jesus the Messia h, a the Son
of God,ba 2as it is written in Isaiah the

I will send my messenger ahead of

who will prepare your waycb
3 a voice of one calling in the
Prepare the way for the Lord,
make straight paths for him.dc

1:1 aMt4:3
Son,l whom I love; with you I am well
1:2 bMal3:1;
Mt11:10; Lk7:27
12At once the Spirit sent him out into
1:3 cIsa40:3;
the wilder ness, 13and he was in the
1:4 dMt3:1
wilder ness for t y days, bei ng tempted f
eAc13:24 fLk1:77
by Sat an. m He was with the wild ani
1:6 gLev11:22
mals, and angels attended him.
1:7 hAc13:25
1:8 iIsa44:3;
Joel2:28; Ac1:5; 2:4; Jesus Announces the Good News
11:16; 19:46
1:16-20pp Mt4:18-22; Lk5:2-11;
1:9 jMt2:23
1:10 kJn1:32
14After John was put in prison, J esus
went into Gal i lee, n proc laimi ng the
good news of God.o 15The time has
come,p he said. The kingdom of God
has come near. Repent and bel ieve the
good news!q

4And so John the Bapt istd appeared in

the wilder ness, preach i ng a bapt ism
of repent ance e for the forg iveness of
sins.f 5The w hole Judea n count ry
side and all the people of Jer us alem
went out to him. Confessing their
sins, they were baptized by him in
the Jordan River. 6John wore clothi ng
made of camels hair, with a leather
belt a round his w
aist, and he ate lo
custsg and wild hone y. 7And this was
his message: After me c omes the
one more powerf ul than I, the straps
of w hose sandals I am not wort hy to
stoop down and unt ie.h 8I bapt ize you
withe water, but he will baptize you
withe the Holy Spirit.i

Jesus Calls His First Disciples

The Baptism and Testing ofJesus

16As Jesus w alked beside the Sea of

Gali lee, he saw Simon and his brother
And rew casti ng a net into the lake, for
they were fisher men. 17Come, follow
me, Jesus said, and I will send you
out to fish for people. 18At once they
left t heir nets and followed him.
19When he had gone a litt le fart her,
he saw James son of Zebedee and his
brother John in a boat, prepari ng t heir
nets. 20Without delay he called them,
and they left t heir fat her Zebedee in
the boat with the h ired men and fol
lowed him.

1:9-11pp Mt3:13-17; Lk3:21,22

1:12,13pp Mt4:1-11; Lk4:1-13

Jesus Drives Out an ImpureSpirit


that time Jesus came from Naz

a reth j in Gali lee and was bapt ized by
John in the Jordan. 10Just as Jesus was
coming up out of the water, he saw
heaven bei ng torn open and the Spirit
descendi ng on him like a dove.k 11And
a v oice came from heaven: You are my

1:11 lMt3:17
1:13 mMt4:10
1:14 nMt4:12
1:15 pGal4:4;
Eph1:10 qAc20:21
1:21 rMt4:23;

1:21-28pp Lk4:31-37
21They went to Ca
pernau m, and
when the Sabbath came, Jesus went
into the synagogue and began to t each.r
22The people were a
mazed at his teach
ing, because he t aught them as one who
had aut horit y, not as the teachers of the

a1OrJesus Christ. Messiah (Hebrew) and Christ (Greek) both mean Anointed One. b1

Some manuscripts do
not have the Son of God. c2Mal. 3:1 d3Isaiah 40:3 e8Orin f13 TheGreek for tempted can also
mean tested.

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1079 | Mark 1:23

law.s 23Just then a man in t heir syna

gogue who was possessed by an impure
spirit cried out, 24What do you want
with us,t Jesus of Naza reth?u Have you
come to destroy us? I know who you
aret he Holy One of God!v
25Be quie t! said Jesus stern
l y.
Come out of him!w 26The impure
spir it s hook the man violent l y and
came out of him with a shriek.x
27The people were all so a
that they a sked each other, What is
this? A new teachinga nd with au
thorit y! He even g ives orders to impure
spirits and they obey him. 28News
about him spread quickly over the
whole reg ion z of Gali lee.

Mark 2:9 | 1079

1:22 sMt7:28,29

Jesus Heals a Man With Leprosy

uMt2:23; Lk24:19;

1:40-44pp Mt8:2-4; Lk5:12-14

1:24 tMt8:29

Ac24:5 vLk1:35;
Jn6:69; Ac3:14
1:25 wver34
1:26 xMk9:20
1:27 yMk10:24,32
1:28 zMt9:26
1:29 aver21,23
1:31 bLk7:14
1:32 cMt4:24
1:34 dMt4:23
1:35 fLk3:21
1:38 gIsa61:1
1:39 hMt4:23

Jesus Heals Many

1:29-31pp Mt8:14,15; Lk4:38,39
1:32-34pp Mt8:16,17; Lk4:40,41
29As soon as they left the syn
gogue,a they went with James and
John to the home of Simon and An
drew. 30Simons mother-in-law was in
bed with a fever, and they immed iate
ly told Jesus about her. 31So he went to
her, took her hand and h
elped her up.b
The fever left her and she began to wait
on them.
32That eve
n ing after sunset the
people brought to Jesus all the sick
and demon-possessed. c 33The w hole
town gathered at the door, 34and Jesus
healed many who had various diseas
es.d He also d rove out many demons,
but he w
ould not let the demons s peak
because they knew who he was.e

Jesus Prays in a Solitary Place

1:35-38pp Lk4:42,43
35Very early in the morni ng, w hile
it was still dark, Jesus got up, left the
house and went off to a solitary place,
w here he prayed. f 36Simon and his
companions went to look for him,
37and when they found him, they ex
claimed: Everyone is looki ng for you!
38Jesus replied, Let us go some
where elseto the nearb y villag
esso I can preach t here also. That
is why I have come.g 39So he traveled
throughout Gali lee, preachi ng in t heir
synagogues h and drivi ng out demons.i

40A man with lepros ya came to him

and b
egged him on his k nees,j If you
are willi ng, you can make me clean.
41Jesus was ind ignant. b He reached
out his hand and touched the man. I
am willi ng, he said. Be clean! 42Im
med iately the lepros y left him and he
was cleansed.
43Jesus sent him away at once with
a strong warni ng: 44See that you dont
tell this to anyone.k But go, show your
self to the priestl and offer the sacr i
fices that Moses commanded for your
cleansi ng,m as a test imony to them.
stead he went out and began to
talk freely, spreadi ng the news. As a re
sult, Jesus c ould no longer enter a town
openly but s tayed outs ide in lonely
places. n Yet the people still came to
him from everywhere. o

Jesus Forgives and Heals a

Paralyzed Man
2:3-12pp Mt9:2-8; Lk5:18-26

A few days later, when Jesus a gain

entered Caper nau m, the people
heard that he had come home. 2They
gathered in such large numbersp that
t here was no room left, not even out
side the door, and he preached the
word to them. 3Some men came,
bringi ng to him a para lyzed man,q car
ried by four of them. 4Since they c ould
not get him to Jesus bec ause of the
c rowd, they made an opening in the
roof above J esus by digg ing t hrough it
and then lowered the mat the man was
ly i ng on. 5When Jesus saw t heir faith,
he said to the para lyzed man, Son,
your sins are forg iven.r
6Now some teachers of the law were
sit t ing t here, think i ng to themselves,
7Why does this fellow talk like that?
Hes blaspheming! Who can forg ive
1:40 jMk10:17
sins but God alone?s
1:44 kMt8:4
8Im m ed ia tel y Jesus knew in his
it that this was what they were
1:45 nLk5:15,16
oMk2:13; Lk5:17;
thinking in t heir h
earts, and he said
to them, Why are you thinki ng t hese
2:2 pver13; Mk1:45 t hings? 9Which is easier: to say to this
2:3 qMt4:24
para lyzed man, Your sins are forg iv
2:5 rLk7:48
en, or to say, Get up, take your mat
2:7 sIsa43:25

TheGreek word traditionally translated leprosy was used for various diseases affecting the skin.
Many manuscripts Jesus was filled with compassion

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1080 | Mark 2:10

and walk? 10But I want you to know

that the Son of Mant has aut hor it y on
earth to forg ive sins. So he said to the
man, 11I tell you, get up, take your
mat and go home. 12He got up, took
his mat and walked out in full view of
them all. This a mazed everyone and
they praised God,u saying, We have
never seen anyt hing like this!v

Jesus Calls Levi and Eats

With Sinners

Mark 3:8 | 1080

2:10 tMt8:20
2:12 uMt9:8


2:13 wMk1:45;
Lk5:15; Jn6:2
2:14 xMt4:19
2:16 yAc23:9
2:17 aLk19:10;
2:18 bMt6:16-18;
2:20 cLk17:22

2:14-17pp Mt9:9-13; Lk5:27-32

13Once a
gain Jesus went out beside
the lake. A l arge c rowd came to him,w
and he began to teach them. 14As he
w alked a long, he saw Levi son of Al
phaeu s sitting at the tax collectors
booth. Fol low me,x Jesus told him,
and Levi got up and followed him.
15While Jesus was havi ng dinner at
Lev is house, many tax collectors and
sinners were eati ng with him and his
disciples, for t here were many who fol
lowed him. 16When the teachers of the
law who were Phariseesy saw him eat
ing with the sinners and tax collectors,
they a sked his disciples: Why does he
eat with tax collectors and sinners?z
17On hear
i ng this, Jesus said to
them, It is not the h
ealthy who need a
doctor, but the sick. I have not come to
call the righteous, but sinners.a

Jesus Is Lord of the Sabbath

2:23-28pp Mt12:1-8; Lk6:1-5
3:1-6pp Mt12:9-14; Lk6:6-11
23One Sab
b ath Jesus was go
i ng
t hrough the grainf ields, and as his dis
ciples w
alked a long, they began to pick
some heads of g rain.d 24The Pharisees
said to him, Look, why are they doi ng
what is unlawf ul on the Sabbath?e
25He an s wered, Have you nev
er read what Dav id did when he and
his companions were hung ry and in
need? 26In the days of Abiathar the
high priest,f he entered the house of
God and ate the consec rated bread,
which is lawf ul only for p
riests to eat.g
And he also gave some to his compan
27Then he said to them, The Sab
bath was made for man,i not man for
the Sabbath.j 28So the Son of Mank is
Lord even of the Sabbath.

Jesus Heals on the Sabbath

Jesus Questioned About Fasting

2:18-22pp Mt9:14-17; Lk5:33-38
Johns dis
c i
p les and the
Phar isees were fast i ng. b Some people
came and a sked J esus, How is it that
Johns disc iples and the disc iples of
the Pharisees are fasti ng, but y ours are
19Jesus an s wered, How can the
g uests of the brideg room fast w
he is with them? They cannot, so long
as they have him with them. 20But the
time will come when the brideg room
will be taken from them,c and on that
day they will fast.
21No one sews a patch of unshrunk
cloth on an old garment. Otherw ise,
the new piece will pull away from the
old, maki ng the tear worse. 22And no
one pours new wine into old wine
skins. Otherw ise, the wine will burst
the s kins, and both the wine and the

wineskins will be ruined. No, they

pour new wine into new wineskins.

