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NG

TP
.Q
UY

NH

NG NGC AN

31
00

0B

TR

NHN BIT
V TCH CAC CHT
RA KHI HN HP

ID

TO
N

-L

C
P

2+

(Ti bn ln th nm)

NH XUT BN GIO DUC VIET NAM


ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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ID

NG

TO

-L

P2

+3

10

00

TR
N

NG

TP

.Q

UY

NH
N

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Cng ty CP dch v xut bn Gio dc Gia nh - Nh xut bn Gio dc Vit Nam


gi quyn cng b tc phm.
24-2010/CXB/136-2242/GD

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

M S: 8I057mO-TTS
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.Q

UY

NH
N

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NG

TP

LI NI 6CI

rong nhng dng bi tp l thuyt ca mn Ho hc, dng bi nhn bit

+3

10

00
B

TR

cc cht, tch cht r khi hn hp v iu ch cc cht l dng bi hc sinh


thng lng tng. gii quyt loi bi ny ngoi vic nm vng l thuyt v
tinh cht ho hc cc cht, cc em cn phi nhy bn trong vic pht hin s
khc nhau v tnh cht ca cc cht nhm nhn bit mt cht hoc tch mt
cht ra khi tp hp cc cht. gip cc em c k nng ny, chng ti bin
son cun sch Nhn bit v tch cc cht ra khi hn hp vi nhiu bi
tp a dng v cch nhn bit, tinh ch v tch cc cht ra khi hn hp. Sch
gm 2 phn:

C
P2

Phn 1: Ho hc v c
Phn 2: Ho hc hu c.

Trong mi phn c phn ioi cc dng bi tp theo cc ch . Hi vng


cun sch ny s gip cc em n luyn thi tt nghip Trung hc ph thng
v thi vo cc trng i hc vi kt qu tt.

-L

Quyn sch c bin son trong iu kin tng i gp rt v kh nng

B
I

D
N

TO
N

ca tc gi cng c gii hn, rt mong nhn c kin ng gp ca qu


ng nghip v bn c. Mi kin xin gi v Ban bin tp Khoa hc t nhin
- Nh xut bn Gio dc ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh - 231 Nguyn Vn C,
Qun 5, TP. H Ch Minh.

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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ID

NG

TO

-L

P2

+3

10
0

0B

TR

NG

TP

.Q
UY

NH

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

.Q
UY

PHN 1

TP

HOVC

H
N

I. Nhng phn ng c trng ca kim loi, phi kim v hp cht


ca chng

1. Nhng phn ng c trng c a kim oi, ion kim [oi

TR

2. Hng dn tch mt s kim loi v hp cht ra khi


hn h p ......

0B

3. Nhng phn ng c trng c a phi kim, anion v c c


hp cht

31

00

II. Nhn bt v ch cc ch ra khoi hon hp


Ch 1: Nhn bit kim loi, ion kim li v hp cht

C
P

2+

ca chng

Ch 2 : Nhn bit phi kim v hp cht ca chng

Ch 3 : Tch c c kim loi, phi kim v hp cht ca chng

ra khi hn hp

III. iu ch cc cht v hdp cht v ccf

ID

NG

TO

V Hng dn gii

-L

IV. Gu hi v bi p t gii

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

PH N

UY

HO V C

TP
.Q

I. N H N G P H N NG C TRNG CA K IM LO I, P H I K IM V
CC H P C H T CA CH N G

Thc th

Hin tng

(2)
h20

(3)
Dung dch trong +
H2T (vi Ca cho

NG

(4)

M+ nH20 -* M(0H)n + - H2T

(1 )
Kim loi kim
v ki.m th

Phng .trnh phn ng

Cht cn
nhn bit

1. Nhng phn Lig c trng ca kim loi, ion kim loi

2+
31

Na (Na*)
Ca (Ca2+)

Ngn la tia

Tm
Vng
da cam

0B

Tm ln a Pt.
ri t trn n
kh khng mu

KC)

00

Li (LP)

TR

ung dch c)

Ba(6a?+)
Nguyn t lng
tnh Be. Zn, A,
Cr

Tan- + H2 '

M+ (4-n)H +.
+ {n-2 )H2

H
A

C
P

Dung dch OH"


(NaH.
Ca(0H)2)

Vng.lc
M0jn'4 + - Hgt

M+(4-n)NaOH + .(n-2)H;>0 ~>

TO

Pb.

-L

Wa4.aM02 + - H2T
Kt ta trng + H2

Pb +2HCI -PbCI2 + Hjt

HN3 long

Kh NO khng mu

3Cu + 8HNO3 - 3Gu(N03)2 + 2N0


+ 4H20

HNO3 c

Kh N2 mu nu

Cu + 4HNO3

t trong 2

Mu (Cu) ->
Mu en (CuO)

ID

NG

Cu

HCI

Au

8a

Hn hp HNO3
c v HC c
t l th tch 1:3
I

Dung dch
H2S04 iong

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

. Tan + NOt

Cu{N03)2 + 2 NO2T
+ 2 H2

2Cu + O2
* 2CuO
Au + HNO3 + 3HCI AuCt3 + NO +
+ 2H20

Kt ta ng v
H2T

Be + H2SO4 |ggng > B3 SO4 + HjT

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Fe~

Ba2 + CO32
> BaC03

Dung d ch

CO32'

' Kt ta trng

Ca^#+ CO22
> CaC03

Dung dch

SO42"

Kt ta trng tan

Cu2*+ 20H~

Dung dch

CO32'

Kt ta trng

Cu^ + C3^
> CuC03-l

Dung dch OH

Kt ta trng

Mg2, + 20H'

Dung dch CO32'

Kt ta trng

Mg2* + C3^

Dung dch OH'

Kt ta trng xanh

Fe2+ + 20H' -> Fe(OH)2;

Dung dch C032"

Kt ta trng

Fe2' + CO32" -> FeC03l

Dung dch OH"

Kt ta nu

Dung dch

Kt ta trng

CO32"

Cu(OH)2

TP

Kt ta xanh

Fe3* + 30H'

Mg(OH)2l
MgC03

Fe(H)3

2Fe3++ 3 C032- - Fe2(C03)3

Dung dch cr

Mu vng

Dung dch OH

Kt ta en

Dung dch cr

Kt ta trng

Ag4 + cr -> AgCli


AI34 + 30H- -AI(OH)3
AI(0H)3 + OH -> AI02 + 2H20
Zn24 + 20H' -> Zn<OH)2
Zn(OH)? + 20H -> Zn022- + 2H20
Be2* + 20H- -* Be(OH)2
Be(OH)j + 20H" Be022~ + 2H20
Cr3* + 30H- -> Cr(OH)3
Cr(OH)3 + OH" Cr2" + 2H?0

Lc u kt ta mu
trng, sau tan trong
OH d

Cho t t dung
dch NaOH n
d

Be2+

+ SO/
> CaS4 t tan

Dung dch OH"

ai3+

Zn2+

.Q
UY

Kt ta trng

H
NG

Fe2+

CO32

TR
N

Mg+

Dung dch

Ag++ OH- - AgOH

-L

Cr3*

Fe3t + 3Cr -> FeCI3

00
B

Cu2t

(4)
Ba2"+ S42 - BaSCU

10

Ca2*

(3)
Kt ta trng

+3

8a2t

(2 )
Dung dch S0<2"

P2

(1 ) .

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NH
N

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

TO

2. Hng dn tch mt s kim loi v hp cht ra khi hn hp

t
n g khng khi
kh + HC1
H C 1' .
S
t tro
trong

lc

CuCl
Cu(

>Cu

[Ag

ID

Cu

Ag

V d 1: Tch ring tng kim loi Ag, Cu ra khi hn hp.

V d 2: C hn hp bt CaO, MgO, lm th no tch ring, cc


oxit ra'khi hn hp.
CaO V .+ h 2o
MgO

Loc

------>
* Ca(OH)2

CaCO;

> CaO

----- >
> MgO

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+C02

1---- Hn hp KL

L9C

pnc

NH

Hn hp KLJ

NaAlOa -* Al(OH)34- - A120 3 - AI

1 +NaOH d

UY

AI v

V d 3: C hn hp AI v mt s kim loi: Cu, Ag, Pb, bng


phng php ho hc hy tch AI ra khi hn hp kim loi.

TP

.Q

V d 4: C hn hp bt MgO v Fe2 0 3, bng phng php ho


hc hy tch ring tng oxit ra khi hn hp
__ +NaOH

(JA

TR

MgCla'!

I +HC1 J
[

Fe20 3

phn

{
\

lFeCl3J

->

+HC1

Mg(OH)2 - MgO
+NaOH

0 2,t

Fe ^ FeCl2 - Fe(OH)2 -> Fe20 3

+3
1

Fe20 3J

L
1

+NaOH

MgCl2

00
0

0 2>t

Ho tan hn hp trong dung dch HC1 ri in phn

U gO ']

+NaOH_

2;

MgO

Fe -> FeCl2 -> Fe(OH)2

- Cch
dung dch.

H
N

+HCI

^C

FeL

Mg(OH)2

tgi V MgSO,

- Cch 1 : Cho kh c o qua hri hp bt MgO v Fe23 nung nng.

P2

V d 5: C hn hp S1O2, AI2O3, Fe20 3 Bng phng php ho


hc tch ring cc oxit ra khi hn hp.

Trc tin nn cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch HCl v S1O2


khng tc dng vi axit HC1, lc ra c Si02.

-L
-

Dung dch cn li AICI3 v FeCl3 cho phn ng vi NaOH d thu


dc NaAl(>2 tan v kt ta Fe(OH)3> tip theo lc tch kt ta ri
nhit phn ta thu c Fe20 3. Dung dch NaA102 ch tc dng vi kh
CO2 ta thu c kt ta AI(OH)3, nhit phn c AI2O3.

TO

Lu :

B
I

1Cc oxit ca kim loi hot ng ho hc mnh nh K20 , Na20 ,


MgO, AI2O3 khng b kh bi cc cht kh c o , H2, c..., nu mun
iu ch cc kim loi ny th phi chuyn thnh mui ch>rua ri in
phn nng chy mui clorua.

- Mun iu ch kim loi kim v kim th ngi ta in phn


mui clorua nng chy, khng dng mui sunfat SO42'. (kh nng
chy), khng dng mui nitrat NO3 (d n).
8

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

2. Mun tch cc oxit ca kim loi MgO v Fe20 3 ra khi hn


hp, dng CO kh:

Ring iu ch AI th' in phn nng chy AI2O3, khng in


phn nng chy mui nhm v mi ny thng hoa nhit cao.

UY

CO + MgO---- > khng phn ng

TP

.Q

3CO -- F203 -> 2Fe + 3 CO2

Cho hn hp rn ( ngui) sau phn ng tc dng vi H2SO4 c


ngui, MgO phn ng, Fe khng phn ng, lc c Fe v dung .dch
MgS04. T MgS04 v Fe iu ch tr li MgO .v Fe20 3:

NG

MgO + H2SO4 ---- > MgS04 + H20

MgS04 + 2NaOHd - > Mg(OH)2 + Na2S0 4

t>57Uc > FeO + H2t -

TR

Fe + H20

. Mg(OH)2: :---> MgO + H20

00

4FO + O2 -- > 2 Fe23

+3

10

Hoc iu ch Fe20 3 theo cc phng trnh sau: .

P2

F e + H2SO4 long > F e S 0 4 + H 2t

FeS0 4 + ;2NaOH > Fe(OH)24- + Na2S0 4


> 2Fe20 3 +4H 20

4Fe(OH)2 + 0 2

3. Mun lm kt ta hon ton in Ala+ nn cho dung dch AI3+


tc dng vi duhg ch NH3-

-L

Al3+ + 3 NH4OH - AI(OH)3i + 3N V

TO

H2SO4 c, ngui.

4. Hai kim loi Fe v AI th ng vi cc axit HNO3 dc, ngui,

NG

5. Dung dch mui no to mi trng axit, baz hay trung tnh?

ID

" Dung dch mui ca axit mnh, bazo' yu tao mi trng axit
(qu tm ho ).
, .

NH4+ + H20 ^ = = NH3 + H30 +

Dung dch mui ca baz ninh, axit yu to mi trng baz


(qu .tun ho xanh).

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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C032' + H20

NH

V d: Dung dch Na2C0 3 to mi trng bazo'


HCO3- + OH

.Q
UY

Dung dch mui ca axit mnh, baz mnh to mi trng trung


tnh v khng thu phn.

TP

* Dung dch mui ca axit yu, bazo' yu thng thng to mi


trng trung tnh, tuy nhin i khi cn ph thuc vo thu phn
ca axit hay bazo'. V

Hin tng

(2 )

(3)
Kh mu lc nht

Nuc Br2
(mu nu)
Dung dch KI +
.h tnh bt

Nc brom nht mu

5 C2 + 8r2 + 6H20 -> 10HCI +2HBr03

Cl2 + 2KI -> 2KC + 2


-Mi
H tinh bt -4 Mu xanh

TR

Khng mu -> mii


xanh

00

Clz

10

(1 )
f2

Thuc th

Cht cn
nhn bit

NG

3. Nhng phn hg c trng ca phi kim, an ion v cc hp cht


Phng trnh phn ng

(4}

Niic clo
Kh S2

Que m tn
Cu (mu ),t

CuO (mu en)

-L

H tinh bt

N
TO
G

so 3

5CI2 + Br2 + 6H20 -> 10HC1 +2HBr03


SO2 + 8r2 + 2H20

H2S04 + 2HBr

2Cu + 02 - 2CuO

Kh mi hc
Nc brom
(mu nu)

Nc brom nht mu

. Dung dch
thuc tm

Thuc tm nht mu

5S02 + 2KMn04 + 2H20 -> 2H2S04 +


+ 2MnS04 + K2S04

Dung dch BaCI2

BaSO-l mu trng

BaCI2 + S03 + H20 -> BaSC + 2HC!

ID

S(>2

Nc brom nht mu

Tinh th thng hoa (hi


mu tm)
Khng mu chuyn
thnh mu xanh
Bng chy

un nng
*2

02

Nc brom.nht mu

C
P2

Br2

+3

Cht lng mu nu

SQ2 + B + 2H20

H2SO4 + 2 H8 r

Mi trng thi
H2S

Dung dch
Pb(N(2

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

Pbi mu en

- Pb2++ H2S -> PbSi + 2H+

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HCI (c)

To khi trng

Kting khi

Ho nu

NO

NH3 + HC1 -> NH4CI


2N0 + 02

2N02

Khi mu nu
Qu tim ho
khng mu

2N02

N204

TP

Mu nu

Lm lnh

3NO? + H20 - 2 HNO3 + NO

Qu tm m

NO2

NH

Qu tm ho xanh

Qu tm m

.Q
U

nh3

Mi khai

Pb4- mu vng

CO+PbCI2 +H20 ~> Pbi+2HCI +C02T

CO

CuO {mu en),


t

Cu (mu )

CO + CuO > Cu + CO2

C2

Nc vi trong

Lm vn c nc vi

CO2 + Ca(0H)2 >CaCOa-l + H2O

t, lm lnh

C hoi nc lm CuS04
khan mu trng -> mu
xanh
Cu (mu )

2 H2 + O2
2 H2O
CUSO4 + 5H20 -> CuS04.5H20
(trng)
(xanh)

Mu trng - mu xanh

+3

H20 (hi)

AgCl mu trng

P2

cr
Dung dch
AgNOa

AgBr mu vng nht


Agll mu vng sm

H
A

. Br

PO43"

no2-

H2SO4 long, t

Kh N02 mu nu

H2S0< + 3N<V N03* + 2N0 +


+ SO42' + h20
2 NO+ 02 -> 2 N02
Ba2+ + SO32' -BaS03

TO

NG

B
s2"

Ag* + r - Agl

Cu + 4 HNO3 -> Cu(N03)2 + 2N02 +


+ 2H20

Dung dch H*

S^t

Dung dch BaCI2

BaS04 mu trng
khng tan trong H*
thng thng

ID

so42

Ag* + Br_ - AgBri

Kh N02t mu nu,
dung dch mu xanh

Dung dch Ba2+ . BaS03l mu trng, tan


trong H+

so32-

C11SO4 + 5H20 * CuS0<.5H20


(trng)
(xanh)
Ag* + C1 > AgCll

3Ag*+PCV^Ag3P04>l (tan trong H+)

H2SO4

H2 + CuO > Cu + H2O

Ag3P04i mu vng

-L
-

c + Cu

NO3-

TR

10
0

CuO(mu en),
t .
CuSO khan
mu trng

0B

h2.

NG

Dung dch PbCI2

SO32" 4. 2H*

S02 + H20

B3 CI2 + so^ > BsSO^i' + 2CI

Dung dch
AgN03

Ag2s mu en

2Ag* + s 2

Ag2S

Pb(N03)2

PbS mu en

Pb2t +

PbS

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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BaC03 mu trng tan


trong H*

Dung dch H+

Kh C02

CO32- + 2 H+ -> CO2 + H20

hso3-

Dung ch H+

Khi S02t

HSO3- + H+

HC03

Dung dch H+

Khi C2t

HCO3 + H+ -'COzT + HjO

BaC03

NH
N

Ba2+ + C032"

S02t' + H20 .

.Q

UY

0
0

Dung dch Ba2+

CH D 1

TP

I I . N H N B I T V T C H CC C H A T RA K H I H N H P

H
NG

Nhn bit km loi, ion kim loi v hp cht ca chng

a) Bng phng php ho hc, hay phn bit 4 kim loi sau: AI,

TR
N

1.
Cu, Fe.

10
00
B

b) C 4 oxit ring bit sau: Na20 , Al20 3, Fe 20 3 v MgO. Lm th no


c th nhn bi c mi oxit bng phng php ho hc vi iu kin ch
c dng thm 2 cht.
HNG D N GII

+3

a) Cho H2S0 4 c, ngui vo 4 kim loi:

P2

- Ch c Cu, Zn phn ng:

Cu + 2H2S0 4 c---- CuS04 + S 0 2 + 2H20

Zn + 2 H2SO4 c---- * ZnS04 + SOt + 2H20

-L

Sau Zn, Cu c phn bit bng HC1 long, nh dung dch HC1
long vo hai mu, mu no c si bt kh l Zn; mu khng tc dng
l Cu.

Zn +

2H C 1 ----- > Z n C l2 + H t

ID

NG

TO

- Cn li l AI v Fe, ly hai mu ny cho tc dng vi dung dch


NaOH, mu no tan trong dung dch NaOH l Al, mu cn li l Fe.
2AI + 2NaOH + 2H20 > 2NaA102 + 3H2t

b) Cho H2O vo oxit trn ch c N2 0 tan to thnh dung dch


NaOH, cho dung dch NaOH vo 3 oxit cn li, oxit no.tan l AI2O3.
Ho tan 2 oxit khng tan Fe20 3 v MgO trong dung dch HC1 c
FeCl3 v MgC2- Dng dung dch NaH tc dng vi tig dung dch
mui ny to-kt ta trng, bn d l Mg(OH)2. Suy ra oxit ban u l

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NH
N

. MgO. Nu thu c kt ta mu nu l Fe(OH)3, suy ra oxit ban


u l Fe2C>3 (hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng).
2. Ch dng mt ho cht, nu phng php nhn bit 4 mu km loi l
Mg, Zn, Fet Ba.

UY

H NG D N GI

TP

.Q

- Ly 4 ng nghim, mi ng cha mt t dung dch H2SO4, cho


ln lt tng kim loi vo cc ng nghim trn, ng no c bt kh
bay ra v xut hin kt ta l Ba.

H
NG

Ba + H2SO4 ---- >BaS04 + H2T

Cc ng cn li u c bt kh v -to thnh mui tan MgS0 4 ,


ZnS04, FeS04.

Ba + 2H20 > Ba(OH)2 + H2T

TR

- Cho tip Ba d vo ng nghim c BaS0 4i, xy ra tip phn


ng sau:
'

10

00

Lc b kt ta, cn li dung dch Ba(OH)2 dng lm thuc th.

C
P2

+3

+ Ly dung dch Ba(OH)2 cho vo 3 ng nghim cha cc kim loi


cn li, ch c ng nghm cha Zn c phn ng v c kh bay ln:
Zn + Ba(OH)2 + BaZn-2 + H-2

H
A

+ Cho tip Ba(H>2 vo 2 ng nghim cha cc dung dch MgS04,


FeS0 4 c 0 trn. ng nghim c kt ta trng, v khng mu
khi da ra khng kh l Mg(OH)2- T nhn bit c Mg.

-L

MgS0 4 + Ba(OH)2 -> BaS04i + Mg(OH)24

TO
N

ng nghim c kt tua trng sau chuyn sang n l ng cha


dung dch FeS04.

FeS0 4 + Ba(OH)2 > BaSC + Fe(OH)2

4Fe(OH) + O2 + 2H20 ---- > 4 Fe(OH>3 (mu nu)

. T nhn bit dc Fe/

B
I

3. C 3 l ng ba hn hp dng bt: (AI + AI2O3 ), (Fe + Fe20 3) v (FeO +


Fe2 0 3); Dng phng php h hc nhn bit chng. Vit cc phng trnh
phn ng.

13
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HNG D N GII

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

.Q
UY

NH

- Cho hn hp ln lt tc dng vi dung dch NaOH, hn hp


no c. kh bay ra l (AI + AI2O3).
2NaOH + AI2O3 > 2NaAI02 + H20

TP

2NaOH + 2 AI + 2H20 - 2NaAI02 + 3H2t

Fe + 2HC1---- FeCl2 + H2t

NG

- Hai hn hp cn li (khng tc dng vi NaOH) cho tc dng


vi dung dch HC1, hn hp no c kh bay ra l (Fe + Fe20 3). Hn
hp khng c kh bay ra l (FeO + Fe20 3 ).
Fe20 3 + 6 HC1 ---- > 2FeCls + 3H20

TR

FeO + 2HC1---- -> FeCl2 + H20

10

00

4. Ch c dng thm mt thuc th, hy tim cch nhn bit cc ung


dch (mt nhn) sau y: NH4HSO4, Ba(OH)2, BaCl2, HCI, NaCl, H2S 0 4. Vit
cc phng trnh phn ng.

