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GCE TEACHERS GUIDE

New Specifications:
for teaching from September 2008

English Language
& Literature

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 1

Contents
GCE AS and A Level English Language & Literature
Teachers Guide

Page
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Introduction
1.1 - Overview of the 2009-10 specification
1.2 - New and familiar elements

Delivering the specification


2.1 - Pathways through the Specification
2.2 - LL1
2.3 - LL2

4
5

6
8
18

A2 Unit Overviews
3.1 LL3
3.2 LL4

22
26

Appendices
1. LL1 Section A Specimen Answer
2. LL1 Framework Single Texts
3. LL1 Framework Single Texts (2)
4. LL1 Framework Single Texts (completed)
5. LL1 Section A: making the connections
6. The Cone
7. Top Ten Induction Activities
8. Terminology Tool-Kit Table

28
29
31
32
34
35
36
38

Assessment Grids

42

Contributors to the Teachers Guide

49

Issued March 2008

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 2

1.

INTRODUCTION
The WJEC AS and A2 English Language & Literature specification has been
modified and updated for delivery from September 2008. The first AS awards will be
made in summer 2009 and the first A level awards in summer 2010. For the first
availability of units, see page 2 of the specification. The specification can be
delivered and assessed in centres throughout the UK.
The revised subject criteria for GCE English Language & Literature issued by the
regulators have necessitated a change in the course structure from the current 3 plus
3 modules to a 2 plus 2 structure.
This Guide is one of a number of ways in which the WJEC provides assistance to
teachers delivering the new specification. Also essential to its introduction are the
Specimen Assessment Materials (question papers and marking schemes) and
professional development (INSET) conferences.
Other provision which you will find useful are:

Examiners reports on each examinations series


Free access to past question papers via the WJEC secure website
Easy access to specification and other key documents on main website
English teachers bulletin which is regularly updated on the subject page of the
website
Regular INSET delivered by Chief Examiners plus resource materials
Initial coursework moderation support meetings between centres and their
moderators
Exemplar materials for assessing the coursework units, LL2 and LL3.
WJEC shop for purchasing texts in person, by phone or online
Easy access to both the Subject Officer and to administrative sections.

The purpose of this guide is to offer support to teachers in their delivery of the new
WJEC English Language & Literature specification. Although there is some
discussion of the specification as a whole, the first issue of this guide is primarily
concerned with supporting teachers in their delivery of the AS units in the first year of
the course, from September 2008 to summer 2009. More detailed support for the A2
units will follow in Spring 2008.
Each unit is discussed in this document in more detail than in the specification, with
greater emphasis on strategies for teaching and further advice on task-setting in the
coursework units.
In supporting the central tenets of the new specification, this guide places particular
emphasis on the second and third aims stated on page 8 of the specification:
To encourage students to develop their interest and enjoyment in English as they
engage creatively and independently with a wide range of spoken, written and
multi-modal texts, exploring the relationships between texts
undertake independent and sustained studies to develop their skills as
producers and interpreters of language.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 3

Contact Points for GCE English Language & Literature are as follows:
Cerys Preece (Subject Officer)
email: cerys.preece@wjec.co.uk
tel: 02920265303

Mike Williams (Subject Support Officer)


email: mike.williams@wjec.co.uk
tel :02920265129
Subject page:

www.wjec.co.uk

INSET Section inset@wjec.co.uk


www.wjec.co.uk/professionaldevelopment

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 4

1.1 Overview of the 2009-10 specification


ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE
AS (2 units)
LL1 30% 2 hour Written Paper
80 marks (120 UMS)
Critical Reading of Literary and Non-Literary Texts
Section A: Poetry pre-1900 (closed text) + unseen text
Choice of one from two questions (40 marks)
Section B: Prose (open text)
2 prose texts: choice of one from two questions (40 marks)
LL2 20% Internal Assessment
80 marks (80 UMS)
Creative Writing
3 tasks (80 marks: 2 x 20; 1 x 40)
2 creative writing tasks
commentary on both creative writing tasks

A LEVEL (the above plus a further 2 units)


LL3 20% Internal Assessment
80 marks ( 80 UMS)
Analysing and Producing Performance Texts
Section A: Dramatic texts in context
2 texts one piece of extended writing (40 marks)
Section B: Producing texts for performance
2 texts writing 2 original texts for performance
evaluating one of the texts (40 marks)
LL4 30% 2 hours Written Paper
80 marks ( 120 UMS)
Comparative Textual Analysis and Review
Section A: Comparative analysis of texts
3 unseen texts: one question (40 marks)
Section B: Reviewing approaches
1 text (poetry/prose- open text)
Choice of one from 6 questions (40 marks)

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 5

1.2 The 2009 - 2010 specification : new and familiar elements


New
4 units instead of 6 (2 AS, 2 A2)
4 assessment objectives
Compulsory coursework-40% (AS 20%; A2 20%)
6 texts instead of 4
Core texts and partner texts
Original writing in both coursework units
Mark schemes generally 20 or 40 instead of 25 or 50
Familiar
Poetry pre-1900 anthology and prose text for AS exam
Comparing texts- (but at both AS and A2)
Choice of texts for coursework at A2
Drama pre-1770 (Shakespeare) at A2
Comparative analysis of unseen texts for A2 exam
Units available in January and June

Tracking Changes to the assessment objectives (highlighted in bold)


Select and apply relevant concepts and
approaches from integrated linguistic
and literary study, using appropriate
terminology and accurate, coherent
written expression AO1- new
specification

Communicate clearly the knowledge,


understanding and insights gained from the
combined study of literary and linguistic study,
using appropriate terminology and accurate
written expression
AO1- current specification

Demonstrate detailed critical


understanding in analysing the ways in
which structure, form and language
shape meanings in a range of spoken
and written texts
AO2- new specification

Respond to and analyse texts, using literary and


linguistic concepts and approaches
AO3i-current specification
Show understanding of the ways contextual
variation and choices of form, style and
vocabulary shape the meaning of texts
AO4- current specification

Use integrated approaches to explore


relationships between texts, analysing
and evaluating the significance of
contextual factors in their production
and reception AO3- new specification

Show understanding of the ways contextual


variation and choices of form, style and
vocabulary shape the meaning of texts
AO4- current specification

Demonstrate expertise and creativity in


using language appropriately for a variety
of purposes and audiences, drawing on
insights from linguistic and literary
studies
AO4- new specification

Demonstrate expertise and accuracy in writing


for a variety of specific purposes and audiences,
drawing on knowledge of literary texts and
features of language to explain and comment on
the choices made
AO6- current specification

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 6

2.

DELIVERING THE SPECIFICATION


2.1

Pathways through the specification (AS and A2)

Core and partner texts


The WJEC specification provides opportunities for students to read texts both for
detailed study and for wider reading. The texts selected for detailed study are
referred to as core texts and the texts selected for wider reading are referred to as
partner texts. The partner text illuminates the core text study and helps inform
students understanding of the core text by facilitating links or contrasts.
Core and partner pairings
Core
LL1 Section B
LL3

Partner
core + partner prose
core drama (Shakespeare)+ partner drama/performance
text

The core and partner approach extends to other areas of the course, where
candidates are required to make connections between a set text and unseen material
LL1 Section A

core poetry (anthology)+ partner unseen extract

and also where candidates are required to make connections between a set text and
previously studied material
LL4 Section B

Core poetry/prose + comparative reference to any texts


studied, literary/non-literary, spoken /written

It is important to remember that:


candidates are required to show detailed critical understanding of their
core text
examiners and moderators will value the quality of connections rather than
the number of connections made between core and partner texts.

Creativity and Independence


Creativity
This specification encourages students active and imaginative engagement with
texts through:

flexible coursework arrangements allowing creative pairings of texts (LL3)


exam questions which promote fresh and innovative approaches to texts
providing candidates with the opportunity to produce their own creative
writing in response to their wider reading (LL2)
providing candidates with the opportunity to produce their own creative
performance texts (LL3).

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 7

Independence
This specification provides opportunities
independence by encouraging students to:

for

appropriate

levels of

student

select material from partner texts to illuminate core text study


select texts for wider reading for coursework
make appropriate connections between the core text and independently
selected material (LL4).

However, teachers may prefer to select texts themselves for wider reading in
coursework units.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 8

2.2

LL1

Approaching LL1: Critical Reading of Literary and Non-Literary Texts


80 marks
Section A: Poetry pre-1900 and unseen text - 40 marks (closed text)
Relevant Assessment Objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3
This section is based on the comparative analysis of two texts, one of which will be a
poem from an anthology of poetry pre-1900 produced by WJEC. The anthology will
be periodically refreshed. It will be helpful if centres email WJEC
(mike.williams@wjec.co.uk) their anticipated number of required anthologies before
summer half term preceding AS study.
Please note that we have made two changes to the draft anthology, to replace those
poems already featured in the Specimen Paper. Blakes London has been replaced
by Blakes The Tyger and Wordsworths There Was A Boy has been replaced by
Wordsworths Composed Upon Westminster Bridge.
Candidates are required to answer one out of a choice of two questions. The
questions are designed to provide candidates with the opportunity to make
connections between a poem from the anthology studied by the candidate and
another text previously unseen by the candidate. The unseen text may be of any
genre, literary/non-literary, written/spoken. Candidates should develop a range of
skills to apply to analysis of a variety of text types. The two texts will be linked in
terms of content, theme or style, and candidates will be required to compare and
contrast them, using knowledge and skills gained from their integrated study of
language and literature. The poem from the anthology will be printed on the paper.
As this section of the examination is closed text, candidates are not permitted
to take a copy of the anthology into the examination.

Accessing the questions in Section A


It is important to remember that although the poem from the anthology is the core
text, candidates are expected to do justice to both the printed poem and the unseen
extract. Indeed, they will not be able to make fruitful comparisons unless they
analyse both texts in appropriate detail. The weighting of the assessment objectives
gives more emphasis to AO1, which carries 16 out of the 40 available marks:

select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated


linguistic and literary study, using appropriate terminology and
accurate, coherent written expression

and to AO3, which also carries 16 marks:

use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts,


analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their
production and reception

than to AO2 (8 marks):

demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in


which structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of
spoken and written texts.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 9

This emphasis is reflected in the specimen paper questions, which invite candidates
to compare and contrast, therefore exploring relationships between the texts and
to consider the influence of contextual factors, using integrated approaches to
analyse texts.
Specimen Paper Question
Compare and contrast Text A and Text B.
In your response you should:
show understanding of the meanings in each text;
explore the influence of different contextual factors;
use integrated linguistic and literary approaches to analyse the texts.

