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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

DUY TAN UNIVERSITY


INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

Statics
Chapter 1 - 2
Lecturer: Tran Hoai Nam

COURSE OBJECTIVES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To introduce the concept of free-body


diagram.
To show how to solve equilibrium problems
using the equations of equilibrium.
To analyze the forces acting on the members
of trusses and frames.
To develop shear force and bending moment
diagram for a simple structure.
To develop a method for determining the
moment of inertia for an area.

REFERENCE MATERIALS
I.
II.

III.
IV.
V.

Engineering Mechanics Statics, Bedford & Fowler University


of Texas at Austin.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics, Beer Johnston
Mazurek Eisenbeg.
Engineering Mechanics - Dao Huy Bich, Pham Huyen.
Mechanic Material - Le Ngoc Hong.
Structures Leu Tho Trinh.

GRADES
Homeworks:

(20%)

Exams #1 - #3: (25%)


Final exam:

(55%)

Plus/minus grading will be used.

TENTATIVE COURSE OUTLINE


Overview of the course
Topics covered

Reading chapters
Summary of Course Outline
- Exam #1:

10/29/2013.

- Exam #2:

11/14/2013.

- Exam #3:

12/03/2013.

- Final Exam:.
Mark the exam dates on your calendar

ANY
QUESTION?

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

The architects and engineers are guided by the principles of


statics during each step of the design and construction of a
building. Statics is one of the sciences underlying the art of
structural design.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:


MECHANICS

Mechanics can be defined as that branch of the


physical sciences concerned with the state of rest
or motion of bodies that are sujected to the action

of forces.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:


MECHANICS

Statics:

Deals with the equilibrium of bodies, that is those that


are either at rest or move with a constant velocity.
Dynamics:
Is concerned with the accelerated motion of bodies.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Idealization:
- Particle:
A particle has a mass but size that can be neglected.
- Rigid body:
A rigid body can be considered as a combination of a large
number of particles in which all the particles remain at fixed
distance from one another both before and after applying a load.
- Concentrated force:
Represents the effect of a loading which is assumed to act at a
point on a body.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:

Newtons Three Laws of Motion:


- First Law:

A particle originally at rest or moving in a straight line with


constant velocity, will remain in this state.
- Second Law:
A particle acted upon by an unbalanced force F experiences an
acceleration a that has the same direction as force and a
magnitude that is directly proportional to the force:
- Third Law:

F=ma

The mutual forces of action and


reaction between two particles
are equal, opposite and colliner.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:
Units conversion: The U.S Customary Unit
and the Internatinonal System of Units:

Length:
1 inch = 25,4 mm
1 foot = 0,3048 m
1 mile = 5280 feet = 1609,344 m

Force: 1 lb(pound) = 4,448 N

Mass:

Stress: 1 psi = 6,895 kPa ( 7 kPa)

Angle: 2 radians = 3600

1 slug = 14,59 kg

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:
Example:
1. A man is riding a biycle at a speed
of 6 meters per second (m/s). How

fast is he going in kilometers per


hour (km/h).

Strategy:
One kilometer is 1000 meter and one hour is 60 minutes x

60 second = 3600 seconds. We can use these unit


conversion to determine his speed in km/h.
Solution:
6m/s = 6 m/s . (1km/1000m). (3600s/1h) = 21,6km/h.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:
Example:
2. The pressure exerted at point of the

hull of the deep submersible vehicule is


3.106Pa. Determine

the pressure in

pound per square foot.


Strategy:
1 pound = 4,448N and 1 foot =
0,3meters.

Solution:
The pressure is:
3.106 N/m2= 3.106N/m2 x (1lb/4,448N) x (0,3m/1ft)2 = 62,700 lb/ft2

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.2. Newtonian Gravitation:


The gravitational force between two
particles of mass m1 and m2 that are

separated by a distance r:

Gm1m2
F
,
2
r

1.1

where G is called the universal gravitational

constant.

