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Volume: 2 Issue: 1

**ISSN: 2321-8169
**

92 – 95

_______________________________________________________________________________________

**PAPR Reduction in the OFDM Signal Using Selective Mapping
**

Patel Jigar, P.G Student, PIET, Waghodia,

Darshana Shah, Assistant Prof., PIET, Waghodia

Patel Anand, Assistant Prof., SVNIT, Surat

Abstract: Nowadays Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is becoming more and more popular Because of it is attractive techniques for

high data rate transmission. OFDM is widely used in 4G technologies in recent times. Main advantage of OFDM is that it uses orthogonal

signals so removes inter-signal interference. PAPR ratio in OFDM is very high because it uses Multicarrier modulation, which is its main

drawback. High PAPR means more power need at transmission side. PAPR can be decreased using various techniques such as clipping, selective

mapping, etc. In this paper, criterion for new scheme selective mapping is introduced for PAPR reduction in OFDM.

**Index Term: OFDM, PAPR, Selective Mapping
**

_______________________________________________________*****_____________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) has recently gained fair

degree of prominence among modulation schemes due to its

intrinsic robustness in frequency selective fading channels.

This is one of the main reason to select MCM a candidate

for systems such as Digital Audio and Video Broadcasting

(DAB and DVB), Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL), and

Wireless local area networks (WLAN), metropolitan area

networks (MAN), personal area networks (PAN), home

networking, and even beyond 3G and 4G wide area

networks (WAN). Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM), a multi-carrier transmission

technique that is widely adopted in different communication

applications. OFDM systems support high data rate

transmission [6].

The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

is one of the very efficient and often used modulation

techniques used in broadband wireless communication

systems like 4G, Wi-MAX, DVB-T. One of the main issues

of the OFDM based systems is the Peak-to-Average Power

Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. Due to the timedomain superposition of the many data subcarriers which

composes the OFDM signal, the PAPR may reach high

values. Due to the large number of subcarriers,

the resulting time-domain signal exhibits Rayleigh- like

characteristics and large time-domain amplitude

Variations. These large signal peaks requires the high power

amplifiers (HPA) to support wide linear dynamic range. The

increased signal level causes nonlinear distortions leading to

an inefficient operation of HPA causing inter-modulation

products resulting unwanted out-of-band power. In order to

reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals, many solutions have

been proposed and analyzed. These methods can be

characterized by various parameters like non-linearity,

amount of processing and size of side information needed to

be sent to receiver.

**Some of the well-known linear methods are selective
**

mapping (SLM), partial transmit sequence (PTS), and tone

reservation (TR). The SLM method performs several vector

rotations of the Original frequency-domain OFDM signal,

based on a set of predefined vector arrays. For each signal

variant obtained, its corresponding PAPR is evaluated. The

one with the lowest PAPR is chosen for the transmission.

The efficiency of the SLM and PTS methods increases with

the number of phases from the considered set. The

efficiency of the PTS method also increases when a higher

number of blocks are used. The drawback is that a better

efficiency requires an increased amount of computation at

the transmitter’s and receiver’s sides. The clipping method

is another well-known non-linear PAPR reduction

technique, where the amplitude of the signal is limited to a

given threshold.

Peak to Average Power Ratio

PAPR means peak to average power it’s define as the ratio

of the peak power to average power. The OFDM have

higher PAPR that is main drawback. Due to high PAPR we

need more transmit power at transmitter side [1].

The complex baseband OFDM signal for N subcarriers

represented as,

=

(1)

**Then, The PAPR of OFDM signal x(t) is defined as,
**

=

(2)