Section B: Prose 40 marks (open text 'clean' copies)


Relevant Assessment Objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3
This section is based on candidates study of two prose texts from a prescribed list.
Candidates are required to study in depth one core text and for wider reading the
corresponding partner text from the list below:
Core Prose Text
Childhood
Alexander Masters: Stuart: A Life
Backwards (Harper Perennial)
Parody
Stella Gibbons: Cold Comfort Farm
(Penguin Classics)
Creative Non-Fiction
Truman Capote: In Cold Blood
(Penguin Modern Classics)
Travel
Robert Minhinnick: Watching the
Fire-Eater (Seren)
Past, Present, Future
Audrey Niffenegger: The Time
Travelers Wife (Vintage)
Telling Stories
Ghita Mehta: A River Sutra (Minerva)

Partner Prose Text


Andrea Ashworth: Once in a House
on Fire (Macmillan)
D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers
(Penguin Classics)
Peter Carey: True History of the Kelly
Gang (Faber)
Bill Bryson: The Lost Continent
(Black Swan)
H.G. Wells: The Time Machine
(Penguin Classics)
Raymond Carver: Short Cuts
(The Harvill Press)

Candidates are required to attempt one question out of a choice of two on each
core/partner pairing.
Clean copies (no annotation) of the texts studied must be taken into the
examination.

Preparing the core and partner prose texts


It would probably be most helpful if one teacher delivers both texts, in order to
facilitate the use of the partner text as a source of illumination for the core text.
However, the delivery of texts will depend on departmental strategies and timetabling
contingencies.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 10

It is worth remembering that:

the partner text does not have to be taught/studied in the same depth and
detail as the core text

there is no required amount of references to make to the partner text: it is the


quality of the connections that counts and their contribution to the cogency
and relevance of the response.

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL1


AO1 (16 marks)
select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic
and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent
written expression
There are three strands to this AO:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

relevant concepts and approaches


appropriate terminology
accurate, coherent written expression.

Concepts and approaches will be addressed in candidates knowledge,


understanding and relevant application of some of the key constituents of language
and literary techniques and how they function in combination to create meaning in
the poem and unseen extract in Section A, and in the core and partner texts in
Section B.
Appropriate terminology should include a reasonable range of relevant terms from
the tool-kit acquired in the course of integrated study of both literary and non-literary
texts. See the Terminology Table Tool-kit in the Appendices for some suggestions.
Accurate, coherent writing will support the expression of ideas and construction of
an argument.
AO2 (8 marks)
demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which
structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and
written texts
This AO enables candidates to show their skill of identifying and describing how
meanings and effects are created and conveyed in texts. It is worth emphasising that
detailed analysis of structure, form and language is required only for the core text in
Section B.
Critical understanding should include candidates awareness of some of the ways in
which individual texts may be interpreted by different readers or listeners.
AO3 (16 marks)
use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing
and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and
reception

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 11

There are two strands to this AO:


(i)
(ii)

exploring relationships between texts


the significance of contextual factors.

The questions in both sections provide a comparative focus to allow students to


make connections between their texts in their response. Section A foregrounds this
focus, while Section B provides candidates first with an extract from the core text to
discuss in detail before addressing the comparative focus of the question. Despite
this difference in question structure, candidates will need to allocate sufficient time to
make connections between the two texts in both sections, in order to do justice to the
exploring relationships between texts aspect of this AO and to merit the 16 marks
for AO3.
The contextual factors should be considered in respect of both texts in both
sections. Candidates will be required to show knowledge and understanding of how
variations in language, form and context shape and change meanings in speech (where
a spoken language text is presented for analysis in Section A) and writing.
Example of a question from Section B of LL1 Specimen Paper
Q 4.
Capote: In Cold Blood (Core text)
Carey: True History of the Kelly Gang (Partner text)
Read the extract from In Cold Blood from the beginning of the novel to front
porches.
Use integrated linguistic and literary approaches to analyse how Capote
establishes a sense of place in this extract. How do Capote and Carey use
location in both In Cold Blood and True History of the Kelly Gang?

AO2 carries 8 marks out of 40. Examiners will expect to see more detailed critical
understanding of the core text, as reflected in the structure of the question. The 16
marks allocated for AO1 can be awarded for discussion of both texts, as a coherently
argued response will be obviously important, as will the use of integrated approaches
throughout. The 16 marks for AO3 will be awarded to the second half of the question,
where candidates have to consider both texts in relation to the question, making
connections and considering contexts.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 12

Approaching LL1: Practical Suggestions


1.

Develop a framework for studying the poems e.g. The Cone (see
Appendix/subject pages of website).

2.

Begin discussion/analysis of each poem with an overview of the poems key


ideas and the relevant contextual factors which may have influenced or
shaped the poem in some way.

3.

Take a structured approach to the teaching of each poem by using The Cone
and the bullet points given in the examination questions for LL1:
overview (Content/Context)
structure and form
narrative stance
grammar/ sentence structure
lexis and imagery
phonology and sound patterning
orthography and punctuation

4.

Get the students to work in groups by dividing up the bullet points and
allocating one focus per group. The students should record their analysis in
the form of a S (statement) E (evidence) A (analysis) grid.

5.

The individual groups should feedback their findings to the rest of the class
and every student should be able to complete a Framework for analysing
single texts based on a set poem. (see example of a Framework grid in the
Appendix)

6.

When the students are comfortable with analysing the poetry using the single
text framework, then they should be able to apply the technique to an unseen
text that is not from the poetry anthology.

7.

Present the students with a variety of texts which have thematic links with the
poems in the anthology. These texts can come from a wide variety of
sources. Do not attempt any comparisons at this stage. Still focus on single
text analysis.

8.

Eventually introduce candidates to the framework for comparing texts by


using texts they have already analysed in isolation. (see example of a
Framework for comparing in the Appendix)

9.

Follow up task: Working individually, in pairs or groups, set the students a


poem from the anthology and the task of finding a text which is linked
thematically to the poem. The students should produce a comparative
analysis of their set poem and the unseen text they selected.

10.

These pairs of texts could then be exchanged with other individuals/groups in


order for the students to attempt an exam style question set by their own
classmates. A peer assessment task using the marking guidelines and
assessment criteria from the grid would be an interesting way to conclude the
activity.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 13

Approaching Contextual Factors in Section A Poetry


The following could be given to students as an opportunity to show independence
and to start them thinking about contexts in relation to the Anthology poems.
Context Presentation
Aim: In pairs or small groups, to produce a five minute presentation on the life and
work of one of the poets from the Anthology.
You have three weeks to complete your assignment. The first presentations
will be delivered on.
In your presentation you must:

Read aloud the poem from the Anthology written by your chosen poet
Present the information on your poet under three headings:
1. BIOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT
2. SOCIO-HISTORICAL CONTEXT
3. LITERARY / ARTISTIC CONTEXT
Produce a summary of your key points, to be distributed to your classmates, on
a single side of A4.

You will be formally assessed on the content and presentation of your


information.
Presentation Tools:
ICT (PowerPoint)
Interactive Whiteboard
OHP
Handouts
Mind Maps / Flow Charts
Timelines
Bullets / Headers

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 14

You may wish to ask yourself the following questions when conducting your
research:
1.

What links can I find between the poets personal life and poetry?

2.

Have the poets religious beliefs, occupation, relationships, hobbies,


philosophy, friends, parents, hopes or fears affected the poetry in any way?

3.

What sort of world was the poet living and working in?

4.

Which country does your poet come from? Had the poet travelled out of that
country and how may this have affected his/her poetry?

5.

Who was the reigning monarch at the time the poet was writing, and how did
this affect his/her work?

6.

In what religious context was the poet working?

7.

What impact did attitudes to women, or people from different cultural or class
backgrounds have on the poets work?

8.

Was the country at war or was it a peaceful time when your poet was writing?
How may this have affected his/her work?

9.

Was the poet one of a group or movement of poets who shared similar aims
or poetic style?

10.

Was the poet influenced by the work of other poets who preceded them?

11.

Were the concerns of the poets writing shared by artists or musicians of the
period?

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 15

Preparation for LL1 Section A


The following could be given to students as a starter activity.

Look quickly through the texts below.


Now find poems from the WJEC Anthology that would link well to them.

TEXT A Extract from War Reporting for Cowards by Chris Ayres


I remembered how the Marine commanders in Kuwait had boasted that the
Marines were an all-weather fighting force, unstoppable by anything that Iraqs
annual spring storm season could hurl at them. But the wind and the mud made me
feel like a character in one of the Wilfred Owen poems I had studied in high school
(Owen, unluckily, was killed by German gunfire one week before the Great War
ended; his mother received the telegram on Armistice Day). At the time, those poems
had seemed so old, so irrelevant. Modern war, after all, was clean, quick, and
efficient. The Americans could move across entire countries in the time it took the
Germans to advance three feet during the Battle of the Somme. To me, the five-day
Gulf War I had seemed like a thrilling video game, fought with laser guidance and
aircraft that looked as though they had been designed and built on Mars.
This, however, was no video game. I imagined what my face must have looked like,
caked, like everything else, with orange-brown slime. Just to make matters worse quite a feat in the circumstances, I thought - a thunderstorm arrived from the north,
making us flinch with every rumble.
TEXT B An article by Roland White for The Sunday Times
Can a computer help you write a novel?
Roland White puts a new software package
to the test (with a little help from Tolstoy)
'Love-tryst mum in death plunge'

The questions most frequently asked of great novelists must surely be: where do you
get your ideas from, and how exactly do you work? Well, from my very brief
experience of writing great novels, this is what the routine seems to be. You sit at
your desk in the morning. On this desk are a computer, a cup of tea, a lucky gonk
and some spare opium. You stare out of the window for a couple of minutes, and
then you begin to write. Oh, it's great stuff. God, this is good. You can forget the
Booker, Salman, this year's is pretty much in the bag. After what seems an age, you
stare at your screen and the words "Chapter One" stare back at you. You admire
these words for about five minutes, but then doubts set in. You get up from your seat
and pace up and down. You decide to make more tea, but in the kitchen you spot a
pile of ironing. You do the ironing. Then you make another cup of tea, which you drink
in the kitchen, feeling miserable. You return to your screen, and begin to type once
more. By lunch, the words "Chapter One" now read "Part the First". It's certainly got
style, but is it really an improvement? You are not sure. By the end of the day, it's
been changed back to "Chapter One".
I am pleased to report, however, that this is very much yesterday's way of writing the
great novel. It was all right for Dickens, Tolstoy and that crowd, but from now on, the
modern author will be doing it all by computer. A businessman called Richard Lee
has invented some software called newnovelist, which - for 29.99 - claims to take
the pain out of creativity.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 16

TEXT C From The Times


October 16, 2007

Hazardous drinking, the middle-class


vice
David Brown

Post your comments at the bottom of this article


Drinkers in middle-class areas are more likely routinely to consume hazardous
amounts of alcohol than those in poorer areas, research published today shows.
Social drinkers who regularly down more than one large glass of wine a day will be
told they risk damaging their health in the same way as young binge drinkers.
The figures will be used by the Government to target middle-class wine drinkers and
to make drunkenness as socially unacceptable as smoking.
Dawn Primarolo, the Public Health Minister, said: Most of these are not young
people, they are everyday drinkers who have drunk too much for too long. This has
to change.
The research, commissioned by the Department of Health, is the first nationwide
analysis of the impact of social drinking. It found that people living in relatively
affluent areas are more likely to be drinking at above sensible levels than those living
in deprived areas.
The percentage of adults drinking hazardous levels of alcohol ranges from 14.1 per
cent to 26.4 per cent. Hazardous levels for women are between five and twelve
large glasses of wine a week and for men between seven and seventeen glasses.
One large glass of wine 250ml at 12 per cent alcohol represents three units. A
pint of normal strength beer is two units.
The research, by the North West Public Health Observatory, concludes that just 22
units per week will push a man into the hazardous category, while women need to
drink just 15 units. Some of the countrys most wealthy areas were found to have the
biggest number of hazardous drinkers, with Runnymede in Surrey and Harrogate in
North Yorkshire topping the league tables.