2:23 dDt23:25
2:24 eMt12:2
2:26 f1Ch24:6;
2Sa8:17 gLev24:59 h1Sa21:16
2:27 iEx23:12;
Dt5:14 jCol2:16
2:28 kMt8:20
3:1 lMt4:23;
3:2 mMt12:10
3:6 oMt22:16;
Mk12:13 pMt12:14
3:7 qMt4:25

9780310437956_int_05_matt_acts_niv_proclamation_int_FINAL.indd 1080

Another time J esus went into the

synagogue, l and a man with a
shriveled hand was there. 2Some of
them were looki ng for a reason to ac
cuse Jesus, so they w
atched him close
lym to see if he w
ould heal him on the
Sabbath. Jesus said to the man with
the shriveled hand, Stand up in f ront
of everyone.
4Then Jesus a sked them, Which is
lawf ul on the Sabbath: to do good or to
do evil, to save life or to kill? But they
remained si lent.
5He looked a round at them in anger
and, deeply distressed at t heir stub
born h
earts, said to the man, Stretch
out your hand. He stretched it out,
and his hand was completely restored.
6Then the Phari sees went out and be
gan to plot with the Herod ia nso how
they m
ight kill J esus.p

Crowds Follow Jesus

3:7-12pp Mt12:15,16; Lk6:17-19
7Jesus withd rew with his disc iples
to the lake, and a large c rowd from
Galilee followed. q 8When they heard
about all he was doing, many people
came to him from Judea, Jer usalem,

9/23/14 11:01 AM

1081 | Mark 3:9

Idu mea, and the reg ions across the

Jordan and a round Tyre and Sidon.r
9Bec ause of the c rowd he told his dis
ciples to have a small boat ready for
him, to keep the people from crowd
ing him. 10For he had healed many,s so
that t hose with diseases were pushi ng
forward to t ouch him.t 11Whenever the
impure spirits saw him, they fell down
before him and cried out, You are the
Son of God.u 12But he gave them s trict
orders not to tell others a bout him.v

Mark 4:9 | 1081

3:8 rMt11:21

3:10 sMt4:23
3:11 uMt4:3;
3:12 vMt8:4;
3:13 wMt5:1
3:14 xMk6:30
3:15 yMt10:1
3:16 zJn1:42
3:20 aver7
3:21 cJn10:20;
3:22 dMt15:1
eMt10:25; 11:18;
Jesus Appoints the Twelve
3:16-19pp Mt10:2-4; Lk6:14-16; Ac1:13 12:24;
8:48,52; 10:20
13Jesus went up on a mount ainside fMt9:34
and c alled to him those he wanted, h3:23
w 14

and they came to him. He appoint

ed t welve ax that they m
ight be with
him and that he m ight send them out
to preach 15and to have authorit y to
d rive out demons. y 16These are the
t welve he appointed: Simon (to whom
he gave the name Peter),z 17James
son of Zebedee and his brother John
(to them he gave the name Boa ner
ges, w
hich m
eans sons of thunder),
18And rew, Phil ip, Bar t holomew, Mat
thew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus,
Thaddaeu s, Si mon the Zealot 19and
Judas Iscariot, who bet rayed him.

Jesus Accused by His Family and

by Teachers of the Law
3:23-27pp Mt12:25-29; Lk11:17-22
3:31-35pp Mt12:46-50; Lk8:19-21
20Then Jesus entered a house, and
again a c rowd gathered, a so that he
and his disciples were not even able to
eat.b 21When his fam i ly b heard about
this, they went to take c harge of him,
for they said, He is out of his mind.c
22And the teachers of the law who
came down from Jer us a lem d said,
He is possessed by Beelzebul! e By the
prince of demons he is drivi ng out de
23So Jesus c alled them over to him
and began to s peak to them in para
bles:g How can Sat anh d rive out Sa
tan? 24If a kingdom is div ided a gainst
itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 25If
a house is div ided against itself, that
house cannot stand. 26And if Satan op
poses himself and is div ided, he can

not s tand; his end has come. 27In fact,

no one can enter a s trong m
ans h
without first tying him up. Then he
can plunder the s trong m
ans h
28Truly I tell you, people can be for
given all t heir sins and every slander
they utter, 29but whoever blasphemes
against the Holy Spirit will never be
forg iven; they are g uilty of an eternal
30He said this be
c ause they were
sayi ng, He has an impure spirit.
31Then Jesus mother and brothers
arr ived. k Standing outside, they sent
someone in to call him. 32A crowd was
sitt ing a round him, and they told him,
Your mother and brothers are outside
looki ng for you.
33Who are my moth
e r and my
brothers? he asked.
34Then he looked at t hose seated in
a circle a round him and said, Here are
my mother and my brothers! 35Who
ever does Gods will is my brother and
sister and mother.

The Parable of the Sower

4:1-12pp Mt13:1-15; Lk8:4-10
4:13-20pp Mt13:18-23; Lk8:11-15

Again Jesus began to teach by the

lake.l The c rowd that gathe red
a round him was so large that he got
into a boat and sat in it out on the lake,
w hile all the people were a long the
shore at the waters edge. 2He t aught
them many t hings by parables,m and
in his teachi ng said: 3Listen! A farm
er went out to sow his seed.n 4As he
was scattering the seed, some fell
a long the path, and the birds came
and ate it up. 5Some fell on rocky plac
es, w here it did not have much soil. It
s prang up quickly, bec ause the soil
was shallow. 6But when the sun came
up, the p
lants were scorched, and
they withered bec ause they had no
root. Other seed fell a mong t horns,
3:27 iIsa49:24,25
hoked the p
3:29 jMt12:31,32; w hich grew up and c
so that they did not bear g rain. 8Still
3:31 ver21
other seed fell on good soil. It came
4:1 lMk2:13; 3:7
up, grew and produced a crop, some
4:2 mver11;
mult iply i ng thir t y, some six t y, some a
4:3 nver26
hund red times.o
4:8 Jn15:5; Col1:6
9Then Jesus said, Whoe ve r has
4:9 ver23;
ears to hear, let them hear.p

Some manuscripts twelvedesignating them apostles b21Orhis associates

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1082 | Mark 4:10

10When he was
a lone, the Twelve
and the others a round him asked him
about the parables. 11He told them,
The secret of the kingdom of Godq has
been given to you. But to t hose on the
outsider everyt hing is said in parables
12so that,

they may be ever seeing but never
and ever hearing but never

otherwise they might turn and be

Jesus said to them, Dont

you unders tand this parable? How
then will you understand any parable?
14The farmer sows the word.t 15Some
people are like seed a long the path,
w here the word is sown. As soon as
they hear it, Sat anu comes and t akes
away the word that was sown in them.
16Others, like seed sown on r
ocky plac
es, hear the word and at once receive it
with joy. 17But s ince they have no root,
they last only a s hort time. When trou
ble or persec ut ion comes bec ause of
the word, they quickly fall away. 18Still
others, like seed sown a mong t horns,
hear the word; 19but the worries of
this life, the deceitf ulness of wealthv
and the desires for other t hings come
in and choke the word, maki ng it un
fruit f ul. 20Others, like seed sown on
good soil, hear the word, accept it, and
produce a cropsome thirty, some
sixt y, some a hund red t imes what was

A Lamp on a Stand
21He said to them, Do you bring in
a lamp to put it under a bowl or a bed?
Instead, d
ont you put it on its stand?w
22For whatever is hidden is meant to be
disclosed, and whatever is concealed
is meant to be brought out into the
open.x 23If anyone has ears to hear, let
them hear.y
24Con s ide r caref ul l y what you
hear, he cont inued. With the mea
sure you use, it will be measured to
youa nd even more.z 25Whoever has
will be given more; whoever does not
have, even what they have will be tak
en from them.a

Mark 4:41 | 1082

4:11 qMt3:2


Col4:5; 1Th4:12;
4:12 sIsa6:9,10;
4:14 tMk16:20;
Lk1:2; Ac4:31; 8:4;
16:6; 17:11; Php1:14
4:15 uMt4:10
4:19 vMt19:23;
4:21 wMt5:15
4:22 xJer16:17;
Mt10:26; Lk8:17;
4:23 yver9;
4:24 zMt7:2;
4:25 aMt13:12;

The Parable of the Growing Seed

26He also said, This is what the
kingdom of God is like.b A man scat
ters seed on the g round. 27Night and
day, whether he s leeps or gets up, the
seed sprouts and g rows, though he
does not know how. 28All by itself the
soil produces g rain f irst the stalk,
then the head, then the full kernel in
the head. 29As soon as the g rain is ripe,
he puts the sickle to it, bec ause the
harvest has come.c

The Parable of the Mustard Seed

4:30-32pp Mt13:31,32; Lk13:18,19
30Again he said, What shall we say
the kingdom of God is like,d or what
parable s hall we use to describe it?
31It is like a must ard seed, w hich is the
smallest of all s eeds on earth. 32Yet
when planted, it g rows and becomes
the largest of all garden p
lants, with
such big branches that the b
irds can
perch in its shade.
33With many simi lar parables Jesus
spoke the word to them, as much as
they could understand. e 34He did not
say anyt hing to them without usi ng a
parable. f But when he was a lone with
his own disciples, he explained every

Jesus Calms the Storm

4:35-41pp Mt8:18,23-27; Lk8:22-25
35That day when even ing came, he
said to his disciples, Let us go over to
the other side. 36Leav i ng the c rowd
beh ind, they took him a long, just as he
was, in the boat.g T here were also oth
er b
oats with him. 37A fu r ious squall
came up, and the w
aves b
roke over the
boat, so that it was nearly s wamped.
38Jesus was in the stern, sleepi ng on a
cushion. The disciples woke him and
said to him, Teacher, dont you care if
we drown?
39He got up, rebuked the wind and
4:26 bMt13:24
said to the w
aves, Quiet! Be s till!
4:29 Rev14:15
died down and it was
4:30 Mt13:24
completely calm.
4:33 eJn16:12
40He said to his dis
4:34 fJn16:25
c iples, Why
4:36 gver1; Mk3:9; are you so a fraid? Do you still have no
5:2,21; 6:32,45
4:40 hMt14:31;
41They were ter
r ified and a sked

a12Isaiah 6:9,10

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1083 | Mark 5:1

Mark 5:33 | 1083

pigs as well. 17Then the people began
to plead with Jesus to leave t heir re
6:35; Ac16:17;
18As J esus was gett ing into the boat,
5:9 ver15
man who had been demon-pos
5:15 nver9
sessed begged to go with him. 19Jesus
over16,18; Mt4:24
did not let him, but said, Go home to
your own people and tell themp how
much the Lord has done for you, and
how he has had merc y on you. 20So
the man went away and began to tell
in the Dec apol is bq how much Jesus
had done for him. And all the people
were amazed.
5:2 iMk4:1 jMk1:23

each other, Who is this? Even the

5:7 kMt8:29
wind and the w
aves obey him!
lMt4:3; Lk1:32;

Jesus Restores a Demon-Possessed

5:1-17pp Mt8:28-34; Lk8:26-37
5:18-20pp Lk8:38,39

They went a cross the lake to the

reg ion of the Gerasenes. a 2When
Jesus got out of the boat,i a man with
an impure spirit j came from the t ombs
to meet him. 3This man lived in the
tombs, and no one c ould bind him
anymore, not even with a c hain. 4For
he had often been chained hand and
foot, but he tore the chains apart and
broke the i rons on his feet. No one was
strong enough to subdue him. 5Night
and day a mong the tombs and in the
h ills he would cry out and cut himself
with stones.
6When he saw
Jesus from a dis
tance, he ran and fell on his k nees in
front of him. 7He shouted at the top
of his voice, What do you want with
me,k Jesus, Son of the Most High God?l
In G
ods name dont tort ure me! 8For
Jesus had said to him, Come out of
this man, you impure spirit!
Jesus a sked him, What is
your name?
My name is Leg ion,m he replied,
for we are many. 10And he b
Jesus again and again not to send them
out of the area.
11A large herd of pigs was feeding
on the nearby hillside. 12The demons
b egged Jesus, Send us a mong the
pigs; allow us to go into them. 13He
gave them perm ission, and the impure
spirits came out and went into the pigs.
The herd, a bout two thousand in num
ber, r ushed down the steep bank into
the lake and were drowned.
14Those tendi ng the pigs ran off and
reported this in the town and coun
tryside, and the people went out to
see what had happened. 15When they
came to Jesus, they saw the man who
had been possessed by the leg ionn of
demons, o sitt ing t here, d ressed and in
his r ight mind; and they were a fraid.
16Those who had seen it told the peo
ple what had happened to the demonpossessed mana nd told a bout the

