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You are on page 1of 65

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

Statics

Chapter 1 - 2

Lecturer: Tran Hoai Nam

COURSE OBJECTIVES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

diagram.

To show how to solve equilibrium problems

using the equations of equilibrium.

To analyze the forces acting on the members

of trusses and frames.

To develop shear force and bending moment

diagram for a simple structure.

To develop a method for determining the

moment of inertia for an area.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

of Texas at Austin.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics, Beer Johnston

Mazurek Eisenbeg.

Engineering Mechanics - Dao Huy Bich, Pham Huyen.

Mechanic Material - Le Ngoc Hong.

Structures Leu Tho Trinh.

GRADES

Homeworks:

(20%)

Final exam:

(55%)

Overview of the course

Topics covered

Reading chapters

Summary of Course Outline

- Exam #1:

10/29/2013.

- Exam #2:

11/14/2013.

- Exam #3:

12/03/2013.

- Final Exam:.

Mark the exam dates on your calendar

ANY

QUESTION?

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

statics during each step of the design and construction of a

building. Statics is one of the sciences underlying the art of

structural design.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

MECHANICS

physical sciences concerned with the state of rest

or motion of bodies that are sujected to the action

of forces.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

MECHANICS

Statics:

are either at rest or move with a constant velocity.

Dynamics:

Is concerned with the accelerated motion of bodies.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

Idealization:

- Particle:

A particle has a mass but size that can be neglected.

- Rigid body:

A rigid body can be considered as a combination of a large

number of particles in which all the particles remain at fixed

distance from one another both before and after applying a load.

- Concentrated force:

Represents the effect of a loading which is assumed to act at a

point on a body.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

- First Law:

constant velocity, will remain in this state.

- Second Law:

A particle acted upon by an unbalanced force F experiences an

acceleration a that has the same direction as force and a

magnitude that is directly proportional to the force:

- Third Law:

F=ma

reaction between two particles

are equal, opposite and colliner.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:

Units conversion: The U.S Customary Unit

and the Internatinonal System of Units:

Length:

1 inch = 25,4 mm

1 foot = 0,3048 m

1 mile = 5280 feet = 1609,344 m

Mass:

1 slug = 14,59 kg

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:

Example:

1. A man is riding a biycle at a speed

of 6 meters per second (m/s). How

hour (km/h).

Strategy:

One kilometer is 1000 meter and one hour is 60 minutes x

conversion to determine his speed in km/h.

Solution:

6m/s = 6 m/s . (1km/1000m). (3600s/1h) = 21,6km/h.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Engineering and Mechanics:

Example:

2. The pressure exerted at point of the

3.106Pa. Determine

the pressure in

Strategy:

1 pound = 4,448N and 1 foot =

0,3meters.

Solution:

The pressure is:

3.106 N/m2= 3.106N/m2 x (1lb/4,448N) x (0,3m/1ft)2 = 62,700 lb/ft2

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

The gravitational force between two

particles of mass m1 and m2 that are

separated by a distance r:

Gm1m2

F

,

2

r

1.1

constant.

due to the gravitational attraction of the

earth:

Gm mE

W

,

2

r

1.2

from the center of earth to the object.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

When an objects weight is the only

force acting on it, the resulting

acceleration is called the acceleration due

to gravity (W = ma):

GmE

a

.

2

r

1.3

acceleration due to gravity at a

distance r from the center of the

earth in terms of the acceleration due

to gravity at sea level:

RE2

ag 2 .

r

1.4

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

The weight of the an object at a

distance r from the center of the earth

is:

RE2

W ma mg 2 .

r

1.5

object is given in terms of its mass by

the simple relation:

W mg ,

1.6

sea level (g = 9,81m/s2

Customary units.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Example:

1. The C- clamp weights 14 oz at sea level (16 oz (ounces) = 1 lb).

Strategy:

- Determining the weight of the C clamp in

Newton.

- Using Eq.(1.6) to determine the mass in kg.

Solution:

14 oz = 14 oz (1lb/16oz).(4,448N/lb)

= 3,892N.

m = W/g = 3,982 (kg.m/s2)

/(9,81m/s2) = 0,397kg.

m = 0,397kg

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

RESUTS 1.2

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

a scalar and a vector, vector subtraction, dot products and

cross products.

To express vectors in terms of components.

To present examples of engineering applications of

vectors.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.1. Vector

Scalar

Vector

a positive or negative

magnitude and direction.

number.

- Mass, volume

- Force, velocity

- For handwritten work, a vector is generallyrepresented by a

letter with an arrow writter over it, such as

example, A is used to designate the vector A. Its magnitude is

symbolized by |A| or simply A.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1.1. Vector

the vector magnitude, direction.