+3

HNG D N GII

C
P2

- Cho qu tm vo cc ng nghim cha cc dung: dch trn, qu


tm ho xanh l dung dch Ba(OH)2, ho l cc dung dch HC1,
H2SO4, NH4HSO4 (nhm .I) v qu tm khng i m l BaCls, NaCl
(nhm II).

TO
N

-L
-

- Cho mt t dung dch Ba(OH)>vo cc dung dch nhm I, dung


dch no cho kt tua mu trng BaS0 4 l H2SO4, dung dch c kt ta
BaS04 v c mi khai (NHs) l NH4HSO4, dng dch khng c kt ta
lHCl.
.
Ba(OH)2 + H2S0 4 ---- > BaS04i + 2H20

ID

NG

Ba(OH)2 + NH4HSO4 ---- > BaS04 + NH3 + 2H20

Ba(OH)2 + 2HC1 > BaCl + 2H20

- Cho mt t dung dch H2SO4 ( nhn bit trn) vo dung dch


nhm II, dung dch no cho kt ta l BaCla, dung dch cn li khng
phn ng l NaCl.

5. Ch dng thm nc, hy nhn bit 4 cht rn: Na20, A2O3 , Fe20 3) AI
cha trong cc l ring bit. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng.
(Trch thi tuyn sinh Di LC, Cau n g nni 2003, khi A)

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UY

Cht rn no tan l Na20:

NH

- Ly mt t mi cht rn cho vo tng ng nghim cha nc.

H N G D N GII

Na20 + H20 ---- > 2 NaOH

H
NG

2A1 + 2NaOH + 2H20 ---- > 2NaA102 + 3H,T


Cht no ch tan l AI23:
A120 3 + 2NaOH > 2Na102 + H2O

Cht no khng tan l Fe20 3.

TP

.Q

- Ly mt t mi cht rn cn li cho vo tng ng nghim cha


dang dch NaOH. thu c trn. Cht no tan v c bt kh thot ra
l Al:

TR

6 . C th nhn bit cc dung dich sau y ch bng giy qu tm c

00
B

khng? Nu c hy gii thch: H2SO 4, Ba(OH)2, BaCI2l HCl, NaCI, NaOH.


HNG DN G1

+3

10

Nhn ra dung dch HC1, H-2S 0 4 lm qu tm ho o (nhm I).

P2

Nhn ra dung dch Ba(OH)2, NaOH lm qu tm ho xanh


(nhm II).

Nhn ra dung dch NaCl, BaCl-2 khng lm i mu qu tm


(nhm III).

-L

- Ly ln lt dung dch nhm I vo 2 dung dch nhm II, nu


c kt ta mu trng th nhn ra cp H2SO4 v Ba(OH)2 cp cn li
khng c kt ta l HC1 v NaOH.

TO
N

H2S0 4 + Ba(OH)2 ---- > BaS04i + 2H20

NG

- Ly ln lt dung dch nhm I vo 2 dung dch nhm III,


nu c kt ta mu trng th nhn ra cp H2SO4 v BaCl2, cp cn li
khng c kt ta l HC1 v NaCl.

ID

H2S 0 4 + BaCl,---- BaSC + 2HC1

Nh vy c th nhn bit cc dung dch trn ch bng qu tm.


7. C 4 l mt nhn c nh s t 1 n 4 cha cc dung dch KI,
AgN03, HCt, Na2C 0 3. Hy xc nh s ca mi dung dch nu bit:
- Cho cht trong l 1 vo cc l u thy c kt ta.
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- Cht trong l 2 ch to kt ta vi 1 trong 3 cht cn li.

Cht trong l 3 to mt kt ta v mi kh bay ra vi 2 trong 3 cht cn li.

NH

HNG D N GII

UY

Cht trong l 1 to kt ta vi cc cht trong cc l th cht


trong l 1 l AgN03.

.Q

AgNOa + K I---- > Agi + KNOa

TP

AgN0 3 + HC1---- > AgCli + HN0 3

2gN03 + Na2C0 3 ---- Ag2C0 3>l' + 2NaN0 3

H
NG

Cht trong l 3 to mt kt tua v mt kh bay ra vi 2 trong 3


cht cn li th cht trong l 3 l Na2C0 3, cht trong l 4 l HC1.
2AgN0 3 + Na2COs ---- > Ag2C0 3 'l' + 2 N8LNO3
ch to kt ta vi

TR

trong 3 cht cn li th cht

0B

Cht trong l
trong l 2 l KI.

Na 2C0 3 + 2HC1---- 2NaCI + C 02 + H20

31

00

8 . C 4 l mt nhn A, B, c , D cha cc ung dch HCI, CaCl2 , NaHC03,


Na2C 0 3. Hy xc nh cc cht trong mi l v gii thch, nu bit:

2+

- Cho cht trong l A vo l c thy c kt ta.

C
P

- Cho cht trong t c vo l D thy c kh bay ra.

- Cho cht trong l B vo l D thy c kh bay ra.


HNG D N G II >

-L

Dung dch trong l c va to kt ta, va to kh bay ra khi tc


dng vi hai dung dch khc nn dng' dch trong l G l Na2C0 3.
Dung dch trong l A l CaCl v ung dch tong l D l HC1, ung
dch trong l'B l NaHC03.

B
I

D
N
G

TO

Phng trnh phn ng:


Na2C0 3 + 2HC1---- 2NaCl + C02 + H20
Na2C0 3 + CaC2 ---- CaC03 + 2NaCl .
NHCOs + HC1---- > NaCl + C02t + H20

9. C .2 dung dch: dung dch A v dung dch B. Mi dung cch ch cha 2


loi cation v 2 loi anion trong s cc ion sau:

16
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K+ (G,15 mol); Mg2+ (0,1 mol); NH4+ (0,25 mol); H+ (0,2 mol); c r (0,1 mol);
SO 42" (0,075 mol); NCV {,0,25 mol); CO32 (0,15 moi).

NH

Xc nh dung dch A v dung dch B.


H NG D N GII

.Q
UY

Dung dch A: NI4+ (0,25); K+ (0,15); CO32 (0,15); c r (0,1)


Tng in tch dng = Tng in tch m

H+ (0,2); Mg2" (0,1); NO3- (0,25); S042' (0,075)

0,2 + 0,1 X 2 = 0,25 + 0,075 X 2

NG

Tng in tch dng = Tng in tch m

Dung dch B:

TP

(0,25 + 0,15) = (0,15 X 2 + 0,1)

1 0 . Ch c nc v kh C0 2 lm th no nhn bit c cc cht rn sau:

10
00
B

H NG D N GII

TR

NaCI, Na2C 03, CaC03, B aS04. Trnh by cch nhn bit mi cht v vit
phng trnh phn ng {nu c).

- Ho tan tng. cht vo nc, thu c hai nhm cht:

+3

+ Nhm tan trng nc gm NaCl v Na2C 03<nim I).

P2

'+ Nhm khng tan trong nc gm GaC3 v BaS0 4 (nhm II).

- Sc kh CO2 n d vo tng dung dch nhm I Dung dch


no kt ta l Na2C0 3 , dng dch cn li l NaCL.

Na2C0 3 + C0 2 + H20 ---- > 2NaHC03

-L

- Sc kh CO2 n d vo tng dung dch nhm II, sau mt thi


gian cht no b tan ra dung dch trong sut l CaC3, cht rn
khng tan l BaS04.

TO

CaCOs + C0 2 + H2O ------- Ca(HC0 .3)2

NG

11. Dung ch A cha cc ion: Na+, S 0 42-, SO32, CO32'. Bng nhng phn
ng ho hc no c th nhn bit tng loi anion c trong dung dch.
'

H NG D N G I I .

ID

lm bi tp ny ta c th tin hnh theo nhiu cch sau y


gii thiu hai cch thng thng nht.
Cch 1 : Cho dung ch A tc dng vi dung dch HC1:
dd A + HC1 -> hn hp kh + dd B
0

KIDSLTr-S' _A

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

S 032 + 2H+- V S02 + H20


CO32' + 2H+---- > C02t + H20

TP
.Q
UY

Cho hn hp kh ln lt qua dung dch KM11O4 v sau l dung


dch Ca(OH)2. Ta nhn thy:
- Dung dch KMn04 b nht mu do SO2 phn ng:

5S0 2 + 2KMn04 + 2H20 ---- > K2SO4 + 2 M11SO4 + 2 H2SO4

Chng t hn hp kh c SO2, suy ra dung dch A c ion SO32'.

H
NG

- Dung dch Ca(OH)2 b vn c hoc vn c ri tr' nn trong


sut do cc phn ng:

CO2 + Ca(OH)2 ---- > CaCOai + H20


C0 2 + CaC03 + H2O

> Ca(HC03)2

TR

Chng t trong hn hp c kh CO2, suy ra trong dung dch A c

00

ion CO 32 .

10

- Cho dung dch BaC2 vo dung, dch B ta thy c kt tda:

+3

SO42' + BaCl2 > BaS04i + 2 Cr

P2

Chng to trong dung dch A c ion SO42".


Cch 2:

hn hp kt ta c .

~ Cho dung dch BaC2 vo dung dch A

S042- + Ba2+ -> BaSC

TO
N

-L

SO32+ Ba2+ -BaSOsi

C032"+ Ba2+ >BC03

Cho kt ta c tc dng vi dung dch HC1:

+ .Cht tan l BaCCV v BaSC>3.

ID

NG

+ Cht khng tan l BaS04, suy ra trong dung dch A c ion SO42".

Cho tc dng vi dung dch- HC1, thu c hn hp kh CO2 v


SO2. Nhn bit kh S2, CO2 suy ra ion SO32' v ion C0 3 2 nh
cch 1 .

12.
Ch dng mt kim li nhn b[ cc dung dch sau: AgN03, NaO
HC v NaN03. Trinh by cch tin hnh v vit cc phng trnh ho hc
minh ho.
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UY

NH

Dng kim loi ng. Cho kim loi Cu vo cc mu th cha cc


dung dch AgN03, NaOH, HC1 v NaN03j mu th no c dung dch
mu ;xanh lam l AgN03.

HNG D N GII

.Q

Gu + 2AgN03 ---- > Cu(N03)2 + 2 Ag

TR

H
NG

TP

Cho dung dch AgN0 3 vo cc mu th cn li, mu th no cho


kt ta trng l HC1.
HC1 + AgN0 3 ---- AgCli + HNOa
Dng Cu(N3)2 l sn phm to thnh nhn bit dung dch
NaOH.
Cu(N03)2 + 2 NaOH---- > Cu(OH)2 + 2NaN0 3
(Mu xanh)
Cn li l NaNOs:

10
00

13. Dng mt ho cht phn bit cc dung dch sau: BaC2l Na2S 0 4,
Na3P 0 4, HN O 3. Vit cc phng trinh phn ng minh ho.
HNG D N GI1

C
P2

+3

Cho dung dch AgN3 vo cc mu th cha cc dung dch trn,


dung dch mu th no cho kt ta trng AgCl l BaCl2, kt ta mu
vng Ag3P 0 4 l Na3P 04.
2 AgN3 + BaC2 ---- 2 Agli + Ba(NC>3)2

Na3P 0 4 + 3AgNOa---- > Ag3P 0 4i + 3NaNOs

-L

Cho hai dung dch mu th cn li vo kt ta Ag3P0 4, dung dch


mu th no ho tan Ag3P0 4 la HNO3.

TO
N

Ag3P 0 4 + 3HN0 3 ^ 3AgN0 3 + H3P 0 4


Dung dch khng ho tan kt ta l dung dch Na2S 04.

ID

NG

14. Dng mt ho cht phn bit cc dung dch sau: H2SO4, Na2S 0 4,
Na2C 0 3 v F eS 0 4. Vit phng trnh phn ng minh ho.
HNG D N GII

Cho dung dch NaOH vo cc mu th cha cc dung dch trn,


mu th no c kt ta trng l FeS04.
FeS0 4 + 2NaOH---- > Fe(OH)2 + Na2S0 4

Ly 3 mu th cn li cho tc dng vi Fe(OH)2, cht no lm tan


Fe(OH)2 l H2SO4.
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Fe(OH)2 + H2S 0 4

FeS0 4 + 2H20

D n g d u n g d c h H2SO4 n h n b i t h a i m u t h c n l i, m u th

UY

H2S 0 4 + Na2C0 3 ---- Na2S0 4 + C0 2 + H20

NH

no c kh bay ra l Na2CC>3.

.Q

Cn i l Na2S4.

TP

15.
a) C 5 l mt nhn, mi ng mt trong cc dung dch sau
NaHS04> KHC03i Mg(HC0 3 )2, Na2SC>3 , Ba(HC03)2. Trinh by cch nhn bit
tng dung dch, ch c ng cch un nng.

H
N

b) Ch dng mt bo cht, hy cho bit cch phn bit Fe20 3 v Fe 30 4.


Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
(Trch th i tuyn sinh i hc, Cao n g nm 2002, khi B)

H N G D N GII

TR

a)
Ly mt t dung dch trong mi l cho vo cc ng nghim
nh s tng ng v un nig, quan st hin tng:

10

00

- 2 ng nghim s thy c kt ta trng xut hin, l cc


ng nghim cha dung dch Ba(HC0 3)2 v Mg(HC0 3 >2.

P2

+3

- 3 ng nghim cn li khng c kt ta.

- Ly vi git dung dch ' mt trong hai l ng cc dung dch c


kt.ta khi un nng trn, nh vo cc ng nghim ng cc dung
dch khc. ng nghim thy c si bt kh l ng ng dung dch
NaHS04, nu trong ng nghim ny to dung dch trong sut th dung
ch nh l Mg(H0 3 )2.

-L

2NaHS0 4 + Mg(HC0 3 )2 ---- > Na2S 0 4 + MgS0 4 + 2 CO2 + 2 H2O

NG

TO

Nu trong, ng nghim c kt ta trng, thi l ng ng


Ba(HC03)2.
2NaHS0 4 + Ba(HC03)2 ---- BaS04i + Na2S4 + 2 C0 2t + 2 H0O

ID

Nh vy ta tm c cc l ng NaHS04, Ba(HCC>3)2,
Mg(HC03)2- Cn li hai dung dch cha bit l KHCO3 v Na2S 0 3.

Ly vi git dung dch Ba(HC03) bit nh vo Hai ng nghim


ng hai dung dch cha hai cht cha bit trn. ng nghim no
thy xut hin kt ta th l dung dch NaSCV
20

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Ba(HC03)2 + NasSOg > BaS03 + 2NaHC03

Dung dch cn li KHCO3.

+ O2 - > 2 NO2 (mu nu)

2 NO

NG

Hoc c th dng HNO3 c:

3Fe(N0 3)3 + NO2 + 5H20

Fe30 4 + IOHNO3

TP

' 3Fe30 4 + 2 8 HNO3 ---- 9Fe(N0 3)3 + NO + 14H20

.Q

UY

NH

b) Cho tng cht tc dng vi dung dch HNO3 long, cht phn
ng cho kh khng mu, ho nu trong khng kh l Fe 30 4, cht phn
ng khng cho kh Fe20 3.

Fe20 3 + 6 HNO3 > 2Fe(N0 3)3 + 3H20

a) Dng phn .ng ho hc nhn bit tng kim loi sau: Al, Ca, Mg

TR

16.
v Na.

+3
1

00

0B

b) C 4 cht rn ng trong 4 l ring bit (khng c nhn) l: Na2C 03,


CaC03, Na2S 0 4, C aS0 4.2H20. Lm th no d c th nhn bit tng cht
ng rong mi l, n a ch-dng H20 v dung dch HCI.

P2

H NG D N GII

a) .Cho 4 kim loi tc ng vi nc, hai kim loi tc dng vi


nc l Ca, Na.^Hai kim loi khng tc dng vi nc nhit
thng l AI v Mg.
.

2 Na

-L
-

Ca + 2H20 ---- Ca(OH)2 + H2


+ 2H20 > 2NaH + H2

NG

TO

Dng kh CO2 nhn ra dung ch Ca(OH)2 v NaOH. T suy


ra kim loi l Na v Ca. ng dung dch NaOH nhn ra AI. Cht
cn li l Mg (hc sinh vit tip cc phng trnh phn ng cn li).

b) Cho nc vo 4 mu th cha 4 cht rn, ta c th chia cc


cht lm hai nhm.

ID

Nhm 1 : gm cc cht tan trong nc l Na2C3 v Na2S 0 4.

Nhm 2: gm cc cht khng tan trong nc l CaCC>3 v


CaS04 .2H20.
;

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TP
.Q

UY

NH

ho dung dch HCl vo nhm 1 , cht no gii phng kh l


Na2CC>3, cht cn li l Na2S04. Cht no nhm 2 tc dng vi ung
dch HC1 gii phng kh l CaC3, cht cn li ca nhm ny l
CaS0 4.2 H2 0 (hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng).

H NG D N GII

17. C 5 dung dch ring bit sau: HCl, HNO3 dc, NaN03, NaOH, A gN 03.
Hy nhn bit mi ung dch bng phng php ho hc vi iu kin ch
dng kim loi nhn bit

NG

- C th dng kim loi.Cu nhn bit dung dch AgN0 3 v dung


dch HNO3 c.

Cu + 2AgN03 ---- > Cu(NOs)2 + 2Ag (ph ngoi ng)


(mu trng)
2 H20

00

TR

Cu + 4 HNO3 ---- > Cu(NOs)2 t 2 NO2 t


(mu nu)

+3

10

- Cho kim loi Fe .vo 3 dung dch cn li, dung dch no tc dng
vi Fe c kh bay ln l HCl.

P2

Fe + 2HC1 * FeCl2> H2t

- Cho kim loi AI vo 2 dung dch cn li, dung ch no tc dng


vi AI v c kh bay ra l NaOH, dung dch khng c phn ng g l
NaNOs+ 2NaOH + 2H20 ---- 2NaAI02 + 3H2

2 A

TO
N

-L

18. Dng 2 ho cht nhn bit 4 cht bt l K20 , BaO, p 20 5 v S i0 2.


Vit phng trnh phn ng.
H N G D N G

ID

Cho nc vo cc mu th cha cc cht bt trn, cc cht bt


tan, tr S1O2 khng tan.
K20 + H20

2KOH

BaO + H2O ---- > Ba(OH>2


- P2O5 + 3H20 - 2 H3PO4

Cho giy qu tm vo cc sn phm va to ra c 2 dung dch lm


qu tm ho xanh l dung dch KOH v Ba(OH)2, dung ch lm qu
tm ho l H3PO4- Cho dung dch H3PO4 vo 2 dung .dch lm qu

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* Ba3(P0 4)2 + 6H20

UY

3Ba(OH)2 + 2H3P 0 4

NH

tn ho xanh, dung dch no to kt ta l Ba(OH)a, dung dch cn li


lKOH.

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TP

.Q

19. Dng mt ho ht phn bit cc dung dch sau: BaCI2, K,


Fe(N03)2, AgN0 3 v Na2C 0 3. Vit cc phng trnh ho hc minh ho.

HNG D N GI

NG

Cho dung dch HC1 vo cc mu th cha cc dung dch mui, ta


nhn thy c mt mu th cho kt ta trng l AgNC>3 v mt mu
th c kh bay ra l Na2C0 3.

AgNOs + HC1---- > AgCU + HNO3

TR

Na2COs + 2HC1---- > 2NaCl + C02t + H20

00

Dng AgNC>3 cho tc dng vi cc mu th cn li, c 1 mu th


khng c phn ng l Fe(N0 3)2 cn 2 mu th u cho kt ta:

+3

> 2AgCl + Ba(N0 3)2

P2

2AgN03 + BaCl2

10

AgN0 3 + K I---- > Ag + KNO3

Cho dung dch Na2C3 vo 2 mu th cha 2 dung dch KI v


BaC2, mu th no cho kt ta trng l BaCl.2, mu th cn li l KI.

Na2C0 3 + BaCl2 ---- > BaCOs'l' + 2 NaCl

H NG D N G

-L

20. C mt hn hp cht rn gm (NaOH, Na2C 0 3, NaHC03) cho hn hp


tan vo nc c dung dch A. Hy nhn bit cc ion c trong dung dch A.

TO

Cho hn hp vo nc xy ra cc phn ng:

NG

NaOH + NaHCOs---- > Na2C0 3 + H20

ID

Tu theo quan h v lng gia NaOH v NaHC0 3 c trong hn


hp m xy ra 3 trng hp sau:

Trng hp 1: iiNaOH = nNaHC0. -> Dung dch A ch c ion Na! v


CO32-.

Trng hp

: nNa0H > n Nair0 -> Dung dch A tn ti cc ion

Na+, OH v C032-.
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Trng hp 3: nNaOH < nNaHCo3 - Dung ch A tn ti cc ion

Na+, HC03", COs2.

NH

N h n bit:

.Q
U

lon Na+, dng a Pt nhng vo trong dung dch ri a ln


ngn n kh khng mu, ngn la n kh c mu vng.

TP

Ion CO32", c hai cch nhn bit.


C032---- > H2O + C02t

2 H+ +

- Cho t t HCI vo dung dch A thy si bt kh

Ba2+ + CO32' ---- > BaC03

NG

- Gho BaCl2 vo dung dch A th xut hin kt ta

TR

Ion OH". Lc b ht kt ta BaC03, cho MgCl2 vo dung dch


nc lc ta thy xut hin kt ta trng:
Mg2* + 2 0 IT ---- > Mg(OH)2i (mu trng)

10
00
B

Ion HCO3: Lc b kt ta Mg(OH)2, cho dung ch Ba(OH)2 vo


dung ch nc lc, thy xut hin kt ta:

P2

+3

Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCO3 ---- > BaCOs-l + 2HzO + C032"


21.