Jesus Raises a Dead Girl and Heals

a Sick Woman
5:22-43pp Mt9:18-26; Lk8:41-56
21When Jesus had a
gain c rossed
over by boat to the other side of the
lake,r a large c rowd gathered a round
him w
hile he was by the lake.s 22Then
one of the synagogue leaders,t named
Jai r us, came, and when he saw J esus,
he fell at his feet. 23He pleaded ear
nestly with him, My litt le daughter is
dying. Please come and put your hands
onu her so that she will be healed and
live. 24So J esus went with him.
A large crowd followed and p
a round him. 25And a woma n was t here
who had been subject to bleedingv
for t welve years. 26She had suffered
a g reat deal under the care of many
doctors and had spent all she had,
yet instead of gett ing better she grew
worse. 27When she heard about Jesus,
she came up beh ind him in the c rowd
and t ouched his c loak, 28because she
t hought, If I just touch his clothes,w
I will be healed. 29Immed iatel y her
bleeding stopped and she felt in her
body that she was f reed from her suf
5:19 pMt8:4
feri ng. x
5:20 qMt4:25;
30At once J esus rea lized that pow
5:21 rMt9:1
ery had gone out from him. He t urned
rowd and asked, Who
5:22 tver35,36,38; a round in the c
touched my clothes?
Lk13:14; Ac13:15;
31You see the peo
p le crowd
5:23 uMt19:13;
a gainst you, his disc iples an
Mk6:5; 7:32; 8:23;
16:18; Lk4:40; 13:13; swered, and yet you can ask, Who
5:25 vLev15:2530
32But J esus kept looki ng a
round to
5:28 wMt9:20
who had done it. 33Then the wom
5:29 ver34
5:30 yLk5:17; 6:19 an, knowing what had happ ened to

Some manuscripts Gadarenes; other manuscripts Gergesenes b20 That is, the Ten Cities

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1084 | Mark 5:34

her, came and fell at his feet and, trem

bling with fear, told him the w
t ruth. 34He said to her, Daughter, your
faith has healed you. Go in peacea and
be f reed from your sufferi ng.
Jesus was s till speaking,
some people came from the house of
Ja i r us, the synagogue leader. b Your
daughter is dead, they said. Why
bother the teacher any more?
36Overh eari ng a what they said,
Jesus told him, Dont be a fraid; just
bel ieve.
37He did not let anyone follow him
c ept Pe
t er, James and John the
brother of James. c 38When they came
to the home of the synagogue leader,d
Jesus saw a commot ion, with people
cry i ng and wail i ng loud ly. 39He went
in and said to them, Why all this com
mot ion and wailing? The child is not
dead but a sleep.e 40But they l aughed
at him.
After he put them all out, he took
the c hilds fat her and mother and the
disciples who were with him, and went
in where the child was. 41He took her
by the handf and said to her, Talitha
koum! (which m
eans Little girl, I
say to you, get up!).g 42Im med iate
ly the girl stood up and began to walk
a round (she was t welve y ears old). At
this they were completely astonished.
43He gave strict orders not to let any
one know about this,h and told them to
give her somet hing to eat.

Mark 6:19 | 1084

5:34 zMt9:22

not without honor except in his own

town, a mong his relat ives and in his
own home.o 5He c ould not do any
miracles t here, exc ept lay his hands
onp a few sick people and heal them.
6He was a
mazed at t heir lack of faith.


5:35 bver22

5:37 cMt4:21
5:38 dver22
5:39 eMt9:24
5:41 fMk1:31
gLk7:14; Ac9:40
5:43 hMt8:4
6:1 iMt2:23
6:2 jMk1:21
kMt4:23 lMt7:28
6:3 mMt12:46
nMt11:6; Jn6:61

Jesus Sends Out the Twelve

6:7-11pp Mt10:1,9-14; Lk9:1,3-5

Then Jesus went a round teaching

from village to village.q 7Calli ng the
Twelve to him,r he began to send them
out two by twos and gave them aut hor
it y over impure spirits. t
8These were his in
s truc
t ions:
Take nothing for the journey except
a staffno b
read, no bag, no mone y
in your belts. 9Wear sandals but not
an ex t ra shirt. 10Whenever you enter
a house, stay t here unt il you leave that
town. 11And if any place will not wel
come you or listen to you, leave that
place and s hake the dust off your feetu
as a test imony against them.
12They went out and p
reached that
people should repent. v 13They d rove
out many demons and anointed many
sick people with oilw and h
ealed them.

John the Baptist Beheaded

6:14-29pp Mt14:1-12
6:14-16pp Lk9:7-9

14King Herod heard a

bout this, for
J esus name had become well k nown.
Some were sayi ng, John the Bapt istx
has been r aised from the dead, and
that is why miracu lous powers are at
A Prophet Without Honor
work in him.
6:1-6pp Mt13:54-58
15Others said, He is Elijah.y
Jesus left there and went to his
And still others claimed, He is a
hometown, i accompa n ied by his
prophet, z like one of the prophets of
disc iples. 2When the Sabbath came,j 6:4 oLk4:24; Jn4:44 long ago.a
16But when Her
he began to teach in the synagogue,k 6:5 qMk5:23
od heard this, he
6:6 Mt9:35;
and many who
h eard him were Mk1:39; Lk13:22
said, John, whom I beheade d, has
6:7 rMk3:13
been r aised from the dead!
17For Hero d hims elf had given or
Where did this man get these st Dt17:6; Lk10:1
t hings? they a sked. Whats this wis 6:11 uMt10:14
ders to have John arrested, and he had
dom that has been given him? What 6:12 vLk9:6
him bound and put in prison.b He did
are t hese remark able mirac les he is 6:13 wx Jas5:14
this because of Herod ias, his brother
performi ng? 3Isnt this the carpenter? 6:14
Philips wife, whom he had marr ied.
6:15 yMal4:5
18For John had been sayi ng to Herod,
Isnt this M
arys son and the brother zMt21:11
Mk8:28 It is not lawful for you to have your
of James, Joseph, b Judas and Simon?m aMt16:14;
A rent his sisters here with us? And 6:17 Mt4:12; 11:2; brothers wife. c 19So Herod ias nursed
they took offense at him.n
a g rudge a gainst John and wante d
6:18 cLev18:16;
4Jesus said to them, A prophe t is 20:21
to kill him. But she was not able to,

a36OrIgnoring b3Greek Joses, a variant of Joseph c14

Some early manuscripts He was saying

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1085 | Mark 6:20

20bec ause Herod feared John and pro

tected him, knowi ng him to be a righ

teous and holy man.d When Herod
heard John, he was greatly puzz leda;
yet he l iked to listen to him.
21Finally the opport une time came.
On his birthday Herod gave a banquete
for his high off icials and military com
manders and the leadi ng men of Gali
lee.f 22When the daughter ofb Herod ias
came in and danced, she pleased Her
od and his dinner guests.
The king said to the girl, Ask me
for anyt hing you want, and Ill give it
to you. 23And he promised her with
an oath, Whatever you ask I will give
you, up to half my kingdom.g
24She went out and said to her moth
er, What s hall I ask for?
The head of John the Bapt ist, she
25At once the girl hurr ied in to the
king with the request: I want you to
give me r ight now the head of John the
Bapt ist on a platter.
26The king was greatly dist ressed,
but because of his o
aths and his din
ner g uests, he did not want to refuse
her. 27So he immed iately sent an ex
ec ut ioner with orders to bring Johns
head. The man went, beheaded John
in the prison, 28and brought back his
head on a platter. He presented it to the
girl, and she gave it to her mother. 29On
heari ng of this, J ohns disciples came
and took his body and laid it in a tomb.

Mark 6:49 | 1085

6:20 dMt11:9;

6:21 eEst1:3; 2:18
6:23 gEst5:3,6; 7:2
6:30 hMt10:2;
Lk9:10; 17:5; 22:14;
24:10; Ac1:2,26
6:31 jMk3:20
6:32 kver45;

Jesus Walks on the Water

Jesus Feeds the Five Thousand

6:45-51pp Mt14:22-32; Jn6:15-21

6:53-56pp Mt14:34-36

6:32-44pp Mt14:13-21; Lk9:10-17;

6:32-44Ref Mk8:2-9

apost les h gathered a round

Jesus and reported to him all they had
done and t aught.i 31Then, because so
many people were comi ng and goi ng
that they did not even have a chance
to eat,j he said to them, Come with me
by yourselves to a quiet p
lace and get
some rest.
32So they went away by themselves
in a boatk to a solitary place. 33But
many who saw them leaving recog
nized them and ran on foot from all
the t owns and got t here a head of them.
34When Jesus lande d and saw a large


c rowd, he had compassion on them,

because they were like sheep without a
shepherd. l So he began teachi ng them
many things.
35By this time it was late in the day,
so his disciples came to him. This is
a remote p
lace, they said, and its
already very late. 36Send the people
away so that they can go to the sur
round i ng count rys ide and vil l age s
and buy themselves somet hing to eat.
37But he ans wered, You give them
somet hing to eat.m
They said to him, That w
ould take
more than half a y ears wagesc! Are we
to go and spend that much on bread
and give it to them to eat?
38How many loaves do you have?
he asked. Go and see.
When they found out, they said,
Fivea nd two fish.n
39Then Jesus directed them to have
all the people sit down in g roups on
the g reen g rass. 40So they sat down in
g roups of hund reds and fift ies. 41Tak
ing the five loaves and the two fish and
looki ng up to heaven, he gave t hanks
and broke the loaves.o Then he gave
them to his disc iples to dist ribute to
the people. He also div ided the two
fish a mong them all. 42They all ate
and were satisf ied, 43and the disciples
picked up t welve basketf uls of broken
pieces of bread and fish. 44The num
ber of the men who had eaten was five

6:34 lMt9:36
6:37 m2Ki4:4244
6:38 nMt15:34;
6:41 oMt14:19
6:45 pver32
6:46 rLk3:21
6:49 sLk24:37

45Im med iatel y Jesus made his dis

ciples get into the boatp and go on
a head of him to Bethsa ida, q while he
dism issed the c rowd. 46After leavi ng
them, he went up on a mount ainside
to pray.r
47Later that night, the boat was
in the midd le of the lake, and he was
a lone on land. 48He saw the disciples
straini ng at the oars, because the wind
was against them. Shortly before dawn
he went out to them, walking on the
lake. He was a bout to pass by them,
49but when they saw him walki ng on
the lake, they t hought he was a g host.s

Some early manuscripts he did many things b22 Some early manuscripts When his daughter

c37Greek take two hundred denarii

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1086 | Mark 6:50

They c ried out, 50because they all saw

him and were terr if ied.
Im med iately he spoke to them and
said, Take courage! It is I. Dont be
a fraid.t 51Then he c limbed into the
boatu with them, and the wind died
down.v They were completely a mazed,
52for they had not unders tood a
the loaves; their hearts were hard
53When they had c
rossed over, they
landed at Gen nesa ret and anchored
t here. x 54As soon as they got out of the
boat, people recogn ized Jesus. 55They
ran throughout that whole reg ion and
carr ied the sick on mats to wherever
they h
eard he was. 56And wherever he
wentinto villages, towns or coun
trysidet hey p
laced the sick in the
marketplaces. They b
egged him to let
them touch even the edge of his cloak,y
and all who t ouched it were healed.

Mark 7:25 | 1086

6:50 tMt14:27

6:51 uver32
6:52 wMk8:1721
6:53 xJn6:24,25
6:56 yMt9:20
7:2 zAc10:14,28;
11:8; Ro14:14
7:3 aver5,8,9,13;
7:4 bMt23:25;
7:5 cver3; Gal1:14;
7:7 dIsa29:13

That Which Defiles

7:1-23pp Mt15:1-20

The Pharisees and some of the

teachers of the law who had come
from Jer usalem gathered a round Jesus
2and saw some of his disc iples eati ng
food with h
ands that were defiled,z
that is, unw ashed. 3(The Pharis ees
and all the Jews do not eat unless they
give t heir hands a ceremon ia l wash
ing, holding to the trad ition of the
elders. a 4When they come from the
marketplace they do not eat unless
they wash. And they obs erve many
other trad it ions, such as the washi ng
of cups, pitchers and kett les.a)b
5So the Pharis ees and teachers of
the law asked Jesus, Why dont your
disc iples live accord i ng to the trad i
tion of the eldersc instead of eating
t heir food with def iled hands?
6He replied, Isaiah was r
ight when
he prophesied about you hypoc rites;
as it is written:

These people honor me with their
but their hearts are far from me.
They worship me in vain;
their teachings are merely

7:8 ever3
7:9 fver3
7:10 gEx20:12;
Dt5:16 hEx21:17;
7:11 iMt23:16,18
7:13 jHeb4:12
7:17 lMk9:28
7:19 mRo14:1-12;
Col2:16; 1Ti4:3-5
7:22 oMt20:15
7:24 pMt11:21

8You have let go of the comm ands of

God and are holdi ng on to human tra
dit ions.e
9And he cont inued, You have a fine
way of sett ing a side the commands of
God in order to observec your own tra
dit ions!f 10For Moses said, Honor your
fat her and mother,dg and, Anyone
who curses t heir fat her or mother is to
be put to 11But you sayi that if
anyone declares that what m ight have
been used to help t heir fat her or moth
er is Corban (that is, devoted to God)
12then you no longer let them do any
thing for t heir fat her or mother. 13Thus
you nullif y the word of Godj by your
trad it ionk that you have handed down.
And you do many t hings like that.
14Again Jesus c
alled the c rowd to
him and said, Listen to me, everyone,
and understand this. 15Noth i ng out
side a person can def ile them by goi ng
into them. Rather, it is what comes out
of a person that def iles them. [16]f
ter he had left the c rowd and
entered the house, his disciples asked
himl about this parable. 18Are you so
dull? he a sked. Dont you see that
nothing that enters a person from
the outside can defile them? 19For it
doesnt go into their heart but into
their stomach, and then out of the
body. (In saying this, J esus declared
all foods m clean.)n
20He went on: What c omes out of
a person is what def iles them. 21For it
is from withi n, out of a persons h
that evil t houghts comesexua l im
mor al it y, t heft, murder, 22adult ery,
g reed,o malice, deceit, lewdness, envy,
slander, arr og ance and foll y. 23All
t hese e vils come from inside and de
file a person.

