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design of experiment

solution to textbook problems

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Homework Solution 6

6-1 An engineer is interested in the effects of cutting speed (A), tool geometry (B),

and cutting angle on the life (in hours) of a machine tool. Two levels of each factor

are chosen, and three replicates of a 23 factorial design are run. The results follow:

Treatment

A

Combinatio

n

(1)

ab

ac

bc

abc

Replicat

e

II

I

2

2

3

31

2

3

5

5

34

5

4

4

4

45

0

6

0

3

50

III

2

5

2

43

9

5

0

4

47

6

3

8

3

37

6

5

4

4

41

From the normal probability plot of effects below, factors B, C, and the AC interaction

appear to be significant.

DE SI G N- EX PE RT P lo t

Li fe

A: Cut t in g Spe ed

B: Too l G eom et r y

C: Cut t in g Ang le

N o rm a l p lo t

N o rm a l % p ro b a b ility

99

95

90

80

70

50

30

20

10

5

1

AC

-8 .8 3

-3 .7 9

1 .2 5

6 .2 9

1 1 .3 3

E ffe c t

(b) Use the analysis of variance to confirm your conclusions for part (a).

The analysis of variance confirms the significance of

interaction.

Design Expert Output

Response:

Life

in hours

ANOVA for Selected Factorial Model

Analysis of variance table [Partial sum of squares]

Sum of

Mean

Source

Squares

DF

Square

Model

1612.67

7

230.38

A

0.67

1

0.67

B

770.67

1

770.67

F

Value

7.64

0.022

25.55

6-1

Prob > F

0.0004

0.8837

0.0001

significant

C

AB

AC

BC

ABC

Pure Error

Cor Total

280.17

16.67

468.17

48.17

28.17

482.67

2095.33

Homework Solution 6

1

1

1

1

1

16

23

280.17

16.67

468.17

48.17

28.17

30.17

9.29

0.55

15.52

1.60

0.93

0.0077

0.4681

0.0012

0.2245

0.3483

The Model F-value of 7.64 implies the model is significant. There is only

a 0.04% chance that a "Model F-Value" this large could occur due to noise.

hierarchy.

Design Expert Output

Response:

Life

in hours

ANOVA for Selected Factorial Model

Analysis of variance table [Partial sum of squares]

Sum of

Mean

Source

Squares

DF

Square

Model

1519.67

4

379.92

A

0.67

1

0.67

B

770.67

1

770.67

C

280.17

1

280.17

AC

468.17

1

468.17

Residual

575.67

19

30.30

Lack of Fit

93.00

3

31.00

Pure Error

482.67

16

30.17

Cor Total

2095.33

23

F

Value

12.54

0.022

25.44

9.25

15.45

1.03

Prob > F

< 0.0001

0.8836

< 0.0001

0.0067

0.0009

0.4067

significant

not significant

The Model F-value of 12.54 implies the model is significant. There is only

a 0.01% chance that a "Model F-Value" this large could occur due to noise.

(c) Write down a regression model for predicting tool life (in hours) based on the

results of this experiment.

yijk 40.8333 0.1667 x A 5.6667 xB 3.4167 xC 4.4167 x A xC

Design Expert Output

Coefficient

Factor

Estimate

DF

Intercept

40.83

1

A-Cutting Speed

0.17

1

B-Tool Geometry

5.67

1

C-Cutting Angle

3.42

1

AC

-4.42

1

Final Equation in Terms of Coded Factors:

Life

+40.83

+0.17

+5.67

+3.42

-4.42

Standard

Error

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

95% CI

Low

38.48

-2.19

3.31

1.06

-6.77

=

*A

*B

*C

* A* C

Life

+40.83333

+0.16667

+5.66667

+3.41667

=

* Cutting Speed

* Tool Geometry

* Cutting Angle

6-2

95% CI

High

43.19

2.52

8.02

5.77

-2.06

VIF

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Homework Solution 6

-4.41667

The equation in part (c) and in the given in the computer output form a hierarchial

model, that is, if an interaction is included in the model, then all of the main effects

referenced in the interaction are also included in the model.

(d) Analyze the residuals. Are there any obvious problems?