The weight of an object of mass m


due to the gravitational attraction of the
earth:

Gm mE
W
,
2
r

1.2

where mE is the mass of the earth and r is the distance


from the center of earth to the object.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.2. Newtonian Gravitation:


When an objects weight is the only
force acting on it, the resulting
acceleration is called the acceleration due
to gravity (W = ma):

GmE
a
.
2
r

1.3

The acceleration due to gravity at

sea level is denoted by g. The


acceleration due to gravity at a
distance r from the center of the
earth in terms of the acceleration due
to gravity at sea level:

RE2
ag 2 .
r

1.4

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.2. Newtonian Gravitation:


The weight of the an object at a
distance r from the center of the earth
is:

RE2
W ma mg 2 .
r

1.5

At sea level r = RE , the weight of an


object is given in terms of its mass by
the simple relation:

W mg ,

1.6

where m is mass of object, g is the acceleration due to gravity at


sea level (g = 9,81m/s2
Customary units.

in SI units and g = 32,2 ft/s2 in US

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.2. Newtonian Gravitation:


Example:
1. The C- clamp weights 14 oz at sea level (16 oz (ounces) = 1 lb).

And g = 9,81m/s2. what is the mass of the C-lamp in kg?


Strategy:
- Determining the weight of the C clamp in
Newton.
- Using Eq.(1.6) to determine the mass in kg.

Solution:
14 oz = 14 oz (1lb/16oz).(4,448N/lb)
= 3,892N.
m = W/g = 3,982 (kg.m/s2)
/(9,81m/s2) = 0,397kg.
m = 0,397kg

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
RESUTS 1.2

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

To review vector operations: vector addition, product of


a scalar and a vector, vector subtraction, dot products and
cross products.
To express vectors in terms of components.
To present examples of engineering applications of

vectors.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.1. Vector
Scalar

Vector

- A quantity characterized by A quantity that has both a


a positive or negative
magnitude and direction.
number.
- Mass, volume

- Force, velocity

Notations for Vectors:


- For handwritten work, a vector is generallyrepresented by a
letter with an arrow writter over it, such as

- The magnitude is designated A or A

In your textbook vectors are symbolized in boldface type; for


example, A is used to designate the vector A. Its magnitude is
symbolized by |A| or simply A.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors


2.1.1. Vector

Graphical representation of a vector

The arrow represents the vector graphically and used to define


the vector magnitude, direction.
The magnitude is the length of the arrow and the direction is
defined by the angle between a reference axis and the arrows line
of action.
The sense is indicated by the arrowhead.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.1. Vector

Graphical representation of a vector

The direction of a vector includes both its inclination and


its sense. You might say the "sense" of a vector is its sign.
The two vectors shown have the same inclination (vertical)
but opposite senses. (One is up, the other, down.)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.2. Vector Addition:
a) A displacement by the
vector U.
b) The displacement U
followed
by
the
displacement V.
c) The displacement U
and V are equivalent
to the dispalement W.
d) The final position of
the
book
doesnt
depend on the order
of the displacement.

U + V = W (2.1)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.2. Vector Addition:
The triangle and parallelogram rule:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Two vectors U and V.


The head of U placed at the tail of V.
The triangle rule for obtaining the sum of U and V.
The sum is independent of the order in which the vertors are added.
The parallelogram rule for ontaining the sum of U and V.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.2. Vector Addition:

The definition of vector addition implies that:


U + V = V + U (2.2) (vector addtion is communitative).

(U + V) + W = U + (V + W) (2.3) (vector addtion is associative).

Sum of the three vector U, V and W

Three vector U, V and W whose


sum is zero.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.2. Vector Addition:
Product of a scalar and a vector:
The product of scalar (real number ) a and a vector U is a vector
written as aU:
- Its magnitude is |a|.|U|.
- The direction of aU is the same as the direction of U when a is
positive and is opposite to the direction of U when a is negative.
Notes:
=> (-1)U is written as U and is
called negative of the vector U.
=>
A vector U and some of
its scalar multiples

U
1
( )U
a
a

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.2. Vector Addition:
Product of a scalar and a vector:
The definition of vector addition and the product of a scalar and a
vector imply that:

a(bU) = (ab)U

(a + b)U = aU + bU

a(U + V) = aU + aV

Vector subtraction:
The difference of two vectors U and V
is obtained by adding U to the vector
(-1)V:
U V = U + (-1) V

a) Two vectors
U and V.
b) The vector
V and (-1)V
c) The sum of
U and (-1)V
is the vector
difference U
V.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.2. Vector Addition:
Unit vectors
A unit vector is simply a vector whose magnitude is 1. Any vector
U can be regraded as the product of its magnitude and a unit
vector that has same direction as U:

U
e
U

Since U and e
have the same
direction
the
vector U equals
the product of its
magnitude with e.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.2. Vector Addition:

Vector Addition of Forces:


- A force is vector quantity since it has a specified
magnitude and direction.
- Two common problems in statics involve either finding the
resultant force given its components or resolving a known
force into components.
- The law of cosines is often used to find the magnitude,
while the law of sines is used to find the direction.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
2.1.3. Example:
1. Part of the roof of a sports stadium is to suppoted by the cable AB and
AC. The forces the cables exert on the pylon to which they are attached are
represented by the vectors FAB and FAC. the magnitudes of the forces are
|FAB|=100kN and |FAC|=60kN. Determine the magnitude and direction of
the sum of forces exerted on the pylon by cables.