C 4 cc ng 4 cht sau: nc, dung dch NaCI, dung ch HC


H N G D N G I

H
A

dung dch Na2C 0 3. Khng dng ho cht no khc, hy nhn bit tng cht.

-L

Ly mi dung dch mt t ri t t vo nhau theo tng cp th


nhn thy khi cho HC1 vo dung dch Na 2C0 3 hay cho Na2C0 3 vo
HC1 u c kh bay ra:
Na2C03 -> 2 NaCI + C0 2t + H20
Cp cn li kh vo nhau khng c phn ng, nn ta chia 4
cht thnh 2 nhm.

ID

NG

TO

2 HC1 +

Nhm 1: H20 v dung ch NaCl

Nhm 2: Dung dch HC1 v dung dch Na2C0 3.

un n cn hai cc nhm 1 , cc khng c cn mui l nc, cc


c cn mui l NaCl.
un n cn hai cc nhm 2, cc khng c cn mui l HC1, cc
c cn mui l Na2C0 3 24

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NH
N

22. Cho cc oxitkim loi K20, Al20 3, CaO, MgO. Nu cch phn bit tng
oxit khi ch c dng thm mt ho cht. Vit cc phng trinh phn ng.
H NG D N GII

TP
.Q

UY

Cho nc vo 4 oxit trn K20, CaO tan, cn li AI2O3, MgO khng tan.
KzO + H20 ---- > 2KOH
CaO + H2O > C(OH)2 (huyn ph, vn c)
Dng dung dch KOH va to ra lm tan AI2O3, nhn ra AI2O3
cn MgO khng phn ng
A120 3 + 2KOH---- > 2 KAIO2 + H20

H N G D N GI

TR

Ho tan tng gi bt trong dung dch HC1

NG

23. C 6 gi bt mu trng tng nhau: CuO, FeO, Fe 30 4) Mn02, Ag20


v hn hp Fe + FeO. Ch dng thm dung dch HCI c th phn bit 6 gi bt
khng? Nu dc hy trnh by cch phn bit.

CuO + 2HC1 CuCl2 + H20 dung dch mu xanh

10
00

Mi0 2 + 4HC1---- MnCl2 + 2H20 + Cl2t kh mu vng nht

+3

Ag20 + 2HC11---- > H2O + 2AgCl't mu trng

P2

FeO + 2HC1---- > FeCl2 + H20

Fe30 4 + 8HC1---- > FeCl2 + 2 FeC3 + 4H20

Fe + 2HC1---- > FeCl2 + H2f khng mu

FeO + 2C1---- FeCl2 + H20 kHng mu

TO

-L

Dung dch FeCl3 mu vng nht, c th phn bit FeO v Fe3 0 4j


ta ly 2 dung dch ho tan trong HC1 va d (tc dung dch FeCl2 v
dung dch FeC2 + FeC3) v cho thm hn hp bt FeO. + Fe lc
mu vng nhat b bin mt hon ton.
.

2FeCl3 + F e ---- > 3FeCl2

B
I

D
N

24. C 5 mu kim loi: Ba, Mg, Fe, Ag, AI. Nu ch c H2S.O4 long
(khng c dng bt ki cht no khc k c qu tm, nc nguyn cht) c
th nhn c nhng kim loi no?
H NG D N GII

Cho 5 mu kim loi vo 5 ng nghim cha dung dch H2SO4


long. ng nghim no khng c bt kh thot ra l Ag. ng nghim
25
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.Q
UY

NH

no c kh thot ra v c kt ta trng (BaS04) l Ba. Cn cc ng


nghim khc t cc mui FeS04, A12(S0 4 )3, MgS04 v kh hiro. Trong cc ng nghim sau khi tm thy Ba, lc bo kt ta BaS0 4
c dung dch Ba(OH)2 (khi cho Ba vo ung dch H2SO4 u tin
Ba + 2 H2O ---- > Ba(OH)2 + H2T).

TP

Cho 3 kim loi cn li vo 3 ng nghim cha dung dch Ba(OH)2,


ng nghim no c kh bay ra v kim loi tan l AI.
AI + B(OH)2 + 2H20 -Ba(A102)2 + 3H2

NG

TR
N

ng thi ly dung dch Ba(pH )2 cho vo 2 dung dch MgS04,


FeS04, ng nghim no c kt ta trng ri'bin thnh mu nu l
FeS4 ng vi kim loi Fe (hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng),
ng nghim cn li l MgS04 ng-vi kim loi Mg.

+3
10
0

0B

25. Dng mt ho cht phn bit 4 cht rn: NaC, Na2C3, BaC03,
B aS04. Vit cc. phng trnh ho hc minh ho.
H NG D N GII

P2

Ln lt cho 4 cht vo 4 ng nghim ng dung dch HC1, nu


tan l NaCl' khng tan l BaS04, tan c kh ba ra l Na2C0 3 v
BaCOs-

Na2C0 3 + 2 HCI > 2NaCi + CO2 + H20


BaCl2 + CO2 + H20

BaCOs + 2 HC1

Na2c 3 + BaCl2 ---- > 2NaCl + BaCO3

NG

TO
N

-L

Sau , ly mt trong hai cht {Na2C0 3 hoc BaCOs) cho vo


dung dch sau phn ag trn, nu cht b vo tan trong dung dch ny
v kt ta trong dung dch kia th Na2C3 (cht cn li l BaC03).

ID

Nu cht b vo khng tan trong c hai dung dch th n l


BaC03 (cht cn li l Na2CC>3).
26. C 4 l ng dung dch NaHC03) CaCI2l Na2C 03, Ca(HC03)2. Khng
dng ho cht no khc, hy phn bit 4 l mt nhn trn.
H NG D N G

mt mu th vo ba mu th cn li, ta thu c theo kt qu


bng sau:
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Ca(HC03)2

CaC2

NaHCOs

Na2C0 3

CaC03i

CaC2
CaCOsi

TP

CaCOgl

.Q

NaHCOa

UY

CaC03

Ca(HC03)2

Na2C0 3

NH
N

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H
NG

- Qua kt qu bng trn ta nhn thy c mt mu th vo


tt c cc mu th cn l khng thy du hiu kt ta, mu th
NaHCOa- Mu th no thy c 2 ln kt ta vi cc mu th kia, mu th

l N a 2C 0 3 .

TR

Na2C0 3 + CaCl2 ---- > CaC3 + 2 NaCl

* CaC0 3 + 2NaHCOs

Na2C0 3 + Ca(HC03)2

+3

10

00

- phn bit hai mu th cn li c cha CaCl2 v Ca(HC0 3 )2,


un nng hai ung dch ny, dung dch no c kt ta l Ca(HC03)2.
CaC0 3 + C02 + H20

P2

Ca(HC03)2
27.

Trong mt dung dch c cha cc ion Ca2+, Mg2f, SO42", N a+ v GI'.

H
A

Bng phn ng ho hc v hin tng no chng t s c mt cc ion ny


trong dung dch.
H NG D N GII

-L

- Ion Na+: nhng a Pt vo dung dch ri a ln ngn n kh


khng mu, thy ngn la c mu vng, chng to trong dung dch c
ion Na*.

TO

- lon Mg2* v Ca2+: Ly mt t dung dch, nh dung dch NaOH


d vo, thy c kt ta trng, em ho tan trong nc d m khng
tan l Mg(OH)2.
Mg2+ + 2 0 H - ,> Mg(OH)2i (mu trng)

ID

Lc ly phn nc lc Ca(OH2, sc kh CO2 vo c kt ta, nu d


kh CO2 kt ta tan, chng t c ion Ca2+.
Ca2+ + 20H"---- > Ca(OH)2
CO2 + Ca(OH)2 ---- CaCOsi + H20
CaC03 + CO2 + H2O . = Ca(HC03)2
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- Ion SO42 Nh Ba(N3)2 vo dung dch thy c kt ta trng


l BaS04, chtig t trong dung dch c ion S042".

NH

Ba(N03)2 + SO42- > BaS0 4 + 2N(V

.Q

UY

- Ion C: Sau khi loi b ht ion SO42" t phn ng trn, nh


dung dch AgN0 3 vo thy c kt ta trng AgCl, chng t trong dung
dch c ion c r .

TP

Ag* + c r ---- > AgCU

28. C 4 kim loi di dng bt Mg, AI, Fe, Ag ng trong 4 l mt nhn.


Dng cc phn ng ho hc cn thit xc nh tng kim loi y.

NG

HNG D N G I

- Cho dung dch NaOH vo 4 ng nghim cha cc bt kim loi


trn, ng nghim rio c kh bay ra l bt Al.

TR

2AJ + 2NaOH + 2H20 ---- > 2NaAI02 + 3H2T

10
00

- Cho dung dch HC1 vo 3 ng nghim cha cc bt kim loi cn


li, ng nghim no c bt kim loi khng tan l Ag.
Mg + 2HC1---- MgCl2 + Hat

+3

Fe + 2HC1---- >FeCl 2 + H2T

P2

- Cho dung dch NaOH vo dung dch MgC2 v FeCl2 phn


bit Mg v Fe.

MgCl2 + 2 NaOH > Mg(OH)2i + 2NaCl


(mu trng)

-L
-

FeCl2 + 2 NaOH---- > Fe(OH)2 + 2NaCl


(mu trng)

ID

TO
N

Sau an hai kt ta, kt t khng di mu l Mg(OH)2 cn


ng vi kt ta lc u mu trng sau chuyn thnh mu vng nu
l Fe.
4Fe(OH)2 + 0 2 + 2 HsO ---- > 4Fe(OH)j
(vng nu)

29. Ch dng nc, kh cacbonic hy nu phng php phn bit 5 l bt


trng mt hhn l: NaCI, Na2S 0 4, CaC0 3 , Na2C 0 3 , BaSO*..
H NG D N GI1

Cho 5 cht vo 5 ng nghim c nc thy c 3 cht tan l


Na2S 0 4, Na2C3, NaCl v 2 cht khng tan: CaC03, BaS04.
28

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CaC03 + C 2 + H2O V
.

NH
N

- Ta sc kh C0 2 vo ng nghim .cha 2 cht khng tan, thy c


mt cht .tan . l CaC03.
- Ca(HC03)2

TP

.Q

UY

' Ly dung dch Ca(HC03)2 va thu c cho vo 3 ng nghim


cha mui natri, thy mt ng nghim khng to kt ta NaCl, cn
hai ng nghim kia to kt ta trng:
> CaC03^ + 2NaHC03

Ca(HC03)2 + Na2C0 3

Ca(HC03)2 + Na2S0 4 > CaS04i + 2NaHC03

H
NG

- Sc kh C0 2 vo 2 kt ta va to thnh, thy mt kt ta tan


l CaC03, suy ra dung dch ban u l Na2C03, kt ta cn li
khng tan l CaS04, suy ra dung dch ban u Na2S 0 4.

TR

30.
a) C 3 ng nghim, mi ng c 2 cation v 2 anion trong s cc ion
sau: NH4 , Na+, A g \B a 2+, Mg2+, Al3+ v cr, s 2', N03, S 0 42, PO43 , C 0 32~.
Hy cho bit cc cation v anion trong mi ng nghim (cc ion trong cc

00

ng nghim khng c ging nhau).

C
P2

+3

10

b) C 5 ng nghim ng ring bit 5 dung dch khng mu l NaCI,


BaCI2, Ba(l\l03)2, Ag2S 0 4 v H2SO4. Khng dng cc ho cht khc, lm th
no xc nh e.tng cht trong ng nghim?
H NG D N GII

a) ng

cha cc 1011: Na+, N H /, PO43, CO32"

ng 2 cha cc ion: Ba2*, Mg2+, s 2, c r

ng 3 cha cc ion: Ag+, Al3+, NOa~> SO42'

-L

b) - Nhn bit NaCl: Nu cht no to c kt ta mu trng


vi mt cht, cn khng c hin tng gi vi 'ba cht cn li th cht
phi l NaCl v:

TO

NaCl + BaC2: khng c hin tng phn ng

NG

NaCl'+ Ba(N03)2: khng c hii tng phn ng

NaCl + H2S04: khng c hin tng phn ng

ID

2NaCl + Ag2S0 4

Na2S0 4 + 2AgGl4 (mu trng)

- Nhn bit AgsS04: Nu cht no to c kt ta vi 3 cht,


cht cn li khng c hin tng g thi cht em th l Ag2S 0 4 v n
to kt ta AgCl v BaS4 v khng phn ng vi H2SO4.
29
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.Q

UY

NH

- Nhn bit H2S4: Dng Ag2S0 4 nhn ra H2SO4 trong 3 ung


dch cn li. Ag2S0 4 khng phn ng vi H2S04j nhng to kt ta .vi
hai dung dch cn li.
- Nhn bit BaCl.2 v Ba(NOa)2- Cho H2SO4 va vo hai dung
dch cn li:

TP

BaClz + H2SO4 ---- > 2HC1 + BaS04i

dung dch
ta trng
nh c
HNO3, c

NG

Ba(N0 3)2 + H2S0 4 ---- 2 HNO3 + BaSC


Lc b kt ta BaS0 4, cho dung ch Ag2S04 vo hai
nc lc sau phn ng trn, nu trng hp no cho kt
AgCl th dung dch c cha c r , c ngha l ta xc
dung dch BaC2 v phn dung dch khng to kt ta l
ngha ta nhn bit c dung dch: Ba(N3)2.

TR

31 .'C.4 ng nghim nh s 1 , 2, 3, 4 cha mt trong 4 dung dch sau


y: Na2C03, FeCI2, HCI v NH4HCO3. Ly ng 1 vo ng 3 thy c kt ta

10

00

xut hin, ly ng 3 vo ng 4 thy c kh bay ra. Xc nh cc ho cht


ng trong mi ng nghim.

+3

H N G D N GII

P2

- Khi ng 1 vo ng 3 thy c kt ta, do ng 1 v ng 3


phi cha Na2C0 3 v FeCl2 v:

Na2C0 3 + FeCl2 ---- FeC (U + 2 NaCl

- Ly ng 3 vo ng 4 thy c kh bay ra, vy ng 3 phi cha


Na2C0 3 v ng 4 cha HC1.

-L

2HC1 + Na2C03 2NaCl + C02 + H20

TO

Vy ng 1 cha FGl2 v ng 2 cha NH4HCO3.

ID

NG

32.
a) C cc ion Na+f Al3+, Mg2+ trong cng mt dung dch. Lm th n
tch ring bit chng khi nhau. Vit cc phng trinh phn ng ho hc
xy ra khi tch.

b) C ba cht rn mu trng sa: Na2C 03, MgC03, BaC03. Lm th no


c th phn bit c chng.
H NG D N GII

a)
- Cho hn hp dng dch tc dng vi dung dch NH3: Mg2+ v
AI3+ s kt ta di dng hiroxit:
Mg2* + 2 NH4OH > Mg(OH)2 + 2 N4+

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AI3*. + 3 NH4OH---- > AI(OH)3i + 3NH4+

UY

NH

Lc, ra kt ta, phn nc lc cha Na* v NH4+ c c cn


phn hu N4+ thnh NH3 bay i, phn rn cn l ho tan trong
nc ta dc dung dch cha Na+.

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TP

.Q

- Phn kt ta cho tc dng vi NaOH d, Al(OH)3 tan cn


Mg(OH)2 khng tan.

Al(OH)s + NaOH---- > NaA102 .+ 2H20

Lc, ra ly kt ta, ho tan trong H+ c dung dch cha Mg2+

NG

Mg(OH)s + 2 H+---- > Mg2" + 2H20

- Sc kh CO2 vo phn nc lc, thu c Al(OH)3 kt ta hon


ton:

TR

NaAlOa + C0 2 + 2H20 ---- > AI(OH)3l + NaHC03

10

00

Al(OH)s + 3H+---- AI3+ + 3H2.0

Lc ly kt ta, ho tan trong H+ c dung ch cha A3+

+3

b) Cht no tan c trong nc l NasCOa.

P2

Phn bit BaC03 v MgC3 bng cch cho tc dng vi H2SO4


lng. Cht no phn ng cho dung dch trong sut l MgC3, cht
no cho kt ta trng BaS04 l BaC3 (hc sinh vit phng trnh
phn ng).
a) Dng mt ho cht phn bit cc dung dch K2SO4, K2C 0 3j K2S 03>

33.

-L

K2S, K2SO3.

H NG D N GI

TO

b) Cho 5 oxi kim loi sau ng trong 5 i mt nhn CuO, FeO, Fe20 3,
Fe30 4 v Ag20; bng phn ng ho hc, hy dng cc ho cht cn thit
nhn bit tng oxit kim loi ni trn.

a)
Ly mi ng nghim mt t dung dch ri nh t t dung dch
HC1 vo thy cc hin tng:

B
I

- ng khng c hin tng gi: K2SO4.


- ng c kt ta keo: K2S1O3.
K2SO3 +

2H C 1 ------> 2KC 1 + H 2S i 0 3

- Ba ng c kh thot ra:
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+ Kh c mi trng thi: K2S

K2S + 2HC1-----> 2KC1 + H2ST (mi trng thi)

NH

+ Kh c mi hc kh chu: K2SO3

UY

K2SO3 + 2HC1 ---- > 2KC1 + H2O + SO2 (mi hc)

.Q

+ Kh khng c mi: K2CO3

TP

K2C03 + 2HC1 ---- > 2KC1 + H20 + C02t (khng mi)

NG

- ng c kt ta trng l Ag2.

b) Cho 5 oxit kim loi vo 5 ng nghim khc nhau. dung dch


HC1 vo 5 ng nghim th:

AgsO + 2HC1 ---- > 2AgCli + H2O

- Ong c mu xanh lam l CuO.

TR

CuO + 2HC1 * CuClz + H2O

00
B

- Ba ng cn li l dung dch ca cc mui clorua st.

10

FeO + 2HC1 + FeC2 + H20

P2
+3

Fe20 3 + 6HC1
F e 30 4,+ 8HC1

> 2FeCl3 + 3H20


> FeC l 2 + 2FeC l 3 + 4 H 20

/ Sau dng dung dch NaOH cho vo 3 ng nghim c cha mui


clorua st:

- ng nghim xut hin mu trng xanh ri t t chuyn sang


nu l FeO.

-L

FeCl2 + 2NaOH > Fe(OH)2 + 2 NaCl

4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2 H2O ---- > 4Fe{OH)3i

ID

TO

Hai oxit Fe2 0 3, Fe30 4 cn li phn bit bng cch cho tc dng
vi HNO3, oxit no cho kh b ho nu ngoi khng kh l Fe3043Fe30 4 + 2 8 HNO3 - > 9Fe(N0 3)3 + NO + 14H20
2 NO

+ O2 ---- > 2N 0 2

Cn li l oxit st (III) Fe20 3.

34.
C 5 l mt nhn A, B, c , D, E cha cc dung dch HCI, H2S 0
BaCI2, NaCl, Na2C 03. Xc nh cht cha trong mi l. Gii thch n bit:

32
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- cht trong l A vo cht trong B th c kt ta.

NH
N

- cht trong ] A vo cht trong i c th c kh bay ra.


- cht trong l B vo cht trng l D th c kt ta.

TP
.Q
UY

HNG D N GII

NG

Na2C0 3 + 2HC1---- > 2 NaCl + C02T + H20

Cht trong l B c kh ring to kt ta vi 2 cht trong l A v


D th B l BaCl2. Cht trong o A to kt ta vi cht trong l B v
to kh vi cht trong l c th cht trong l. l N2C3 v cht
trong l D l H2SO4, cht trong l c l HC1.

35. C 4 t mt nhn c nh s t 1 n 4 cha cc dung dch


AgN03, ZnCI2, HCl, Na2C 03. Bit cht trong l 2 to kh vi cht trong l 3
nhng khng phn ng vi cht trong l 4 Xc nh cht cha trong mi l,

TR

HNG D N

gii thch.

P2
+3

10

00
B

Cht trong l 2 to kh vi cht trong l 3 v khng phn ng vi


cht trong l 4 nn cht trng i 2 l HC1, cht trong l 3 l Na2C3,
cht trong l 4 l ZnCl2, cht trong l 1 l AgN03 (hc sinh t vit
cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho).

36. C 4 cc cha ring bt: nc nguyn Chat, nc cng tm thi, nc


cng vnh cu, nc cng ton phn: Bng phng php ho hc hy xc nh
; J

loi nc no cha trong mi cc?

HNG D N GII

un nng mi cc, c hai nhm:

TO
N

-L

- Nhm A: Hai cc khng to kt ta l hai cc cha nc nguyn


cht v nc cng vnh cu.

- Nhm B: Hai cc u to kt ta l hai cc cha nc cng tam


thi v nc cng ton phn.

ID

Ca(HC03)2

tU > CaCOsi +. C0 2 + H20

M g (H C 03)2 > M g C 0 3>l + C 0 2t + H 20

Nhn bit hai cc ca nhm A: Cho dung dch Na2C0 3 vo mi


cc, cc n c kt t l cc cha nc vnh, cu, cc. cn li l nc
nguyn cht.
3.

NB & rcc - A

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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> M gC O si

NH

M g 2* + CO32-

Ca2+ + CO32"---- > CaC034

TP

.Q
U

Nhn bit hai cc cua nhm B: Ch dung dch Na2CC>3 vo phn


nc lc ca hai cc, n cc c kt ta th cc cha nc cng ton
phn, cc kia cha nc cng tm th.