TEXT D an extract from The Royal College of Psychiatrists website


Introduction
We all feel fed up, miserable or sad at times. These feelings don't usually last longer
than a week or two, and they don't interfere too much with our lives. Sometimes
there's a reason, sometimes they just come out of the blue. We usually cope with
them ourselves. We may have a chat with a friend but don't otherwise need any help.
Someone is said to be significantly depressed, or suffering from depression, when:
their feelings of depression don't go away quickly and
they are so bad that they interfere with their everyday life.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 17

What does it feel like to be depressed?


The feeling of depression is much more powerful and unpleasant than the short
episodes of unhappiness that we all experience from time to time. It goes on for
much longer. It can last for months rather than days or weeks. Most people with
depression will not have all the symptoms listed here, but most will have at least five
or six.
You:

feel unhappy most of the time (but may feel a little better in the evenings)
lose interest in life and can't enjoy anything
find it harder to make decisions
can't cope with things that you used to
feel utterly tired
feel restless and agitated
lose appetite and weight (some people find they do the reverse and put on
weight)
take 1-2 hours to get off to sleep, and then wake up earlier than usual
lose interest in sex
lose your self-confidence
feel useless, inadequate and hopeless
avoid other people
feel irritable
feel worse at a particular time each day, usually in the morning
think of suicide.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 18

2.3

LL2

Approaching LL2: Creative Writing 80 marks


This coursework unit is internally assessed and externally moderated. The
assessment is based on a folder of work of approximately 3,000 words, comprising
three pieces in total, each of approximately 1,000 words.
Candidates are required to produce two pieces of original writing, and a
commentary on both pieces.
(a)

One piece of writing must be literary, inspired by the candidates wider


independent reading -this should not be a text already studied for LL1.
(20 marks)

(b)

The second piece must be non-literary: journalism, reviews, information


texts, etc. (20 marks)

The pieces do not need to be of equal length, but should total approximately 2,000
words.
The following suggestions offer an extension/expansion to those suggested in the
specification:
(a)

genre-specific narrative prose


the opening chapter to a novel
a prologue to a novel
childrens writing
a narrative in the form of letter writing
monologue
diary
playscript
autobiographical writing
an anthology of poems (approximately 8 poems)

travel writing/guides
speech
a magazine article
a newspaper report
a tabloid/broadsheet article on the same topic
an advertising campaign
an informative or persuasive leaflet
theatre/film/music/art reviews;
website
brochure
an editorial
a report
a formal letter

(b)

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 19

These are only suggestions and students may attempt other kinds of writing,
provided that (a) is clearly literary and (b) is clearly non-literary.
LL2 requires students to demonstrate expertise and accuracy in writing for a variety of
specific purposes and audiences, drawing on knowledge of literary and non-literary
texts and features of language to explain and comment on the choices made.
Therefore, in preparing your students for their personal writing it is suggested that
they study a range of stimuli in the chosen genre this not only helps students in
terms of varying their own writing styles but is also useful in preparing them for their
commentaries as, in theory, such practice raises awareness of the generic conventions
of the piece of writing.
Even though only two pieces of original writing are required for the final folder, it is
advisable for centres to provide students with the opportunity to write in a range of
different forms and styles. Students can then submit their two best pieces (one
literary and one non-literary), playing to their personal strengths and thus,
maximising their potential in this unit.
Centres who provide a very narrow range of tasks (for example, only two) may limit
the performance of their candidates, as the restricted nature of such task-setting
does not always allow students to write in a genre that best suits their skills and
interests. It is, therefore, advisable that students be offered a wide range of tasks and
that the sub-sample sent to the moderator is reflective of this practice.

(c) Commentary (40 marks)


Candidates will be required to produce a commentary of approximately 1000 words.
The commentary formally assesses candidates understanding of their choices of
content, form, and style in both pieces of their original writing, making points of
comparison and contrast between them. Candidates may prefer to have a thematic
link between the two types of writing, in order to facilitate the comparison of texts.
The purpose of the commentary is to allow students to discuss and evaluate the
stylistic choices they have made. In their commentary students must:

identify the literary and linguistic features they have employed


discuss the impact of these features within their own writing
show understanding of how different choices in language and form
can create meaning through a comparison of the two pieces they have
written.

Although some students may wish to discuss the reasons for their choice of genre,
they should be discouraged from spending too much time on this area. The primary
focus of the commentary must be the discussion of the similarities and
differences of their stylistic choices. The following approach is useful in ensuring
the correct focus:

Statement identify the term


Evidence quote the example
Analysis discuss the impact of the identified feature

In their analytical commentaries students should be encouraged to identify a broad


range of terms. For example, the identification of nouns, modifiers and verbs does
not constitute a wide range of terms. The Cone in Appendix 6 contains a wide range
of terms and is an excellent framework for tackling the commentary.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 20

Suggestions for a thematic approach to tasks:


1.
(a) Dramatic monologue/drama
script on teenage theme
(b) Double-page magazine spread
on teenage issues

2.
(a) Genre writing on crime/love/sci-fi
etc.
(b) Newspaper/magazine article on
crime/infidelity/UFOs

3.
(a) Anthology of Poetry of conflict
(6-8 poems)
(b) Political speech promoting peace

Note: this approach will not suit all students, and may inhibit the creativity of some. Remember
to encourage and create opportunities for independent work and guard against the temptation
to have the whole class tackling the same coursework task.
Candidates will be required to give details of the stimulus text for the literary writing (a) on
the coversheet, and to refer to this text in their commentary in terms of its influence on their
own writing. While it is good practice for students to read several types of texts/genres to
research ideas, they are advised to refer to one text in particular.

Further Guidance
Candidates are expected to adhere as closely as possible to the guidelines as stated in the
specification. However, these word limits are approximate and should be applied sensibly.
They are meant to support the candidate and not to have a detrimental effect on the
candidates overall performance.
Candidates who offer work that is too brief risk penalising themselves by not allowing
appropriate coverage of the required assessment objectives.
Candidates who significantly exceed the word limit risk penalising themselves through a lack
of precision and focus. The commentary, in particular, tends to become repetitive and
descriptive.
Moderators will allow some flexibility with regard to the suggested word limit as long as the
quality of the piece is sustained.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 21

Guidance on Assessing LL2


The creative writing tasks (a) and (b) are assessed through one Assessment Objective,
AO4:
Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using language appropriately for a variety of
purposes and audiences, drawing on insights from linguistic and literary studies
There are 20 marks available for each piece of writing, making a total of 40. Expertise
should encompass accurate, coherent and well-structured writing as well as appropriate use
of language, purpose and audience, register, style and tone. Creativity can be measured in
terms of engagement with the task, and there will be varying degrees of individuality and
flair.
The commentary task (c) is assessed through three Assessment Objectives, AO1, AO2 and
AO3.
AO3 carries 20 marks as candidates are required to comment on both pieces of their
original written work, making points of comparison and contrast between them:
use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing and
evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and reception
The other two Assessment Objectives, AO1and AO2 each carry 10 marks.
It can be seen from the Assessment Grid in Section 6 that the 40 marks for this section are
notionally divided up as follows:
AO1: 10

AO2: 10

AO3: 20.

This breakdown may be helpful when assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of a
response. However, teachers should try to find the best fit for assessment, and should give
an holistic mark to cover all three objectives.

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL2


Weighting of assessment objectives LL2 (full A level in brackets)
LL2

AO1%

AO2%

AO3%

AO4%

TOTAL

40 (20)

5 (2.5)

5 (2.5)

10 (5)

20 (10)

Managing Coursework- LL2

Planning stage
Discussion between student and teacher of ideas/notes
Drafting- student submits a draft response (WJEC recommends that after the
planning stage the student produces only one draft before the final version)
Teacher response with advice/guidance, avoiding detailed annotation of
students work, focusing instead on general observations and advice re
possible improvements
Student submits final version for assessment
Coversheet is signed to authenticate
Cross-moderation in centre where possible
External moderation: selection of sample and submission of sample work to
external moderator.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 22

3.

A2 UNIT OVERVIEWS
The following overviews are intended to give further clarification of the requirements
of these two synoptic units, and an indication of possible approaches to planning and
delivering the A2 course from September 2009. More detailed support and guidance
will be added later. In both units, candidates are required to demonstrate synoptic
achievement through:

3.1

synthesis of insights gained from the study of a range of texts, both spoken
and written;
evidence of ability to select appropriate analytical tools to assess the validity
of different views expressed about texts and contexts of production and
reception;
skills of interpretation and expression to give insightful, accurate, well-argued
responses to texts.

LL3

Approaching LL3 20% Analysing and Producing Performance Texts


(synoptic) 80 marks
The focus of this coursework unit is on texts produced for performance. It
encourages the development of extended formal essay-writing skills, independent
research and creative writing linked to performance.
Candidates are required to produce a folder of work divided into two sections. For
Section A they will study two dramatic texts, one of which must be Shakespeare,
and for Section B they will write two original performance texts and evaluate one of
them. The folder of work for this unit, as for LL2, should be approximately 3000
words.