Jesus Honors a Syrophoenician

Womans Faith
7:24-30pp Mt15:21-28
24Jesus left that p
lace and went
to the vic inity of He entered
a house and did not want anyone to
know it; yet he c ould not keep his pres
ence sec ret. 25In fact, as soon as she
heard about him, a woma n whose litt le


Some early manuscripts pitchers, kettles and dining couches b6,7Isaiah 29:13 c9 Some manuscripts
set up d10Exodus 20:12; Deut. 5:16 e10Exodus 21:17; Lev. 20:9 f16 Some manuscripts include here
the words of 4:23. g24 Many early manuscripts Tyre and Sidon

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1087 | Mark 7:26

daughter was possessed by an impure

spir it q came and fell at his feet. 26The
woma n was a G
reek, born in Syria n
Phoen icia. She begged Jesus to d rive
the demon out of her daughter.
27First let the child ren eat all they
want, he told her, for it is not r ight to
take the child rens bread and toss it to
the dogs.
28Lord, she re
plied, even the
dogs under the table eat the child rens
29Then he told her, For such a reply,
you may go; the demon has left your
30She went home and
found her
child lyi ng on the bed, and the demon

Mark 8:19 | 1087

7:25 qMt4:24

7:31 rver24;
Mt11:21 sMt4:18
tMt4:25; Mk5:20
7:32 uMt9:32;
Lk11:14 vMk5:23
7:33 wMk8:23
7:34 xMk6:41;
Jn11:41 yMk8:12
7:35 zIsa35:5,6
7:36 aMt8:4

Jesus Heals a Deaf and Mute Man

7:31-37pp Mt15:29-31
Jesus left the vicinity of
Tyrer and went t hrough Sidon, down
to the Sea of Gali lees and into the re
gion of the Decapol is. at 32There some
people brought to him a man who was
deaf and could hardly talk,u and they
begged Jesus to p
lace his hand onv
t er he took him a side, away
from the c rowd, J esus put his fingers
into the m ans ears. Then he spitw
and touched the mans tongue. 34He
looked up to heavenx and with a deep
sighy said to him, Ephphatha! (which
means Be opened!). 35At this, the
mans ears were opened, his tongue
was loosened and he began to speak
36Jesus commanded them not to tell
anyone. a But the more he did so, the
more they kept talki ng about it. 37Peo
ple were overw helmed with amaze
ment. He has done everyt hing well,
they said. He even m akes the deaf
hear and the mute speak.

Jesus Feeds the Four Thousand

8:1-9pp Mt15:32-39
8:1-9Ref Mk6:32-44
8:11-21pp Mt16:1-12

Dur i ng t hose days another large

c rowd gathered. S ince they had
nothing to eat, Jesus c alled his dis
ciples to him and said, 2I have com


passion for t hese people;b they have

already been with me t hree days and
have nothing to eat. 3If I send them
home hung ry, they will collapse on the
way, because some of them have come
a long distance.
4His disc iples ans wered, But w here
in this remote p
lace can anyone get
enough bread to feed them?
5How many loaves do you have?
Jesus asked.
Seven, they replied.
6He told the c
rowd to sit down on
the g round. When he had taken the
seven loaves and given thanks, he
broke them and gave them to his dis
ciples to dist ribute to the people, and
they did so. 7They had a few small fish
as well; he gave t hanks for them also
and told the disc iples to distribute
them.c 8The people ate and were sat
isf ied. After ward the disciples picked
up seven basket f uls of broken pieces
that were left over.d 9About four thou
sand were present. After he had sent
them away, 10he got into the boat with
his disciples and went to the reg ion of
Dalmanut ha.
11The Pharisees came and began to
quest ion J esus. To test him, they a sked
him for a sign from heaven.e 12He
sighed deepl y f and said, Why does
this generation ask for a sign? Truly
I tell you, no sign will be given to it.
13Then he left them, got back into the
boat and c rossed to the other side.

The Yeast of the Pharisees


8:2 bMt9:36
8:7 cMt14:19
8:8 dver20
8:11 eMt12:38
8:12 fMk7:34
8:15 g1Co5:6-8
hLk12:1 iMt14:1;
8:17 jIsa6:9,10;

14The disc ip les had for g ot t en to

ring bread, except for one loaf they
had with them in the boat. 15Be care
ful, Jesus w
arned them. Watch out
for the y eastg of the Phariseesh and
that of Herod.i
16They disc ussed this with one an
other and said, It is because we have
no bread.
17Aware of t heir disc uss ion, Jesus
a sked them: Why are you talking
about having no b
read? Do you s till
not see or understand? Are your h
hardened?j 18Do you have eyes but fail
to see, and ears but fail to hear? And
dont you remember? 19When I broke

That is, the Ten Cities

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1088 | Mark 8:20

the five loaves for the five thousand,

how many basketf uls of pieces did you
Twelve,k they replied.
20And when I b
roke the sev
loaves for the four thousand, how many
basketf uls of pieces did you pickup?
They answered, Seven. l
21He said to them, Do you still not

Jesus Heals a Blind Man

22They came to Beth s a id a, n and
some people brought a blind mano and
begged J esus to t ouch him. 23He took
the b
lind man by the hand and led him
outside the village. When he had spitp
on the mans eyes and put his hands
onq him, J esus a sked, Do you see any
looked up and said, I see
people; they look like trees walking
25Once more Jesus put his h
on the mans eyes. Then his eyes were
opened, his sight was restored, and he
saw every t hing clearl y. 26Jesus sent
him home, saying, Dont even go
intoa the village.

Mark 9:7 | 1088

8:19 kMt14:20;

Mk6:41-44; Lk9:17;
8:20 lver6-9;
8:21 mMk6:52
8:22 nMt11:21
oMk10:46; Jn9:1
8:23 pMk7:33
8:28 rMt3:1
8:29 tJn6:69; 11:27
8:30 uMt8:4;
16:20; 17:9; Mk9:9;
8:31 vMt8:20

Peter Declares That Jesus Is the

8:27-29pp Mt16:13-16; Lk9:18-20

and his disciples went on to

the villages a round Caesa rea Phil ippi.
On the way he a sked them, Who do
people say Iam?
28They replied, Some say John the
Bapt ist; r others say Elijah;s and still
others, one of the prophets.
29But what a
bout you? he a sked.
Who do you say Iam?
Peter ans wered, You are the Mes
sia h. t
30Jesus w arned them not to tell any
one a bout him.u

law,x and that he must be k illedy and af

ter t hree daysz rise again.a 32He spoke
plainlyb about this, and Peter took him
aside and began to rebuke him.
33But when J esus t urned and l ooked
at his disciples, he rebuked Peter. Get
beh ind me, Sat an!c he said. You do
not have in mind the concerns of God,
but merely human concerns.

The Way of the Cross

34Then he c
alled the c rowd to him
a long with his disciples and said:
Whoe ver w ants to be my disc iple
must deny themselves and take up
t heir cross and follow me.d 35For who
ever wants to save t heir lifeb will lose
it, but whoever loses t heir life for me
and for the gospel will save it.e 36What
good is it for someone to gain the w
world, yet forfeit their soul? 37Or what
can anyone give in exchange for their
soul? 38If anyone is a shamed of me and
my w
ords in this adulterous and sinf ul
generation, the Son of Manf will be
ashamed of themg when he c omesh in
his Fat hers glor y with the holy angels.
And he said to them, Truly I tell
you, some who are standi ng here
will not taste death before they see that
the kingdom of God has comei with

The Transfiguration
9:2-8pp Lk9:28-36
9:2-13pp Mt17:1-13

t er six days Jesus took Peter,
James and Johnk with him and led
them up a high mountain, w
here they
were all a lone. T here he was transf ig
xMt27:1,2 yAc2:23;
ured before them. 3His clothes became
3:13 zMt16:21
dazz ling w hite, l whiter than anyone
in the w
orld c ould b
leach them. 4And
8:32 bJn18:20
t here appeared before them Elijah and
8:33 cMt4:10
8:34 dMt10:38;
Moses, who were talki ng with J esus.
5Peter said to Jesus, Rabbi,m it is
8:35 eJn12:25
good for us to be here. Let us put up
8:38 fMt8:20
gMt10:33; Lk12:9
three sheltersone for you, one for
Moses and one for Elijah. 6(He did not
Jesus Predicts His Death
9:1 iMk13:30;
know what to say, they were so fright
8:31 9:1pp Mt16:21-28; Lk9:22-27
7Then a c loud app eared and cov
31He then began to teach them that 9:2 kMt4:21
ered them, and a voice came from the
the Son of Manv must suffer many 9:5 mMt23:7
cloud: n This is my Son, whom I love.
t hings w and be rejected by the elders, 9:7 nEx24:16
Listen to him!o
the c hief p
riests and the teachers of the oMt3:17
a26 Some manuscripts go and tell anyone in b35 TheGreek word means either life or soul; also in verses 36

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1089 | Mark 9:8

8Sudd en l y, when they l ooked
a round, they no longer saw anyone
with them except Jesus.
9As they were com
i ng down the
mountain, Jesus gave them orders not
to tell anyonep what they had seen un
til the Son of Manq had risen from the
dead. 10They kept the matter to them
selves, disc ussing what rising from
the dead meant.
11And they a sked him, Why do the
teachers of the law say that Elijah must
come first?
12Jesus rep lied, To be sure, Eli
jah does come first, and restores all
t hings. Why then is it written that the
Son of Manr must suffer muchs and be
rejected?t 13But I tell you, Elijah has
come,u and they have done to him ev
eryt hing they w ished, just as it is writ
ten a bout him.