37. C 4 ch bt mu trng tng t nhau l NaCi, ACI3j. MgC03, B aC03.


Ch c dng nc v cc thit b cn thit (l nung, bnh in phn ...). Hy
trnh by cch nhn bit tng cht trn.

by tng lng mui th nghim

NG

HNG D N GII

- Ho tan vo nc, tch thnh hai nhm:

TR

+ Nhm A: tan trong nc l NaCl v AICI3

0B

+ Nhm B: khng tan trong nc l MgC0 3j BaC0 3.

31

dpi - > 2 NaO H + c ig t + H at

2+

2 NCl + 2 H 20

00

- in phn dung dch mui ,nhm A (c, mng ngn)

2A l ( O H ) 3

3C l s t

3H 2.t

C
P

2 A IC I3 + 6 H 2 O 1 " " - >

Khi kt thc in phn, "vng catot ca bnh in phn no c


kt ta keo xut hin bnh cha ACI3, bnh-kia l NaCl.

- Thc hin phn ng t sn phm in phn:

-L

H2 + Cl2 > 2 HC1

TO

Ho tan nhm B vo dung dch HC1:


MgC03 + 2HC1---- > MgCl2 + C02t + H20
BaCOs + 2HC1 > BaCl2 + c 2t + H20

ID

NG

Dng dung dch NaOH phn bit


su ra BaC3 v MgC03.

mui MgCl2 v BaCl2, t

MgC2 + 2NaOH + Mg(OH)2i + 2NaCl


BaGl2 + 2 NaOH > Ba(OH)2 + 2NaCl
38. C 3 l mt nhn cha cc dung dch, l X gm NaHC0 3 v K2CO3 , l

Y gm KHCO3 v Na2S 04, l z gm Na2G3 v K2SO4. Nu cch nhn bit

cc l, nu ch dng dung dch BaCI2 v dung dch HCi.


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NH
N

H NG D N GII

Cch 2' Ly tng lng nh dung dch X, Y, z ra th.

TP

.Q
UY

Cho axit HC1 d vo 3 dung dch, lc nh phn ng xy ra


hon ton. Nh tip dung dch BaC2 vo tng dung dch va thu c,
dung dch no thy khng c kt ta l duhg dch X. Cn hai dung
dch Y, z c kt ta BaS0 4 xut hin.
2H C 1----- > 2K C 1+ C 0 2 + H 20

H
NG

K2CO3 +

NaHCOg + HC1 ---- > NaCl + C0 2 + H20

Trong dung dch Y, z c ion S 0 42 nn phn ng vi BaCl2:

TR
N

S0 42 + BaCls----> BaS04i + 2Cr

Cho dung ch BaCl2 .d vo 2 dng dch C1 li (Y, Z) lc ly


ly nc lc, cho axt HC1 vo. phn nc lc no thy c kh thot
ra, l nc lc t dung dch Y (K H C O 3 + Na 2S04) cn li l dung
dch z.

10

00

+3

dung dch Y: Na2S4 + BC2 ---- > BaS0 4-i- + 2 NaCl

P2

Trong nc lc gm KHCO3 v NaCl

K2SO4 + BaCl2 ---- > BaS04>i + 2KC1

dung dch Z:

KHCO3 + HCI----> KC1+ C0 2T + H20

Na2S0 4 +. BaCla---- > BaS04l + 2NaC

-L

Trong nc lc ch c KC1 v NaCl.

NG

TO
N

Cch 2: Cho BaCl2 (d) vo 3 ng nghim ch a 3 dung dch X, Y,


z, lc tch kt ta thu c kt ta Xi, Yi, Zi v 3 dung dch nc lc
X2, Y2, Z2. Cho dung dch HC1 vo mi kt ta v mi dung dch nc
lc ta c kt qu nh sau:

ID

Nu t kt ta v t nc lc u c kh thot ra th suy ra dung


dch bat u l dung dch X.
lc

BaCl2 + 2NaHCO ^ Ba(HC03 )2 + 2NaCl (X2 )


[BaCOg
(Xj)
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

+HC1

[C0 2 T
> [C0 2

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NH
N

Nu t kt ta khng c kh thot ra nhng t nc lc c kh


thot ra th suy ra dung dch ban u l Y.
.Bad,d
|KHC03j Ba(HC03 )2 (Y3)

* [BaS0 4
(Yj)

TP
.Q
UY

KHCO3
Na2S0 4

|C 0 2
[BaS04khng tan

+HC1

+BaCl2 d

|BaCl2

+HC1

K2S 0 4

[BaC

|N a 2C0 3
I

H
NG

Nu t kt ta c kh thot ra v c kt ta khng tan trong


HC1 d v t nc lc khng c kh thot ra th suy ra dung dch ban
u l dung dch z.

TR

khng c hin tng g


C kh C02v BaS0 4 khng tan

10

00

(Hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho).

P2

+3

39.
a) Cho 4 dung dch sau: (NH4)2S 0 4, NH4N03, F eS 04, AIC!3. Hy ch
mt kim loi nhn ra cc dung dch trn.

b) C 3 ung dch mt nhn c nh s 1,11, IU cha cc cht sau: HC,


K3 P 0 4i BaCI2.
(

- Nu cc [ vo cc II khng c hin tng g xy ra, nu cc III;


vo hn hp thu c cng khng c hin tng g xy ra.

-L

- Nu cc l vo cc III khng c hin tng g xy ra. Nu cc I


vo hn hp thu c cng khng c hin g xy ra.

TO
N

Xc nh cc no ng HCI.
HNG D N GI

ID

NG

a)
Dng kim loi Ba cho vo cc dung dch mui v u xy
phn ng
Ba + 2H2O >Ba(OH)2 + H2

- mt dung dch to ra kt ta, ng thi c mi khai thot ra,


l dung dch (NH^SCV
- mt dung dch ch thy c mi khai thot ra l dung dch
NH4NO3.

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NH
N

- mt dung dch c kt ta trng to thnh ri li tan (nu cho


Ba d) l dung dch AICI3.
- mt dung dch ch thy to ra kt ta trng, lu trong
khng kh, mt phn kt ta ho nu l dung dch FeS04.

HC1.

BaCla

Khng c
phn ng

Khng c
phn ng

Khng c
phn ng

Ba3(P0 4)2
Ba3(P0 4)2>l

Khng c
phn ng

BaCl2

TR

k*po 4

K3 PO4

H
NG

HC1

TP
.Q

b)

UY

(Hc sinh t vit cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho)

00

Qua bng trn ta nhn thy:

+3

10

- Khi ' I vo II khng c hin tng g xy ra thi mt trong hai


cc I v II phi l HC1, suy ra cc III khng phi l HC1.

P2

- Khi II vo III khng c hin tng g xy ra th mt trong


hai cc II v III phi l HC1, suy ra cc I khng phi l HC1.

- Kt hp III v I khng phi l HCL Vy cc II l HC1

TO

-L

Khi III vo hn hp I, II hoc I vo hn hp II, III u


khng c hin tng g xy ra v kt ta Ba3(P04)2 khng tn ti
trong mi trng axit mnh.

B
ID

NG

CH 2
Nhn bit phi kim v hp cht ca chng

40.

a) Nhn bit .cc ho cht trong cc mt nhn: HC, HNO3 , H2S 0 4

v H3PO4 ch c dng thm ng v mt mui tu .


b)

Lm

th no nhn bit c

3 axt H2SO4, HCI, HNO3 cng tn ti

trong dung dch long.

37
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HNG D N G II

.Q
UY

NH

a) Cho vo mi ng nghim cha cc axit trn mt ming ng,


nu ng nghim no e kh mu nu thot ra thi l HNO3 c.
Cu + 4 HNO3 ---- > Cu(N03)2 + 2N 02t + 2H20
m u x a n h

H 2SO 4 c.

d c h

TP

Nu ng nghim no thot ra kh c mi hc, to thnh dung

Cu + 2H2SO4 -> CuS04 + SO2T + 2H20

NG

Cho vo hai ng nghim cn li mt lng AgN03, ng nghim


no to kt ta trng l HC1, to kt ta mu vng l H3PO4.

HCl + AgN03> HNO3 + AgCl-i (trng)

TR

H3PO4 + 3AgNC>3-----> 3HNO3 + Ag3P04l (vng)

10
00

b) - Cho Ba(CH3COO)2 tc dng vi dung dch axit, ban u c


kt ta trng, nhn c dung dch H2SO4Ba(CH3COO)2 + H2S0 4 ---- > BaS0 4v + 2 CH3COOH

P2
+3

- Lc ly kt ta, cho AgN0 3 tc diig vi dung dch nc lc, c


kt ta trng, nhn ra HC1.

A g N O s + H C 1----- > A g C l + H N 0 3

- Cho Cu vo dung dch ban u, un. nng c kh mu n thot


ra, nhn ra c HNO3.

-L
-

3Cu + 8 HNO3 ---- 3Cu(N03)2 + 2N0 + 4H20

2 N O + O 2 ------ > 2 N O 2

a) 0 2l Cl2, HCi, O3 , S 0 2.
b) N2, Hg, C l, Fg, CO2.

Lm th' no nhn bit tng kh.

ID

NG

TO

41. C 5 l ng kh ring bit cc kh sau:

H NG D N GII

a) Kh Cl2 c mu vng lc.


Dng giy tm h tinh bt v dung dch KI nhn bit c O3:
Os + 2 KI + H2O ---- O2 + I2 + 2KOH

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I2 lm h tinh bt chuyn mu xanh.

.Q
UY

NH

Dng qti tm thm nc nhn bit c kh HC1 v SO2- Cn li


l kh 0 2.

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TP

Phn bit l kh HC1 v SO2 bng dung dch nc brom. SO2 lm


mt mu dung ch brom theo phng trnh phn ng:

SO2 +'Br2 + 2H20 ---- > 2HBr + H2SO4

b) Kh Cl2 mu vng lc, kh F2 mu lc nht.

NG

Dng dung ch Ca(OH>2 nhn bit CO2.

t trong khng kh d nhn ra kh H2: 2H2 + O2---- > 2H2O (hi)

Cn li l kh N2-

TR

42. Nhn bit cc kh sau cha trong cc l ring bit bng phng php
ho hc: 0 2l O3 , N2, Cl2, NH3.

00

HNG D N GII

+3

10

Ly mi cht mt t em th nghim. Dng giy qu m cho vo 5


mu cha kh.
1

kh lm qu tm ho xanh l NH3.

- C

kh lm qu tm ho sau mt mu l kh Cl2.

P2

- C

CI2 + H20 * HC1 + HCIO

-L

Dng giy c tm dung dch KI v h tinh bt vo 3 kh cn li,


c mt kh lm giy ho xanh l O3-

2KI + O3 + H20 ---- > 2KOH + I2 + 0 2

TO

I2 lm h tinh bt chuyn mu xanh'.

NG

Hai kh cn li a que dim cn m vo, que dim chy


mnh nhn ra kh 0 2, que dim tt dn nhn ra kh N2.

ID

43. C 6 bnh ng cc kh N2, H2l C 0 2) CO, CI2 , 0 2. Hy nhn bit cc


kh trong bnh bng phng php ho hc.
H NG D N GI

- Dng dung dch hn hp (K + h tinh bt) th, ch c clo


phn ig:
CI2 + 2 K I---- 2KC1 + 2 (lm xanh h tinh bt)
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Do , bnh ng kh lm xanh dung ch hn hp l kh clo.

NH
N

- Dng nc vi trong th 5 bnh kh cn li, ch c C0 2 phn


ng theo phng trnh phn.ng sau:

UY

C( ) 2 + Ca(OH)2 ---- > CaCOg + H20

.Q

CaCOs + C0 2 + H20 ---- > Ca(HC03)2

TP

Do , bnh cha cha kh lm c nc vi trong, sau tr li


trong sut l kh C2- Dng bt Cu mu th 4 kh cn li, ch c 0 2 phn ng:

+ O2 > 2 CuO (mu en)

H
N

2 Cu

TR
N

Do , kh chuyn bt ng t mu sang en khi un nng l


kh oxi.
- I)ng CuO th 3 kh cn li th:

0B

CuO + H2 > H2O + Cu (mu d)

31

00

CuO + CO ^> CO? + Cu (mu )

C
P

2+

Kh chuyn c bt CuO mu en thnh ,bt Cu m o v kh


sinh ra khng lm c nc vi trong l kh H2.

Kh chuyn c bt CuO mu en thnh bt Cu mu v kh


sinh ra m c nc vi trong l kh c o .

- Kh cn li l N2.

TO
N

-L

44.
Dung dch A cha cc ion Na+, NH4+, HCO3", CO32" v S 0 42~. Ch c
qu tm v cc dung dch HC, Ba(OH)2 c th nhn bit c cc ion no
trong dung dch A.
HNG D N GI

ID

NG

C th nhn bit tt c cc ion tr ion Na+.

iu ch BaCl2 nh ch th ca qu tim:
2HC1 + Ba(OH)2 ---- > BaCl2 + 2HzO

Cho dung ch BaC.2 d vo dung dch A ta thu c kt ta B v


dung dch X.
'
Ba2+ + S042---- > BaS04i
40

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Ba2+ + C032----- BaCQsi

NH

Ho tan B trong dung dch HC1d thy c kh bay'ra (nhn bit


c CO32) v mt phn khng tan (nhn bit dc SO42).

UY

Cho ung dch X tc dng vi dung dch HCI thy c kh bay ra


( n h n bit c HC03-):

TP

.Q

H+ + HCO3' ---- > C02t + H20

Ly dung dch A cho tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)2 c kh mi


khai bay ra (nhn bit ion NH4+):

NG

. NH4+ + OH"---- > NH3T + H20.

45. a) Lm th.no phn bit c hai kh 0 2 v 0 3 hai bnh mt nhn.


b) C 3 mu phn ho hc khng1ghi nhn l phn m NH4NO3, phn

0B

HNG D N GII

TR

kali KCI v phn supephotphat Ca(H2P 0 4)2 . Hy nhn bit mi mu phn bn


trn bng phng php ho hc.

+3
1

00

a) Cho hai kh qua dung dch KI, kh no lm dang dch t khng


mu chuyn sang mu vng nu l kh 0 3:

P2

0 3 + 2K I + H 20 V I 2 + 0 2 + 2K O H

H
A

b) Ch dung dch NaOH vo 3 ng nghim cha 3 mu phn ho


hc trn v un nh, ng nghim no c mui khai l NEUNOs, 2 ng
nghim cn li khng phn ng.
NH4NO3 + NaOH NH3T + NaNOa + H20

-L

Cho Ca(OH)2 vo 2 ng nghim cn li, ng nghim no cho kt


ta trng l Cad2P0 4)2 cn ng nghim khng phn ng l KC1.

TO

Ca(H2P0 4)2 + 2 Ca(OH)2 > Ca3(P04)2i + 4H20

ID

NG

46. C 3 l ng 3 dung ch HCI, HN03, H2SO4. tiy trnh by phng


php ho hc bit cc l ng urig dch axit trn.
HNG D N G

Cho dung dch BaCls vo cc ng nghim cha 3 axit trn. Ong


nghim no cho kt ta trng l H2SO4.
Sau d cho dung dch AgN0 3 vo hai ng nghim cn li, ng
nghim no cho kt -ta trng l HC1. ng-nghim khng c hin
tng xy ra l HNO3 (hc sinh'vit phng trnh phn ng).
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

47. C 3 l cha cc dung dch HCI, H2S 0 3, H2SO 4 mt nhn. Hy


dng mt ho cht nhn bit 3 axit cha trong cc l.
H NG D N GII

TP

.Q

UY

Cho3 mu th ln lt tc dng vi Ba(OH)2. Hai mu th cho


kt ta trng l H2SO3 v H2SO4.

H2SO3 + Ba(OH>2 - ^ BaS03 + 2 H2O


H2S0 4 + Ba(OH)2 ---- > BaSCU + 2H20

H
NG

Mu th cn l khng c kt ta l HC1

Ly hai kt ta cho tc dng vi dung dch HC1, kt ta no tan


v c kh by ln l BaS0 3 v suy ngc l H2SO3. BaS0 4 khng tan.

BaSOs + 2HC1---- > BaCl2 + S02t + H20

TR

BaS04 + HC1---- * khng phn ng

10

00

48. a) C 5 binh kh: N2, 0 2, C2 , H2 v OH4. Hy trnh by phng php


ho hc nhn bit tng kh

+3

b) Trong mt bnh cha hn hp kh: CO, CO2, SO3, S 02 v H2. Trnh by

P2

phng php ho hc nhn bit tng kh.


H NG D N GI

a) - Cho tng bnh kh trn qua nc vi trong d, kh no cho


kt ta trng l kh C02.

-L

CO2 + Cct(OH)2 > CaC03 + H2O

TO

- Cho que dim cn m vo cc bnh kh cn li, kh no


bng1chy l kh O2-

ID

NG

- t cc kh cn li, c 2 kh chy c, kh no cho sn phm


chy qua nc vi trong to kt ta trng kh l CH4. Kh chy cn
li l H2- Kh khng chy l N2 (N2 khng chy nhit di
2000C).

b) Cho hn hfp kh qua dung dch BaC2, nu c kt ta mu


trng BaS04, kh trong hn hp c SO3.
SO3 + H2O ------> H2SO4

H2S 0 4 + BaCl2 ---- > BaS0 4 + 2 HC1


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NH
N

- Cho hn hp kh cn li qua dung dch nc brom, nu -dung


ch brom b mt mu, kh trong hn hp c SO2.

.Q
UY

SO2 + Br2 + 2 H2O---- > H2SO4 + 2HBr

TP

- Cho hn hp kh sau khi qua dung ch nc brom, qua dung


dch Ca(OH)2 d, cho kt ta mu trng, chng t trong hn hp c
kh CO2-

CO2 + Ca(OH)2 ---- ^ CaC0 3 >l + H2O

H
NG

- t chy hn hp kh cn li (CO v H2) nu c hi nc, chng


t hn hp kh ban u c H2- Kh sau khi t cho qua dung dch nc
vi trong d, nu c kt ta trng, chng t trong hn hp kh c c o .
Hoc c th lm nh sau:

TR

Cho hn hp kh cn li (CO v H2) sc vo bnh cha dung dch


PdCl2 d, thy dung ch b sm mu, chng t trong hn hp c kh
CO (mu sm do to Pd).

10

00

CO + H20 + PdCl2 > Pdi + C0 2 + 2HC1

P2
+3

Kh cn dn qua ng cha CuO nung nng, thy xut hin Cu


mu , chng t c kh hiro.

H2 + CuO - > H20 + Cu (mu )

49.
Dng mt kim loi, hy phn bit cc dung dch axit HCl, HNO3,
H2S04 v H3PO4. Vit phng trnh phn ng minh ho.

H NG D N GI

-L

Dng kim loi B, cho tc dng vi cc dung dch axit.

Axit gii phng kh mu nu khi un nng l HNO3


> Ba(N03)z + 2N 02t + 2H20

TO

Ba + 4 HNO3

NG

Axit phn ng cho kh bay ra, khng to kt ta l HCI, hai axit


phn ng to kt ta l H2SO4 v H3PO4.

Ba + H2SO4 ---- > BaS04 + H2

ID

3Ba + 2 H3PO4 > Ba3(P0 4 )2 + 3H2T

Cho dung dch HC1 vo hai kt ta trn, kt ta khng tan l


BaS04 suy ra axit bn du H2SO4, kt ta tan l Ba3(P04)2, axit ban
u l H3PO4.

Ba3(P0 4)2 + 6 HC1 3BaCl2 + 2 H3PO4


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50.
Lm th no nhn ra s c mt ca mi kh trong hn hp gm
CO, C 02, SO 3 bng phng php ho hc. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng.

NH
N

H NG D N G II

UY

Dn hn hp kh qua dng ch BaCla, nu c kt tua trng th


nhn c SO3:

.Q

SO3 + H2O + BaCl2 ---- > 2HC1 + BaS04^ (trng)

TP

Tip tc dn hai kh cn li qua, nc vi trong d, nu vn c


th nhn ra c kh COs.

CO2 + Ca(OH)2 - > H2O + CaC0 3 -l (trng)


Kh cn li khng b hp th em dn qua CuO nung nng thy:

H
NG

-> Cu 4- cc>2
(mu )

CuO + CO
(mu en)

TR

Hp th sn phm kh bng nc vi trong d, nu vn c suy


ra kh ban u l GO.

00

CH 3

+3

10

Tch cc kim loi, phi kim v hp cht ca chng ra khi hn hp

P2

51.
a) C hn hp cha AI, Fe, Mg. Hy trnh by phng php ho hc
tch ring tng kim loi ra khi hn hp.

b)
Hy dng phng php ho hc tch cc cht trong hn hp AI2C>3
Fe20 3, CaC03. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng.
HNG D N GI

-L

-t-NaOHd__
lc

+ C 0 2 +H 20

NaAI02 .

+HC

t"

pnc

A1(0 H)3 -*A 120 3 - a i


_

+NaOH _

Fe,Mg - FeCl2, MgCl2

ID

NG

TO

AI
Fe
Mg

a) So' tch 3 kim loi:

t"

Fe(OH)2,Mg(OH)2 -*Fe20 3,Mg0


'
,
+co

pnc

+8aCl2

H2SO4 c ngui

r <---------

Mg - MgCl2 <- MgS0 4 j

------ M g O , F e

L?c

44
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AI2O3 + 2NaOH ^

2NaA102 +

NH

b)
- Cho hn hp AI2O3, Fe23, CaC03 tc dng vi dung dch
NaOH, AI2O3 tan lc ta c dung dch nc lc l NaAlO, phn
khng tan l Fe20 3 v CaC03H 20

> A120 3 + 3H20

21(0H)3

AKOHDsi + NaHCOs

TP
.Q

NaAIOs + C0 2 + 2 HsO

UY

Sc kh C0 2 vo dung dch nc lc:

NG

- Nhit phn Fe23 v CaC03

CaO + HO Ca(OH)2

TR

' .