Section A: Dramatic texts in context - 40 marks


Relevant assessment objectives: AO1, AO2, AO3
1500 words approximately
The Shakespeare text selected should be the focus of students detailed study, as
this should be regarded as the core text. The second drama/performance text can
be by any author other than Shakespeare, and from any time period. It can also be a
screenplay/play script for a film/play that has already been produced/performed. This
text should be regarded as the partner text, and so the study of this text will be
broader in focus and should illuminate the Shakespeare study. It is important to
remember that AO3 is double weighted in this unit:
AO3: use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts,
analysing and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their
production and reception
Therefore the choice of partner drama text should be carefully considered regarding
what it can offer the student in terms of exploring relationships between texts and
considering contextual factors. Centres must nominate both selected texts for
approval by WJEC no later than the end of December of the A2 year.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 23

The focus of the study may be thematic, for example, but students are free to choose
another suitable focus. Centres may choose any of the following approaches to
teaching this unit:
(a)
(b)
(c)

Teachers choose the core Shakespeare play for class study and encourage
students to choose the partner performance text
Teachers choose both texts
Students choose both texts themselves for independent study and research.

The spirit of the new specification encourages independence wherever possible,


and creative engagement with integrated study of texts will be most apparent where
students have been given opportunities for independent study. In cases where this
might be difficult to achieve, centres should endeavour to provide sufficient variety in
tasks to allow for individual choices.
Ideas for pairing LL3 performance texts
Romeo and Juliet (core)
Pulp Fiction/True Romance/Shakespeare in Love
The Taming of the Shrew (core)
A Streetcar Named Desire/A Dolls House/Oleanna/Ten Things I hate About You
Twelfth Night (core)
The Crying Game/Shakespeare in Love
Macbeth (core)
The Crucible/Death of a Salesman
King Lear (core)
The Homecoming/Glengarry Glen Ross/Talking Heads (A Cream Cracker Under the
Settee)
/Cat on a Hot Tin Roof/House of America/The Godfather
Hamlet (core)
Waiting for Godot/Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead/The Duchess of Malfi
Othello (core)
O
The Tempest (core)
The Crucible
Much Ado about Nothing (core)
Measure for Measure (core)
Atonement (screenplay)/Measure for Measure/Indecent Proposal
Henry V (core)
Journeys End
Coriolanus (core)
Reservoir Dogs
Examples of tasks:
Compare how language is used to establish power relationships in King Lear and
Pinters The Homecoming.
Compare and contrast how dramatists use linguistic and literary techniques to
present magic in The Tempest and The Crucible.
By close analysis of linguistic and dramatic devices, explore how humour is used in
both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead to present important
themes.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 24

Using integrated linguistic and literary approaches, discuss how language is used to
convey attitudes to women in Much Ado About Nothing and Oleanna.
Compare how parent-child relationships are presented in King Lear and Cat on a Hot
Tin Roof.
Compare the writers techniques for entertaining an audience in both Romeo and
Juliet and Shakespeare and Love.
With reference to The Taming of the Shrew and Ten Things I Hate About you/Othello
and O/Romeo and Juliet and Shakespeare in Love, explore how characters are
interpreted in different contexts.
Other possible areas to explore:

Re-working narrative
Presentation of men
Heroes and villains
Significance of contexts
Attitudes and values of different societies.

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL3 Section A


LL3

AO1%

AO2%

AO3%

SECTION A

20 (10)

5 (2.5)

5 (2.5)

10 (5)

The weighting of the relevant assessment objectives is reflected in the notional


distribution of marks out of a total of 40 as follows:
AO1: 10 marks

AO2: 10 marks

AO3: 20 marks

Teachers should use the LL3 Section A Assessment Grid (see specification and
Section 6 of this Guide) to try to find the best fit for assessment, and should give an
holistic mark to cover all three objectives.

Section B: Producing texts for performance - 40 marks


1500 words approximately
For this section, candidates will be required to:
write 2 original spoken texts for performance for different audiences and
purposes (approximately 1000 words in total);
evaluate the effectiveness of one of the texts they have produced
(approximately 500 words).
The original spoken texts can be spontaneous or prepared. Candidates are free to
perform the texts themselves but there is no requirement for this. Obviously in order
to produce a transcription the text would have to be performed and taped, but again,
this need not be in front of an audience. One of the 2 original texts should be
transcribed, i.e. showing pauses, stress, intonation and other prosodic features
Tapes from which the transcription has been made should not be submitted.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 25

The evaluation will consider:

The contextual factors that have influenced the production and performance
of the text
The key features of style
The impact of the text in performance
The influence of other texts, literary and non-literary.

Examples of task-setting
Example 1
(a) a stand-up comedy routine that has been performed, taped and transcribed
(b) a script for a sit-com
(c) a 500-word evaluation of the stand-up comedy routine.
Example 2
(a) a commentary of a public/sporting event, e.g. a royal wedding/opening of
Olympics, that has been performed, taped and transcribed
(b) a commentary for a DVD of a film
(c) a 500 word commentary evaluation of (a)

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL3 Section B


LL3

AO2%

AO4%

SECTION B

20 (10)

5 (2.5)

15 (7.5)

The weighting of the relevant assessment objectives is reflected in the notional


distribution of marks out of a total of 40 as follows:
AO2: 10

AO4: 30

Each of the original writing pieces should be marked out of 15. The commentary
should be marked out of ten. The 15 marks are notionally distributed as:
Band 1: 0-3
Band 3: 8-11

Band 2: 4-7
Band 4: 12-15.

However, teachers should use the first column of the LL3 Section B Assessment Grid
(see specification and Section 6 of this Guide) to try to find the best fit band
description for assessment of the original writing and should use the second column
to apply the best-fit for the commentary.
The commentary is assessed through AO2:
demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure,
form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and written texts.
As candidates will be discussing their performance text, they will be expected to give
consideration to the context of the performance and the impact of the text in
performance as well as any influences on their writing. However, the majority of the
marks available should be awarded for discussion of how their structure, form and
language shape meaning.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 26

3.2

LL4

Approaching LL4 30% Comparative Textual Analysis and Review


(synoptic) 80 marks
Section A: Comparative analysis of texts - 40 marks
Relevant assessment objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3
Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory question in this section. The
question will require candidates to produce a detailed comparative analysis of three
unseen texts of different genres, chosen from a range of types and periods. The
focus of the analysis will be provided in the question. In their response to the
question, candidates are expected to select and apply relevant linguistic and literary
approaches from their integrated studies across the course as a whole.
The format of this section will be familiar to teachers of the current specification as it
is similar to Section A of ELL6, but features three instead of the current four texts.
Section B: Reviewing approaches ('open' text clean copy) 40 marks
Relevant assessment objectives: AO1 AO2 AO3
Candidates will be required to answer one question in this section, from a choice of
six. Each question will require a piece of extended writing designed to allow
candidates to reflect on insights gained from integrated linguistic and literary study
across the whole A level course. In preparation for this question, candidates are
required to study one text from the list below:
Charles Dickens: Hard Times (Penguin)
Emily Bronte: Wuthering Heights (Penguin)
George Orwell: Shooting an Elephant: and Other
Essays (Penguin)*
ed. Ian Jack: The Granta Book of Reportage
(Classics of Reportage) (Granta Books)
Ted Hughes: Birthday Letters (Faber)
T.S.Eliot: Selected Poems (Faber)
*The original choice of Orwells Selected Essays has been withdrawn as it is out of print.

Clean copies (no annotation) of the texts studied must be taken into the
examination.
The questions set will not be directly linked to the prescribed texts, but will invite
discussion of aspects of integrated study which will involve detailed knowledge of
these texts as well as comparative reference to other texts (literary/non-literary,
spoken/written) studied in the course as a whole or selected for wider independent
study. The selected prescribed text should be regarded as the core text, and will
require sustained reference and more detailed discussion than the texts
discussed for comparative reference.
Candidates should prepare for the following aspects of integrated study:

presentation of characters/people
themes e.g. family life, power, love
narrative technique
influence of contextual factors in the production and reception of texts
importance of setting/location
language variation according to time, place, context
different readers or listeners interpretations of individual texts.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 27

Addressing the Assessment Objectives in LL4 Sections A and B


The same weighting of assessment objectives applies to both sections of the paper:
LL4

AO1%

AO2%

AO3%

SECTION A

30 (15)

6 (3)

12 (6)

12 (6)

SECTION B

30 (15)

6 (3)

12 (6)

12 (6)

AS TOTAL LL4

60 (30)

12 (6)

24 (12)

24 (12)

The notional distribution of marks for both sections is therefore:


AO1: 8 marks

AO2: 16 marks

AO3: 16 marks

This weighting is reflected in the tasks for both sections, as candidates should be
equally engaged with analysing a range of texts, considering the significance of
contextual factors and exploring relationships between the unseen texts in Section A
and between the set text and other texts studied on the course in Section B:

select and apply relevant concepts and approaches from integrated linguistic
and literary study, using appropriate terminology and accurate, coherent
written expression (AO1);

demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which


structure, form and language shape meanings in a range of spoken and
written texts (AO2);

use integrated approaches to explore relationships between texts, analysing


and evaluating the significance of contextual factors in their production and
reception (AO3).