Jesus Heals a Boy Possessed by an


Mark 9:37 | 1089

9:9 pMk8:30

9:12 rMt8:20

9:14-28; 30-32pp Mt17:14-19; 22,23;


Jesus Predicts His Death a Second



they came to the other dis

ciples, they saw a large crowd a round
them and the teachers of the law arg u
ing with them. 15As soon as all the peo
ple saw J esus, they were overwhelmed
with wonder and ran to g reet him.
16What are you arg ui ng with them
about? he asked.
17A man in the c
rowd ans wered,
Teacher, I b
rought you my son, who
is possessed by a spirit that has robbed
him of speech. 18Whene ver it seizes
him, it t hrows him to the g round. He
foams at the mouth, gnashes his teeth
and becomes rigid. I a sked your dis
ciples to d rive out the spirit, but they
could not.
19You unb el iev i ng gene rat ion,
Jesus replied, how long s hall I stay
with you? How long shall I put up with
you? B
ring the boy tome.
20So they brought him. When the
spir it saw Jesus, it im med iately t hrew
the boy into a conv ulsion. He fell to the
g round and rolled a round, foami ng at
the mouth.v
21Jesus a sked the boys fat her, How
long has he been like this?
From childhood, he answered.


has often t hrown him into fire or

water to kill him. But if you can do any
sMt16:21 tLk23:11
thing, take pity on us and helpus.
23If you can? said Jesus. Every
9:13 uMt11:14
9:20 Mk1:26
thing is possible for one who believes.w
24Im med iatel y the b oys fat her ex
claimed, I do believe; help me over
come my unbel ief !
25When J esus saw that a c
rowd was
runn ing to the scene,x he rebuked the
impure spir it. You deaf and mute
spirit, he said, I command you, come
out of him and never enter him again.
26The spir i t s hrieked, conv ulsed
him violently and came out. The boy
looked so much like a c orpse that
many said, Hes dead. 27But Jesus
took him by the hand and lifted him to
his feet, and he s toodup.
28After Jesus had gone indoors, his
disc iples a sked him priv ately, y Why
couldnt we d
rive it out?
29He replied, This kind can come
out only by prayer.a

9:33-37pp Mt18:1-5; Lk9:46-48

30They left that p
lace and p
through Galilee. Jesus did not want
anyone to know w
here they were, 31be
cause he was teachi ng his disciples. He
said to them, The Son of Manz is goi ng
to be del ivered into the hands of men.
They will kill him,a and after three
daysb he will rise.c 32But they did not
understand what he meant d and were
a fraid to ask him a boutit.
33They came to Capernau m. e When
he was in the house,f he asked them,
What were you arg ui ng about on the
9:23 wMt21:21;
road? 34But they kept quiet bec ause
Mk11:23; Jn11:40
the way they had arg ued about who
9:25 ver15
was the greatest.g
9:28 yMk7:17
9:31 zMt8:20
t ing down, Jesus called the
aver12; Ac2:23;
Twelve and said, Anyone who w ants
3:13 Mt16:21
to be f irst must be the very last, and the
9:32 dLk2:50; 9:45; servant of all.h
36He took a lit
18:34; Jn12:16
t le c hild whom he
9:33 eMt4:13
placed a mong them. Taki ng the c hild
in his arms,i he said to them, 37Who
9:34 gLk22:24
9:35 hMt18:4;
ever welcomes one of t hese litt le chil
20:26; Mk10:43;
dren in my name welcomes me; and
whoever welcomes me does not wel
9:36 iMk10:16
9:37 jMt10:40
come me but the one who sentme.j

Some manuscripts prayer and fasting

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1090 | Mark 9:38

Whoever Is Not Against Us Is

9:38-40pp Lk9:49,50
er, said John, we saw
someone drivi ng out demons in your
name and we told him to stop, because
he was not one ofus.k
39Do not stop him, Jesus said. For
no one who does a miracle in my name
can in the next moment say anyt hing
bad about me, 40for whoe ver is not
against us is for us.l 41Truly I tell you,
anyone who g ives you a cup of water
in my name because you belong to the
Messia h will certainly not lose their

Causing to Stumble
42If anyone causes one of t hese lit
tle onesthose who bel ieve in me
to stumble,n it would be better for them
if a large millstone were hung a round
t heir neck and they were t hrown into
the sea.o 43If your hand causes you to
stumble,p cut it off. It is better for you
to enter life m aimed than with two
hands to go into hell,q w here the fire
never goes out.r [44]a 45And if your foot
causes you to stumble,s cut it off. It is
better for you to enter life crippled
than to have two feet and be t hrown
into hell.t [46]a 47And if your eye causes
you to stumble,u pluck it out. It is bet
ter for you to enter the kingdom of God
with one eye than to have two eyes and
be t hrown into hell,v 48where

Mark 10:19 | 1090

9:38 kNu11:2729

9:40 lMt12:30;
9:41 mMt10:42
9:42 nMt5:29
oMt18:6; Lk17:2
9:43 pMt5:29
qMt5:30; 18:8
9:45 sMt5:29
9:47 uMt5:29
vMt5:29; 18:9
9:48 wIsa66:24;
9:49 xLev2:13
9:50 yMt5:13;
Lk14:34,35 zCol4:6
aRo12:18; 2Co13:11;
10:1 bMk1:5;
Jn10:40; 11:7
cMt4:23; Mk2:13;
4:2; 6:6,34
10:2 dMk2:16

The Little Children and Jesus

10:13-16pp Mt19:13-15; Lk18:15-17

the worms that eat them do not
and the fire is not
49Everyone will be saltedx with fire.

50Salt is good, but if it loses its salti

ness, how can you make it s alty a gain?y
Have salt a mong yourselves,z and be at
peace with each other.a

10:1-12pp Mt19:1-9


Jesus then left that place and

went into the reg ion of Judea
and across the Jordan.b Again crowds
of people came to him, and as was his
custom, he t aught them.c
2Some Phar isees d came and teste d

him by aski ng, Is it lawf ul for a man to

divorce his wife?
3What did Moses command you?
he replied.
4They said, Mo
s es perm itted a
man to w rite a certific ate of divorce
and send her away.e
5It was bec ause your hearts were
hardf that Moses w rote you this law,
Jesus replied. 6But at the beg inn ing
of creat ion God made them male and 7For this reason a man will
leave his father and mother and be
united to his wife,d 8and the two will
bec ome one f So they are no
longer two, but one f lesh. 9Therefore
what God has joined together, let no
one sepa rate.
10When they were in the
again, the disciples asked Jesus about
this. 11He ans wered, Anyone who di
vorces his wife and marr ies another
woma n comm its adultery against her.i
12And if she divorces her husband and
marr ies another man, she comm its

10:4 eDt24:1-4;
10:5 fPs95:8;
10:6 gGe1:27; 5:2
10:8 hGe2:24;
10:11 iMt5:32;
10:12 jRo7:3;
10:14 kMt25:34
10:15 lMt18:3
10:16 mMk9:36
10:17 nMk1:40
oLk10:25; Ac20:32

13People were bringing litt le chil

dren to J esus for him to p
lace his h
on them, but the disc iples rebuked
them. 14When Jesus saw this, he was
ind ignant. He said to them, Let the
litt le child ren come to me, and do not
hinder them, for the kingdom of God
belongs to such as t hese.k 15Truly I tell
you, anyone who will not receive the
kingdom of God like a litt le c hild will
never enter it.l 16And he took the chil
dren in his arms,m placed his hands on
them and b
lessed them.

The Rich and the Kingdom of God

10:17-31pp Mt19:16-30; Lk18:18-30
17As J esus started on his way, a man
ran up to him and fell on his k neesn
before him. Good teacher, he a sked,
what must I do to inherit etern al
18Why do you call me good? Jesus
ans wered. No one is goode xc ept
God a lone. 19You know the command
ments: You s hall not murder, you s hall


Some manuscripts include here the words of verse48. b48Isaiah 66:24 c6Gen. 1:27
Some early manuscripts do not have and be united to his wife. e8Gen. 2:24

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1091 | Mark 10:20

Mark 10:46 | 1091

not comm it adultery, you shall not

steal, you shall not give f alse test imo
ny, you s hall not def raud, honor your
fat her and mother.ap
20Teacher, he declared, all t hese I
have kept s ince I was a boy.
looked at him and loved
him. One thing you lack, he said.
Go, sell everything you have and
give to the poor,q and you will have
treasure in heaven.r Then come, fol
22At this the m
ans face fell. He went
away sad, because he had g reat wealth.
23Jesus looked a round and said to
his disc iples, How hard it is for the
richt to enter the kingdom of God!
24The disc iples were a mazed at his
words. But J esus said a gain, Child ren,
how hard it isb to enter the kingdom
of God!u 25It is easier for a camel to go
t hrough the eye of a need le than for
someone who is rich to enter the king
dom of God.v
26The dis
c iples were even more
a mazed, and said to each other, Who
then can be saved?
looked at them and said,
With man this is impossible, but not
with God; all t hings are possible with
28Then Peter s
poke up, We have left
everyt hing to follow you! x
l y I tell you, Jesus replied,
no one who has left home or brothers
or sisters or mother or fat her or chil
dren or fields for me and the gospel
30will fail to rec eive a hund red t imes
as muchy in this present age: homes,
brothers, sist ers, mothers, child ren
and f ields a long with pers ec u
tionsa nd in the age to comez eternal
life.a 31But many who are f irst will be
last, and the last first.b

Jesus Predicts His Death a Third


lem,d he said, and the Son of Mane

will be delivered over to the c hief
priests and the teachers of the law.f
They will condemn him to d
eath and
will hand him over to the Gentiles,
34who will mock him and spit on him,
flog himg and kill him.h T hree days lat
eri he will rise.j

The Request of James and John

10:35-45pp Mt20:20-28

35Then J ames and John, the sons of

Zebedee, came to him. Teacher, they
said, we want you to do for us whatev
er we ask.
36What do you want me to do for
you? he asked.
37They replied, Let one of us sit at
your r ight and the other at your left in
your glor y. k
38You dont know what you are ask
ing,l Jesus said. Can you d rink the
cupm I d rink or be bapt ized with the
bapt ism I am bapt ized with?n
39We can, they ans wered.
Jesus said to them, You will d
the cup I d rink and be bapt ized with
the bapt ism I am bapt ized with,o 40but
to sit at my r ight or left is not for me to
g rant. T hese places belong to t hose for
whom they have been prepared.
41When the ten h
eard about this,
they bec ame ind ig n ant with James
and John. Jesus called them togeth
er and said, You know that t hose who
are regarded as rulers of the Gent iles
lord it over them, and t heir high off i
cials exerc ise aut hor it y over them.
43Not so with you. In
s tead, whoe v
er w ants to become g reat a mong you
must be your serv ant,p 44and who
ever wants to be f irst must be slave of
all. 45For even the Son of Man did not
come to be s erved, but to s erve,q and
10:33 dLk9:51
give his life as a ransom for many.r
eMt8:20 fMt27:1,2

10:34 gMt16:21

were on t heir way up to Je

rusalem, with Jesus leading the way,
and the disc iples were aston i shed,
while t hose who followed were a fraid.
A gain he took the Twelvec a side and
told them what was going to happen
to him. 33We are goi ng up to Jer usa
a19Exodus 20:12-16; Deut. 5:16-20 b24

10:21 qAc2:45
rMt6:20; Lk12:33
10:23 tPs52:7;
62:10; 1Ti6:9,10,17
10:24 uMt7:13,14
10:25 vLk12:1620
10:27 wMt19:26
10:28 xMt4:19
10:30 yMt6:33
10:31 bMt19:30
10:32 cMk3:1619

hAc2:23; 3:13

10:32-34pp Mt20:17-19; Lk18:31-33


10:19 pEx20:12-16;

iMt16:21 jMt16:21

10:37 kMt19:28
10:38 lJob38:2
10:39 oAc12:2;
10:43 pMk9:35
10:45 qMt20:28

Blind Bartimaeus Receives

10:46-52pp Mt20:29-34; Lk18:35-43
46Then they came to Jer
ic ho. As
Jesus and his disciples, together with
a l arge c rowd, were leavi ng the city, a
blind man, Bart imaeus (which means
son of Timaeus), was sitt ing by the

Some manuscripts is for those who trust in riches

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1092 | Mark 10:47

roadside begg ing. 47When he heard

that it was J esus of Naza reth,s he be
gan to s hout, Jesus, Son of Dav id,t
have merc y onme!
48Many re
b uked him and told
him to be quiet, but he shoute d all
the more, Son of Dav id, have merc y
s topped and said, Call
So they c alled to the blind man,
Cheer up! On your feet! Hes calling
you. 50Throwing his cloak a side, he
jumped to his feet and came to J esus.
51What do you want me to do for
you? Jesus a sked him.
The b
lind man said, Rabbi,u I want
to see.
52Go, said Jesus, your faith has
healed you.v Immed iately he received
his s ight and followedw Jesus a long the

Mark 11:23 | 1092


10 Blessed is the coming kingdom of

our father David!

