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PHYSICS 213-06

MOMENT OF INERTIA

DECEMBER 2014

During this lab we will study what rotational Inertia is and how different shapes of masses and

different masses behave inertially when compared to each other. We will specifically study the

differences of inertia between a disk and a ring. We will use increasing forces to induce angular

acceleration of both a disk and a ring of a certain mass. We will then then measure the

differences in the acceleration to determine how the ring and the disk resist rotational movement.

Afterward we will compare how the radius of the masses and the torque(force) applied relate to

the angular acceleration. We will achieve a predictable force by using

for

this acceleration.

In this experiment we will measure the inertia of a disk and a ring by dividing an applied torque

by the resulting acceleration.

moment of inertia equations for a disk and a ring. Then we will compare the two values and

determine a percent error.

Discussion

The law of inertia states that it is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.

Copernicus and then Galileo were the first to dispute Aristotle's thought on movement and in

doing so they developed the first thoughts on inertia. Galileo Galilei was the first state A body

moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at a constant speed unless

disturbed. Johannes Kepler was the first to look specifically at Inertia, he even gave the name

which come from the latin for laziness. But it was Newton who echoed Gallilei with added

precision and quantification buy stating that an object will remain in motion or at rest. This

resistive force that objects contain is described and Inertia, and should be considered the single

term that describes Newtons First Law.

The rotational inertia of an object is dependent on the mass the the arrangement of the

mass within the object. A simple rule of thumb is- the more compact an object's mass, the less

rotational inertia an object will have. We studied to shapes and their inertia. A ring and a disk.

The rotational inertia of a ring with consistent density is dependent of its mass and the inner and

outer radius. The relationship between the mass and the radii is described as

. A disk is nothing but a ring with no inner radius so its inertia is simply a function of its

mass and its outer radius, specifically

Experimentally and inertia can be found by applying a known torque to the object and

dividing that torque by the resulting acceleration.

suspending a rotary motion sensor with its rotating axis perpendicular to the earth, thus its pulley

is parallel. A second pulley was mounted with its axis parallel and its face perpendicular to the

earth. In order run a cord downward, thus a weight could be hung from the cord to induce a force

on the rotary sensor. Careful attention was given to the alignment of the two pulleys. we wanted

the face of the second pulley to run tangential to the circumference of the rotary sensors pulley.

If this was not achieved the force applied to the rotary sensor would actually be the

where theta is the angle off from ideal.

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the moment of inertia of a rotating

disk.

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.

2. Hang up a 100 g mass on the holder.

3. Let it fall. This will rotate the disk.

4. Measure the falling time and distance, with the stop watch and the ruler.

5. Calculate the acceleration (a). To do this, use the formula:

y = at2 a = 2y/t2

6. Calculate the tension (T) on the string:

T = m (g-a).

7. Calculate the torque on the disk:

= Tr, where r is the radius of rotation.

= a/r.

9. Repeat the procedure for 4 different masses, icreasing 20 g each time: 120 g, 140 g

and 160 g

10. Plot vs. , and since = I the slope will give you the moment of inertia of the disk

(Idisk ).

Part 2. Dependence of I with M and R

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the influence of mass (M) and radius

(R) on the moment of inertia.

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.

2. Put a 200g mass (M) on the disk at 4 cm from the center (R). Distribute the mass.

3. Hang up a 100g mass on the holder.

4. Let it fall. This will rotate the disk.

5. Measure the falling time and distance, with the stop watch and the ruler.

6. Calculate the falling acceleration (a).

T = m (g-a)

8. Calculate the torque on the disk: = Tr, where r is the radius of turn (constant).

9. Calculate the angular acceleration: = a/r.

10. Calculate the moment of inertia of the system from the equation: Isys = /.

11. Calculate the moment of inertia of the disk and the mass added from: Icalc = Idisk

+MR2

12. Repeat steps 2 to 11 for 400g and 600g at 4cm.

13. Repeat steps 2 to 11 with 200g 400g and 600g at 8 cm.

Part 3. Moment of inertia of a hollow cilynder

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the moment of inertia of an object

an to compare the value with the teoretical one.

1. Measure the mass (MC), the internal radius (Ri) and the outer radius (Ro) of the

cylinder.

2. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.

3. Put the hollow cylinder on the disk.

4. Hang up a 100g mass on the holder.

5. Let it fall. This will rotate the disk.

6. Measure the falling time and distance, with the stop watch and the ruler.

7. Calculate the falling acceleration (a).

8. Calculate the tension (T) on the string:

T = m (g-a)

8. Calculate the torque on the disk: = Tr, where r is the radius of turn (constant).

9. Calculate the angular acceleration: = a/r.

10. Calculate the moment of inertia of the com bination (disk plus cylinder) from the

equation: Icomb = /.