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 28

4. Appendices
Appendix 1 :LL1 Section A Specimen Answer
*London
* Please note that this poem has been withdrawn from the anthology and replaced by Blakes
The Tyger

In its most basic interpretation, each text can be seen as an expression of its respective
author's opinion of the city of London; the opinions expressed are greatly differing, however.
Fundamentally, the main difference between the two texts is the light in which they portray
the city; Blake does so in a negative light, whereas Smith does so in a positive light, at least
on the surface.
The poem, 'London', has a rigid structure, being split into four quatrains. This structure is
perhaps reflective of the monotony which Blake feels is inherent in London. This is also
reinforced by both the regular rhyme scheme, and the eight syllable lines, which produce a
rhythm which sounds almost like that of a march. This implies that London, like a marching
army, is inescapable and all-encompassing. Smith, on the other hand employs a much less
rigid structure, which is much more like speech or a stream of consciousness. This,
combined with the use of ellipsis, interjections, and a spoken style make for a much more
informal, freer piece of writing which reflects the vibrancy which Smith sees in the city of
London.
Both pieces use the first person narrative stance, although to very different effects. Blake
uses the first person to convey to the reader the oppressive nature of London. He says that
he wanders through the "charter'd street", which implies freedom, since the city was given a
charter by the sovereign entitling it to the right to manage its own affairs; however, he
applies the same word, "charter'd", to the Thames, causing a semantic shift, leaving the
word with a new meaning of possession, which then, subsequently, affects the first use of
the word, making us feel that the streets of London have a closed in, almost claustrophobic
quality. Smith, on the other hand, uses the first person to express her appreciation of
London, the first three words she says are "I love London" - this declarative sentence sets
the tone for the rest of the piece, framing it, so that we read the rest of the text from a
positive perspective.
In 'London', Blake uses one enjambed sentence per stanza; this I feel is somewhat
incongruous with the content of the poem. In the poem, Blake is conveying a very
pessimistic view of life in London, and of social injustice; as such I would have expected a
more rigid structure to be adopted, to reflect the content. Perhaps this implies that there is
some freedom in London, or at least a sense of it, but not much. However, it could also be
argued that this is not the case, since the enjambed sentences are marshalled through
caesura, and the quatrains form a rigid structure overall; from this we could infer that Blake
is saying that any feeling of freedom in London is but an illusion, and that in actual fact, all
inhabitants of London are actually prisoners of it, even if they are unaware of being so.
Both the sentence structure and grammatical forms adopted by Smith are those we would
expect to find in spoken language. She uses syndetic listing in the second paragraph which
serves to create an energetic mood in the text, mirroring that which she sees in London - "I
don't think there is any city to touch it in terms of energy". The use of spoken style, such as
the use of "up there" at the end of the first paragraph sets a more informal, casual,
conversational tone, which makes the reader think of London as a casual urban place. The
use of the interjection "Oh" has a similar effect.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 29

The use of lexis and imagery within Blake's writing serves to enhance his view that London
is oppressive and claustrophobic. Throughout the poem he repeats the word "every", and
the phrase "In every" in the second quatrain, which makes the reader feel that the
pessimistic, distressed tone with the poem permeates the city in its entirety. The lexical set
of "cry", "sigh", "tear" and "woe" serve to make us feel that the city breeds sadness within its
population. The use of the phrase "mind-forg'd manacles" infers that the distress and
oppression which the narrator feels is a product of humanity, since it is 'made of the mind',
so essentially, Blake is saying that humanity is to blame for its own distress and
unhappiness. The image of the soldier's blood running down palace walls is a very vivid, and
somewhat repugnant one, which illustrates the social injustice present with the society of
London, since it seems unjust that the "hapless soldier" should die while the monarch lives
opulently in the palace. Also, the phrase "the new born infant's tear" implies that misery, for
those born into the lower classes begins at birth, and further emphasises the social injustice
present in the society. The linking of "Marriage" and "hearse" is perhaps a comment by
Blake upon how societal conventions serve only to create further social injustice, since the
implication hear is that the prostitute will be viewed badly as a result of the child being born
out of wedlock.
Similarly, in Smith's piece, lexis serves an extremely important role in conveying her point of
view. Her use of the neologistic portmanteau "city- ness" makes the reader feel that the city
is 'fresh' and contemporary. Her use of the word "unnatural" to describe New York implies,
by compassion that London is a natural place to live. Smith's apparent preoccupation with
bagels is comic, and lightens the tone of the piece, but is also perhaps a criticism of the
frivolity of London. Through the use of proper nouns she gives London a sense of place
which is not present in Blake's writing, which, in comparison seems less focused on London
itself, and more so on the injustices within it.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 30

Appendix 2: LL1 Framework for analysing single texts (1)


Overview ( Content/Context):

Statement
Structure and Form

Narrative Stance

Grammar and Sentence


Structure

Lexis and Imagery

Phonology and Sound


Patterning

Orthography and
punctuation

Evidence

Analysis

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 31

Appendix 3: LL1 Framework for analysing single texts (2)


Overview (Content/Context): Blakes London is a devastating criticism of the city and humanity in general. It explores misery, injustice and oppression, common themes in Blakes Songs Of
Experience. Blake saw himself as a prophet or bard, fulfilling his role by highlighting societys vices. Church and state are both attacked here and his affection for children re-iterated.
Statement
Evidence
Analysis
Structure and Form
Quatrains
Regular rhyme, rhythm and quatrain structure drive home the relentless message of despair.
Alternate rhyme
Adds item to list suggests problems are pervasive.
Iambic tetrameter
Links Chimney Sweep to Blackning Church and soldier to blood on Palace.
Caesura
in every voice, in every
ban
Enjambment
In verse 3
Narrative Stance
First person address
I wander
Strong personal message of the irresponsibility of London and its inhabitants.

Grammar and Sentence


Structure

Declarative mood

And mark in every face

Parallelism and
Asyndetic listing

In every
Marks of

Blake describes his vision of London as a matter of fact.


The hammering repetition of key phrases suggests the extent of the problem.
Focus on noun at start of phrase repeated to emphasis blight.
Attacks the deadening grip of conventional formal institutions.

Foregrounding
marriage hearse
Lexis and Imagery

Juxtaposition
Adjective

Dual meaning symbol of freedom: London granted charter and Thames as possessed or hired
out.
Meaning to notice or a scar. Blake has identified both in his vision.
Constrictions are of human creation suggested through compound adjective.
Darkness synonymous with sin and corruption.

Metaphor

charterd
charterd Thames
mark in every face and
marks of woe
mind-forgd manacles
blackning midnight

Colour symbolism
Alliteration

mindmanacles

Sibilance

hapless soldiers sigh

Blake sneers at mans inability to break free from his desperate fate,
Sympathetic presentation of unfortunate victim reinforced through gentle, innocent alliteration.
Biting consonants reflect Blakes bitter outlook.

Plosives
Poetic elision

bloodPalace
blastsblights
charterd, blackning

For metrical regularity.

Verb/noun

Phonology and Sound


Patterning

Orthography and
punctuation

Man, Church, Harlot


Non-standard
capitalisation

Foregrounds significant nouns to poems message.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 32

Appendix 4 : Framework for Analysing Single Texts (completed)


Overview (Content/Context): Smith views London as vibrant, multi-cultural, successful and full of energy. She compares it with New York in status, although she criticizes the English for misrepresenting London through disappointment and clich. The interview is relatively contemporary (August 2003). As a novelist Smith is being asked to give her personal and her creative view
of the city she clearly loves.
Statement
Evidence
Analysis
Structure and Form
Interview for magazine
this magazine
Interview has been adapted into an article for magazine celebrating London.
article
Prcis of artistic view of London in relation to English novels.
When we write
Bold sound bite from
Article begins by considering London as geographical place and goes on to consider the role of London in
article to right
I love LondonBlackwriting.
Moves from geographical
English novel
to artistic
Narrative Stance
First person address
I love London
Strong personal message of admiration for London as a city, less so for representations of London in
Our English way
fiction to date.

Grammar and
Sentence Structure

Lexis and Imagery

Second person address


Declarative mood
And tripling
Parallelism

You can write


People are people are
people,
Get a bagel at 3 in the
morning

Discourse features
Stative verb
Pronoun/determiner

up there
youll
love
we, our

Proper nouns
Simile
Phonology and Sound
Patterning

Orthography and
punctuation

New York, London,


Givenchy
like a lover

Addresses reader or interviewee directly as to options available for writing about London.
Matter of fact personal vision of Londons inhabitants.
The hammering repetition of key phrases suggests the extent of the problem.
Repetition to explore possibilities London should/should not present.
Slang phrase to highlight importance of London to Smith, elision creates informality of tone.

Conveys strong emotions for the city.


Show Smiths acceptance of her role in representing London to readers.
Creates sense of place and style, cultural associations connected with Brick Lane.
Compares magazines admiration for London with romance.

Plosive sound patterning

blocks and blocks and


blocks
people are people are
people

Repetition of words beginning with plosive phonemes re-iterates Smiths enthusiasm for London and
desire to move beyond novelists limited cultural representations

elision

youll, youre

ellipsis

I love LondonI dont


think
- its a celebration

As a feature of spontaneous speech to enhance informality of text


Indicates speaker has paused to clarify what exactly it is she loves so much about London
Used as pauses to collect speakers thoughts and clarify ideas

dashes

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 33

Appendix 5: LL1 SECTION A Making the connections


Aim: To identify a text for comparison with one of the poems in the anthology and to produce
an analytical comparison of both texts.

You have two weeks to complete your assignment. The unseen text and your analysis of the
pair of texts must be handed in on _________________

In your analytical comparison you should include:


An overview of both texts, comparing the content and the context in which they were
produced
comparison of the structure and form of each text
comparison of the narrative stance of each text
comparison of the grammar/sentence structure of each text
comparison of the lexis and imagery of each text
comparison of the phonology and sound patterning of each text
comparison of the orthography and punctuation of each text.

Once you have completed your own assignment, you will be exchanging your pair of texts
for a different pair selected by someone else in the class. In effect, you get to be the
examiner and set your friends an exam style question dont be too mean though,
remember they are going to be setting one for you too!

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 34

Appendix 6: The Cone

THE CONE
Think about it like this Just as we need a fairly tasteless, dry cone to enjoy an
ice cream so we need fairly dry linguistic and literary terms and approaches to
help us explore the meaning of a text. Most of us dont buy an ice cream for the
cone, and most of us dont read a text simply to describe its linguistic or literary
features. Always relate what you find in a text to how meaning is created. Do
try to eat the whole cone though! Use all the approaches and terms available.
GOOD LUCK
When we analyse texts we are
primarily exploring meaning.
Without keeping the focus on
meaning, you will be feeding the
examiner a dry cone of frameworks.
But without the cone, you are likely
to end up with meaning melting and
running through your fingers. Yuk!
Remember: you can get ice
creams with different scoops of
flavour: always try to explore
different ways of reading a text.

Style
Your own written and spoken expression
has an impact on how your ideas are
perceived by others. Always use an
appropriate style and register for the
context in which you are writing or
speaking. Punctuation and vocabulary
need to be used accurately.