10:52 vMt9:22

Hosanna in the highest heaven!c

11:1 xMt21:17

11Jesus entered Jer usalem and went

into the temple courts. He looked
a round at everyt hing, but s ince it was
already late, he went out to Betha ny
with the Twelve.d

10:47 sMk1:24
10:51 uMt23:7

11:2 zNu19:2;
Dt21:3; 1Sa6:7
11:4 aMk14:16
11:9 bPs118:25,26;

Jesus Curses a Fig Tree and Clears

11:12-14pp Mt21:18-22
11:15-18pp Mt21:12-16; Lk19:45-47;
11:20-24pp Mt21:19-22

12The next day as they were leav

ing Betha ny, Jesus was hung ry. 13See
ing in the distance a fig tree in leaf,
he went to find out if it had any f ruit.
When he reached it, he found noth
ing but leaves, because it was not the
season for figs.e 14Then he said to the
Jesus Comes to JerusalemasKing
tree, May no one ever eat f ruit from
11:1-10pp Mt21:1-9; Lk19:29-38
you again. And his disc iples heard
11:7-10pp Jn12:12-15
him sayit.
15On reach i ng Jer u s a lem, Jesus en
As they approached Jer usa lem
tered the temple c ourts and beg an
and came to Bethphage and
driving out those who were buying
Betha ny x at the Mount of Olives,y Jesus
and selling t here. He overt urned the
sent two of his disc iples, 2sayi ng to
tables of the money changers and the
them, Go to the village a head of you,
benches of t hose sell i ng doves, 16and
and just as you enter it, you will find a
would not allow anyone to carr y mer
colt tied t here, w
hich no one has ever
chand ise t hrough the temple courts.
ring it here. 3If
ridden.z Unt ie it and b
17And as he t aught them, he said, Is
anyone asks you, Why are you doi ng
it not written: My house will be called
this? say, The Lord n
eeds it and will
ouse of prayer for all nat ionsc?f But
send it back here shortly.
4They went and
you have made it a den of robbers.dg
found a colt out
18The chief p
riests and the teachers
side in the street, tied at a doorw ay.a
of the law h
eard this and began look
As they unt ied it, 5some people stand
ing for a way to kill him, for they feared
ing t here asked, What are you doi ng,
him,h bec ause the w hole c rowd was
unt yi ng that colt? 6They answered as
a mazed at his teachi ng.i
Jesus had told them to, and the people
19When eve
n ing came, Jesus and
let them go. 7When they brought the
his disciples e went out of the city.j
colt to Jesus and threw their c loaks
20In the morn
i ng, as they went
over it, he sat on it. 8Many people
a long, they saw the fig tree withered
spread t heir c loaks on the road, w
hile 11:10 cLk2:14
others spread branches they had cut in 11:11 eMt21:12,17 from the roots. 21Peter remembered
11:13 Lk13:69
and said to Jesus, Rabbi,k look! The fig
the f ields. 9Those who went a head and 11:17
tree you c ursed has withered!
t hose who followed shouted,
11:18 hMt21:46;
f aith in God, Jesus an
23Trul yf I tell you, if anyone
Mk12:12; Lk20:19
says to this mountain, Go, t hrow your
Blessed is he who comes in the
11:19 jLk21:37
self into the sea, and does not doubt
11:21 kMt23:7
name of the Lord!bb



AHebrew expression meaning Save! which became an exclamation of praise; also in verse10
Some early manuscripts came, Jesus
Some early manuscripts If you have faith in God, Jesus answered, 23truly

b9Psalm 118:25,26 c17Isaiah 56:7 d17Jer. 7:11 e19


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1093 | Mark 11:24

in their heart but believes that what

they say will happen, it will be done for
them.l 24Therefore I tell you, whatever
you ask for in prayer, bel ieve that you
have received it, and it will be yours.m
25And when you s
tand prayi ng, if you
hold anyt hing against anyone, forg ive
them, so that your Father in heaven
may forg ive you your sins.n [26]a

Mark 12:17 | 1093

11:23 lMt21:21

11:24 mMt7:7
11:25 nMt6:14
11:32 oMt11:9
12:1 pIsa5:17

The Authority of Jesus Questioned

11:27-33pp Mt21:23-27; Lk20:1-8
27They ar r ived again in Jer u s a lem,
and w hile Jesus was walking in the
temple c ourts, the c hief p
riests, the
teachers of the law and the elders came
to him. 28By what aut horit y are you
doi ng t hese t hings? they asked. And
who gave you aut horit y to do this?
29Jesus replied, I will ask you one
quest ion. Ans wer me, and I will tell
you by what authority I am doing
t hese t hings. 30Johns bapt ismw as
it from heaven, or of hum an orig in?
31They dis
c ussed it a mong them
selves and said, If we say, From heav
en, he will ask, Then why d idnt you
bel ieve him? 32But if we say, Of hu
man orig in... (They f eared the peo
ple, for everyone held that John really
was a prophet.)o
33So they ans wered Jesus, We d
Jesus said, Neither will I tell you
by what authority I am doing these

other, and that one they k illed. He sent

many others; some of them they beat,
others they killed.
6He had one left to send, a son,
whom he loved. He sent him last of
all,q sayi ng, They will respect my son.
7But the ten
a nts said to one an
other, This is the heir. Come, lets kill
him, and the inheritance will be ours.
8So they took him and k illed him, and
t hrew him out of the vineyard.
9What then will the owner of the
viney ard do? He will come and kill
t hose tena nts and give the vineyard to
others. 10Havent you read this passage
of Script ure:

The stone the builders rejected
has become the cornerstone;r
11 the Lord has done this,
and it is marvelous in our
12Then the c
hief p
riests, the teach
ers of the law and the elders looked
for a way to arrest him bec ause they
knew he had spo
k en the par
b le
against them. But they were a fraid of
the crowd; so they left him and went

Paying the Imperial Tax to Caesar

12:13-17pp Mt22:15-22; Lk20:20-26

13Later they sent some of the Phar

isees and Herod ia ns v to J esus to c atch
himw in his w
ords. 14They came to
him and said, Teacher, we know that
you are a man of integr it y. You a rent
s wayed by others, bec ause you pay
The Parable of the Tenants
no attent ion to who they are; but you
12:1-12pp Mt21:33-46; Lk20:9-19
teach the way of God in accordance
with the t ruth. Is it r ight to pay the im
Jesus then began to speak to
per ia l tax c to Caesar or not? 15Should
them in parables: A man plant
pay or s houldntwe?
ed a vineyard. He put a wall a round it,
But Jesus knew t heir hy p ocr is y.
dug a pit for the winepress and b
uilt a
Why are you trying to trap me? he
watchtower. Then he rented the vine
a sked. Bring me a denariu s and let
yard to some farmers and m
oved to
me look at it. 16They b
rought the coin,
another place. 2At harvest time he sent
and he asked them, Whose image is
a servant to the tena nts to collect from
12:6 qHeb1:13
this? And whose inscript ion?
them some of the f ruit of the vineyard. 12:10 rAc4:11
3But they s
Caesars, they replied.
eized him, beat him and 12:11 sPs118:22,23
Jesus said to them, Give
sent him away empt y-handed. 4Then 12:12
to Caesar what is Caesars and to
he sent another servant to them; they 12:13
struck this man on the head and treat Mk3:6 wMt12:10 God what is Gods.x
And they were a mazed at him.
ed him shamef ul ly. 5He sent still an 12:17 xRo13:7


a26 Some manuscripts include here words similar to Matt.6:15. b11Psalm 118:22,23 c14 A special tax
levied on subject peoples, not on Roman citizens

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1094 | Mark 12:18

Mark 12:42 | 1094

is one and t here is no other but him.h

33To love him with all your h
eart, with
all your understanding and with all
18Then the Sadd uc ees, y who say 12:24 b2Ti3:1517
12:25 1Co15:42,
your strength, and to love your neigh
t here is no resu rrect ion, z came to him 49,52
bor as yourself is more important than
with a quest ion. Teacher, they said, 12:26 Ex3:6
eLk10:25-28; all burnt offeri ngs and sacr if ices.
Mos es w rote for us that if a m ans
34When Jesus saw that he had an
brother dies and leaves a wife but no 12:30 fDt6:4,5
swered wisely, he said to him, You are
child ren, the man must marr y the wid 12:31 gLev19:18;
not far from the kingdom of God.j And
ow and raise up offspring for his broth
from then on no one d
ared ask him any
er. Now t here were seven brothers.
more quest ions. k
The f irst one marr ied and died with
out leaving any child ren. 21The sec
Whose Son Is the Messiah?
ond one marr ied the widow, but he
12:35-37pp Mt22:41-46; Lk20:41-44
also died, leavi ng no child. It was the
12:38-40pp Mt23:1-7; Lk20:45-47
same with the t hird. 22In fact, none of
35While Jesus was teaching in the
the seven left any child ren. Last of all,
temple courts, l he a sked, Why do the
the woma n died too. 23At the resu rrec
teachers of the law say that the Messi
tiona whose wife will she be, s ince the
ah is the son of Dav id?m 36Dav id him
seven were marr ied to her?
24Jesus replied, Are you not in error
self, speaki ng by the Holy Spirit,n de
bec ause you do not know the Scrip
turesb or the power of God? 25When

The Lord said to my Lord:
the dead rise, they will neit her mar
Sit at my right hand
ry nor be given in marr iage; they will

until I put your enemies
be like the angels in heaven.c 26Now
under your feet.f o
about the dead risinghave you not
37Dav id himself c
alls him Lord. How
read in the Book of Moses, in the ac
can he be his son?
count of the burning bush, how God
The large c rowd p listened to him
said to him, I am the God of Abra
with del ight.
ham, the God of Isaac, and the God
of Jacobb?d 27He is not the God of the
Warning Against the Teachers
dead, but of the living. You are badly
38As he t aught, Jesus said, Watch
The Greatest Commandment
out for the teachers of the law. They
like to walk a round in flowing robes
12:28-34pp Mt22:34-40
and be greete d with respect in the
28One of the teach
ers of the lawe
mark etplace s, 39and have the most
came and h
eard them debati ng. Not ic
p or t ant s eats in the synagogues
ing that J esus had given them a good
and the places of honor at banquets.q
answer, he a sked him, Of all the com
40They devour widows houses and for
mandments, which is the most impor
a show make lengthy p
rayers. T
29The most im
p ortant one, an 12:32 hDt4:35,39;
swered Jesus, is this: Hear, OIsrael: Isa45:6,14; 46:9
The Lord our God, the Lord is one.c 12:33 1Sa15:22; The Widows Offering
12:41-44pp Lk21:1-4
30Love the Lord your God with all Hos6:6; Mic6:6-8;
41Jesus sat down opposite the p
your heart and with all your soul and 12:34 jMt3:2
with all your mind and with all your kMt22:46;
the offerings were putr and
strength.df 31The second is this: Love mMt9:27
watched the c rowd putt ing t heir mon
your neighb or as yours T here 12:36 n2Sa23:2
ey into the temple treasury. Many rich
is no comm andment greater than oPs110:1; Mt22:44 people t hrew in large a mounts. 42But a
poor widow came and put in two very
32Well said, teacher, the man re 12:39 r Lk11:43
small copper coins, worth only a few
12:41 2Ki12:9;
plied. You are r ight in sayi ng that God Jn8:20

Marriage at the Resurrection

12:18 yAc4:1

12:18-27pp Mt22:23-33; Lk20:27-38

12:19 aDt25:5

zAc23:8; 1Co15:12


Some manuscripts resurrection, when people rise from the dead, b26Exodus 3:6 c29OrThe Lord
our God is one Lord d30Deut. 6:4,5 e31Lev. 19:18 f36Psalm 110:1

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1095 | Mark 12:43

43Calli ng his disc iples to him, J esus
said, Truly I tell you, this poor widow
has put more into the treasury than
all the others. 44They all gave out of
t heir w
ealth; but she, out of her pov
ert y, put in everyt hinga ll she had to

The Destruction of the Temple and

13:1-37pp Mt24:1-51; Lk21:5-36


As Jesus was leaving the tem

ple, one of his disciples said to
him, Look, Teacher! What massive
stones! What magn ificent buildi ngs!
2Do you see all t hese g reat build
ings? replied Jesus. Not one stone
here will be left on another; every one
will be t hrown down.t
3As Jesus was sitt ing on the Mount
of Ol ives u opposite the temple, Peter,
James, John v and And rew a sked him
priv atel y, 4Tell us, when will these
t hings happen? And what will be the
sign that they are all a bout to be ful
5Jesus said to them: Watch out
that no one deceives you.w 6Many will
come in my name, claiming, I am
he, and will dec eive many. 7When
you hear of wars and rumors of wars,
do not be a larmed. Such t hings must
happen, but the end is still to come.
8Nat ion will rise a
gainst nat ion, and
kingdom against kingdom. T here will
be earthquakes in various places, and
famines. T hese are the beg inn ing of
birth pains.
9You must be on your g uard. You
will be handed over to the local coun
cils and f logged in the synagogues.x
On account of me you will stand be
fore governors and k ings as witnesses
to them. 10And the gospel must f irst be
preached to all nations. 11Whene ver
you are arrested and b
rought to tria l,
do not worr y beforehand about what
to say. Just say whatever is given you at
the time, for it is not you speaki ng, but
the Holy Spirit.y
er will betray brother to
death, and a fat her his child. Child ren
will rebel against their parents and
have them put to d
eath.z 13Everyone
will hate you because of me,a but the