11. Determine the moment of inertia of the cylinder from: Icomb = Idisk + Icyl

Calculate the % error with respect to the theoretical value: Icyl (t)= MC(Ri2+Ro2)

Exp. 10

Moment of Inertia

Falling distance: y =57.4 cm =0.574 m

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.15

t1

t2

t3

tav

a (m/s2)

T (N)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(2y/

) [m(ga)]

5.28 4.88 5.26 5.14

4.35

0.546

4.57 4.83 4.38 4.59

5.44

0.524

4.23 4.28 4.31 4.27

6.29

0.492

4.31 4.04 4.09 4.15

6.67

0.470

(Nm)

(Tr)

0.02039

0.01959

0.01838

0.01756

(rad/s2)

(a/r)

116.435

145.610

168.362

178.533

0.021

0.0204

0.0205

0.02

Torque (Nm)

m

(kg)

0.0196

0.0195

0.019

Series1

0.0184

0.0185

0.018

Linear (Series1)

Linear (Series1)

0.0176

0.0175

0.017

0

50

100

Angular Acceleration

150

(rad/s2)

200

Idisk (kgm2)

(/ )

0.0001752

0.0001341

0.0001092

0.0000984

Comparison between the calculated and measured Moment of Inertia of the system.

M (kg)

R (m)

t (s)

0.2

0.04

5.12

0.4

0.04

5.25

0.6

0.04

5.51

0.2

0.08

5.69

0.4

0.08

5.89

0.6

0.08

6.24

Falling mass: m=100g

a (m/s2)

T (N)

(Nm)

(rad/s2)

Isys (kgm2)

[2y/t2]

[m(g-a)]

[Tr]

[a/r]

[/]

4.38

1.08

0.0432

109.5

0.000395

4.17

2.25

0.0901

104.3

0.000864

3.78

3.612

0.1445

94.5

0.001529

3.55

1.250

0.1000

44.4

0.002252

3.31

2.596

0.2077

41.4

0.005017

2.95

4.116

0.3293

36.9

0.008924

Note. Use: % diff = 200|Isys - Icalc|/ (Isys + Icalc)

Icalc (kgm2)

[Idisk +MR2]

0.000321

0.000640

0.000960

0.001280

0.002560

0.003840

Inertia

0.01

0.009

0.008

0.007

0.006

0.005

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

0

Series1

0.000395

0.000864

0.001529

0.002252

0.005017

0.008924

Series2

0.000321

0.00064

0.00096

0.00128

0.00256

0.00384

Series1

Series 2= Calculated (kgm2)

Series2

% diff (I)

See note

20.6

29.8

45.7

55.1

64.9

79.6

D) Comparison between the calculated and measured Moment of Inertia of the cylinder.

Mass of Cylinder: MC= 1.4315 (kg) Outer radius; Ro=0.126 (m) Internal radius; Ri=0.1081(m)

Icyl (t) = MC(Ro2+Ri2) = (kg m2)= 0.01973

m

(kg)

0.1

t1

(s)

t2

(s)

t3

(s)

tav

(s)

a (m/s2)

(2y/

)

T (N)

[m(ga)]

(Nm)

(Tr)

(rad/s2)

(a/r)

Icomb

(kgm2)

(/ )

Ical

(kgm2)

(Icomb Idisk)

6.79 6.65 6.60 6.68

2.57

0.724 0.091 20.397 0.00446 0.00433

Use: % error = 100|Icalc - Icyl|/ Icalc= (0.00433kgm2-0.01973kgm2)/0.01973 = 78.05%

Sample Calculations

a (m/s2)=(2y/

)= 2(57.4m)x(5.14s)2 = 4.35m/s

T (N)=[m(g-a)]=(9.81m/s2-4.35m/s2) = 5.46N

(Nm)=(Tr)= 5.46N x 0.03736m = 0.2039Nm

(rad/s2) =(a/r) = 4.35m/s2/0.03736m

Idisk = (/ ) = 0.2039Nm/116.435 rad/s2= 0.001752kgm2

MR2=0.20kg x (0.04)2=0.00032 kgm2

% diff = 200|Isys - Icalc|/ (Isys + Icalc)=

200[(0.000395kgm2-0.000321kgm2)/(0.000395kgm2+0.000321kgm2)]=20.6%

I cylinder= MC(Ro2+Ri2) = (kg m2)= 0.01973 kgm2

Use: % error = 100|Icalc - Icyl|/ Icalc= (0.00433kgm2-0.01973kgm2)/0.01973 = 78.05%

Conclusion

All rotating objects have a property called rotational inertia or moment of inertia (I). The

moment of inertia is dependent on its mass M and the distribution of that mass. The unit

of rotational inertia is (kg-m2) we can break down objects into pieces and analyze each piece

mathematically. We can conclude the the moment of inertia is both affected by its radius, disk

rotation and mass.

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