STYLE

MEANING
Overview
CONTENT; CONTEXT; AUDIENCE;
ATTITUDES; PURPOSE; TEXT TYPE;
TONE; THEMES

C C A A P T T T

Sentence level/Grammar
Sentence types
Syntax (word order)
(especially: parallelism, foregrounding;
end focus; non-standard features)
Mood (Declarative, Interrogative,
Imperative)
Tense
Standard/Non-standard
features/Dialect
Ellipsis

Phonology
Accent/Pronunciation e.g. elision,
phonemes //, plosives, fricatives, sibilants,
IPA, Received Pronunciation, regional
accents.
.Prosodic features (loudness, stress,
pitch, intonation, etc.)
Sound alliteration, assonance, rhyme
(couplets, masculine, half-rhyme, eye
rhyme), rhythm, iambic and trochaic feet,
sound effects, onomatopoeia, )
Typography
Font
Punctuation
Orthography
Graphemes <>
Pictorial elements
Use of colour

FORM AND
STRUCTURE
SENTENCE
LEVEL

WORD
LEVEL
PHONOLOGY
TYPOGRAPHY

Form and structure/Discourse


Genre, narrative stance (first person, third
person, second person address), narrative
voice, dialogue, verse type e.g. sonnet
(Petrarchan/Shakespearean), ballad, lyric,
free verse, epistolary form, prose/verse
Order of content; development of
ideas/argument, chronology, juxtaposition
of content, chapters, flashback, stanza
structure (couplet; quatrain, sestet, octave,
enjambment, caesura, volta) rhyme
scheme, metre, scansion, enjambment,
turn-taking, pausing, non-fluency,
overlapping, latching

Word level/Lexis
Modifiers
Register
Word classes (e.g. pronouns, verbs, abstract
nouns)
Lexical sets
Connotations
Standard/Non-standard
features/Dialect/Idioms/Archaisms
Literary and Rhetorical techniques including:
metaphor, simile, allusion, imagery, symbolism,
personification, anthropomorphism, pathetic
fallacy, listing, antithesis, paradox, oxymoron,
juxtaposition, tripling, repetition, hyperbole,
litotes, apostrophe

Remember you dont have to follow the order above, but


you should always have a clear plan and structure.
DONT FORGET: ANSWER THE QUESTION SET

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 35

Appendix 7: Top Ten Induction Activities


Starting AS English Language & Literature

First Class
1. Whats in a name?
Devise a short factual narrative in which one person is addressed in several different ways
according to context. (e.g. Mrs Smith, Mum, madam, dear etc.) Students discuss variations
and why they occur. Explain your own different names and titles to the class. Then they list
what they are called, by whom, including nicknames and their origins.
Introduce key term- vocative.

Overview
2. Language variety sheet
Fill an A3 sheet with 20 very short extracts/texts of different genres and periods (e.g. main
literary genres, advert, transcript, media texts, letter, news bulletin). Students identify text
types 1-20.Follow up with structured set of questions targeting key concepts e.g. register,
tone, viewpoint, non-standard features, spoken/written, objectivity/bias, graphology

Non-fiction writing
3. The Next Big Thing
Based on style of The Times supplement interview feature. Introduce recent examples of
the genre. Students have 5 minutes to interview a partner, collecting material especially
strengths, achievements, talents and ambitions. Swap over. They write the beginning
(approx. 150 words) of a profile to read out, introducing their partner to the class. Can be
written up in full as a brief assignment.
4. Newspaper headlines
Students match ten recent headlines with brief summaries of the stories they headed. They
make a list of typical linguistic features of headlines. Discuss and elicit/introduce appropriate
terminology. Provide a new set of story summaries, real or imaginary. Students devise
headlines and analyse their choices. Could introduce terms such as: homophone, ellipsis,
collocation, intertextuality

Poetry
5. What is poetry ?
Pose the question. Consider O.E.D definition. In small groups students discuss poems they
already know and work towards a definition of their own. Note results on board. Give out a
number of cards with poets definitions (e.g. Heaney: Poetry is language in orbit; Motion:
Poetry is a hotline to the emotions). Students rank them in order of agreement and defend
favourite definitions with reference to poems they know.
6. Song Lyrics
Provide a varied collection of lyrics, old and new. These can be accompanied by songs on
CD. Demonstrate analysis of lexis, syntax and some literary devices on two sets of lyrics.
Students analyse the other examples in pairs. For the following class students play, present
and analyse their own favourites.
7. Poems in performance
Use Daisy Goodwin DVD Poems to Fall in Love With, with paper copies of selected poems.
Discuss how performance and presentation bring out meanings of poems. Small groups of
students are given a (fairly short) poem to perform. The presentation might add a short
explanation of the effects they aimed to achieve.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 36

Prose genres
8. Word class packs
Use laminated word packs of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Each pair/small group
of students is dealt a hand of cards and a genre card (e.g. horror, detective, sci-fi,
romance). The task is to include the words in a narrative opening in that genre.
9. Consequences
Each student has a genre card (as above) which they keep to themselves. On an A3 sheet
each writes the opening of a narrative in that genre. Then they stop and fold the page,
leaving a line or so showing. The sheets are passed around, each student adding a section
in their particular genre. When they are read out, the class try to identify the genres.
10. Nursery rhymes
Introduce idea of re-writing in a different genre (good examples in Private Eye and politically
correct fairytales). Deal out one pack of genre cards and a nursery rhyme to each pair.
Students re-write the nursery rhyme in the genre and briefly identify important stylistic
features.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 37

Appendix 8: The Terminology Table Tool-kit


Abstract noun
Accent
Active voice
Adjective
Adverb
Alliteration
Allusion
Alternate rhyme
Anapest
Archaisms
Aspirants
Assonance
Asyndetic listing
Attitudes
Auxiliary / Modal
verbs
Bilabials
Caesura
Clause
Collective noun
Comment clause
Common/concrete
noun
Complex sentence
Compound adjective
Compound sentence
Conceit
Connotations
Content
Context
Co-ordinating
conjunction
Couplet
Dactyl
Declarative mood
Definite article
Deictic
Dependent or
subordinate clause

A name to describe things that have no physical qualities


A set of distinctive pronunciations that mark regional or social
identity
A grammatical structure in which the subject is the actor of the
sentence e.g. the dog eats the bone
A word that modifies a noun or pronoun
A word that modifies verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions and
prepositions
The repetition of the same sound in the initial position in a
sequence of words
To refer to something indirectly or metaphorically
Lines of poetry where the rhyme is on every other line (abab)
A unit of poetic meter containing two unstressed syllables
followed by a stressed syllable --/
A word or phrase no longer in current use
Sounds that denote audible breath e.g. h
A repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds
The omission of co-ordinating conjunctions as a feature of
rhetorical style
The opinions expressed in the text
A verb that precedes another verb e.g. I can go
Term used to denote sounds made with both lips e.g. m, b
A mid-line pause
A group of words usually with a finite verb which is structurally
larger than a phrase
A name that refers to a group of people, animals or things
A commonly occurring phrase in speech e.g. you know
A name for every day objects
A sentence made up of one main and one or more subordinate or
dependent clauses
An adjective made up of two words joined by a hyphen
A sentence made up of at least two main clauses joined together
by a co-ordinating conjunction
A deliberately elaborate metaphor
The associations attached to a word in addition to its dictionary
definition
What the text is about
Things outside the text which may shape its meaning e.g. when it
was written, and who wrote it
A word that joins elements of equal rank (and, or, but)
A two line verse (often rhyming)
A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed
by two unstressed syllable /-A mood used to express a statement
The
Terms used to denote words that rely on the context to be
understood e.g. pass me that, there.
A group of words which add extra information to the independent
main clause

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 38

Dialogue
Discourse
Double negative
Dynamic verbs
Elision
Ellipsis
End-focus
Enjambment
Euphemism
Exclamatory mood
Eye rhyme
Fillers
foregrounding
Form
Fricatives
Hyperbole
Iambic
Imagery
Imperative mood
Indefinite article
Independent main
clause
Internal rhyme
Interrogative mood
Intonation
IPA
Juxtaposition
Lexical set
Lexis
Litotes
Metaphor
Mode of address
Nasals
Non-standard Lexis
Noun
Octet
Onomatopoeia
Orthography
Oxymoron
Paralinguistics
Parallelism
Passive voice

Language interaction with two or more participants


The study of spoken language
A structure in which more than one negative is used
A verb that expresses an action rather than a state
The omission of sounds in connected speech
The omission of part of a sentence
A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on a
closing sentence element.
Run-on lines
A word that replaces a term seen by society as taboo or
unpleasant
A mood that expresses strong emotions
Where the rhyme looks like it should rhyme but the sound is not
exactly the same.
Words used when hesitating in speech, um, er
A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on
an opening sentence element
The structure and shape of the text
Sounds where air escapes through a small passage e.g. f, v
Exaggeration used to heighten feeling and intensity
A unit of poetic meter containing one unstressed syllable followed
by one stressed syllable -/
A descriptive or metaphorical use of language to create a vivid
picture
A mood that expresses a command
A
The group of words which carries the core meaning of the
sentence
Where the rhyming sound occurs within a line of verse
A mood expressing a question
The quality or tone of the voice in speech
The International Phonetic Alphabet used to classify the sounds
of language
To place two or more things side by side
A group of words joined by similarities
The term used to describe the vocabulary of a language
A deliberate understatement
A description which does not compare one thing with another but
actually becomes the other e.g. the trees danced in the wind
The point of view of the text i.e. first, second or third person
A term used to describe consonants produced with an open nasal
passage e.g. m,n
Any variety that does not conform to the standard form as used
by society
A naming word
An eight line verse
The term used to denote words that imitate sounds
A study of spelling and the ways letters are used in language
The use of apparently contradictory words in a phrase
Non-verbal communication using gestures, posture and facial
expressions
The patterning of pairs of sounds, words or structures to create a
sense of balance
A grammatical structure in which the subject and object can

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 39

Pathetic fallacy
Pentameter
Personification
Petrarchan or Italian
sonnet
Phonology
Phrase
Plosives
Preposition
Pronoun
Proper nouns
Prosodic features
Purpose
Quatrain
Received
Pronunciation (RP)
Repair
Repetition
Rhythm
Rondo
Sentence mood
Sestet
Shakespearean or
English sonnet
Sibilants
Simile
Simple sentence
Spondee
Stanza
Stative verbs
Stress
Subordinating
conjunction
Superlatives
Syllable
Symbolism
Syndetic listing
Syntax
Syntax inversion
Tag question
Tetrameter
Themes
Tone
Transcription

change places in order to alter the focus of a sentence e.g. the


bone was eaten by the dog
When the environment mirrors emotions
A unit of poetic meter containing five feet (10 syllables in total)
A device in which the non-human is given personal and human
qualities e.g. the trees danced in the wind
A poem of 14 lines, divided into an octet and a sestet, written in
iambic pentameter, rhyming abbaabbba cdecde (sestet may
vary)
The study of sound
A group of words that has no finite verb (except for a verb
phrase) e.g. noun phrase the green tree
Sounds which release a sudden burst of air e.g. p,b,t
A word that shows relationships between nouns or pronouns e.g.
on
A word that replaces a noun
A name of a distinctive person, place or other unique reference
The use of pitch, volume, pace and rhythm to draw attention to
key elements of spoken language
The reason the text has been produced e.g. to entertain, inform,
persuade etc.
A four-line verse
An English accent which has a high social status and is not
connected to a specific region
The correction of a mistake or misunderstanding in conversation
Saying the same thing more than once
The pattern of syllables and stresses within poetry
A poem with a circular structure which begins and ends similarly
The mood of the sentence (often clarified by punctuation)
A six-line verse
A poem of 14 lines, divided into three quatrains and a couplet,
written in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg
Consonant sounds articulated with a hissing sound e.g. s,z
A device which directly compares two things using like or as e.g.
the tress swayed in the wind like dancers
A independent main clause
A unit of poetic meter containing two stressed syllables //
The division of lines in a poem, also called a verse
Verbs that express states of being or processes
The exaggerated phoneme in any particular word
A conjunction used to introduce a subordinate clause (because,
while, until)
A word that emphasizes the extremes e.g. best, worst
The beats or rhythm in a line of verse
A device in which a word or phrase represents something else
Using conjunctions to join clauses
The study of the relationship between words in a sentences
The deliberate alteration of the structure of words in a sentence
An interrogative structure attached to the end of a sentence
which expects a reply e.g. isnt it
A unit of poetic meter containing four feet (68syllables in total)
The recurring ideas and images in a text
The style or voice the text is written in e.g. excites, emotional
A written record of spoken language, which can use symbols and