The magnitude is the length of the arrow and the direction is

defined by the angle between a reference axis and the arrows line

of action.

The sense is indicated by the arrowhead.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.1. Vector

its sense. You might say the "sense" of a vector is its sign.

The two vectors shown have the same inclination (vertical)

but opposite senses. (One is up, the other, down.)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.2. Vector Addition:

a) A displacement by the

vector U.

b) The displacement U

followed

by

the

displacement V.

c) The displacement U

and V are equivalent

to the dispalement W.

d) The final position of

the

book

doesnt

depend on the order

of the displacement.

U + V = W (2.1)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.2. Vector Addition:

The triangle and parallelogram rule:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

The head of U placed at the tail of V.

The triangle rule for obtaining the sum of U and V.

The sum is independent of the order in which the vertors are added.

The parallelogram rule for ontaining the sum of U and V.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.2. Vector Addition:

U + V = V + U (2.2) (vector addtion is communitative).

sum is zero.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.2. Vector Addition:

Product of a scalar and a vector:

The product of scalar (real number ) a and a vector U is a vector

written as aU:

- Its magnitude is |a|.|U|.

- The direction of aU is the same as the direction of U when a is

positive and is opposite to the direction of U when a is negative.

Notes:

=> (-1)U is written as U and is

called negative of the vector U.

=>

A vector U and some of

its scalar multiples

U

1

( )U

a

a

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.2. Vector Addition:

Product of a scalar and a vector:

The definition of vector addition and the product of a scalar and a

vector imply that:

a(bU) = (ab)U

(a + b)U = aU + bU

a(U + V) = aU + aV

Vector subtraction:

The difference of two vectors U and V

is obtained by adding U to the vector

(-1)V:

U V = U + (-1) V

a) Two vectors

U and V.

b) The vector

V and (-1)V

c) The sum of

U and (-1)V

is the vector

difference U

V.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.2. Vector Addition:

Unit vectors

A unit vector is simply a vector whose magnitude is 1. Any vector

U can be regraded as the product of its magnitude and a unit

vector that has same direction as U:

U

e

U

Since U and e

have the same

direction

the

vector U equals

the product of its

magnitude with e.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.2. Vector Addition:

- A force is vector quantity since it has a specified

magnitude and direction.

- Two common problems in statics involve either finding the

resultant force given its components or resolving a known

force into components.

- The law of cosines is often used to find the magnitude,

while the law of sines is used to find the direction.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

2.1.3. Example:

1. Part of the roof of a sports stadium is to suppoted by the cable AB and

AC. The forces the cables exert on the pylon to which they are attached are

represented by the vectors FAB and FAC. the magnitudes of the forces are

|FAB|=100kN and |FAC|=60kN. Determine the magnitude and direction of

the sum of forces exerted on the pylon by cables.

Strategy:

- Using the parellelogram rule for adding the two forces and

measuring the magnitude and direction of their sum.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1.3. Example:

Solution:

Using the law of cosine in the

triangle:

2

2

FAB

FAB

2 | FAB | .| FAC | cos1500 155kN .

triangle:

cos

0.508

2.60.100

190.

horizonal.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.1. Scalars and Vectors

RESULTS 2.1

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2. Components of a vector

2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions

Definition:

U = Ux + Uy

U = Uxi + Uyj

(2.3)

|U| =

(2.4)

U x2 U y2

(a) Vector U

(b) The vector components Ux and Uy

(c) The vector components can be expressed in terms of i and j

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions

= (Ux+ Vx)i + (Uy+ Vy)j

(2.5)

(b) The vector components of U and V

(c) The sum of the components in each coordinate direction

equals the component of U + V in that direction

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions

Position Vectors in Terms of Components

rAB = (xB - xA)i + (yB - yA)j

(2.6)

(a) Two points A and B and the position vector rAB from A to B.

coordinates of points A and B.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions

Example :

1. The forces acting on the sailplane are

its weight W = -600j (lb), the drag D = 200i + 100j (lb) and the lift L.

a) If the sum of the forces on the sailplane

is zore, what are the compronents of L?

b) If

the

lift

determined

has

the

in

(a)

and

component

the

drag

magnitude of the sum of the forces on

the sailplane?

Solution:

a. W + D + L = 0 => L = -W D = 600j + 200i 100j = 500j + 200i.

b. L + 2D + W = 500j + 200i 400i + 200j 600j = 100j 200i.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.1. Components in Two Dimensions

2. The cable from point A to

point B exerts a 900N force on

the

top

of

transmission

the

television

tower

that

is

Express

components

in

terms

using

of

the

Strategy:

Determine the components of the vector F in two ways:

- Determining the angle between F and the y axis and use trigonometry to

determine the components.