PAPR =

Where,

= An OFDM signal after IFFT

Peak Power

92

IJRITCC | January 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

____________________________________________________________________________________

The problem can be thought of as trying to plug two holes with only one plug. producing non-linearity’s in HPA output. It was first used as a technique to expand the dynamic range of DACs and was later adopted as a perspective PAPR reduction technique. Clipping means the amplitude clipping which limits the peak envelope of the input signal to a predetermined value. These reserved subcarriers don’t carry any data information. Let us consider x is the transmitted OFDM signal then from we got the theoretical CCDF of PAPR i. This has the negative effect of decreasing the useful data throughput [7].International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication Volume: 2 Issue: 1 ISSN: 2321-8169 92 – 95 _______________________________________________________________________________________ ]= Max[ (3) Max[ = ] Average power ] = E[ ] (4) =K So.e. expected maximum PAPR is around 52(Around 17db). especially for a large number of sub carriers. Tone Reservation In this scheme. PAPR Reduction Techniques 1. In the receiver. Coding The coding technique is used to select such codewords that minimize or reduce the PAPR. to find the probability of the event {PAPR{x}>z} which is given as. we consider schemes that introduce spectral reproduction to be distortion techniques. but it suffers from bandwidth efficiency as the code rate is reduced. they do not require any side information to be sent which mean the data rate is unchanged even after PAPR reduction and they have low complexities compared to the distortionless techniques. This spectrum distortion or spectral reproduction can be corrected by filtering. In general. However this technique has the following drawbacks: Companding Another distortion technique is companding is a composite word that com-bines compress and expand. Pr (PAPR{x}>z) = 1. However. Distortion Techniques It is difficult to precisely sort PAPR reduction schemes into distortion and distortionless categories. Available @ http://www. mathematically PAPR is given by. =k PAPR= Per the IEEE 802. E[ Effect of High PAPR Higher PAPR causes clipping of an OFDM signal by the high power amplifier (HPA).11a specification. the PAPR can be reduced at the expense of spectral reproduction or the spectral reproduce can be reduced at the expense of PAPR [7]. Clipping& Filtering This is a simplest technique used for PAPR reduction.ijritcc. which can be expressed as (6) Where. It is so high for OFDM. which makes conforming to regulatory spectral masks difficult. the OFDM spectrum may have severe in-band and out-of-band distortion which degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance. but the filtering will likely reproduce the peaks that were originally reduced. Performance Parameter of PAPR The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the PAPR is one of the important used performance measures for PAPR reduction techniques. A is the pre-specified clipping level. This method is called Tone 93 IJRITCC | January 2014. we used 52 sub-carriers. some OFDM subcarriers are reserved. the expanding function is applied to the received symbol y so that approximates the original symbol. The basic idea is to employ a compressing function in the transmitter and apply it to the OFDM symbol x so that F(x) is transmitted. the price paid for using a distortion technique is distortion noise which adversely affects the error rate of the system. Also. Distortionless Techniques In this section we introduce distortionless PAPR-reduction techniques.(1- ) (5) II. these techniques distort the spectrum. Other techniques require overhead information bits to be sent along with the transmitted signal so that the receiver can reverse the PAPR reduction transformation and recover the data. Hence. Let x[n] denote the pass band signal and [n] denote the clipped version of x[n]. So the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) [3] is defined as the probability of the event {Y > y}. Here. If Y is a random variable then the CDF of y is defined as the probability of the event {Y ≤ y}. The drawback to companding is that when the received symbol is expanded. CDF stands for Cumulative Distribution Function. so is any distortion from the channel. there will be spectral reproduction in the compressed signal. 2. are only used for reducing PAPR. Furthermore. where the range of F(x) is less than the range of x.org ____________________________________________________________________________________ . It causes no distortion and creates no out-of-band radiation. which means detection rates are degraded. With using this density function it is easy to analyze the PAPR reduction performance. While none of these reduction techniques introduce spectral reproduction. That is. It also suffers from complexity to find the best codes and to store large lookup tables for encoding and decoding. some of them do introduce additional noise to the system thereby increasing the error rate. A high PAPR also lead to low HPA power efficiency. Distortion techniques are the most straightforward PAPR reduction methods. So.