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 40

Trimeter
Tripling
Trochee
Turn-taking
Utterance
Verbs
Verse Type
Vocatives
Volta

markings to illustrate the distinctive nature of speech


A unit of poetic meter containing three feet (6 syllables in total)
Listing of three items
A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed
by one unstressed syllable /The organization of speakers contributions to a conversation
A stretch of spoken language used in stead of sentence when
discussing spoken language
Words that express states, actions or processes
The type of poem e.g. sonnet, lyric, ballad, ode, narrative poem
etc.
The words used to name or refer to people when talking to them
The turning point in a sonnet

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 41

5.
Band

ASSESSMENT GRIDS
AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE
LL1 Sections A and B Assessment Grid
AO1
AO2
Select and apply relevant concepts and
Demonstrate detailed critical
approaches from integrated linguistic and
understanding in analysing the ways in
Marks
literary study, using appropriate terminology which structure, form and language
and accurate, coherent written expression
shape meanings in a range of spoken
Weighting: 16 marks
and written texts
Weighting: 8 marks
0-10

11-20

21-30
3

31-40
4

AO3
Use integrated approaches to explore
relationships between texts, analysing
and evaluating the significance of
contextual factors in their production
and reception.
Weighting: 16 marks
Describes wider context(s) in which texts
are produced. Limited sense of genre,
purpose and audience. Limited evidence of
understanding relationships between texts,
particularly towards the bottom of the band.

Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal


application of concepts and approaches. Written
expression often has lapses in accuracy and
clarity. Basic terminology often misunderstood
and misapplied, and poor structure to response.

Limited awareness of how some of the


most obvious choices in form, structure and
vocabulary create basic meaning in texts,
though stronger towards the top of the
band.

Some basic evidence of integrated study.


Beginning to apply key concepts and
approaches. Some use of key terminology, but
sketchy or descriptive at the bottom of the band.
Generally accurate expression, but with lapses,
particularly towards bottom of band.
Straightforward vocabulary and sentence
structure. Attempts to organise response,
particularly towards top of band.
Clear evidence of integrated study, more
marked towards top of band.
Sound use of appropriate terminology. Relevant
and purposeful application of some relevant key
concepts and approaches. Generally accurate,
coherent expression, and sensibly organised.

Some awareness of some key language


features. Analysis mainly at word level,
tending to be descriptive towards bottom of
band.
Engages with basic meaning of texts on a
straightforward level, more focused towards
top of band.

Reasonable observations of some key


contextual factors. Selection and
discussion of some of the more obvious
and relevant points of comparison and
contrast. Attempts to use integrated
approaches, more successfully towards top
of band.
.

More sustained focus on language use to


create meaning, including some convincing
phrase and straightforward sentence level
analysis. Clear grasp of meaning, with
increasingly detailed appreciation of
writers/speakers techniques. Developing
eye for detail, most apparent at top of band.

Sensible and clear discussion of some key


similarities and differences between texts.
Developing and increasingly convincing
overview.
Clear evidence of integrated approaches,
with appropriate textual support, most
appropriate towards top of band.

Thorough knowledge, understanding and


insights gained from integrated study. Confident
application of concepts and approaches.
Accurate and sensitive use of terminology.
Written expression confident and fluent. Wellorganised material.

Perceptive awareness of how choices of


form, structure and language affect readers.
Sound analysis and increasingly confident
evaluation of writers/speakers techniques.
Clear and sustained focus on HOW
language is used to create different
impacts.

Confident awareness and discussion of


relationships between texts, making specific
and productive connections. Sound,
increasingly confident appreciation of
contextual factors and their significance.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 42

AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE


LL2 Assessment Grid for Original Writing Tasks (a) and (b)
AO4
Band

Marks

0-5

6-10

11-15

16-20

Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using


language appropriately for a variety of
purposes and audiences, drawing on
insights from linguistic and literary studies.
Limited attempt to vary register in response to
audience and purpose, less limited towards the
the top of the band. Limited attempt to apply
knowledge and understanding from integrated
study to own writing.
Some variation in register in response to
audience, purpose and genre, increasingly
successful towards top of band. Beginning to
apply knowledge and understanding from
integrated study to own writing, less successfully
towards bottom of band.
Register is more clearly suited to audience and
purpose, particularly appropriate towards the top
of band.
Appropriate and increasingly purposeful use of
some linguistic and literary features.
Style and tone are appropriate for audience,
purpose and genre. Clear sense of engagement
with writing tasks.
Style demonstrates some flair and is accurately
pitched for audience, purpose and genre.
Stylistic choices show a detailed knowledge of
linguistic and literary features and their impact.
Evidence of individuality most marked at top of
band.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 43

AS ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

Band

Marks

LL2 Assessment Grid for Commentary Task (c)

AO1
Select and apply relevant concepts and
approaches from integrated linguistic and
literary study, using appropriate terminology
and accurate, coherent written expression.

AO2
Demonstrate detailed critical
understanding in analysing the ways in
which structure, form and language
shape meanings in a range of spoken
and written texts.
Weighting: 10 marks
Limited awareness of how some of the
most obvious choices in form, structure and
vocabulary create basic meaning in texts,
though stronger towards the top of the
band.

AO3
Use integrated approaches to explore
relationships between texts, analysing
and evaluating the significance of
contextual factors in their production
and reception.
Weighting: 20 marks
Describes wider context(s) in which texts
are produced. Limited sense of genre,
purpose and audience. Limited evidence of
understanding relationships between texts,
particularly towards the bottom of the band.

Some basic evidence of integrated study.


Beginning to apply key concepts and
approaches. Some use of key terminology, but
sketchy or descriptive at the bottom of the band.
Generally accurate expression, but with lapses,
particularly towards bottom of band.
Straightforward vocabulary and sentence
structure. Attempts to organise response,
particularly towards top of band.
Clear evidence of integrated study, more
marked towards top of band.
Sound use of appropriate terminology. Relevant
and purposeful application of some relevant key
concepts and approaches. Generally accurate,
coherent expression, and sensibly organised.

Some awareness of some key language


features. Analysis mainly at word level,
tending to be descriptive towards bottom of
band.
Engages with basic meaning of texts on a
straightforward level, more focused towards
top of band.

Reasonable observations of some key


contextual factors. Selection and discussion
of some of the more obvious and relevant
points of comparison and contrast.
Attempts to use integrated approaches,
more successfully towards top of band.

More sustained focus on language use to


create meaning, including some convincing
phrase and straightforward sentence level
analysis. Clear grasp of meaning, with
increasingly detailed appreciation of
writers/speakers techniques. Developing
eye for detail, most apparent at top of band.

Sensible and clear discussion of some key


similarities and differences between texts.
Developing and increasingly convincing
overview.
Clear evidence of integrated approaches,
with appropriate textual support, most
appropriate towards top of band.

Thorough knowledge, understanding and


insights gained from integrated study. Confident
application of concepts and approaches.
Accurate and sensitive use of terminology.
Written expression confident and fluent. Wellorganised material.

Perceptive awareness of how choices of


form, structure and language affect readers.
Sound analysis and increasingly confident
evaluation of writers/speakers techniques.
Clear and sustained focus on HOW
language is used to create different
impacts.

Confident awareness and discussion of


relationships between texts, making specific
and productive connections. Sound,
increasingly confident appreciation of
contextual factors and their significance.

Weighting: 10 marks

0-10
1

11-20
2

21-30
3

31-40
4

Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal


application of concepts and approaches. Written
expression often has lapses in accuracy and
clarity. Basic terminology often misunderstood
and misapplied, and poor structure to response.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 44

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

Band

Marks

0-10

11-20
2

21-30
3

31-40
4

LL3 Section A Assessment Grid

A01
Select and apply relevant concepts and
approaches from integrated linguistic and
literary study, using appropriate terminology
and accurate, coherent written expression.
Weighting: 10 marks
Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal,
unconvincing application of concepts and
approaches. Written expression often has lapses
in accuracy and clarity. Response may lack
organisation. Basic terminology often
misunderstood and misapplied.

A02
Demonstrate detailed critical
understanding in analysing the ways in
which structure, form and language
shape meanings in a range of spoken
and written texts.
Weighting: 10 marks
Limited awareness of how some of the most
obvious choices in form, structure and
vocabulary create basic meanings. Some
difficulty in understanding meaning in texts.

Some basic evidence of integrated study. Some


application of key concepts and approaches.
Some use of key terminology. Generally clear
expression, but with lapses in accuracy.
Straightforward vocabulary and sentence
organisation, becoming more complex towards
top of band. Clear organisation towards top of
band.
Clear evidence of integrated study.
Purposeful use of appropriate terminology.
Relevant and purposeful application of some
relevant key concepts and approaches.
Generally accurate, coherent expression.
Effective organisation, particularly towards top of
band.

Some awareness of some key language


features. Analysis mainly at word level at
bottom of band.
Clear grasp of basic meaning. Texts
understood on a straightforward level.
Some generalisation and simplification.
Adequate awareness of genre, more secure
towards top of band.
More sustained focus on language used to
create meaning, including some convincing
phrase and sentence level analysis.
Sensible use of key linguistic and literary
concepts and approaches. Sound reading of
implicit meaning, with increasingly detailed
appreciation of writers/speakers
techniques.

Thorough knowledge, understanding and


insights gained from integrated study.
Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide
range of approaches. Accurate and sensitive
use of terminology. Very well-organised.
Written expression is confident, fluent, with
varying degrees of flair. Mature vocabulary.