- Using the given slope of the cable AB and apply similar triangles to

determine the components of F.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions

Definition:

b) An oblique view of the cube.

c) A cartesian coordinate system aligned with the edges of the cube.

d) Three-dimensional representantion of the coordinate system.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.2 Components of a vector

2.2.2. Components in Three Dimensions

Definition:

The coordinate system shown is said to be right handed.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Definition:

We can express a vector U in

Ux, Uy and Uz parallel to the x, y

and z axes, respectively as:

U = Ux + Uy + Uz

(2.8)

U U x2 U y2 U z2 2.9

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Direction Cosines

b - d) The angle x , y and z and the vector compronents of.

(2.10)

The quantities cosx, cosy, cosz are called the direction cosines of U:

=> cosx = ex ,cosy = ey, cosz = ez.

(2.11)

with the same direction as U.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

a) The position vector

from point A to point B.

b) The components of r

can be determined from

the coordinate of points A

v B.

are obtained by the coodinates of point A from the

coordinate of point B.

rAB = (xB xA)i + (yB yA)j + (zB zA)k

(2.12)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Components of a vector Parallel to a Given Line

line parallel to U.

b) The position vector from A to B.

c) The unit vector eAB that points

from A toward B.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Example:

1. The coordinates of point C of the truss are x = 4m, y = 0, z = 0

and the coordinates of the point D are x = 2m, y = 3m, z = 1m.

What are the direction cosines of the position vector r from point C

to point D?

Strategy:

- Determining rCD in terms of its

components.

- Calculating the magnitude of r

equation

(2.10)

direction cosines.

Answer: cosx = - 0.535,cosy = 0.802, cosy = 0.267

to

obtain

the

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Example:

2. The crane exert a 600lb on the caisson. The angle between F and x axis

is 540, and the angle between F and the y axis is 400. The z component of

F is positive. Express F in terms of components.

Strategy:

- Using the Eq (2.16) to determine the components of F.

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

RESULTS 2.2:

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

RESULTS 2.2:

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

RESULTS 2.2

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

RESULTS 2.2

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

2.3.1. Dot Products

Definition:

The dot product of U and V:

U.V = |U|.|V|cos

(2.13)

U.V = V.U (The dot product is commutative).

associate with respect scalar multiplication).

U.(V + W) = U.V + U.W (The

dot product

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3.1. Dot Products

Dot products in terms of component:

U .V U xVx U yVy U zVz

2.14

U .V

cos

U V

U V

2.15

and normal to a line:

The parallel component:

|Up| = |U|.cos

Up = (eL .U)eL

(2.16)

The normal component:

Un = U Up

(2.17)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3.1. Dot Products

Example

+ 2j + 3k.

a) What is the value of U.V

b) What is the angle between U and V when they are placed tail to tail?

Strategy:

- Using Eq (2.14) to determine the value of U.V

- Using Eq (2.15) to calculate the angle between the vectors

Solution:

a)

b)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3.1. Dot Products

Example

Strategy:

- Determine the components of the

vector rAB and vector rAC.

- Using Eq (2.15) to determine .

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Definition

U x V = |U||V|sin e

(2.18),

when they are placed tail to tail,

- The vector e is a unit vector defined to be

perpendicular to both U and V. The right-hand

rule is used to determine the direction of e.

The cross product satisfies the relations:

UxV=-VxU

U x (V + W) = (U x V) + (U x W)

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Cross product in term components:

j k

U V U x U y U z 2.19

Vx Vy Vz

Mixed Triple Product:

In chapter 4, when we discuss the moment of a force about a

line, we will use an operation called the mixed triple product:

Ux Uy Uz

U .(V W ) Vx Vy Vz

Wx Wy Wz

2.20

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Example:

+ 2j + 2k.

a) Determine the cross product U x V.

b) Use the dot product to prove that U x V is perpendicular to V.

Strategy:

- Use Eq (2.19) to determine U x V

- Due to prove U x V is perpendicular to U by showing that

(U x V).U = 0 (Use Eq (2.14)) .

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

Example:

a) Determine the components of a unit vector that is perpendicular to both

OA and OB.

b) What is the minimum distance from point A to the line OB?

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

RESULTS 2.3

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

RESULTS 2.3

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

RESULTS 2.3

CHAPTER 2 VECTORS

2.3. Dot Products and Cross Products:

RESULTS 2.3

DUY TAN UNIVERSITY

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

T: 0918.230.728

Email: tranhoainam1@dtu.edu.vn

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