CaC03 ) CaO + H20


Cho hn hp Fe20 3 v CO ho tari vo nc, CaO tan, lc ta
ic Fe20 3 - Cho kh C0 2 yo dung dch nc lc:

10
00
B

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 > CaC03 + H20


Lc ta c CaC03.

P2
+3

52. a) C dung dch F eS0 4 ln p cht l C11SO 4. Lm th no li b


tp cht bng phng php ho hc.

b)
Nu bc c ln tp cht nhng kim loi km, thic, ch, bng cch
no c th loi nhng tp cht? Vit cc phong trnh phn ng.

HNG D N GII

-L

a) Ta cho bt st (d) vo dung dch hn hp, Fe s kh ht ion


Cu2+ thnh Cu

Fe + C11SO4 - > FeS 04 + Cu

NG

TO

Sau lc, loi b phn cht rn khng tan, nc lc l ung dch


FeS0 4 tinh khit.

ID

b) Ngm kim loi bc c ln tp cht trn vo dung dch AgN0 3


d. Ion Ag+ s oxi ho nhng kim loi trong tp cht thnh nhng ion
tng ng tan vo dung dch. Sau lc, ta c Ag tinh khit (hc
sinh t vit cc phng trnh phn ng).
53. C mt hn hp bt cc kim loi bc v ng. Hy trnh by phng
php ho hc tch ring c kim loi bc v ng. Vit cc phng trnh
phn ng.

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NH
N

H N G D N GII

.Q

UY

Cch 1: Ngm hn hp bt kim loi Ag v Cu trong dung dch


AgNC>3 va hoc d. Cu s kh ion Ag* thnh Ag v lng Cu trong
hn hp b oxi ho thnh Cu2+. Lc dung dch ta c Ag.

TP

Cu + 2AgN03---- > Cu(N03)2 + 2 Agi

NG

Nc lc l dung dch Cu(N0 3)2 nu liig AgNC>3 dng va ,


nu dng d AgNC>3 th nc lc c thm AgN03, ta ngm l ng
trong dng dch ny Cu kh ht ion g+ thnh g bm trn l Cu.
Dung dch cn li ch c Cu(N0 3)2. in phn dg dch ny vi in
cc tr, ta thu c Cu catot.

TR
N

2Cu(N03)2 + 2H20 ; dp- > 2Cu + 0 2t + 4 HNO3


Hoc c th chuyn C(N03)2 theo s chuyn ho sau:
* > C u

Cu

00

C u ( N O s )2 *Na0H - > C u (0 H ) 2 -

P2

+3

10

Cch 2: t hn hp Ag v Cu, Cu tc dng vi O2 thnh CuO, Ag


khng tc dng, cho hn hp sau khi t chy tc dng vi dung dch
HC1, Ag khng tc dng, lc ta dc Ag. in phn dung dch nc lc
ta c Cu.

2Cu + 0 2 > 2CuO

C aO +

2H C 1------> C u C 12 + H 20

in phn dng dch CuCl2

-L

CuCl2 - -^ > Cu + C2

ID

TO

54.
C hn hp A gm (Mg v Fe) vo dung dch B gm C(N0 3)2
AgN0 3 lc u cho n phn ng xong thu c hn hp rn c gm 3 kim loi
v dung dch p gm 2 mui. Hy trinh by cch tch tng kim loi trong hn
hp c v tng mui ra khi dung dch D.
.

HNG D N GII

Khi cho hn hp. (Mg, Fe) vo dung dch cha (Cu(N03)2, AgN03)
cho n phn ng xong, tu theo quan h v s mol ca tng kim loi
v tng mui m kt qu cui cng sau nhiu phn ng s khc nhau.
The d kin cho sau phn ng thu c hn hp 3 kim loi v
dang dch gm 2 mui nn ta c nhn xt:

ng gp PDF bi GV.
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Mg + Cu(N03}2 ---- > Mg(N03)2 + Cu

(2 )

Fe + "CuNOs^---- ^ Fe(N03>2 + Cu'1'

(3)

.Q
U

(1 )

TP

Mg + 2AgN0 3 ---- > Mg(N03)2 + 2 Agi

Hai mui trong dung dch khng th l mui ca kim loi ng


sau cc kim loi trong hn hp 3 kim loi. Nn c th xy ra cc phn
ng sau:

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NH

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

NG

Sau phn ng (3) cn d Fe nn hn hp rn c gm 3 kim loi


Ag, Cu, Fe v dung ch B gm Mg(N03)2 v Fe(N03)2,
Hoc: Mg + 2AgN03 > Mg(N03)2 + 2 A gl

+ Cu(N3 )2 ---- ^ F(N03)2 +Cu

Fe + 2AgN03 ---- Fe(N0 3)2 + 2Ag

TR

Sau phn ng (3) cn d Fe v kt qu nh trn.

a) Tch hn hp Ag, Cu, Fe

10

00

S tch:
+NaOH _

Cui

+H2

t trong

CuOi

+HC1

khng kh

Ag J

ic

Fe20 3

Fe

'Ag
_

dp

CuCls -> Cu

Fe-

+3

Ag

P2

+HC1
lc

Cu

+ 02

^ Fe(OH)2 -> Fe(OH)3

- F6 0 2

Ag

(Hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng)

Fe (Mg(N03)2

TO

Mg(N03)2
Fe(N03)2 1

-L

Hn hp dung dch.

b) Tch dung dch Mg(N03)2 v Fe(N0 3)2

**

>Fe(NO,)2

H NG D N GII

ID

55.
Trinh by cch tch ri tng cht sau y. ra khi hn hp cht rn v
vit y cc phng trnh phn ng ho hc xy ra: AICI3l FeCJ3, BaCI2.

A1C13
FeC3 + NaOH d, lc
BacC

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

NaA102,BaCL>
+HC1

Fe(OH), - FeCL

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+HC1
R aPl

jA I(O H )g > A 1C 13 (c c n )

+co c

c cn

(BaCl2 -> BaCl2 (rn)

NH

2 J

N a A 102

.Q
UY

Hc sinh vit cc phong trnh phn ng minh ho.


56. Trnh by phng php tch:

b) Ag ra khi hn hp Ag, Cu, Fe drig bt

TP

a) Fe 2 0 a ra khi hn hp Fe20 3 , AI2O3, S2 dng bt.

NG

Vi mi trng ch dng duy nht mt dung dch cha mt ho cht v


lng oxit hoc km loi cn tch vn gi nguyn khi lng ban u. Vit cc
phng trnh phn ng v ghi r iu kin.

(Trch thi tuyn sinh B i hc, Cao ng nm 2002, AAf A)

HNG DN GII

TR

a) Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch NaOH c, nng. Fe23


khng tan, lc, tch ta c Fe203. AI2O3 v Sip2 tan do phn ng:

0B

A120 3 + 2NaOH---- 2NaA102 + H20

+3
1

00

S02 + 2NaOH + Na2Si0 3 + HzO

P2

b) Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch mui st (III) d nh


FeC3, Fe2(S04)3..., Ag khng phn ng, lc tch c Ag. Kim loi
ng, st tan do phn ng:
*

H
A

Cu + 2FeCl3---- > 2K6CI2 + C11CI9


Fe + 2FeCls---- >SFeC 2

HNG DN G

-L

57. Mt loi mui n b ln cc tp cht l Na2S 0 4, NaBr, MgCI2, CaCI2;


v C aS04. Hy trnh by phng php ho hc ly NaCI tinh khit.

TO

Ho tan hn hp mui trn vo nc th c dung dch hn hp


cc mui trn (CaS4 c tan rt t trong dung dch).

b) Thm vo dung dch mt lng d Na2C0 3 loi ht cc ion


Ca2+, Mg2", Ba;:\

ID

NG

a) Thm mt lng BaCl2 d vo dung dch loi ht ion S 0 4'


di dng BaS0 4 kt ta.

c) Thm mt lng kh Cl2 vo dung dch Br2 b y ra.


d) Thm mt lng tha HC1 tc dng ht vi ion CO32'.
48

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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e) C cn dung dch cn li thu c NaCl tinh khit.

NH

58.
Cho hn hp bt cc kim loi Cu, Fe, Ag, AL Hy dng phng php
ho hc (k c in phn nu cn) tch ring tng kim loi ra khi hn hp.
HNG D N G1

UY

- Tch AI: Ho tan hn hp trong NaOH d.

TP
.Q

2A1+ 2NaOH + 2HsO > 2NaA102+ 3H2

Lc ta c dung dch nc lc. Sc kh C0 2 vo dung dch nc


lc ta c AI(OH)3. Phn khng tan l Fe, Cu, Ag.

2A I2 O 3

> AkOa + 3HO


>

4A 1 + 302

TR
N

ip ~

2A1(0 H)3

NG

NaAI02 + C0 2 + 2H20 AKOH^ + NaHC3

00

dpdd > Fe + Clg

C
P

FeCI2

2+

in phn ung ch ta c Fe:

31

Fe + 2HC1---- >FeCl 2 + H2

0B

- Tch Fe: Ho tan hn hp Fe, Cu, Ag trong dung dch HC1 d,


ch c st tc dng, lc ta c dung dch nc lc l FeCl2 v phn
khng tc dng l Cu, Ag.

H
A

- Phn khng tan l Ag, Cu. Ta em dt hn hp Ag, Cu, Ag


khiig tc dng vi oxi, Cu tc dng thnh CuO. Cho hn hp ny tc
dng vi dung dch HC1, CuO tan, lc ta c Ag v dung dch nc
lc c C11CI2. in phn CuC2 ta c Cu.

-L

2Cu + O2---- > 2CuO

dpd > Cu + Cl2

TO

CuCla

CuO + 2HC1 > CuCl2 + H20

ID

' 59. Bng phng php ho hc, hy trnh by cch tch cc cht: Al20 3l
Fe20 3, S i0 2 ra khi hn hp ca chng.
HNG D N G

Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch HC1, Si0 2 khng tc dng,


lc ta c S1O2 v dung dch nc lc. Cho dung dch NaOH d vo
dung dch nc lc, lc ta c Fe(OH)3 kt ta v dung dch nc lc
l NaA102.
4 . NB A TC .r. - A

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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A I2 O 3 +

6H

1 -

y 2 A IC I3 + 3 H 2 O

AICI3 + 3NaOH---- > Al(OH)34r + 3NaCl

TP

A1(0H)3 + NaOH - NaA102 + 2H20

.Q
UY

FeGls + 3NaOH > Fe(OH)3i + 3NaCl

NH
N

F62O3 + 6HC1---- 2FeCl3 + 3H2O

2Fe(OH)s

Fe20 3 + 3H20

NG

F62O3 + 3CO-> 2F6 + 3CO2

Nhit phn Fe(OH)3 sau dng c o kh Fe2 0 3, ta dc Fe.

Sc kh C0 2 vo dung dch nc lc, ta c AI(OH)3 sau nhit


phn AI(OH)3, ri in phn nng chy AI2O3 ta c Al.

A120 3 + ange

2AV* - W

2AI(OH)3

00

TR

C0 2 + NaA102 + 2H20 Al(OH)3 + NaHCOs

10

-> ^ + 3 0 *

C
P

2+
3

Lu : V S1O2 cng tan trong NaOH, nn khng cho hn hp


ngay t u tc dng vi NaOH v sau ny kh tch c S1O2-

60.
Mt hn hp gm AI2O3, CuO, Fe20 3 , dng phng php ho hc
tch ring tng cht ra khi hn hp.
H NG D N GII

TO
N

-L
-

- Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch NaOH, ch c AI2O3 .


phn ng:
AI2O3 + 2 NaOH---- > 2NaA102 + H20

ID

Lc ly dung dch nc lc cha NaAO- Sc kh CO2 vo dung


dch nc lc thu c A1(0H)3 kt ta.
NaA2 + CO2 + 2 H20 ---- > Al(OH)3i + NaHCOs
Nhit phn A1(0H)3 thu c AI2O3:

2AI(0 H)s - > A120 3 + 3H20


- Hn hp cn li l CuO v Fe20 3 , ho tan hn hp vo axit HC1
CuO + 2HC1---- CuCl2 + H2O

50Nguyn Thanh T
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NH

Fe20 3 + 6HC1---- 2 FeCl3 + 3H20

UY

Dung dch cha hn hp mui CuC2 v FeC3 cho tc dng vi


NH3 d.
Cula + 2NH4OH---- Cu(OH)2 + 2NH4CI

TP

.Q

Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3---- [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2

FeCla + 3 NH 4OH > Fe(OH)3i + 3 NH4CI

- Lc, tch c Fe(OH)3, nung ' nhit cao ta thu c Fe203-

Trung ho [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 bng HC1va

NG

> Fe20 3 + 3H20

2Fe(OH)3

TR
N

[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 + 6HC1---- CuCl2 + 4NH4CI + 2H20


Sau cho tc dng vi NaOH d:

CuCl2 + 2NaOH > Cu(OH)2 + 2NaCl

10

00

Nung kt ta thu li CuO


> CuO 4- H20

+3

Cu(OH')2

P2

61.
C hn hp ng bt gm 4 kim loi AI, Cu, Fe, Mg. Bng phng
php ho hc hy tch ring tng kim loi ra khi hn hp. Vit cc phng
trnh phn ng dng.

H NG D N Gl

+ 2 NOH + 2H20 ---- 2NaA102 + 3H2

-L

2 AI

- Cho dung dch NaOH d vo hn hp, tch c Al:

Lc tch c 3 kim loi khng phn ng Fe, Cu, Mg.

TO

- Sc kh CO2 vo phn nc lc thu c kt ta, nung kt ta,


in phn nng chy thu c AI:

NaAlOa + CO2 + 2H20 ---- * A](OH)s + NaHCOa


> A120 3 + 3H20

B
I

2A1(0H)3
2A2*q 3

> 4 A 1 + 302

- Cho 3 kim loi cn li vo dung dch HC1 d, tch c Cu


khng phn ng v hai dung dch mui FeCJ2 v MgC2 , cho dung ch
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

NaOH d vo 2 dung dch mui, thu c 2 kt ta Fe(OH)2 v:


Mg(OH)2. Lc ly kt ta v nung nhit cao cho MgO v Fe20 3.

TP
.Q
UY

- Thi CO vo hn hp 2 oxit nung nhit cao, MgO khng


phn ng, Fe20 3 phn ng cho Fe. Ho tan hn hp sau khi nung (
ngui) vo H2SO4 c, ngui, Fe khng tan, MgO tan trong H2S04
c. Lc ta c Fe v dung dch nc lc.

- Cho dung dch NaOH d tc dng vi MgS0 4 cho Mg(OH)2l, cho


dung dch HC1 tch dng vi Mg(OH)2, in phn nng chy MgCl2,
thu c Mg.

H
NG

Hc sinh t vit cc phng trnh phn ng trn.


62.

Trinh by phng php ho hc tch ring tng kim loi ra k

hn hp: CuO, MgO, AI2O3 (lng kim loi khng i au khi tch).

TR
N

HNG D N GII

S tch ring tng kim loi:


CuCn

00
B

_fNaOHd_ ) Lcr ^

AI2O3

AI
NaaAl^G
Lc, tch

22_,.Cu + MgO

10

MgO

Al(OH), _ U .a ] 20 3

Mg Cl

* ----------

------- > C u

P2
+3

Mg

63. Nu phng php tinh ch Cu trong mt mu qung Cu c ln F, Ag


H NG D N GI

v s.

-L

Ho tan mu qung trong dung dch HC1 d loi b Fe


Fe + 2HC1---- FeC2 + H2
2C + O2---- 2CuO

s + O2--- ^SO2

Hn hp cht rn thu c l CuO v Ag, tch Ag ngi ta cho


hn hp cht rn tc dng vi dung dch axit HC1.
CuO + 2HC1------ C u C 12 + H20
Ag + C1---- > khng tc dng

ID

NG

TO

t trong kh oxi loi b s, Ag khng tc dng vi oxi

Lc ta c Ag v ung dch nc lc l CuCl2


52

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CuCl2 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + 2NaCl

NH

t0 > C uO + H 20

: C u(O H )2

t0 -> Cu + H20

C u O + H2

UY

64.
a) Nu phng php tch hn hp kh Cl2 Ha v C 0 2 thnh tng cht
nguyn cht.

TP
.Q

b)
Nu phng php tch hn hp vi, vi sng, thch cao v mui n
thnh tng cht nguyn cht.

H NG D N GI

H
N

Cl + 2NaOH > NaCl + NaClO + H20

a) Cho hn hp qua dung dch NaOH


C0 2 + 2NaOH---- > Na2C03 + H2Q

Kh H2 khng phn ng tch ring v lm kh.

th u

c em un nng:

10

Dung d c h

00

TR

Thm axlt HG1 vo dung dch sau phn ng v thu y CO2 v


lm kh.
Na2C0 3 4- 2HC1---- > 2 NaCl + C0 2T + H20

P2

+3

2NaC10 ^> 2NaCl + O2

in phn c vch ngn dung dch NaCl:


- c vch ngn > 2NaOH + H2t + Cl2t

2NaCl + 2H20

b) Ho tan hn hp trong nc, vi sng tan:

-L
-

CaO + H20 - Ca(OH)2

Lc, ta c cht khng tan l vi; thch cao v dung dch


nc lc c NaCl v Ca(OH)2. Cho dung dch Na2C0 3 d vo ung dch
nc lc:

TO

Na2C0 3 + Ca(OH)2

CaG03 + 2 NaOH

NG

Lc, ta c CaC3 v dung dch nc lc (gm NOH, NaCl v


Na2C0 3 d), nhit phn kt ta CaC0 3 cho CO.
fc0

-> CaO + C0 2

B
ID

CaCOs

Cho dung dch HI vo dng dch nc lc thu c NaCl:


NaOH + HC1 > NaCl + H20
Na2C0 3 + 2HC1 - > 2 NaCl + C02 +'H20 -

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.Q
U

NH

Ra hn hp rn gm vi v thch cao, sau 'cho tc dng


vi dung dch HC1, vi tc dng, thch cao khng tc .dng, lc ta
c thch cao v dung dch nc lc. Cho dung dch Na2C0 3 vo dung
dch nc lc thu li vi.

TP

CaCOs + 2HC1 '4 CaCl2 + C02t + H20


CaCl2 + Na2C0 3 ---- CaC03l + 2 NaCl

65.
a) Trong phng th1 nghim bng phng php no c th tch
kh N2 v kh CO2 ra khi hn hp kh gm N2, O2, c o , C 0 2) hi nc?

NG

b)
Mt hp kim c cha Cu, Fe, Ag, Au. Hy nu phng php tch ri
Ag, ring Au t hp kim,trn.
H NG D N G I

10
00

TR
N

a) Cho hn hp kh qua ng ng p trng (hp th 0 2)


4P + 5O2---- > 2P2O5
Cho hn hp kh. cn li (CO, N2, CO2, hoi nc) qua ng ng
CuO un nng (CO phn ng).

ID

TO

-L

C
P

2+
3

CuO + CO - > Cu + COat


Kh cn li (gm N2, CO2, hi nc) qua bnh ng Ba(OH)2 d
(hp th CO2):
C0 2 + Ba(OH)2 - > BaC0 3 >l + H20

Kh cn li (gm N2, hi nc) qua H2SO4 c (hp th nc) 'cn


li l N2- Kt ta BaC03 cho tc dng vi H2SO4:
BaCOs + H2SO4 > BaS04 + C02 + H20
b) u tin ho tan hp kim bng dung dch HGI d loi Fe:
Fe + 2HC1- FeCl2 + H2
.
Lc thu Cu, Ag, Au em t ngoi khng kh s c CuO, Ag, Au.
Dng dung dch HC1 ho tan CuO.
,2Cu + O2 > 2CuO
CuO + 2HC1 CuCl2 + H20
Lc thu c Ag, Au ri em ho tan bng HNO3 c:
Ag + 2 W O 3 ---- > AgNOa + N0 2t + H20
Lc thu c Ah, nc lc cha AgN03, c th thu hi Ag bng
in phn, nhit phn hoc dng kim loi hot ng ho hc mnh
nh Fe, Zn... y Ag ra khi mui:
Fe + 2AgN03 > Fe(N0 3)2 + 2 A g

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K2CO3,

BaC 03. Vit

phng

.Q

HNG D N G l l

nun g

> MgO, BaO --------

+HC1

BaCl2 <-

dEc >

NG

< - dpn- -

KC1

Ba(OH)2

+HC1

MgO

Hn)
> dd K2C0 3
Hn
+2V
hp . Loc
->MgC03) BaC0 3
M 1

TP

S thc hin:

Ba

NH

MgC03,

mui

UY

M t hn hp M c cha 3
iu ch 3 kim loi ring bit.

66.
trnh

m . l U C H CC C H T V H P C H T V c

<

+H 2O
Loc

Hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.

00

H N G D N GI

TR

' 67. Trnh by phng php iu ch' cc kim loi ring bit t hn hp
gm: CuS, FeS 2 , AI2O3 , MgCC>3.

AI2O3

tan:

+3

10

Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch NaOH,

P2

A120 3 + 2 NaOH---- > 2NaA102 + H20

Lc ta c dung dch nc lc v phn khng tan l CuS, FeS2,


MgCOs2H20 + C0 2 + NaA102 ---- Al(OHU + NaHCOs
2Al(OH)s

-L

2A1A

> A120 3 + 3H20

4A1+302

TO

Cho hn hp rn cn li tc dng vi dung dch HC1 long,


MgC03 tan:
4
MgCOs + 2 HC1 ---- MgCl2 + C0 2T + H20

Lc ta c dung dch nc lc, c cn dung dch ri in phn


nng chy MgC2 cho Mg:

ID

MgCl2 - - pPC
> Mg + Cl2

t hai cht rn cn lai ta c hai oxit:


4FeS2 +

1 1 2 ---- > 2Fe20 3

+ 8S02

2CuS + 3 0 2---- >2Cu0 + 2S02t


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NH

<>

.Q

UY

+ 3C02T
-rong dung dch HC1, Cu khng tan, lc
l FeCl2.
i
+ O 2

TP

bng CO:
0QI

Ra hn hp rn
vi dung dch HC1, "
c thch cao 'i ?
dich nc O' ^

2(S4)3.