Perceptive awareness of how choices of


form, structure and language affect readers
and audiences. Assured reading of texts.
Convincing and perceptive sub-textual
exploration. Some evidence of originality
may be shown, particularly at top of band .
Clear and sustained focus throughout
response.

AO3
Use integrated approaches to explore
relationships between texts, analysing
and evaluating the significance of
contextual factors in their production
and reception.

Weighting: 20 marks
Some simplistic awareness of the broadest
contextual factors. Limited sense of genre.
Limited evidence of understanding basic
points of comparison and contrast. Texts
may be discussed individually and
unevenly.
Reasonable observations of some key
contextual factors. Some relevant
discussion of how different contexts
influence the way the texts have been/are
received, more relevant towards top of
band. . Selection and discussion of some of
the more obvious points of comparison and
contrast.
Sensible and clear awareness of the
influence of some key contextual factors on
the production and reception of texts. Some
sensible evaluation of how different
audiences/readers in different times might
respond. Able to present generally
convincing overview. Points for comparison
and contrast are well-chosen and clearly
argued.
Confident evaluation of the impact of
contextual factors in shaping the production
of texts and influencing different
audiences/readers at different times.
Points of comparison and contrast are
astute and illuminating. Title/question
addressed consistently and perceptively.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 45

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

Band

Marks

0-10

11-20
2

21-30
3

31-40
4

A01
Select and apply relevant concepts
and approaches from integrated
linguistic and literary study, using
appropriate terminology and accurate,
coherent written expression.
Weighting: 10 marks
Limited evidence of integrated study.
Minimal, unconvincing application of
concepts and approaches. Written
expression often has lapses in accuracy
and clarity. Response may lack
organisation. Basic terminology often
misunderstood and misapplied.
Some basic evidence of integrated study.
Some application of key concepts and
approaches. Some use of key
terminology. Generally clear expression,
but with lapses in accuracy.
Straightforward vocabulary and sentence
organisation, becoming more complex
towards top of band. Clear organisation
towards top of band.
Clear evidence of integrated study.
Purposeful use of appropriate
terminology. Relevant and purposeful
application of some relevant key
concepts and approaches. Generally
accurate, coherent expression. Effective
organisation, particularly towards top of
band.
Thorough knowledge, understanding and
insights gained from integrated study.
Sophisticated application of concepts and
a wide range of approaches. Accurate
and sensitive use of terminology. Very
well-organised.
Written expression is confident, fluent,
with varying degrees of flair. Mature
vocabulary.

LL3 Section A Assessment Grid


A02
Demonstrate detailed critical
understanding in analysing the
ways in which structure, form and
language shape meanings in a
range of spoken and written texts.
Weighting: 10 marks
Limited awareness of how some of the
most obvious choices in form, structure
and vocabulary create basic meanings.
Some difficulty in understanding
meaning in texts.

AO3
Use integrated approaches to explore
relationships between texts, analysing and
evaluating the significance of contextual
factors in their production and reception.

Some awareness of some key


language features. Analysis mainly at
word level at bottom of band.
Clear grasp of basic meaning. Texts
understood on a straightforward level.
Some generalisation and simplification.
Adequate awareness of genre, more
secure towards top of band.

Reasonable observations of some key


contextual factors. Some relevant discussion
of how different contexts influence the way the
texts have been/are received, more relevant
towards top of band. . Selection and
discussion of some of the more obvious points
of comparison and contrast.

More sustained focus on language


used to create meaning, including
some convincing phrase and sentence
level analysis. Sensible use of key
linguistic and literary concepts and
approaches. Sound reading of implicit
meaning, with increasingly detailed
appreciation of writers/speakers
techniques.
Perceptive awareness of how choices
of form, structure and language affect
readers and audiences. Assured
reading of texts. Convincing and
perceptive sub-textual exploration.
Some evidence of originality may be
shown, particularly at top of band.
Clear and sustained focus throughout
response.

Sensible and clear awareness of the influence


of some key contextual factors on the
production and reception of texts. Some
sensible evaluation of how different
audiences/readers in different times might
respond. Able to present generally convincing
overview. Points for comparison and contrast
are well-chosen and clearly argued.

Weighting: 20 marks
Some simplistic awareness of the broadest
contextual factors. Limited sense of genre.
Limited evidence of understanding basic
points of comparison and contrast. Texts may
be discussed individually and unevenly.

Confident evaluation of the impact of


contextual factors in shaping the production of
texts and influencing different
audiences/readers at different times.
Points of comparison and contrast are astute
and illuminating. Title/question addressed
consistently and perceptively.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 46

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

Band

Marks

0-10

11-20

21-30

31-40

LL3 Section B Assessment Grid

AO4
Demonstrate expertise and creativity in using
language appropriately for a variety of purposes and
audiences, drawing on insights from linguistic and
literary studies.

A02
Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in
analysing the ways in which structure, form and
language shape meanings in a range of spoken and
written texts.

Weighting: 30 marks
Limited attempt to vary register in response to audience
and purpose, less limited towards the top of the band.
Limited attempt to apply knowledge and understanding
from integrated study to own writing. Limited engagement
with tasks.

Weighting: 10 marks
Limited awareness of how some of the most obvious
choices in form, structure and vocabulary create basic
meanings. Some difficulty in understanding impact of text
in performance. Limited awareness of contextual
factors/other texts which may have influenced the
production/performance.

Can vary register in response to audience, purpose and


genre, increasingly successful towards top of band. Can
apply reasonable knowledge and understanding from
integrated study to own writing, more basic towards
bottom of band. Clearer engagement with tasks towards
top of band.

Some awareness of some key language features. Analysis


mainly at word level at bottom of band. Some
generalisation and simplification. Adequate awareness of
genre and style, more secure towards top of band.
Attempts to consider the contextual factors/other texts that
may have influenced the production and performance of
the text. Makes reasonable assessment of impact of text in
performance towards top of band.
More sustained focus on language used to create
meaning, including some convincing phrase and sentence
level analysis. Sensible use of key linguistic and literary
concepts and approaches. Sound reading of implicit
meaning, with increasingly detailed appreciation of
writers/speakers style and techniques. Increasingly sound
evaluation of impact of text in performance. Sound
awareness of the contextual factors/other texts that may
have influenced the production and performance of the text
Perceptive awareness of how choices of form, structure
and language affect readers/audiences. Assured reading
of texts. Convincing and perceptive sub-textual
exploration. Some evidence of originality may be shown,
particularly at top of band. Confident, perceptive evaluation
of impact of text in performance. Sophisticated awareness,
most apparent at top of band, of contextual factors/other
texts that may have influenced production/performance.
Clear and sustained focus throughout response.

Register is clearly suited to audience and purpose.


Appropriate and increasingly confident application of
linguistic and literary features to own writing.
Style and tone accurately pitched for audience, purpose
and genre. Increasingly sound engagement with tasks.

Style demonstrates sophistication, most marked at top of


band and writing is assured in addressing audience,
purpose and genre.
Stylistic choices show an assured knowledge of linguistic
and literary features and their impact. Evidence of
originality and flair most marked at top of band.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 47

A2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE

Band

Marks

0-10
1

11-20

21-30

31-40
4

LL4 Sections A and B ASSESSMENT GRID

A01
Select and apply relevant concepts and
approaches from integrated linguistic and
literary study, using appropriate terminology
and accurate, coherent written expression.
Weighting: 8 marks
Limited evidence of integrated study. Minimal,
unconvincing application of concepts and
approaches. Written expression often has lapses
in accuracy and clarity. Response may lack
organisation Basic terminology often
misunderstood and misapplied.
Some basic evidence of integrated study. Some
application of key concepts and approaches.
Some use of key terminology. Generally clear
expression, but with lapses in accuracy.
Straightforward vocabulary and sentence
organisation. Clear organisation towards top of
band.

A02
Demonstrate detailed critical
understanding in analysing the ways in
which structure, form and language
shape meanings in a range of spoken
and written texts.
Weighting: 16 marks
Limited awareness of how some of the most
obvious choices in form, structure and
vocabulary create basic meanings. Some
difficulty in understanding meaning in texts.

Some awareness of some key language


features. Analysis mainly at word level at
bottom of band.
Clear grasp of basic meaning. Texts
understood on a straightforward level.
Some generalisation and simplification.
Adequate awareness of genre, more secure
towards top of band.

Clear evidence of integrated study.


Purposeful use of appropriate terminology. Relevant
and purposeful application of some relevant key
concepts and approaches. Generally accurate,
coherent expression. Effective organisation,
particularly towards top of band.

More sustained focus on language used to


create meaning, including some convincing
phrase and sentence level analysis.
Sensible use of key literary and linguistic
concepts and approaches. Sound reading of
implicit meaning, with increasingly detailed
appreciation of writers/speakers
techniques.

Thorough knowledge, understanding and


insights gained from integrated study.
Sophisticated application of concepts and a wide
range of approaches. Accurate and sensitive
use of terminology. Very well-organised.
Written expression is confident, fluent, with
varying degrees of flair. Mature vocabulary.

Perceptive awareness of how choices of


form, structure and language affect readers
and audiences. Assured reading of texts.
Convincing and perceptive sub-textual
exploration. Some evidence of originality
may be shown. Clear and sustained focus
throughout response.

AO3
Use integrated approaches to explore
relationships between texts, analysing
and evaluating the significance of
contextual factors in their production
and reception.
Weighting: 16 marks
Some simplistic awareness of the broadest
contextual factors. Limited sense of genre.
Limited evidence of understanding basic
points of comparison and contrast. Texts
may be discussed individually and
unevenly.
Reasonable observations of some key
contextual factors. Some relevant
discussion of how different contexts
influence the way the texts have been/are
received, more relevant towards top of
band. Selection and discussion of some of
the more obvious points of comparison and
contrast.

Sensible and clear awareness of the


influence of some key contextual factors on
the production and reception of texts. Some
sensible evaluation of how different
audiences/readers in different times might
respond. Able to present generally
convincing overview. Points for comparison
and contrast are well-chosen and clearly
argued.
Confident evaluation of the impact of
contextual factors in shaping the production
of texts and influencing different
audiences/readers at different times.
Points of comparison and contrast are
astute and illuminating. Title/question
addressed consistently and perceptively.

GCE AS and A ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE Teachers' Guide 48

Contributors to the Teachers Guide


Sally Llewellyn
Principal Examiner LL1

Michael Stevens
Chief Examiner
Principal Examiner LL4
Jan Mably
Principal Examiner LL1
Catherine Porter
Principal Moderator LL2
Cerys Preece
Subject Officer

GCE English Language & Literature - Teachers' Guide/ED


16 December 2009

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