Strategy:

- Using the parellelogram rule for adding the two forces and
measuring the magnitude and direction of their sum.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors


2.1.3. Example:
Solution:
Using the law of cosine in the
triangle:
2
2
FAB
FAB
2 | FAB | .| FAC | cos1500 155kN .

Using the law of cosine in the


triangle:

602 1002 1502


cos
0.508
2.60.100
190.

Its direction to be 190 above the


horizonal.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.1. Scalars and Vectors
RESULTS 2.1

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.2. Components of a vector
2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions

Definition:

U = Ux + Uy
U = Uxi + Uyj

(2.3)

|U| =

(2.4)

U x2 U y2

(a) Vector U
(b) The vector components Ux and Uy
(c) The vector components can be expressed in terms of i and j

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.2 Components of a vector
2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions

Manipulating vectors in Term of component

U + V = (Uxi +Uyj) + (Vxi +Vyj)


= (Ux+ Vx)i + (Uy+ Vy)j

(2.5)

(a) The sum of U and V


(b) The vector components of U and V
(c) The sum of the components in each coordinate direction
equals the component of U + V in that direction

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.2 Components of a vector
2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions
Position Vectors in Terms of Components

A(xA, yA) and B (xB, yB):


rAB = (xB - xA)i + (yB - yA)j

(2.6)

(a) Two points A and B and the position vector rAB from A to B.

(b) The components of rAB can be determined from the


coordinates of points A and B.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.2 Components of a vector
2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions
Example :
1. The forces acting on the sailplane are
its weight W = -600j (lb), the drag D = 200i + 100j (lb) and the lift L.
a) If the sum of the forces on the sailplane
is zore, what are the compronents of L?

b) If

the

lift

determined

has

the

in

(a)

and

component
the

drag

increases by factor of 2, what is the


magnitude of the sum of the forces on

the sailplane?

Solution:
a. W + D + L = 0 => L = -W D = 600j + 200i 100j = 500j + 200i.
b. L + 2D + W = 500j + 200i 400i + 200j 600j = 100j 200i.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.2 Components of a vector
2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions
2. The cable from point A to
point B exerts a 900N force on
the

top

of

transmission

the

television

tower

that

is

represented by the vector F.


Express

components

in

terms

using

of

the

coordinate system shown.

Strategy:
Determine the components of the vector F in two ways:
- Determining the angle between F and the y axis and use trigonometry to
determine the components.
- Using the given slope of the cable AB and apply similar triangles to
determine the components of F.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.2 Components of a vector
2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions
Definition:

a) A cube viewed with the line of sigt perpendicular to a face


b) An oblique view of the cube.
c) A cartesian coordinate system aligned with the edges of the cube.
d) Three-dimensional representantion of the coordinate system.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.2 Components of a vector
2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions
Definition:
The coordinate system shown is said to be right handed.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions


Definition:
We can express a vector U in

terms of the vector compronents


Ux, Uy and Uz parallel to the x, y
and z axes, respectively as:
U = Ux + Uy + Uz

= Uxi+ Uyj+ Uzk

(2.8)

Magnitude of a vector in terms of components

U U x2 U y2 U z2 2.9

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions


Direction Cosines

a) A vector U and the angles x , y and z.


b - d) The angle x , y and z and the vector compronents of.

Ux = |U|cosx, Uy = |U|cosy, Uz = |U|cosz

(2.10)

The quantities cosx, cosy, cosz are called the direction cosines of U:

cos2x + cos2y + cos2z = 1


=> cosx = ex ,cosy = ey, cosz = ez.

(2.11)

The direction cosines of a vector U are the components of unit vector


with the same direction as U.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions

Position vector in terms of components:


a) The position vector
from point A to point B.
b) The components of r
can be determined from
the coordinate of points A
v B.