Fe + 1^304 iong---- > FeS04 + H2

a) T Fe:

NG

HNG D N G II

tc dng vi H2S 0 4 , bng nhng phn ng no :

ai<5_

2Fe + 6 H2SO4 c -------- ^ F 62(S04)3 + 3S02t + 6 H 2G


FeO + H2SO4 ---- FeS0 4 + H 2O

TR

b) T oxt st:

Fe20 3 + 3 H2SO4 ---- > Fe2(S0 4)3 + 3H20

00

c) T hiroxit st: Pe(OH)2 + H2SO4

FeS0 4 + 2H20

10

2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2S 0 4 ---- > Fe2(S0 4)3 + 6H20

P2

+3

d) T mui:--------- FeC0 3 + H2SO4 - > FeS0 4 + CO2T + H20


69.

2FeP0 4 + 3H2SO4---- * Fe2(S0 4)3 + 2H3PO4

a) T hn hp gm AI2O3 c ln SiOg, MgCQ. Hy iu ch km loi

H
A

AI t hn hp trn.

-L

b)
Trinh by hai phng php iu ch hai mui ng ring bit tan trong
nc t hp kim ng bc. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng.

H NG D N GII

TO

a) Cho hn hp tc ng vi HC1: MgC03, AI2O3 phn ng v to


cht tan cn Si0 2 khng tc dng, lc tch Si02.

b) Ho tan hp kim bng bng HNO3 dc:

B
I

N
G

Cho NaOH d vo nc lc thu c Mg(OH)2 v NaA102. Lc ;


tch Mg(OH)2. Cho dung dch thu c tc dng vi C0 2 hay axit HC1 !
Long, va thu c Al(OH)3. Lc, nung Al(OH)3 ri in phn nng 1
chy AI2O3 c Al. Hc sinh vit cc phng trinh phn ng.

Cu + 4HNO3 c

Cu(N03)2 + 2NO2T + 2H2O .

56
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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A g + 2H N O 3 dc

> A g N C >3 + N O t + H O

NH
N

Dung dch sau khi ho tan cho tc dng vi HC1 tch Ag.
AgN03 + HC1---- AgCl + HNOs

TP
.Q
U

Lc b kt ta AgGl. Dung dch sau khi tch AgCl, dng Fe (hoc


Zn, hoc Al.. J kh C2+v Cu kim loi:
Cu2+ + F e ---- > Fe2+ + Cu

Cu +

2H 2S 0 4 dc

> C u (N 03)2 + 2 N 0 2t + 2H20

> C11SO4 + S 0 2t +

Cu + 4 HNO 3 c

NG

Cho Cu tc dng vi H2SO4 c, nng v HNO3 c, nng cho hai


mui CuS04 v Cu(N0 3>2 tan trong nc.

2H 20

10
00
B

TR

em c cn dung dch s thu c 2 mui l Cu(N3)2 v C11SO4


l nhng mui tan trng nc. Cng c th iu ch mui C11CI2,
(CHsCOO^Cu tan trong nc.

P2

+3

70. T hn hp cha.CuO, CaC03, Fe 20 3l A2 O3 c php s dng dung


dch HCI, Fe, Ai, nhit v dng c phng th nghim. Hy trnh by ba phng
php iu ch Cu nguyn cht.

HNG D N GII

-L
-

H
A

Phng php 1: Ho tan hn hp trn trong HC1 d cho CuCla,


CaCl, FeC3 v AICI3. Cho tip Fe d vo dung dch thu c FeC2 v
hn hp rn gm Cu v Fe d. Ho tan ,hn hp rn ny trong HC1
ch cn Cu khng tan. Ra sch c Cu.

TO

Phcmg php 2: Cho Fe tc dng vi dung dch HC1 thu c H2,


nung nng hn hp trn ri cho i qua kh H2 ta thu c Cu, Fe,
AI2O3 v CaO. Ho tan hn hp rn va thu c trong HC1 d, cn
Cu khng tan, ra sch c C.

ID

NG

Phng php 3: Trn hn hp vi bt AI d ri nung nhit cao,


thu c hn hp rn gm Cu, Fe, AI2O3 v CaO. Ho tan hn hp rn
ny trong dung dch HC1 d, ch c Cu khng tan, ra sch c Cu.

Hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho.


71. a) T phn nhm - kali bng nhng phn ng no th c AI(OH)3,
KOH?

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

K7
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NH

b)
Ch c bm kh Cp 2, dung dch NaOH khng r nng v 2 cc thu
tnh chia , hy iu ch dung dch Na2C 0 3 khng c ln NaOH hoc mui
axit m khng dung thm mt phng tin hoc mt ho cht no khc.

UY

H NG D N GII

.Q

a) Cng thc ca phn nhm-kali: K2S0 4 .Al2(S0 4)3^.4 H2 0

TP

Ho tan phn trong nc, sau cho tc dng vi KOH (va )

A12(S0 4)3 + 6KOH + 2A1(0 H)34 + 3K2S0 4

H
NG

Lc ly kt ta A1(OH)3j cho BaC2 tc dng vi dung dch nc


lc cho n ht K2SO4:
K2SO4 + BaCl2 ---- 2KC1 + BaS04

TR
N

Lc ly kt ta, sau in phn dung dch KC1 c mng ngn


thu c dung dch KOH:
fe-A > 2KOH + c v r + Hg

0B

2KC1 + 2 H2O

31

00

Hoc cho dung dch K2SO4 tc dng vi Ba(OH)2, lc tch BaS04j


dung dch cn li l KOH.
BaS0 4 + 2 KOH

2+

Ba(OH)2 + K2SO4

cc c

C
P

b) Ly hai lng dung dch NaOH bng nhau cho vo


chia :

Cho kh CO2 vo cc. 1 ta c phn ng:

NaOH + C02(d) * NaHCOs

-L

Sau cc cn li vo dung dch NaHC03:

NaHC03 + NaOH > Na2C0 3 + H20


Dung dch thu c Na2CO khng c ln NaOH v NaHC0 3 -

TO

72. a) Hy trinh by 5 phn ng khc nhau c th to ra HCI trc tip t Cl2.

ID

NG

b)
Cho cc nguyn liu: mui n, vi, nc, khng kh, c iu kin
k thut cn thit, hy trnh by phn ng iu ch NaOH, nc javel, corua
vi, amoniac v natri cacbonat.
H N G D N GII

a) C th nu 5 phn ng sau:
Cl2 + H2

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

> 2HC1

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NH

2C12 + 2H20 !0 2 + 4HC1


C2 + 2 HBr -> Br2 + 2HC1

.Q
UY

4C12 + H2S + 4H20 ---- > H2S 0 4 + 8HC1

2NaCl + 2H20 ----cT mng ngn


------ 2NaOH + H2 + Cl2

TP

b) - iu ch NaOH: in phn dung dch NaCl

NG

Lm b.ay hi dung dch thu c catot (gm NaOH v NaCl)


NaOH tch ra.

TR
N

2C12 + 2NaOH---- > NaCl + NaClO + H 20

- iu ch nc javel: in phn dung dch NaCl khng c mng


ngn thu c nc javel.

00
B

- iu ch clorua vi: in phn dung dch NaCl thu c Cl2.


Nung CaC0 3 9OO-12QO0C thu c CaO, cho CaO tc dng vi H20
t thu c Ca(OH)2. T Cl2 v Ca(OH)2 ta thu c clorua vi:

10

Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 ---- > CaOCl2 + H20

P2

+3

- iu ch NH3: Ho lng khng kh v chng ct phn on


thu kh nit. in phn nc thu c kh hiro. Sau tng hp
amoniac:
2 NHs

-L
-

- iu ch Na2C03:

N + 3 H*

n h 3 + h 20 + c o 2 > NH4HCO3

TO
N

NH4HCO3 + NaCl
2NaHC03

NH4CI + NaHC03 (t tan)

Na2C03 + H20

NG

73.
a) T hai dung dch CuS04 v M gS04, vit cc phng trnh phn ng
to thnh Cu v Mg

T hn hp dung dch A cha KCI, MgC2, BaCl2, AICI3. Vit qu trnh

ID

b)

tch, iu ch thnh cc kim loi ring bit.


H N G D N GI

a) iu ch Cu t dung dch C11SO4


- in phn dung dch CuS0 4:
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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- D n g k im lo i m n h hn:

C 1 S O 4 + M g ------ > M g S 0 4 + C u

TP

.Q

CuO + h 20

UY

CuS0 4 + 2NaOH---- > Cu(OH)2i + Na2 S 0 4

NH

- Chuyn CuS0 4 thnh CuO ri kh bng CO hay H 2 :

Cu(OH) 2

2CuS 0 4 + 2H 20 dp^d - > 2Cu + 0 2 + 2H2S0 4

CuO + H2 - > Cu + H2 O

iu ch Mg t dung dch MgS04.

NG

MgS0 4 + 2 N aOH ---- Mg(OH)2i + Na2 S0 4

Mg(OH) 2 + 2HC1---- MgCIa + 2H20

Hay: MgS0 4 + BaCl2 ---- > BaS04i + MgCl2

Cho dung dch NH3 vo hn hp A thu c kt ta Mg(OH

00

b)
Al(OH)3.

Mg + C2

TR

in phn nng chy MgCl2: MgCl2

+3

10

- Lc ly kt ta v dung dch nc lc cha BaCl2 v KCl (dung


dch B).

P2

AICI3 + 3NH4OH---- Al(OH)3 + 3NH4CI

MgClz + 2 NH 4 O H ---- > Mg(OH)2 + 2 NH4 C

- Cho dung dch NaOH d vo kt ta, lc ta c Mg(OH)2'l v


dung dch nc lc cha NaAl2 (dung dch C)

-L

Mg(OH) 2 + 2HC1---- MgCl2 + 2HaO

M gCk.tw, - djy c- > Mg + Clg

B
I

TO

- Sc kh C( > 2 vo dung dch C:


NaAlOa + CO2 + 2H20 ---- Al(OH)3 + NaHCOs
2AI(OH)s
2A1^

* AI2 0 3 + 3H20

- -N s - 4AI *

3 0 2

- Cho dung dch (NH4)2C 0 3 vo dang dch B:


BaCl2 + (NHUkCOs---- BaCOsi + 2NH4CI

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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> N H 3 + H C l t

2NH3 + C0 2t + h 2o

.Q

(NH4)2c o 3

UY

N H 4C I -

NH

Loc ly kt ta BaCCV v thu e dung dch KC1, NH 4 CI v


(NH4 )2 C3 , c cn dung dch KC1 r in phn nng chy cho K.
2KC1----dp- - > 2 K + C12

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TP

Cho dung dch HC1 vo kt ta BaC03, n phn nng chy


BaC2 thu c Ba.

dpnc > B + CI2

NG

BaCIg (khao!

BaCOs + 2HC1 > BaCl2 + C0 2t + 0

7 4 . a) Cu c ln t Ag, vit phng trinh phn ng iu ch Cu(N 0 3)2 t


loi Cu trn.

HNG D N GII

TR

b)
Cho cc ho cht: Cu, HCI, KOH, Hg(N 0 3)2, H20 , hy vit cc phng
trnh phn ng iu ch CuC2 (tinh khit).

10

00

a) Cho Cu c n t Ag vo dung ch AgN0 3 d, c dung dch


Cu(N03)2:

+3

Cu + 2AgN0 3 ---- >Cu(N03 ) 2 + Agi

>Cu(N0 3 ) 2 +

3 )2

Cu + Hg(N0

P2

b) Ho tan HC1, KOH, Hg(N0 3 ) 2 vo H20 c cc dung ch


tng ng. Cc phng trnh phn ng:
Cu(N03 ) 2 + 2K 0H ---- > Cu(OH)2 + 2 KNO3

-L

Lc, ra kt ta Cu(0 H ) 2 ri cho tc dng va vi axit HC1 ta


c CuCl2 (tinh khit):

TO
N

Cu(OH) 2 + 2HC1 CuCl2 + 2H20

HNG D N G II

NG

75. Ch c nc, cc cht xc tc y trang thit b-thi nghim, cn thit,


trnh by cch iu ch tng kim loi c trong hn hp FeSg v CuS.

ID

t hn hp FeS 2 , CuS.
4

FS 2 + IO 2 -------- * 2 Fe 2

CuS + 302---- > 2CuO + 2 SO2

0 3

+ 8 SO2

Cho hn hp rn tc dng vi CO:


fil
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

CuO + CO Cu + C0

Fe23 + 3CO > 2B'e + 3 CO2


2

TP
.Q

UY

Cho hn hp Fe v Cu tc dng vi dung dch HC1, Fe tc dngCu khng tc dng, lc ta c Cu, in phn dung dch nc lc, ta
c Fe.

FeCl2 2 - + Fe + Cl2

Fe + 2HC1---- >FeCl2 + H2

H
NG

76.
T NaC, F eS 2, Fe, H2O khng khi vi cc iu kin cn thit v
phng trnh phn ng iu ch c c cht sau: Na 2S 0 3, FeCI2, Fe 2 (S 0 4)3):
NH4NO3.

HNG D N G II

TR

Ho tan NaC v H2 O c dung dch NaCL

00

- Nung FeS2 trong khng kh :

10

4FeS 2 + 110 2 - - - > 2Fe 2 0 3 + 8 SO2

+3

- in phn c mng ngn dung dch NaCl:


-------* 2NaGH + Cl2 + H2

C mng ngn

P2

2NaCl + 2 H 2 O ---- -

- iu ch NazSC>3: 2NaOH(dj + S p 2 ---- >Na2S3 + H2O

- iu ch FeCl2: H2 + Cl2 ---- > 2HC1

Ho tan kh HCi trong nc cho dung dch axt HC:


3

+ 6 HC 1 ---- 2FeCl 3 + 3H20

-L

Fe 2 0

Fe + 2 FeCl3 ---- >3FeCl2

S02

. 0
v2'-,5>t

> SOs . -+ & - HaSO, - - +sP3 > Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3

ID

NG

TO

- iu ch Fe2 (S04)3: S iu ch:

- iu-ch N4 N 0 3: Lm lnh khng kh, ri chng ct thu c


kh nit, s iu ch:
n 2 tS> n h 3
NH 3 -

ng gp PDF bi GV.
62Nguyn Thanh T

> NH 4 OH -------------------------

> NO - *2 > NO M

> HNO3 -> NH4NO3

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NH

77. T F eS 2 , vi sng, nc v cc thit b th nghim, cht xc tc cn


thit, hy iu ch F e S 0 4.
HNG D N GII

Nung FeS2: 4FeS2 + IIO2 - > 2Fe203 + 8SO2

Fe 2 0 3 + 3H 2 - -

S 0 3 + H20 > H 2 S0 4

NG

> 2 SO3 ;

> 2Fe + 3H20

Fe + H2SO4 long-----> FeS 04 + H2

TR
N

2SOs + 0 2

.Q

pdd > 2H 2 + 0

TP

in phn dung dch Ca(OH) 2 (thc cht l in phn nc)

UY

Ho tan CaO vo nc: CaO + H20 ----* Ca(OH) 2

2H20

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78. a) Vit c c phng trnh phn ng trong qu trinh sn xut ng t


qung C uF eS 2 .

10

00

b) Hy n u ba phng php khc nhau d iu ch Cu kim ioi t dung


dch cha 3 mui l: CuCI2, NaCl v AIC[3. Vit phng trnh phn ng minh ho.

P2

+3

HNG D N GII

2CuFeS2 + 4O2 - Cu2S + 2FeO + 3SO2T

a)

Sn phm sau phn ng nung vi Si02, FeO tc dng thnh x:

> 2Cu20 +'2S02T

2Cu2S + 3 0 2

FeO + S0 2 - t- > FeSi0 3

-L

2Cu20 + Cu2S - > 6 Cu + S02t

TO

b) - Phng php nhit luyn: Cho dung dch NaOH d vo dung


dch cc mui trn, thu c kt ta l Cu(OH)2 :

NG

AlCls + 4NaOH---- 3NaCl + NaAI0 2 + 2H20


CuCl2 + 2 N aO H ---- > Cu(OH)2 + 2 NaCl

ID

Lc, nung kt ta, sau kh cht rn bng kh H 2 (hoc CO)

Cu(OH) 2 t- CuO + H20


CuO + CO - > Gu + CO2

Phcng php in phn: in phn dung dch cha 3 mui, ch


c CuCl2 b in phn, thu c Cu kim loi trn catot.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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CuCl2 > Cu + Cl2

AI + 3 CuCl2 ---- ^ 2 AICI3 + 3Cu

.Q
UY

NH

Phng php thu luyn: Cho bt nhm t t vo dung dch h


hp cho n kh ht mu xanh (ca ion Cu2+):

HNG D N G II

TP

79.
T mui n, pirit, khng kh, nc, vi cc iu kin thch hp, h
vit c c phng trinh phn ng iu ch c c cht: Fe, F e S 0 4l N aN 0 3
NH4NO3 , FeCI2.

NG

4 FeS2 + 110 2 - > 2Fe23 + 8SO2

2NaCl + 2H20 ---- -ge - > H 2 + Cl2 + 2NaOH


C mng ngn

TR
N

Ho lng khng kh ri chng ct phn on ly N2, 0 2.


F*6203 + 3H2 -------- y 2Fe + 3H2O

00

H 2 + Cl2 ---- > 2HC1

10

Fe + 2HC1---- FeCl2 + H 2

+3

S iu ch FeSC>4 :

) H 2 S0 4 1 o U 8

- " Fe- > FeS0 4

P2

S 0 2 - * l ) so
'v2tJ5

3 .

xt, t

NHS

-L
-

n2 ;

H
A

S iu ch NH4NO3, NaNOs

TO
N

HNOS

- N- ^
Na0-

> N i2 _ > n o 2

+H20

> HNO3

-> NH4N03
> NaNOg

NG

Phng trnh phn ng hc sinh t vit.

80. Hon thnh s sau: CuSOi % ==; - Cu

(2 )

ID

Qu trnh ( 1 ) thc hin bng 2 phng php, qu trnh (2 ) thc hin bng
3 phng php.

HNG D N GII

a) Qu trnh: CuSC> 4 ---- * Cu


- in phn dung dch CuS0 4 bng in cc tr:
64

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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2CuS0 4 + 2H20

p > 2 Cu + 0 2 + 2 H 2 SO4

TP

Cu + 2 H 2 SO4 dc
t0
> CuS0 4 + S 0 2t + 2H20
- Cu tan trong H2 SO4 long hoc c oxi hoc cht 03d ho:

.Q
UY

- Ho tan Cu trong H2SO4 dc, nng:

NH
N

- Dng kim loi mnh ng ra khi dung dch mui:


Fe + CuS4 Cu 4- FeS0 4
b) Qu trnh: C u---- >CuS0 4

Cu + 0 2 + 2 H 2 SO4 - >2CuS0 4 + 2H20


- Dng bt Cu y Ag ra khi Ag2 S04:

NG

Cu + Ag2 S4 ---- >CuS0 4 + 2Agi

81. T nguyn liu chnh l F eS2, qung boxit (Ai20 3 c ln mt t Fe 20 3

v cc tp cht tr khc), khng kh, than v cc ho Chat ph khc, hy

10
00
B

HNG DN G II

TR

trinh by phng php iu ch st kim loi v mui nhm sunat.

iu ch A1 2 (S0 4 )3 : Cho qung boxit AI2 O3 c ln mt t Fe2 0 3


v cc tp cht khc vo dung dch NaOH d, AI2 O3 tan:

P2
+3

AI2 O3 + 2 NaOH---- > 2NaA102 + H20


Lc ta c dung dch nc lc v phn, khng tan, thi CO2 vo
; dung ch ric lc cho kt ta A1 (0 H)3 , sau ta lc c kt ta
AI(OH)3:
'
NaA0 2 + C 0 2 + 2H20 ---- >Al(OH)3 i.+ NaHCOa
Al(0 H) + 3H 2 S0 4 - > A12 (S0 4 ) 3 + 3H20
(H2 S0 4 c iu ch t FeS 2 nh bi tp 79).
iu ch Fe: t qung pirit:

-L

TO

4FeS 2 + IIO 2 - -> 2Fe2 0 3 + 8 SO2


t0

> 2 Fe + 3COa -

'

NG

Fe2 0 3 + 3C0

82. Nu phng php sn xut rig.tinh khit t qung pirit ng (CuFeS2).


HNG D N G II

ID

Nung qung pirit CuFeS2 vi S1O2:

2CuFeS2 + 2 SO2 + 5 O2

2Cu + 2 FeSi0 3 + 4 SO2

FeSiG 3 l x, c loi b, Cu thu c l Cu th, d c nguyn


cht ta thc hin s in phn vi: cc dng l ming ng th, cc
5

. NB&TCC-A

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

65
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NH
N

m l ming ng nguyn cht, ung ch in phn l C1 1 SO4 . Khi


in phn th ng th tan vo dung dch v sau bm vo cc m.

'

TP
.Q

'

UY

83. C 3 dung dch mui sau: NaC, CuCI2, FeCI3. Trinh by nhng
phng php iu ch kim loi t mi dung dch trn. Vit c c phng trnh
phn ng,
I
HNG D N G II

a) iu ch Na t dung dch NaCl: C cn dung dch NaCl, nung;


nng chy NaCl ri in phn:
2NaCl -gggg> 2Na + Cl2

H
N

b) iu ch Cu t CuCl2: C nhiu phng php.