Mark 13:31 | 1095

12:44 s2Co8:12

13:2 tLk19:44
13:3 uMt21:1
13:5 wver22;
Jer29:8; Eph5:6;
1Ti4:1; 2Ti3:13;
13:9 xMt10:17
13:11 yMt10:19,20;
13:12 zMic7:6;
13:13 aJn15:21

one who s tands firm to the end will be

14When you see the abom
i n a
tion that causes desolat ionac stand
ing where itb does not belonglet the
reader unders tand t hen let t hose
who are in Judea flee to the moun
tains. 15Let no one on the housetop go
down or enter the house to take any
thing out. 16Let no one in the f ield go
back to get t heir cloak. 17How dread
ful it will be in t hose days for pregnant
women and nursi ng mothers!d 18Pray
that this will not take place in winter,
19bec ause t hose will be days of dist ress
unequaled from the beg inn ing, when
God created the world,e unt il now
and never to be e qualed a gain.f
20If the Lord had not cut
s hort
t hose days, no one would surv ive. But
for the sake of the elect, whom he has
chosen, he has shortened them. 21At
that time if anyone says to you, Look,
here is the Messia h! or, Look, t here he
is! do not bel ieve it.g 22For f alse mes
sia hs and false prophetsh will appear
and perform s igns and wondersi to de
ceive, if possible, even the elect. 23So
be on your g uard;j I have told you ev
eryt hing a head of time.
24But in t hose days, followi ng that
dist ress,

the sun will be darkened,
and the moon will not give its
25 the stars will fall from the sky,
and the heavenly bodies will be

26At that time people will see the

Son of Man coming in c loudsl with
g reat power and glor y. 27And he will
13:14 cDa9:27;
11:31; 12:11
send his angels and gather his elect
13:17 dLk23:29
from the four w
inds, from the ends of
13:19 eMk10:6
fDa9:26; 12:1;
the e arth to the ends of the heavens.m
28Now learn this less on from the
13:21 gLk17:23;
tree: As soon as its t wigs get ten
der and its leaves come out, you know
13:22 hMt7:15
iJn4:48; 2Th2:9,10
that summer is near. 29Even so, when
13:23 j2Pe3:17
you see t hese t hings happening, you
13:25 Isa13:10;
know that itb is near, r ight at the door.
34:4; Mt24:29
30Truly I tell you, this generat ionn will
13:26 Da7:13;
Mt16:27; Rev1:7
certainly not pass away unt il all t hese
13:27 Zec2:6
t hings have happened.o 31Heaven and
13:30 nLk17:25
earth will pass away, but my words will
never pass away.p
13:31 pMt5:18

a14Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11 b14,29Orhe c25Isaiah 13:10; 34:4

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1096 | Mark 13:32

The Day and Hour Unknown


a bout that day or hour no

one k nows, not even the ang els in
heaven, nor the Son, but only the Fa
ther.q 33Be on g uard! Be a lerta!r You do
not know when that time will come.
34Its like a man goi ng away: He leaves
his house and puts his serv antss in
charge, each with their assigned task,
and t ells the one at the door to keep
35Theref ore keep w atch bec ause
you do not know when the owner of
the house will come backwheth
er in the even ing, or at midn ight, or
when the rooster c rows, or at dawn.
36If he comes suddenly, do not let him
find you sleepi ng. 37What I say to you, I
say to everyone: Watch!t

Mark 14:24 | 1096

13:32 qAc1:7;

13:33 r1Th5:6
13:34 sMt25:14
13:37 tLk12:3540
14:1 uJn11:55; 13:1
14:3 wMt21:17
14:7 yDt15:11
14:8 zJn19:40

The Last Supper

14:12-26pp Mt26:17-30; Lk22:7-23
14:22-25pp 1Co11:23-25

Jesus Anointed at Bethany

14:1-11pp Mt26:2-16
14:1,2,10,11pp Lk22:1-6
14:3-8Ref Jn12:1-8


Now the Pass

o veru and the
Fest iv al of Un leavened Bread
were only two days away, and the c hief
priests and the teachers of the law
were schemi ng to arrest Jesus secret
ly and kill him.v 2But not duri ng the
fest ival, they said, or the people may
3While he was in Betha ny,w rec lin
ing at the table in the home of Simon
the Leper, a woma n came with an al
abaster jar of very expensive perf ume,
made of pure nard. She b
roke the jar
and p
oured the perf ume on his head.x
4Some of t hose present were sayi ng
ind ignantly to one another, Why this
waste of perf ume? 5It c ould have been
sold for more than a years wagesb and
the money given to the poor. And they
rebuked her harshly.
6Leave her a lone, said Jesus. Why
are you botheri ng her? She has done a
beaut i f ul t hing to me. 7The poor you
will alw ays have with you,c and you
can help them any time you want.y But
you will not always have me. 8She did
what she c ould. She p
oured perf ume
on my body beforehand to prepare for
my buria l.z 9Truly I tell you, wherever
the gospel is preached throughout the

world,a what she has done will also be

told, in memor y of her.
10Then Ju
d as Isc ariot, one of the
Twelve,b went to the chief p
riests to
bet ray Jesus to them.c 11They were de
lighted to hear this and promised to
give him money. So he watched for an
opport un it y to hand him over.

14:9 aMt24:14;
14:10 bMk3:16-19
14:12 dEx12:1-11;
Dt16:1-4; 1Co5:7
14:15 eAc1:13
14:20 fJn13:1827
14:21 gMt8:20
14:22 hMt14:19
14:23 i1Co10:16

12On the f irst day of the Fest iv al of

Unleavened B
read, when it was cus
toma ry to sacr if ice the Passover lamb,d
Jesus disciples asked him, Where do
you want us to go and make prepa ra
tions for you to eat the Passover?
13So he sent two of his dis
c iples,
tell i ng them, Go into the city, and a
man carr yi ng a jar of water will meet
you. Follow him. 14Say to the owner
of the house he enters, The Teacher
asks: W here is my g uest room, where
I may eat the Passover with my disci
ples? 15He will show you a large room
upstairs,e furn ished and ready. Make
prepa rat ions for us there.
16The disciples left, went into the city
and f ound t hings just as J esus had told
them. So they prepared the Passover.
17When even ing came, J esus arr ived
with the T
welve. 18While they were re
clining at the table eating, he said,
Truly I tell you, one of you will bet ray
meone who is eati ng withme.
19They were saddened, and one by
one they said to him, Surely you dont
mean me?
20It is one of the T
welve, he re
plied, one who dips bread into the
bowl with me.f 21The Son of Mang will
go just as it is written about him. But
woe to that man who bet rays the Son
of Man! It would be better for him if he
had not been born.
22While they were eati ng, J esus took
bread, and when he had given t hanks,
he broke ith and gave it to his disciples,
sayi ng, Take it; this is my body.
23Then he took a cup, and when he
had given t hanks, he gave it to them,
and they all d
rank fromit.i
24This is my
blood of thed cov

Some manuscripts alert and pray b5Greek than three hundred denarii c7See Deut.15:11.
Some manuscripts the new

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1097 | Mark 14:25

enant,j which is poured out for many,

he said to them. 25Truly I tell you, I
will not d
rink a gain from the f ruit of
the vine unt il that day when I d rink it
new in the kingdom of God.k
26When they had sung a hymn, they
went out to the M
ount of Olives.l

Jesus Predicts Peters Denial

14:27-31pp Mt26:31-35
27You will all fall away, J esus told
them, for it is written:

I will strike the shepherd,
and the sheep will be

Mark 14:55 | 1097

14:24 jMt26:28

14:25 kMt3:2
14:26 lMt21:1
14:27 mZec13:7
14:28 nMk16:7
14:30 over66-72;
Lk22:34; Jn13:38
14:31 pLk22:33;
14:33 qMt4:21
14:34 rJn12:27
14:35 sver41;
14:36 tRo8:15;
Gal4:6 uMt20:22
14:38 wMt6:13

of you into Gali lee.n

ter dec lared, Even if all fall
away, I will not.
30Truly I tell you, Jesus ans wered,
tod ayy es, ton ightb ef ore the
rooster crows t wiceb you yourself will
disown me t hree times.o
31But Pet er in s iste d emphat ic al l y,
Even if I have to die with you,p I will
never disown you. And all the others
said the same.

14:32-42pp Mt26:36-46; Lk22:40-46

a27Zech. 13:7 b30

Jesus Arrested
14:43-50pp Mt26:47-56; Lk22:47-50;
43Just as he was speaking, Jud as,z
one of the T
welve, appeared. With him
was a c rowd a rmed with s words and
clubs, sent from the chief priests, the
teachers of the law, and the elders.
44Now the be
t rayer had arr anged
a signal with them: The one I kiss
is the man; arrest him and lead him
away under g uard. 45Goi ng at once to
Jesus, Judas said, Rabbi! a and k issed
him. 46The men s eized Jesus and ar
rested him. 47Then one of t hose stand
ing near drew his s word and s truck the
servant of the high p
riest, cutt ing off
his ear.
48Am I lead i ng a reb el l ion, said
Jesus, that you have come out with
swords and clubs to capt ure me? 49Ev
ery day I was with you, teachi ng in the
temple courts,b and you did not arrest
me. But the Scriptures must be ful
filled.c 50Then everyone deserted him
and fled.d
young man, wearing nothing
but a linen garment, was following
Jesus. When they seized him, 52he fled
naked, leavi ng his garment beh ind.

28But after I have risen, I will go a


32They went to a place c alled Geth

sema ne, and Jesus said to his disciples,
Sit here while I pray. 33He took Peter,
James and Johnq a long with him, and
he began to be deeply dist ressed and
troubled. 34My soul is overw helmed
with sorrow to the p
oint of death,r
he said to them. Stay here and keep
35Goi ng a litt le fart her, he fell to the
g round and prayed that if possible the
hours m ight pass from him. 36Abba,c
Fat her,t he said, everyt hing is possi
ble for you. Take this cupu from me. Yet
not what I will, but what you will.v
37Then he ret urned to his disc iples
and f ound them sleepi ng. Simon, he
said to Peter, are you asleep? Couldnt
you keep watch for one hour? 38Watch
and pray so that you will not fall into
temptat ion.w The spirit is willi ng, but
the f lesh is weak.x
39Once more he went away and
prayed the same thing. 40When he

came back, he again found them

sleeping, because their eyes were
heavy. They did not know what to say
to him.
41Ret urni ng the t hird time, he said
to them, Are you s till sleeping and
resti ng? E
nough! The houry has come.
Look, the Son of Man is del ivered into
the h
ands of sinners. 42Rise! Let us go!
Here comes my bet rayer!