A (xA , yA , zA) and B (xB , yB , zB). The components


are obtained by the coodinates of point A from the
coordinate of point B.
rAB = (xB xA)i + (yB yA)j + (zB zA)k

(2.12)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions


Components of a vector Parallel to a Given Line

a) Two points A and B on a


line parallel to U.
b) The position vector from A to B.
c) The unit vector eAB that points
from A toward B.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions


Example:
1. The coordinates of point C of the truss are x = 4m, y = 0, z = 0
and the coordinates of the point D are x = 2m, y = 3m, z = 1m.
What are the direction cosines of the position vector r from point C
to point D?
Strategy:
- Determining rCD in terms of its
components.
- Calculating the magnitude of r

(the distance from C to D) and use


equation

(2.10)

direction cosines.
Answer: cosx = - 0.535,cosy = 0.802, cosy = 0.267

to

obtain

the

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions


Example:
2. The crane exert a 600lb on the caisson. The angle between F and x axis
is 540, and the angle between F and the y axis is 400. The z component of
F is positive. Express F in terms of components.

Strategy:

- Using the Eq(2.17) to determine the third angle.


- Using the Eq (2.16) to determine the components of F.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
RESULTS 2.2:

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
RESULTS 2.2:

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
RESULTS 2.2

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
RESULTS 2.2

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:
2.3.1. Dot Products

Definition:
The dot product of U and V:

U.V = |U|.|V|cos

(2.13)

The dot product has the properties:


U.V = V.U (The dot product is commutative).

a(U.V) = aU.V = U.(aV) (The dot product is


associate with respect scalar multiplication).
U.(V + W) = U.V + U.W (The

dot product

is associate with respect to vector addtion).

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:


2.3.1. Dot Products
Dot products in terms of component:

Vectors U and V: U = Ux.i + Uy.j+ Uz.k ; V = Vxi + Vy.j + Vz .k


U .V U xVx U yVy U zVz

2.14

U xVx U yVy U zVz


U .V
cos

U V
U V

2.15

Vector components parallel


and normal to a line:
The parallel component:
|Up| = |U|.cos

Up = (eL .U)eL

(2.16)

(e is unit vector parallel to L)


The normal component:
Un = U Up

(2.17)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:


2.3.1. Dot Products
Example

1. The components of two vector U and V are U = 6i 5j 3k and V = 4i


+ 2j + 3k.
a) What is the value of U.V
b) What is the angle between U and V when they are placed tail to tail?
Strategy:
- Using Eq (2.14) to determine the value of U.V
- Using Eq (2.15) to calculate the angle between the vectors
Solution:
a)

b)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:


2.3.1. Dot Products
Example

2. What is the angle between the lines AB and AC?


Strategy:
- Determine the components of the
vector rAB and vector rAC.
- Using Eq (2.15) to determine .

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

2.3.2. Cross Products


Definition

The cross product of U and V, denoted U x V:

U x V = |U||V|sin e

(2.18),

- The angle is the angle between U and V


when they are placed tail to tail,
- The vector e is a unit vector defined to be
perpendicular to both U and V. The right-hand
rule is used to determine the direction of e.
The cross product satisfies the relations:

UxV=-VxU

a(U x V) = (aU) x V = U x (aV)

U x (V + W) = (U x V) + (U x W)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

2.3.2. Cross Products


Cross product in term components:

Vectors U and V: U = Ux.i + Uy.j+ Uz.k ; V = Vxi + Vy.j + Vz .k

j k

U V U x U y U z 2.19
Vx Vy Vz
Mixed Triple Product:
In chapter 4, when we discuss the moment of a force about a
line, we will use an operation called the mixed triple product:

Ux Uy Uz
U .(V W ) Vx Vy Vz
Wx Wy Wz

2.20

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

2.3.2. Cross Products


Example:

1. The components of two vectors U and V are U = 6i 5j k and V = 4i


+ 2j + 2k.
a) Determine the cross product U x V.
b) Use the dot product to prove that U x V is perpendicular to V.

Strategy:
- Use Eq (2.19) to determine U x V
- Due to prove U x V is perpendicular to U by showing that
(U x V).U = 0 (Use Eq (2.14)) .

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

2.3.2. Cross Products


Example:

2. Consider the straight lines OA and OB.


a) Determine the components of a unit vector that is perpendicular to both
OA and OB.
b) What is the minimum distance from point A to the line OB?

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:
RESULTS 2.3

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

RESULTS 2.3

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:
RESULTS 2.3

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS
2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

RESULTS 2.3

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING


DUY TAN UNIVERSITY
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

Tran Hoai Nam


T: 0918.230.728
Email: tranhoainam1@dtu.edu.vn