TR
N

- Phng php in phn dung dch CuCl2 (in cc tr):


CuCls- pd- - > Cu + Cl2

- Phng php thu luyn, th d dng Fe, Ni, Sn... kh ion ;


Cu2+ trong dung dch C1 1 CI2 -

10

00

K 4- CiCl2 ---- ^ F6C1.2 + 0114

P2

+3

- Chun CuCl2 -> Cu(OH)2, sau thnh GuO ri dng cc cht j


kh (H, CO, c.) kh CuO thnh Cu (phng php nhit luyn).

c) iu ch Fe t dung dch FeCl3 : Chuyn FeCl3 thnh Fe(OH ) 3


sau nhit phn thnh Fe 2 0 3 ri dng phng php nhit luyn
iu ch Fe.

-L

hp trn.

84. Hn hp A gm Na 2C 0 3, M gC 03, BaCOa, F eC 03. Ch dng dung dch


HCI v cc phng tin cn thit, trnh by cch iu c h tng kim loi t hn

HNG D N G1

ID

NG

TO

- Ho tan hn hp v dung dch HC1 va thu c dung


dch B: NaCl, BaCl2, FeCl2, MgCl2 v kh C 02. in phn dung dch B I
n khi catot xut hin bt kh, ch c FeC2 b in phn to thnh
Fe v cn li dung ch c c NaCl, MgCl-2 v BaC.2
FeCl2 2^+ Fe .+ Cl2

- C cn dung dch c c hn hp mui n gm NaCl, MgCl2 ,


BaCl em in phn nng chy thu c Mg, Ba, Na. Cho hn hp
cc kim loi ny vo nc, ch c Na, Ba tc dng cn Mg khng tc
dng, lc tch c Mg v dung dch nc ic (dung dch D).
I

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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TP

.Q

UY

NH
N

Cho kh C2 thu c ' trn vo dung dch D, n khi chuyn


ht NaOH, Ba(OH) 2 thnh Na 2 C3 v BaC3 . Lc, tch c BaC03
v dung dch nc lc l Na2 CC>3 . Ho tan BaC0 3 trong dung dch HC1
c BaCl2, c cn dung dch BaCl2, ri in phn nng chy c Ba.
Cho dung dch Na2 C3 tc dng ht vi dung dch HC1 c dung dch
NaCl, c cn dung dch NaCl, in phn nng chy NaCl, thu c Na
(hc sinh t vit phng trnh phn ng).

NG

IV. CU HI V BI TP T GII

85. a) Bng phng php ho hc, hy nhn bit hn hp cc


cht sau: (Fe + Fe 2 3) ; (Fe 4 - FeO) ; (FeO + Fe 2 C>3 ).

00
0B

TR

b) Ch dng mt ho cht phn bit cc dung dch sau: NH4 CI,


FeCl2, FeCls, a 2 (SG4)3.
. C 4 dung dch trong sut, mi dung dch ch cha 1 loi ion
dng v 1 loi ion m. Tng s cc loi ion trong c 4 dung dch gm:
Na*. Ba , Mg**, Pb , SO4 2-, c r , CO3 2-, NO,-.

2+

31

8 6

C
P

a) 4 dung dch l dung dch g?

b) Nhn bit tng dung dch.

-L

87. Bng phn ng ho hc, hy chng minh s c mt ng thi


cc anion trong dung dch nc cha cc mui NaCl, Na 2 S04, NaN3
v Na3 P 0 4.
. a) Nhn bit cc cation trong dung dch hn hp cc cht sau:
A1 C3 , NH^NOs, BaCl2 v MgCl2.

TO

8 8

NG

b) Ch dng -mt loi ho cht, hy phn bit cc l dung dch


sau: NH 4 CI, MgCl2, FeCl2, NH4 AI(S04)2, FeNKtCSOJz.

ID

89. Dng phng php no chng minh c rng khi t chy


st trong kh Cl2 thu c FeCl3, nhng khi nung bt Fe vi s li thu
c FeS.
90. Nhn bit cc dung dch sau y ch bng phenolphtalein:
a) H2 S04, MgCl2, BaCl2, NaOH, Na 2 S04.
b) NaOH, HC1, H2 S04, BaCl2j NaCl.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

91. Hy phn bit 3 l mt nhn cha 3 dung dch mui Na 2 S 0


NaHS03, Na 2 S0 4 bng phng php ho hc.

.Q
UY

92. C 6 l khng nhn ng ring bit tng dung dch sau:


K2 CO3 , (NH4 )2 S04, FeS04, Fe2 (S0 4 )3 , Al2 (SC>4 )3 , MgS04. Ch dng mt
ho cht c th nhn bit 6 ung dch trn hay khng?

TP

93. C cc l ring ng dung dch NH 4 NO3 , AI(N03)3, Pb(N03)2,


FeC3 , HC1 v KOH. Khng dng ho cht no khc, hy nhn bit
tng dung dch.

H
NG

94. Nhn bit dung dch cha ba mui: natri sunfat, natri hidro
sunt v natri sunfat bng phng php ho hc.

TR
N

95. Khng dng thm ho cht no khc, da vo tnh cht ho


hc hy phn bit cc dung dch: K2 SO4 , AI(N03)3, (NH4 )2 S04,
Ba(N03)2, NaOH.

b) Hp kim Cu-Al.

10

a) Hp kim Cu-Ag.

00
B

96. Ch dng mt axit thng dng v mt dung dch baz thng


dng, hy phn bit ba hp kim sau:
c) Hp kim Cu-Zn.

P2

+3

97. Hy nu phng php nhn bit cc dung dch (b mt nhn)


sau y: AICI3 , NaCl, MgC2 , H2 SO4 . Ch c dng thm mt ho
cht nhn bit.

98. Ch c dng kim loi, hy nhn bit cc dung dch sau y:


HC1, HNO3 c, AgNOs, KC1, KOH.

-L
-

99. C 5 dung dch sau: NH 4 CI, FeCl2, FeC3 , AICI3 v MgCla, hy


dng mt ho cht nhn bit tng dung dch.
. Dng thuc th thch hp phn bit cc cht sau:

TO

1 0 0

b) HC1, NaOH, NaNOs, NaBr.

101. Dng thuc th thch hp, hy nhn bit cc dung dch sau
m t nhn:
a) NaCl, NaBr, K, HC1, H 2 SO4 , KOH.

B
I

a) Cc dung dch NaCl, NaBr, Nai, NOH, HC1.

b) Na 2 S04, H 2 SO4 , NaOH, KC1, NaN03.


68

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102. Khng dng ho cht no khc hy phn bit cc dung dch


sau: HC1, AgN0 3 , Na2 C0 3 , CaC2 -

UY

NH

103. Khng dng ho cht no khc hy phn bit 4 dung dch


cha cc ho cht sau: NaCl, NaOH, HC1, phenolphtalein.

TP

.Q

104. C 5 dung dch sau: NHjCl, FeC2, FeCl3, AIC1 3 v MgC2 Hy dng mt ho cht nhn bit cc dung dch trn.

105. Ch dng HC1 v H20 hy nhn bit cc-cht sau y ng


ring bit trong cc l m t nhn: Ag20 , BaO, MgO, M11O2, AI2O3, FeO,
Fe2Og v CaC03.

TR
N

- Trong dung dch c th c nhng cht no?

H
N

106. Trong mt dung dch c cc ion: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2*, HCO3 , c r .


Hy nu v gii thch:
- Khi c cn dung'dch c th thu c nhng cht rn no?

10

00

- Khi nung hn hp cht rn sau khi c cn c th thu c


nhng cht g?

P2

+3

107. Khng dng h cht no khc, hy phn bit cc dung dch


sau: HC1, MgS04, NaOH, BaCl2, NaCl

108 Dung dih A c cha cc ion Na+, NH 4 +, HCO3 ', G0 3 2t, S042(khng k cc ion H+, OH ca nc). Ch dng qu tm v cc dung
dch HC1 , Ba(OH) 2 c th nhn bit cc ion trong dung dch khng?

NG

TO

-L

109. C 6 ng nghim c nh s ng cc dng ch khng


theo th t: natri nitrat, ng clorua, natri sunfat, kali cacbonat, bari
nitrt v canxi clorua. Hy xc nh s ca tng dung dch. Bit rng
khi trn cc dung dch s X vi s 3, s 1 vi s 6 , s' 2 vi s 3, s 2
vi s 6 v s 4 Vi s 6 th cho kt ta. Cho dung ch AgN0 3 tc
dng vi dung dch s 2 cng cho kt t. Hy .xc nh cc dung dch
trong cc ng nghim.

ID

110. Cho 5 cation: Ag*, Ba2+, Mg2+, Na+ V 4 anion: Br, OH",
SG42_, CH3 COO". Hy cho bit thnh phn hai dung dch, mi ung
dch cha 2 cation v 2 anion ni trn khng trng lp.
111. Hy dng cc kim loi phn bit cc dung dch sau: HC1,
NaNOa, NaOH, h n 0 3)2, HNOs v CuS4.
en
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NH

112. Khng dng thm ho cht khc, da vo tnh cht ho hc


hy phn bit cc dung dch: K2 SO4 , A1 (N0 3 )3 , (NH4 )2 S 0 4, Ba(N0 3 ) 2
NaOH.
. ......

TP

.Q

UY

113. C 6 l khng nhn ng ring bit tng dung ch sam .


K2 CO3 , (NH4 )2 S0 4, MgS04j A12 (S04)3j FeS0 4 v Fe 2 (S0 4 )3 . Dng dung
dch xt hy cho bit l no ng dung dch g?
[

TR

NG

114. Ch c dng mt kim loi v chnh cc ho cht ny lm


th no phn bit nhng dung dch sau y. NaOH, NaNC>3 , HgC2
HNO3, HC.

115. C 4 l dung ch nc ca BaCl2, NaOH, AlNEUCSO^ v I


KHSO4 b mt nhn. Ch c dng qu tm v chnh cc ho cht!
trn, hy trnh by phng php n gin nht phn bit cc l
ho cht trn.

+3
1

00

0B

116. C 4 l khng nhn ng cc dung dch sau: HC1, Na 2 S04,


NaCl, Ba(OH)2, ch c dng qu tm v chnh cc ho cht trn !
nhn bit cc cht.

C
P2

117. Ch dng qu tm lm th no phn bit c dung dch


cc cht sau: Na2 S 04, Na 2 C0 3, NH4 CI.

118. Ch dng mt cht khc nhn bit tng dung dch sau:
NH4NO3, N aH C 03, (NH4)2S04, FeC2 v FeC3- V it phng trn h cc
phn ng xy ra.

-L

119. Mi ng nghim cha mt trong cc dung dch sau: KI,


BaC2, Na2CO3, Na2S04, NaOH, (NH4)2S04 v nc co. Khng dng
thm cht khc, hy t n h by cch nhn bit mi cht trn.

TO

120. Khng dng mt ho cht no khc, hy phn bit: NaHC 3 ,


NaCl, Na 2 C 0 3 v CaCl2

ID

NG

121 C 4 l mt nhn ng 4 dung dch: HC1, H2SO4, BaC2 ,


Na2 C 03j hy nhn bit l no ng dung dch g m khng c dng
bt c thuc th no.
I

122.
Ch dng thm mt ho cht duy nht phn bit cc dung
dch sau y:
'

a) K2 S 04j K2 C 03, K2 S03, K2 S, K2 S03.


b) MgCl2, NaBr, Ca(N03)2.

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NH

a) BaC2 , KBr, HC1, KI, KOH

123. Dng thuc th thch hp nhn bit cc dung dch sau y:

UY

b) KI, HCl, NaCl, H 2 SO4

TP
.Q

c) HC1, HBr, NaCl, NaOH


d) NaF, CaCl2, KBr,. Mgl2.

124. Ch dng thm mt ho cht hy phn bit cc l mt nhn sau:


a) MgCl2, KBr, Nai, AgNOs v NH4HCO3.

v BaCl2.

125. Cho cc cht CaC03, Fe 2 0 3 A12 0 3} S i0 2.

NG

b) NaBr, Z1 1 SO4 , Na 2 C0 3 , AgN0

a) Nu mt vi tn khong cht c cha cc cht trn.

TR

b) Bng mt ho cht t chn nhn ra cc cht trn.

10

00
B

126. Dung dch A cha cc ion: N a \ SO4 2", SO3 2-, CO3 2. Bng
nhng phn ng ho hc no c th nhn bit tng loi anion c
trong dung dch.

P2
+3

127. .Bng phng php no tch c C, s v 0 2 t CuS0 4 v


tch cc cht ra khi hn hp rn gm C11SO4, CaC 03j NH4CI.

128. a) Cho dung dch c hn hp cc mui: AgN03, Cu(N0 3 )2 ,


Pb(N03)2, hy trnh by c s ca phng php tch cc kim loi
ring r ra khi dung dch.

b) Tch cc dung dch mui t hn hp cc cht sau: NaCl, MgCl2,

-L

AICI3, NH4CI.

TO
N

129. Mt hn hp vn rn gm Fe, F.e3 0 4, Al, AI2 O3 , Mg, MgO, Cu


v Ag. Hy trnh by nguyn tc ly AI, Fe, Mg, Cu v Ag ra di
dng n cht bng phng php ho hc.

ID

NG

130. a) Nu phng php tch ring tng mui ra khi dung dch
gm 3 mui MgS04j N iS04, CUSO4 .

b) Hy tch ec cht sau y ra khi hn hp: BaO, MgC03,


AI2O3, CuO. Vit cc phng trn h phn ng xy ra.
131. Trnh by cch tch ring cc cht t hn hp NaCl, CaCl2
v CaO. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng tch.
132. a) Trnh by phng php ho hc tch ring tng kim
loi ra khi hn hp bt gm: Ca, Al, Mg, Au.
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NH
N

b) Hy tch hn hp 3 mui NaCl, MgCl2, NH4CI thnh cc cht


ring bit.
133. Hy dng phng php ho hc tch cc cht trong hn
hp Cr2(S04)3, C11SO4, MgS04.

TP
.Q
UY

134. Vit cng thc phn t cc oxit ca c v s. T hn hp ]\


cha cc oxit , lm th no tch ring c hai oxit c ho tr thp
nht ca c v s bng phng php ho hc. Cho bit axit sunur
mnh hn axit cacbonic.

NG

135. Cho hn hp cc mui KC1, MgCl2> BaC03, BaS04, hy nu|


cch tch ring cc mui ra khi hn hp.

TR
N

dung dch HC1 , do CO2 b ln mt t kh hiroclorua v hi nc.


Lm th no kh CO2 hon ton tinh khit?'

I.

00

137.
Hy tch ring tng oxit di dng rn ra khi hn hp 3
oxit sau: AI2 O3 , MgO v Fe 2 0 3 vi iu kin khng lm bin i lng I
mi cht c trong hn hp.

+3

10

138. a) C mt bnh ng dung dch cc mui: NaCl, CaCl2, AICI3


lm th no tch c cc mui trn di dng mui tinh khit.

P2

b) Trong mt bnh cha dung dch cc mui: NaHC03, Ca(HC03)2, 1


NH4 HCO3 lm th no tch ring dung dch cc mui trn ra khi I
nhau.

139. a) Trong phng th nghim lm th no tch N 2 ra khi


khng kh?
'

-L

b) Tinh ch N 2 ra khi hn hp vi 0 2j co, C 02, hi nc?.


;

141. Nu cch tch cc cht ra khi hn hp:

ID

NG

TO

140. Lm th no tinh ch N 2 c ln C02 HS, hi nc.

a) Cl2 c ln ,N2 v H2 .

b) Cl2 c ln C0 2.
142. Nu cch tinh ch:

a) Mui n c ln MgC2 v NaBr.


b) Axit clohiric c ln axit H 2 SO4 .
72

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NH
N

143. Mt loi mui n c ln tp cht CaCl2, MgCl2, Na2S0 4,


MgS04, CaS04. Hy trnh by cch loi cc tp cht thu c mui
n tinh khit.

.Q

UY

144 Hy ngh cch ly tng mui trong hn hp rn gm


amoni clorua, bari clorua, magie clorua. Vit cc phng trnh phn
ng xy ra.

TP

145. C hn hp bt 3 kim loi l Al, Cu, Fe. Hy trnh b


phng php ho hc tch ring tng kim loi ra khi hn hp. Vit
cc phng trnh phn ng.

NG

146. . T cc cht ban u NaCl, H2 0, KOH, CaC0 3 cc iu


kin phn ng coi nh c , hy vit phng trnh.phn ng (nu c)
iu ch cc cht sau: NaOH, H2, CI2 , axt HC1, nc javel, KCIO3,
clorua vi.

TR

147. Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi iu ch cc kim loi


Na, AI, Fe t cc cht: Na 2 C03, A1 (N0 3 )3, FeS2

+3

10

00

148. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng v trnh by cch iu ch


kali t qung sinvinit (gm ch yu NCl v KC1) v i ch cc kim
loi cha trong qung olomit

P2

149. Trnh by qy trnh sn xt sa theo phng php NH3


trong cng nghip.

150. a) Trnh, by phng php iu ch Na kim loi t Na 2 S0 4


brig phng, trnh phn ng ho hc.

TO

-L

b)
Vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch NaOH t cc cht v c,
ghi iu kin phn ng (nu ). T NaOH c th iu ch c Na
khng? Nu c hy vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch v ghi iu
kin phn ng.

NG

151. Bng nhng phn ng ho hc no ng ta c th iu ch


Ag t dung dch AgN03> Mg t dung dch MgCl2.

ID

152. T dung dch NaCl, Ca(OH)2, vit cc phng trnh phn ng


ho hc iu ch cc cht: Na, c w 2 , nc javel, clorua vi, HC'

153. T hn hp gm KC1, IC3 , CuCl (vi cc cht cn thit


khc v iu kin thch hp) vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch ba
kim loi: K, Cu? AI ring bit-

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NH
N

. .154. T bt nhm, dung dch NaCl, bt PeO v cc iu \kin


cn thit, vit'phng trnh phn ng diu ch A1(0 H)3, NaA102
FeCl3, Fe(OH)3.

TP

.Q
UY

155. C mt mu boxt diig sn xut nhm, mu ny c ln


tp cht l Fe2C>3 v S1O2. Lm th no t mu ny c th iu ch
dc AI tinh khit? Vit cc phng trnh phn ng.

NG

156. T nguyn liu chnh l mui n, v, nc, khng kh


cht xc tc... Vit cc phng trnh phn ng iu ch cc cht sau:
Na2C0 3, NH4NO3, NH4HCO3.

157. Hy trnh by ba phng php khc nhau iu ch mi


oxit sau: C0 2, NO2, SO2-

TR

a) Ba cch iu ch SO2 , C2 -

158. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng ch ra:

00

b) Hai cch iu ch CuO, A2 O3 .

10

c) Ba cch iu ch NaOH, Ca(OH)2.

P2

+3

d) Su cch iu ch FeCl2 .

159. Ngi ta sn xut supephotphat n v supephotphat kp t


pirit v apatit c thnh phn chnh l Ca3 (P 0 4)2- Vit cc phng
trnh phn ng xy ra.

-L

160. T mui n, pirit (FeS2), khng kh, nc vi cc iu kin


thch hp (bnh in phn, l nung, cht xc tc...), hy vit phng
trnh phn ng iu ch cc cht: Fe, FeCl2, FeS0 4j NaN03, NH4NO3.

TO

V. HNG DN GII

B
ID

NG

85.
a) Cho dung dch HC1 vo 3 mu th ng 3 hn hp trn,
mu th cho kh bay ra l hn hp (Fe + Fe203) -v (Fe + FeO) cn
mu th khng c kh bay ra l (FeO + Fe2 0 3).
Fe + 2HC1 > FeCl2 + H2
Fe20 3 + 6HC1 2FeC3 + 3H20
.

FeO + 2HC1---- >FeCl2 + H20

Cho vo hai mu th cha hn hp (Fe + Fe2 0 3) v (Fe + FeO)


mt t dung dch CuS04, sau ly cht rn thu c cho tc dng vi
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dung dch HGl. Cho dung dch NaOH vo sn phm sau phn ng.
ftiu th no cho kt tua trng l hn hp (Fe + FeO) mu th cho kt
ta mu nu l hn hp (Fe + Fe 2 0 3).

.Q
UY

Fe + CuS0 4 - >FeS4 + Cu'i'

NH
N

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TP

FeO + 2HC1---- >FeCl2 + H20

Fe2Os + 6 HC1 ---- 2FeCl3 + 3H20

NG

FeCls + 3NaOH---- > 3NaCl + Fe(OH)s^ (nu)

FeC2 + 2NaOH---- > 2NaCl + Fe(OH)2 (trng xanh)

TR

b) Dng dung dch NOH cho vo cc mu th cha cc dung dch


trn, mu th no cho kh c mi khai bay ra l NH4I, mu th no
cho kt ta trng xanh l FeCl2, mu th cho kt ta mu nu l
FeG3 , mu th cho kt ta nu eho d NaOH, kt ta tan l A1 2 (S0 4 )3 .

NH 4 CI + NaOH - > NH3t + HzO + NCl

10

00

FeC2 + 2NOH---- > 2 NaCl + Fe(OH)2i (trng xanh)

+3

FeCls + 3NaOH---- 3NaCl + Fe(OH)3i (nu)

C
P2

A12 (S0 4 ) 3 + 6 N aOH---- 3Na2 S 0 4 + 2A(OH)si (trng)


Al(OH)3 + N a O H -----> NaA 102 + 2H 20

8 6 .
a) 4 dung dch l Na 2 C03, Pb(N03)2, MgS0 4 v BaCl2 (k
bng cho tc dng cc ion vi nhau).

-L

b) Cho thuc th H 2 SO4 vo c 4 dung dch:


- Mt dung dch c si bt l Na 2 C03.

TO

- Mt dung dch trong sut l MgS04.