Jesus Before the Sanhedrin

14:53-65pp Mt26:57-68;
14:61-63pp Lk22:67-71
14:41 yver35;
14:43 zMt10:4
14:45 aMt23:7
14:49 bMt26:55
14:50 dver27
14:54 eMt26:3

53They took J esus to the high priest,

and all the chief priests, the elders and
the teachers of the law came togeth
er. 54Peter followed him at a distance,
r ight into the courty ard of the high
priest. e T here he sat with the g uards
and w
armed himself at the fire.f
55The c
hief p
riests and the w

Some early manuscripts do not have twice. c36 Aramaic for father

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1098 | Mark 14:56

Sanhed rin g were looki ng for evidence

a gainst Jesus so that they c ould put
him to death, but they did not find
any. 56Many test i f ied falsel y against
him, but their statem ents did not
57Then some s
tood up and gave this
f alse test i mony a gainst him: 58We
heard him say, I will destroy this
temple made with human hands and
in t hree days will build another,h not
made with hands. 59Yet even then
t heir test imony did not agree.
60Then the high p
riest stood up be
fore them and a sked Jesus, Are you
not goi ng to ans wer? What is this tes
timony that these men are bringing
against you? 61But J esus remained si
lent and gave no answer.i
Again the high p
riest a sked him,
Are you the Messia h, the Son of the
Blessed One? j
62I am, said J esus. And you will
see the Son of Man sitt ing at the r ight
hand of the M
ighty One and coming
on the c louds of heaven.k
63The high priest tore his c lothes.l
Why do we need any more witness
es? he a sked. 64You have heard the
blasphemy. What do you think?
They all condemned him as wort hy
of death. m 65Then some began to spit
at him; they blindfolded him, struck
him with t heir f ists, and said, Prophe
sy! And the g uards took him and beat

Mark 15:14 | 1098

14:55 gMt5:22

14:58 hMk15:29;
14:61 iIsa53:7;
Mk15:5; Lk23:9;
Jn19:9 jMt16:16;
14:62 kRev1:7
14:63 lLev10:6;
21:10; Nu14:6;
14:64 mLev24:16
14:65 nMt16:21
14:66 over54
14:67 pver54
14:68 rver30,72
14:70 sver30,68,

Jesus Before Pilate

15:2-15pp Mt27:11-26; Lk23:2,3,18-25;


Peter Disowns Jesus

14:66-72pp Mt26:69-75; Lk22:56-62;
66While Pe
t er was below in the
court y ard, o one of the serv ant g irls
of the high p
riest came by. 67When
she saw Peter warming himself,p she
looked closely at him.
You also were with that Naza rene,
Jesus,q she said.
68But he de
n ied it. I d
ont know
or unders tand what y oure talk i ng
about, r he said, and went out into the
ent ryway.a
69When the ser
v ant girl saw him
t here, she said a gain to t hose standi ng
a round, This fellow is one of them.
70Again he den iedit.s

Af ter a lit t le w hile, t hose stand i ng

near said to Peter, Surely you are one
of them, for you are a Gali lea n.t
71He began to call down curses, and
he s wore to them, I dont know this
man y oure talki ng about.u
72Im med iatel y the rooster c rowed
the second time.b Then Peter remem
bered the word Jesus had spoken to
him: Before the rooster crows t wicec
you will disown me t hree t imes.v And
he b
roke down and wept.

14:71 uver30,72
14:72 vver30,68
15:1 wMt27:1;
Lk22:66 xMt5:22
15:2 zver9,12,18,
26; Mt2:2
15:5 aMk14:61
15:9 bver2
15:11 cAc3:14

Very early in the morning, the

c hief priests, with the elders,
the teachers of the laww and the whole
Sanhed rin, x made their plans. So they
bound Jesus, led him away and hand
ed him over to Pilate.y
2Are you the king of the Jews?z
asked Pilate.
You have said so, Jesus replied.
3The c
hief p
riests acc used him of
many t hings. 4So again Pi late a sked
him, Arent you goi ng to answer? See
how many things they are acc using
5But Jesus still made no reply,a and
Pilate was amazed.
6Now it was the custom at the fes
tiv al to release a prisoner whom the
people requested. 7A man c alled Bar
abbas was in prison with the insurrec
tion i sts who had com m it ted murder
in the upr isi ng. 8The c rowd came up
and asked Pilate to do for them what
he usua lly did.
9Do you want me to release to you
the king of the Jews?b a sked Pilate,
i ng it was out of self-interest
that the c hief p
riests had handed J esus
over to him. 11But the c hief p
stirred up the crowd to have Pilate re
lease Barabbas c instead.
12What s hall I do, then, with the
one you call the king of the Jews? Pi
late a sked them.
13Cruc if y him! they shouted.
14Why? What c
rime has he com
mitted? asked Pilate.
But they shoute d all the louder,
Crucif y him!


Some early manuscripts entryway and the rooster crowed b72 Some early manuscripts do not have the
second time. c72 Some early manuscripts do not have twice.

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1099 | Mark 15:15

15Wanti ng to satisf y the c
rowd, Pi
late released Barabbas to them. He
had Jesus f logged, d and handed him
over to be crucif ied.

The Soldiers Mock Jesus

15:16-20pp Mt27:27-31

sold iers led Jesus away into

the palace e (that is, the Praetor iu m)
and called together the whole compa
ny of sold iers. 17They put a purple robe
on him, then twisted together a crown
of t horns and set it on him. 18And they
began to call out to him, Hail, king
of the Jews!f 19Again and a gain they
struck him on the head with a s taff and
spit on him. Falling on their k nees,
they paid homage to him. 20And when
they had mocked him, they took off the
purple robe and put his own clothes on
him. Then they led him outg to crucif y

Mark 15:44 | 1099

15:15 dIsa53:6

15:16 eJn18:28,33;
15:18 fver2
15:20 gHeb13:12
15:21 hMt27:32
iRo16:13 jMt27:32;
15:23 kver36;
Ps69:21; Pr31:6
15:24 lPs22:18
15:26 mver2
15:29 nPs22:7;
109:25 oMk14:58;
15:31 pPs22:7
15:32 qMk14:61

The Crucifixion of Jesus

15:22-32pp Mt27:33-44; Lk23:33-43;
21A cert ain man from Cyrene,h Si
mon, the fat her of Alexa nder and Ru
fus,i was passi ng by on his way in from
the country, and they forced him to
car r y the cross. j 22They brought Jesus
to the place c alled Golgotha (which
means the p
lace of the s kull). 23Then
they offered him wine m
ixed with
myrrh, k but he did not take it. 24And
they cruc ified him. Div iding up his
clothes, they cast lotsl to see what each
would get.
25It was nine in the morni ng when
they cruci f ied him. 26The written no
tice of the c harge a gainst him read:
the king of the jews.m
27They cru
c ified two rebels with
him, one on his right and one on
his left. [28]a 29Those who p
assed by
hurled insults at him, shaking their
heads n and saying, So! You who are
goi ng to destroy the temple and build
it in t hree days,o 30come down from
the c ross and save yourself! 31In
the same way the c hief priests and
the teachers of the law mocked himp
a mong themselves. He saved others,
they said, but he c ant save himself!
32Let this Mess ia h, q this king of Isr a

15:33 sAm8:9
15:34 tPs22:1
15:36 uver23;
15:37 vJn19:30
15:38 wHeb10:19,
15:39 xver45
yMk1:1,11; 9:7;
15:40 zPs38:11
aMk16:1; Lk24:10;
15:41 bMt27:55,
56; Lk8:2,3
15:42 cMt27:62;
15:43 dMt5:22
eMt3:2; Lk2:25,38

el,r come down now from the c ross,

that we may see and believe. T hose
cruc ified with him also heaped in
sults on him.

The Death of Jesus

15:33-41pp Mt27:45-56; Lk23:44-49;
33At noon, dark
ness came over
the w
hole land unt il t hree in the af
ter noon. s 34And at t hree in the after
noon Jesus c ried out in a loud v oice,
Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani? (which
means My God, my God, why have
you forsaken me?).bt
35When some of those stand
i ng
near h
eard this, they said, Listen, hes
calli ng Elijah.
36Someone ran, f illed a s
ponge with
wine vinegar, u put it on a s taff, and of
fered it to J esus to d rink. Now leave
him a lone. L
ets see if Elijah c omes to
take him down, he said.
37With a loud cry, Jesus b
reathed his
38The cur
t ain of the temple was
torn in two from top to bottom.w 39And
when the cent ur ion, x who stood t here
in f ront of J esus, saw how he died,c he
said, Surely this man was the Son of
40Some women were watchi ng from
a dist ance. z A mong them were Mary
Magdalene, Mary the mother of James
the younger and of Joseph,d and Sa
lome. a 41In Gal i lee t hese women had
followed him and cared for his needs.
Many other women who had come
up with him to Jer usalem were also

The Burial of Jesus

15:42-47pp Mt27:57-61; Lk23:50-56;
42It was Prep
a ration Day (that is,
the day before the Sabbath).c So as
even ing approached, 43Joseph of Ar
i mat hea, a prom i nent member of the
Counc il, d who was himself waiting
for the kingdom of God,e went bold
ly to Pilate and asked for J esus body.
44Pilate was surprised to hear that he
was already dead. Summoning the
cent ur ion, he a sked him if Jesus had

a28 Some manuscripts include here words similar to Luke22:37. b34Psalm 22:1 c39Some
manuscripts saw that he died with such a cry d40Greek Joses, a variant of Joseph; also in verse47

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1100 | Mark 15:45

already died. 45When he learned from

the cent u r ion f that it was so, he gave
the body to Joseph. 46So Joseph bought
some linen cloth, took down the body,
w rapped it in the linen, and p
laced it in
a tomb cut out of rock. Then he r olled
a stone a gainst the entrance of the
tomb.g 47Mary Magdalene and Mary
the mother of Josephh saw w
here he
was laid.

Mark 16:20 | 1100

15:45 fver39

15:46 gMk16:3
15:47 hver40
16:1 iLk23:56;
16:3 jMk15:46
16:5 kJn20:12
16:6 lMk1:24
16:7 mJn21:1-23

[The earliest manuscripts and

some other ancient witnesses
do not have verses 920.]

9When Jesus rose early on the f irst day

of the week, he appeared first to Mary
Magdalene,o out of whom he had driven
seven demons. 10She went and told those
who had been with him and who were
mourning and weeping. 11When they
heard that Jesus was alive and that she
Jesus Has Risen
had seen him, they did not believeit.p
16:1-8pp Mt28:1-8; Lk24:1-10
12Afterward Jesus appeared in a differ
When the Sabbath was over,
ent form to two of them w
hile they were
Mary Mag
d a
lene, Mary the
walking in the count ry.q 13These ret urned
mother of James, and Sa lome bought
and reported it to the rest; but they did not
spices i so that they m
ight go to a noint
believe them either.
Jesus body. Very early on the f irst day
14Late r Jesus app eared to the Eleve n
of the week, just after sunr ise, they
they were eating; he rebuked them for
were on their way to the tomb 3and
their lack of faith and their stubborn re
they a sked each other, Who will roll
fusal to believe t hose who had seen him
the stone away from the entrance of
after he had risen.r
15He said to them, Go into all the world
the tomb?j
4But when they l ooked up, they saw
and p
reach the gospel to all creation.s
16Whoever believes and is bapt ized will be
that the s tone, w
hich was very large,
had been rolled away. 5As they en 16:11 pver13,14; saved, but whoever does not believe will
tered the tomb, they saw a y oung man Lk24:11
be condemned.t 17And these signs will ac
d ressed in a white robek sitt ing on the 16:12 qr Lk24:1332 company those who believe: In my name
16:14 Lk24:3643
r ight side, and they were alarmed.
they will drive out demons;u they will
6Dont be a larmed, he said. You 16:15 Mt28:18-20;
speak in new t ongues;v 18they will pick up
are looking for Jesus the Naza rene,l 16:16 tJn3:16,18, snakesw with t heir h
ands; and when they
who was crucif ied. He has risen! He is 36; Ac16:31
drink deadly poison, it will not hurt them
16:17 uMk9:38;
not here. See the place where they laid Lk10:17; Ac5:16;
at all; they will p
lace their h
ands onx sick
him. 7But go, tell his disciples and Pe 8:7; 16:18; 19:13-16 people, and they will get well.
19After the Lord Jesus had spok en to
ter, He is goi ng a head of you into Gali vAc2:4; 10:46; 19:6;
lee. T here you will see him,m just as he 1Co12:10,28,30
he was taken up into heaveny and
16:18 Lk10:19;
told you.n
he sat at the r ight hand of God.z 20Then
Ac28:3-5 xAc6:6
8Tremb ling and be w ild ered, the 16:19 yLk24:50,51;
the disciples went out and preached ev
women went out and fled from the Jn6:62; zAc1:9-11; erywhere, and the Lord w
orked with them
1Ti3:16 Ps110:1;
tomb. They said nothing to anyone, Ro8:34; Col3:1;
and conf irmed his word by the signs that
because they were afraid.a
Heb1:3; 12:2



Some manuscripts have the following ending between verses 8 and 9, and one manuscript has it after
verse 8 (omitting verses 9-20): Then they quickly reported all these instructions to those around Peter. After this,
Jesus himself also sent out through them from east to west the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal
salvation. Amen.

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