Advantage of this tone reservation is very positive that no process is needed at receiver end. Parameters assumptions: Parameter Assumption Number of Symbols 1000 Modulation Scheme QPSK Number of Sub-Carriers 64 TABEL II Performance Parameter Partial Transmit Sequence In the Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) technique. Available @ http://www. And also do not need to transmit the side information along with the transmitted signal. The sub-carriers in each sub-block are weighted by a phase factor for that sub-block. This method is used for multicarrier transmission and also shows the reserving tones to reduce the PAPR. By using this technique reserved tones can be used to minimize the PAPR. Here the objective is to find the time domain signal to be added to the original time domain signal such that the PAPR is reduced. But data rate loss and complexity at the transmitter side are two basic disadvantages for this technique.org ____________________________________________________________________________________ . an input data block of N symbols is partitioned into disjoint sub blocks.ijritcc. This technique depends on amount of complexity. The phase factors are selected such that the PAPR of the combined signal is minimized. According to this technique the transmitter does not send data on a small subset of subcarriers that are optimized for PAPR reduction. This technique has been described exhaustively simulation chapter. SIMULATION PART PAPR Performance of OFDM with SLM PAPR in OFDM 94 IJRITCC | January 2014. The performance comparisons for all the PAPR reduction techniques described above are being shown in the table. When the number of tones is small reduction in PAPR may represent non negligible samples of available bandwidth.International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication Volume: 2 Issue: 1 ISSN: 2321-8169 92 – 95 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Reservation. Techniques Distortion Complexity Data Flowchart of OFDM Simulation Result Rate Clipping & Yes Low No Companding Yes Low No Coding No High Yes Tone reservation No High Yes Partial transmit No High Yes No High Yes PAPR of OFDM 0 10 lost Filtering -1 CCDF 10 -2 10 sequence(PTS) Selective mapping(SLM) -3 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 PAPR TABEL I Comparison of Different Techniques Figure 1 PAPR in OFDM III. This technique includes number of set of reservation of tones. Selected Mapping (SLM) Technique The basic idea of this technique is first generate a number of alternative OFDM signals from the original data block and then transmit the OFDM signal having minimum PAPR. But by using this technique there will be data rate loss.

9 [5] 0. Multiplication with phase sequence 2. “Modified Selective Mapping Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems”.5 Figure 2 PAPR in OFDM using SLM Comparison PAPR comparison for OFDM and OFDM with SLM 0 10 OFDM without SLM OFDM with SLM -1 CCDF 10 -2 10 -3 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 PAPR Figure 3 PAPR comparisons for OFDM and OFDM with SLM Conclusion Based on comparison made in this work it can be concluded that SLM provides best performance in terms of PAPR reduction using BPSK modulation technique. “Low-complexity selected mapping scheme using cyclic-shifted inverse fast Fourier transform for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems”. “PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals Using Selected Mapping Technique”. And there computation time will also be more in SLM due to complexity. and Chin-Liang Wang. Jyh-Horng Wen.5 6 PAPR 6.ijritcc. 8. “Novel Low-Complexity SLM Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM System”. Wu. K. future work is reduce the complexity using decrease the number of IFFT . 774-782. 7.3 [7] 0. pp.Gwo-Ruey Lee. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology May 2005. may 2013. 2012 12th international conference on ITS communication. Hyun-Bae .” IEEE 2011.5 7 Y.5 5 5. “Analyzing Selected Mapping for Peak-toAverage Power Reduction in OFDM”. 58. multiplication and addition.8 0. Chin-Peng. Calculate minimum PAPR [1] [2] End End [3] End Simulation Result [4] PAPR in OFDM with SLM 1 0. multiplication and addition operations. The technique is to all types of subcarrier modulation in selective mapping but complexity is very high because number of 95 IJRITCC | January 2014. Wen-Xiang Lin. y. Available @ http://www. Vol. Man. Robert J.1 0 4. IEEE member. no. Baxley. IEEE member. Performance algorithm: For all signals do Covert signals into N sub blocks For each sub blocks do REFERENCES 1. 5. Iss. Chih-Chung Kung.2 0. ChengYing Yang . IEEE 2008. wang. IEEE student member “Optimum Selective Mapping for PAPR Reduction. L. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela. Dong-Joon Shin.7.4 0.7 CCDF 0. So. Himanshu Bhusan Mishra. Jia-Chin Lin and Yu-Ting Sun. IET Communication 2013. Kee-Hoon Kim . IEEE transactions on wireless communications.International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication Volume: 2 Issue: 1 ISSN: 2321-8169 92 – 95 _______________________________________________________________________________________ IFFT. Sen-Hung Wang. vol. “Coding Schemes Applied to Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) Reduction in OFDM Systems”.6 [6] 0. Calculate IFFT 3.org ____________________________________________________________________________________ .5 0.

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