Normal plot of residuals

11.5

95

90

6.79167

80

70

Res iduals

Norm al % probability

99

50

2.08333

30

20

10

5

-2.625

1

-7.33333

-7.33333

-2.625

2.08333

6.79167

11.5

27.17

33.92

Res idual

40.67

47.42

54.17

Predicted

(e) Based on the analysis of main effects and interaction plots, what levels of A, B,

and C would you recommend using?

Since B has a positive effect, set B at the high level to increase life. The AC

interaction plot reveals that life would be maximized with C at the high level and A at

the low level.

DE SI GN - EX PE RT P lo t

DE SI GN - EX PE RT P lo t

Li fe

Li fe

X = A: C ut t in gS pee d

Y = C: C ut t in gA ngl e

X = B: T oo l G eom et r y

Act ual Fact or s

A: C ut ti n gS pee d = 0. 00

C: C ut ti n gA ngl e = 0. 00

C- - 1. 00 0

C+ 1. 00 0

Act ual Fact or

B: T ool G eom et r y= 0 .0 0

Inte ra c tio n G ra p h

O ne F a c to r P lo t

C u ttin g A n g le

60

60

5 0 .5

L ife

L ife

5 0 .5

41

41

3 1 .5

3 1 .5

22

22

-1 .0 0

-0 . 5 0

0 .0 0

0 .5 0

1 .0 0

-1 . 0 0

C u ttin g S p e e d

-0 .5 0

0 .0 0

0 .5 0

T o o l G e o m e tr y

6-3

1 .0 0

Homework Solution 6

6-3 Find the standard error of the factor effects and approximate 95 percent

confidence limits for the factor effects in Problem 6-1. Do the results of this analysis

agree with the conclusions from the analysis of variance?

SE( effect )

1

n2 k 2

Variabl

A

B

AB

C

AC

BC

ABC

S2

3 2 3 2

Effect

0.333

11.33

-1.667

6.833

-8.833

-2.833

-2.167

30.17 2.24

*

*

*

The 95% confidence intervals for factors B, C and AC do not contain zero.

agrees with the analysis of variance approach.

This

6-8 A bacteriologist is interested in the effects of two different culture media and

two different times on the growth of a particular virus. She performs six replicates of

a 22 design, making the runs in random order. Analyze the bacterial growth data that

follow and draw appropriate conclusions. Analyze the residuals and comment on the

models adequacy.

Culture Medium

Medium

1

2

Time

12 hr

18 hr

21

22

25

26

23

28

24

25

20

26

29

27

37

39

31

34

38

38

29

33

35

36

30

35

Response:

Virus growth

ANOVA for Selected Factorial Model

Analysis of variance table [Partial sum of squares]

Sum of

Mean

Source

Squares

DF

Square

Model

691.46

3

230.49

A

9.38

1

9.38

B

590.04

1

590.04

AB

92.04

1

92.04

Residual

102.17

20

5.11

Lack of Fit

0.000

0

Pure Error

102.17

20

5.11

Cor Total

793.63

23

F

Value

45.12

1.84

115.51

18.02

The Model F-value of 45.12 implies the model is significant. There is only

a 0.01% chance that a "Model F-Value" this large could occur due to noise.

Values of "Prob > F" less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant.

In this case B, AB are significant model terms.

6-4

Prob > F

< 0.0001

0.1906

< 0.0001

0.0004

significant

Homework Solution 6

4.66667

95

90

2.66667

80

70

Res iduals

Norm al % probability

99

50

0.666667

30

20

10

5

-1.33333

1

-3.33333

-3.33333

-1.33333

0.666667

2.66667

4.66667

23.33

26.79

Res idual

30.25

33.71

37.17

Predicted

Growth rate is affected by factor B (Time) and the AB interaction (Culture medium

and Time). There is some very slight indication of inequality of variance shown by

the small decreasing funnel shape in the plot of residuals versus predicted.

DE SI GN - EX PE RT P lo t

Vi ru sgr o wt h

X = A: C ul t ur eM e di um

Y = B: T i m e

Desi gn P oi nt s

B- 1 2. 000

B+ 18 .0 00

Inte ra c tio n G ra p h

39

T im e

2

V iru s g ro w th

3 4 .2 5

2 9 .5

2 4 .7 5

20

1

C u ltu re M e d i u m

6-5

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