- Hai dung dch xut hin kt ta l Pb(N0 3 J2 v BaCl2

NG

BaCl2 + H 2 SO4 ---- >BaS04 + 2HC1

Pb(N0 3 ) 2 + H 2 S0 4 ---- >PbSCU + 2HN0 3

ID

Lc b kt ta, cho hai dung dch nc lc tc dng vi AgN03:

- Mt dung dch xut hin kt ta -> dung dch c HC1


dch mui ban u l BaCl2.

dung

- Mt dung dch vn .trong sut - dung dch c HNO3 > dung


dch mui ban du l Pb(N03)2.
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NH

87. - Ly mt t dung dch, cho thm ming ng v axit H 2 S0 4


long vo. Nu thy ming ng tan dn, dung dch c mu xanh nht
v thot ra kh b ho nu ngoi khng kh chng t c ion NO3 ":
-3Cu + 8 N<V + 8 H+---- > 3Cu(N03 ) 2 + 2NO + 4H20

TP
.Q
UY

2NO + 0 2---- > 2N0 2

- Cho MgN0 3 ) 2 vo dung dch ban u, nu thy c Mg3 (P 0 4 ) 2 !


kt ta chng t c ion PO4 3":

3Mg(N03 ) 2 + 2Na3 P 0 4 ---- Mg3 (P04)2i + 6NaN0 3

NG

- Lc b kt ta, cho t t Ba(N 0 3 ) 2 n d, c kt ta trng l c


ion SO4 2":

Ba(N0 3 ) 2 + Na2 S0 4 ---- BaS04i + 2 NaNOs

TR
N

- Li lc b kt ta, cho dung dch AgN0 3 vo thy c kt ta


trng ca AgCl l c ion Cl':

00
0B

AgN0 3 + N aC l---- >AgCl + NaN 3

+3
1

8 8 . a) Nhn bit cc ion trong dung dch. Trong dung dch cc


mui phn li thnh cc ion: Al3+, NHt*, Ba2+, NCV, Mg2+, Cl"-

P2

Nhn bit cc cation: Ba2+, Al3+, N4 +, Mg2"".

Ly mt t dung dch cho tc dng vi H 2 SO4 nu thy c kt ta,


chng t trong dung dch c Ba2+:

Ba2+ + SO4 2' ---- >BaS04i

TO

-L

Lc ly dung dch cho tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d, un nh. I


Nu thy c kt ta trng th l Mg(OH)2, chng t c ion Mg2". I
Nu c thy mi khi bay ra chng t c ion NH4 +:
N IV + OH----- >NH 3 T + H20

ID

NG

Lc ly dung dch cho tc dng vi CO2 , nu thy c kt ta trng


xut hin chng t c ion Al3+:
A3+ + 40H > AO2' 4- 2H20
A102" + 2H20 + C0 2

> Al(OH)3 + HCO3-

Hoc c th ly dng dch su khi tch kt ta Mg(OH> 2 cho tc ;


dng t t vi dung dch HC1. Nu thy c kt ta xut hin chng t
c Al3+:
76

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A102- + H+ + H 2 0 + Al(OH)3

NH

b) Ly mi loi dung dch mt t cho vo cc ng nghim ring


bit ln lt cho chng tc dng vi dung ch NaOH.

A1 3+ + 4 0 H '---- >AI02 + 2H20

.Q

UY

ng nghim no ch cho kh mi khai bay ra l ng nghim


cha dung dch NH4 CI.

4)2

+ 4NaOH---- > AI(OH)3i + NH3f + 2Na2 S0 4 + H20

AINH4 (S0

H
NG

TP

ng nghim no cho kt ta trng, bn l ng nghim cha


dung dch MgC2 .
ng nghim no cho kt ta trng xanh, t t bin thnh kt ta
nu l FeC2 .
ng no cho kt ta keo trng, tan trong NaOH d ng thi c
mi khai l ng cha dng dch AlNKiCSO^.

0B

TR

ng no cho kt ta 'nu ngay, ng thi c kh mi khai bay


ra l ng nghim cha dung dich FeNHiCSO^.

+3
1

00

89. a) Ho tan sn phm vo nc, nu dung dch c mu vng


nu, chng t c ion Fes+, hoc cho vi git ung dch NaOH vo s c
kt ta nu .

H
A

C
P2

Fe3+ + 30H ---- > Fe(OH)3i


Cho vi git dung dch AgN3 vo, nu c kt ta trng l c
cha ion Gl~.

TO

-L
-

Ag+ + c r ---- AgClv


b) Ho tan sn phm vo axit HC, nu c kh mi trng thi bay
ra chng t c ion s 2-:
FeS + 2H+ -> Fe2+ + H2s f
Dung ch thu c cho vi git dung ch NaOH, n c kt ta
mu trng hoi xanh, chng t c ion Fe2+.

NG

Fe2+.+ 20H "---- > Fe(OH)2v

ID

90. a ) Nhn ra dung dch NaOH lm hng phenolphtalein.


Dng dung dch NaOH c mu hng trn vo 4 dung ch cn li,
nhn ra:
- Dung dch H2 SO4 lm mt mu hng:
H 2 S 0 4 + 2 N aO H ---- > Na2 S 0 4 + 2H20
77
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NaOH + MgCl2 ---- Mg(OH)2 + 2NaCl

NH

- Dung dch MgC2 c kt ta trng vi dung dch NaOH:

.Q
UY

Dng dung dch H 2 SO4 nhn ra dung dch BaCl2 v i c kt ta trng:


H 2 S0 4 + Balz > BaS04vl + 2HC1

TP

Cn li l Na2 S 0 4.

b) Nhn ra dung dch NaOH lm hng phenolphtalein. Thm dung


dch NaOH c mu hng vo cc dung dch cn li chia lm 2 nhm:

NG

Nhm I: HCl, H 2 SO4 lm mt mu hng c dung dch NaOH


ban u.

Nhm II: BaCl2, NaCl vn nguyn mu hng ca dung dch NaOH


ban u.

00

0B

TR

Ln lt ly mt dung dch ca nhm I vo 2 dung dch ca


nhm II ta nhn thy nu c kt ta mu trng th nhn ra l cp
H 2 SO4 v BaCl-2 v cp cn li l HC1 v NaCl (khng to kt ta).

C
P2

+3
1

91. Cho dng dch BaCl2 vo 3 mu th cha 3 dung dch mui


Na 2 S 0 3, NaHS 0 3 , Na 2 S04, mt mu th khng c phn ng l
NaHSOs, c hai mu th cho kt ta trng l NSOs v Na2 S 0 4BaCl2 + Na2 S0 3 ---- BaS03>l + 2 NaCl

BaCl2 + Na2 S0 4 ---- > BaS04i + 2NaCl

-L

Phn bit hai kt ta trng bng dung dich HCl, kt ta no tan


l BaS3 to thnh t a2 SC>3 , cn li kt ta khng tan to thnh t
Na2 S04.

BaSOs + 2HC1---- > BaCl2 + SOt + H20

TO

BaS0 4 + HC1---- >khng phn ng.


6

dung dch trn (hc sinh

NG

92. Dung dch NaOH c th nhn bit


vit cc phng trnh phn ng)

B
I

93. u .tin nhn ngay c dung dch FeCl3 v c mu vng ca


ion Fe3+. Dng dung dch FeCl3 vo cc dung dch cn li, nu:
- Dung dch c kt ta nu l KOH:
Fe3+ + 30H ---- Fe(OH)3
- Dung dch c kt ta trng^ l Pb(N03)2:
Pb2+ + 2 C r P b e i2i

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Dng KOH va tm c nh vo 3 dung dch cn li, nu:

NH

- C kh mi khai bay ra l NH4 NO3

UY

NH 4 + + OH"---- NH3f + H20


- C kt ta, ri kt ta tan l A1(N03)3:

TP

.Q

Al3+ + 3 0 H '---- Ai(OH)3

TR

NG

Al(OH)s + OH > AIO2" + 2HaO n


Cn li l dung dch HC1.
94. - Nhng a P t vo 3 dung dch' mui v cho ln ngn n
kh khng mu c mu vng, u l mui ca natri.
- Tc dng vi BaCL:
Na S + BaC ---- >2NaCl + BaS04i (khng tan trong HC1)
Na S 0 + BaGl ---- > NaCl + BaS03 (tan trong HC1)

BaSOg + 2HC1 > BaCls + H20 + S02t (mi xc)

10
00

NaHS0 3 + BaCl2 ---- > khng phn ng

P2
+3

NaHSOs + HC1 NaCl + S 0 2 + H20

Do dung dch no c kt ta trng vi BaCl2 , kt ta khng


tan trong axit HC1 l mui Na2 S 0 4.
- Cho kt ta trng vi BaCl2, tan trong axit HC1 to thnh kh
mi xc kh th l Na 2 S 0 3 -

- Khng phn ng vi BaC2 , tc dng vi axit HC1 to thnh kh


mi xc kh th l NaHS03.

TO

k 2so4

-L

95. Cho mt cht ln lt vo cc cht cn li, ta c:


k 2s o 4

(NH4)2 S0 4

Ba(N3 ) 2

Al(OH)3>l
sau
tan

N
D

(NH4)2so4

BaSC

B
I

Ba(N(>3 ) 2
NaOH

NaOH

BaS04

AI(N03 ) 3

AI(N03 ) 3

N H st.

BaS04
Al(OH)3 isau
tan

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NH

- Qua bng trn ta nhn thy duy nht ch c trng hp 3 khi


mt cht vo hai cht cn li c kt ta v kh NH 3 mi khai th
dung dch l (NH4 >2 S0 4 , dung dch cho kt ta trng l Ba(N03)2,
dung dch to kh mi khai l NaOH.

TP

.Q
U

- Cho dung dch NaOH vo cc dung dch K2SO4 v A1(N03 ) 3 dung


dch no cho kt ta trng v tan dn l A1(N03)3 cn dung dch
K2 SO4 khng phn ig.

* 96. Dng dung dch HC1 v dung dch NH 3

NG

~ Ln lt cho dung dch HC1 vo ba mu th cha ba hp kim


trn, mu th no khng tan l hp kim Cu-Ag, tan mt phn l mu
th cha Al-Cu v mu th cha Cu-Zn.
Al + 6HC1---- > 2A1C3 + 3H2

Zn + 2HC1---- > ZnCl2 + H2T

TR

Cu, Ag khng tc dng c vi dung dch HCI

00
0

- Cho t t v n d dung dch NH3 vo dung dch 2 mu th


tan mt phn:

C
P2

+3
1

Dung dch no cho kt ta v khng tan trong dung dch NH 3 l


mu AI-Cu
1C3 + 3NHs + 3H20 ---- > Al(OH)3 + 3 NH 4 C

Dung dch no cho k t ta v sau tan. trong NH3 d l mu


Zn~Cu

ZnCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H20

-L

Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3

Zn(OH)2 +2NH4CI
Zn(NH3)4(OH)2

97. Dng dung dch NaOH nhn ra AICI3 v MgC2 -

ID

NG

TO

Cho t t dung dch NaOH vo mt t cc dung dch cn nhn


bit: dung dch no cho kt ta trng, lc nh khng tan l dung dch
MgCl2, dung dch no cho kt ta trng, lc nh tan trong dung dch
NaOH d l dung dch AICI3 .
MgClg + 2NaOH---- > Mg(OH)2 + 2NaCl

AICI3 + 3NaOH---- > Al(OH)3i + 3NaCl


Al(OH) 3 + NaOH---- NaA102 + 2H20
80

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NH
N

Cc dung dch H2SO4, NaCl khng c hin tng g. Dng k t t a


^g(0H)2 va thu c trn phn bit H2SO4 v NaCI ta nhn ra
dc urig dch H2SO4 vi lm tan k t ta Mg(OH)2, v cht cn li
NaCl:

TP
.Q
UY

98. Cho bt ng vo 5 ng nghim ng 5 dung dch trn ri un


nng.
ng no c kh mu nu thot ra l ng ng dung dch HNO3 c.
> Cu(N03)2 + 2N02 + 2H20

Cu + 4 HNO3 dc

Cu + 2AgN03 * 2 Agl + Cu(N03 ) 2

NG

ng no lm dung dch chuyn dn thnh mu xanh lam l ng


ng AgN03:

TR
N

Ba ng cn li khng c hin tng g l HC1, KC1, KOH

00

10

Fe + 2HC1---- FeCl2 + Hat

Cho bt Fe vo 3 ng cri li, ng no c kh thot ra l ng ng


HC1, hai ng cn li khng c hin tng g.

P2

+3

Cho bt AI vo hai ng cn li, ng no c kh thot ra l ng


KOH, cn li l ng ng KC1.

2KOH + 2HO + 2AI 2 KAIO2 + 3H 2

H
A

99. Chn dung dch Ba(OH> 2

2NH4I + Ba(OH)2 - -

) BaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H20

(NH4 )2 S0 4 + Ba(OH) 2 - BaS4i + 2 NH 3 T + 2H20

-L

MgClo + Ba(OH) 2 - BaCl2 + Mg(OH)2^ (trng)

TO
N

2FeCl3 + 3Ba(OH) 2 > 3BaCl2 + 2Fe(OH)3i (nu)


2A1C13 4 - 3Ba(OH) 2

> 2Al(OH)3i + 3BaCl2

NG

2AI(OH) 3 + Ba(OH) 2 ^ Ba(A102 ) 2 + 4H2 0 .

. a) Dng qu tm nhn bit NaOH v HC1 cn li 3 dng


dch Nai, NaBr, NaCl. NaOH lm qu tm ho xanh, HC1 lm qu tm
ho hng. Cho kh clo tc dng vi 3 dung dch cn li, l ng dung
dch Nai cho I 2 (mu tm en). Clo tc dng vi dung dch NaBr cho
Br2 (mu nu). Cn li l dung dch NaC.l.

ID

1 0 0

6.NB&TC-A
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

b) Dng qu tm nhn bit c dung dch HCl v dung dich


NaOH. Dng dung dch AgN03 nhn bit NaBr, cn li l dung
dch NaNC>3 .

TP

.Q

UY

101.
a) Dng, qu tm nhn bit cc dung dch KOH, H2SO4, H
Dng dung dch AgNC> 3 nhn bit dung dch HC1, cn li l dung
dch H 2 SO4 (hoc dng dung dch BaCl2 n h n bit H2SO4 cn li l
dng dch HC1).

NG

Phn bit cc dung dch NaCl, NaBr, KI hoc dng kh clo hoc
nhn bit da vo mu sc cht sinh ra khi t trn ngn la
n kh.

Dng qu tm nhn bit dung dch NaOH v dung d

b)
H2 S04-

31

1 0 2

00

0B

TR

Cn li dung dch Na 2 S04, KC1, NaNC> 3 dng dung dch BaCla


nhn ra Na 2 S04. Dng dung dch AgN0 3 nhn bit c KG1 v cn
lilN aN O s-

2+

HC1

C
P

HC1

AgCl

C02t

A
H

C02

Ag2 G03
Ag2 G03

CaCl2
AgC
CCOg't

CaC03

-L

CaCl2

Na2 C0 3

AgCi

AgNOs
Na2 C 0 3

AgNOg

B
ID

NG

TO

Da vo bng trn ta thy khi cho mt mu th tc dng vi 3


mu th cn li s xy ra mt trong' bn trng hp. Trong cc trng
hp trn, duy ch c trng hp mt ch tin hnh lm mt ln
pht hin c 3 cht cn li v:
HC1 + CaCl2 ---- >to dung dch trong sut
'HCl + AgNOs - AgCl + HNO3
2

HC1 + Na 2 C0 3 ---- > 2NaCl + C2t + H20

Trng hp ny khng trng vi ba trng hp cn li.

103.
Ta nh ln lt mt mu th vo ba mu th cn li n
no thy hai mu th nh vo nhau bin thnh mu hng th cp
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TP

.Q

UY

NH

l dung dch NaOH v phenolphtalein. Cn li l dung dch NaCl v


ung dch HCl. Cha ng nghim c mu hng thnh hai phn. Ly
hai mu th ng dung dch NaCI v dung dch HC1, mi mu th
vo mt ng nghim mu hng, mu no lm mu hng m t i l
dung dch HC1 (v axit trung ho ht NaOH, nn m trng trung
tnh, phenolphtalein khng i mu). Ta phn bit c dung dch
HC1 v dung dch NaCl.

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NG

ng nghim t mu hng chuyn sang khng mu, lc ny ch


cha NaCl v phenolphtalein. Ta dng n nhn bit c dung
dch NaOH bng cch nh vo mt trong hai ng nghim cha phn
bit, ng no bin thnh mu hng l NaOH, ng cn li l
phenolphtalein.
104. Cho bari kim loi vo cc mu th dng cc cht trn.

TR

- Mu th no c kh mi khai bay ln l NH4C

00

Ba + 2H20 ---- >Ba(OH) 2 + H 2

10

Ba(OH)2 + 2NH4CI---- BaCl2 + 2NH3T + 2H20

P2

+3

- Mu th cho kt ta trng xanh (Fe(0 H)2 ) l FeCl2.

- Mu th no cho kt ta nu (Fe(OH)3) l FeCl3.


- Mu th no cho kt ta trng (A1 (0 H)3 ) nu d Ba(0 H ) 2 th tan

l A IC I3.

-L

- Mu th no cho kt ta trng (Mg(0 H)2 ), un khng i mu


l MgCl2.

Ag20

BaO

MgO

trng

TO

tan

tan

khng
tan

B
ID

h 20

dd
(A)

MnOs
ti

AI2 O3

FeO

Fe2 0 3

CaCOs

tan

dd
xanh
nht

dd
mu
vng

T
khng
mu

khng khng
tan
tan

khng
tan

vng
lc

NG

HC1

105. Cch 1: Nhn bit theo bng sau:

khng
tan

khng
tan

khng
tan

Cho cc cht rn trn tc dng vi HC1: cht no c kt ta


trng l Ag2 0 , cht no c kh mu vng lc thot ra l M n2, cht
no tan ra dung dch mu hi xanh lu trong khng kh s chuyn
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NH
N

thnh dung dch mu nu l ng FeO, cht no to ra dung dch mu


'vng l Fe 2 0 3, cht .no to ra kh khng mu thot ra l CaC0 3 - Ba
cht cn li to ra dung dch khng mu l BaO, MgO v AI2 O3 .

TP

.Q

UY

Ly ba cht ny cho tc dng vi nc, cht no tan l BaO


khng tan l MgO v AI2 O3 . Ly dung dch thu c Ba(OH) 2 cho tc
dng vi hai cht cn li, cht no tan th nhn ra AI2O3, cn li ta
nhn bit c MgO.

NG

Cch 2: " Cho cc cht trn ho tan vo nc, cht no tan l


BaO. Ly dung dich Ba(OH) 2 va thu c cho tc dng vi cc cht
rn cn li, cht no tan l AI2 O3 .

00

0B

TR

Cho cc cht rn cn li tc dng vi HC1: cht no to kt t


trng l Ag2 , cht no c kh vng lc thot ra l Mn0 2, cht no c
kh khng m thot ra l CaC03, cc cht cn li l dung dch FeCl2
v FeCl3> dng dung dch Ba(OH> 2 va thu c trn cho tc dng
vi hai dung dch ny s d dng nhn ra dc FeO v Fe 2 0 3 khi c
kt ta Fe(OH ) 2 trng xanh v kt tia Fe(OH ) 3 nu.
!

C
P

2+

31

106. Trong dung dch c th c nhng cht: Ca(HC03)2) CaCl2


NaHC03, NaCl, Mg(HC03)2> MgCl2 vi cc cht ny cng tn ti trong
cng mt dung dch, khng gy ra phn ng to thnh cht kt ta I
hay bay hi v t in li vi cc cht khc.

H
A

Khi c cn dung ch c th thu c cc cht: CaC03) CaC2 ,


Na2 C 03> NaCl, MgC03, MgCl2 v khi nung nng:
N&HCO3

-L
-

TO
N

Ca(HC0

3 )2

* Na2 C0 3 + C 0 2 t + H20

> CaC0

Mg(HC03 ) 2

+ C 02 + H20

> MgCOs + C 02 + H 2 0

ID

Khi nung hn hp cht rn sau khi c cn c th thu c nhng !


cht CaO, MgO v khi nung nng xy ra cc phn ng:

CaC0 3
MgCOg

CaO + C0 2
MgO + CO2

107. Ln lt cho mt mu th tc dng vi bn mu th cn li


t c kt qu:

84

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HC1

MgS0 4

NaOH

BaCl2

Mg(OH)2

BaS04

NaCl

NaOH

NH

MgS0 4

HCl

UY

Mg(OH)2i

.Q

BaCl2

TP

NaCl

NG

Da vo bng trn ta nhn thy khi cho 1 mu th vo 4 mu th


cn li du nht ch c mt trng hp MgSOj to kt ta vi hai
dung dch l NaOH v BaCl2 4

+ 2N a0H > MgCOH)2i + Na 2 S0 4

(1)

MgS0

+ BaCl2 + BaS04* + MgCl2

(2)

MgS0

TR

Nh vy ta c th chia cc dung dch lm hai nhm:

Nhm I: NaOH v BaCl2 -

10

00

Nhm II: HC1 v NaCl.

P2

+3

Lc ly 2 kt ta ' (1) v (2) sau cho n lt cc dung dch


nhm II tc dng vi 2 kt ta, .nu kt ta no tan th l cp HC1
v Mg(OH)2. Kt ta no khng tan l BaS04. Nh vy ta bit c
dng dch MgS04j HC1, NaH, BaCl2 v dung dch cn li l NaCl.

2HC + Mg(OH) 2 MgCls + 2H20


HC1 + BaS0 4 ---- khng phn ng.

TO

-L

108. - Cho dung dch Ba(OH) 2 tc dng vi dung dch HC1 c


dung dch BaCl2. Ly dung dch ny tc dng vi dung dch A ri lc
c kt ta BaC0 3 v BaS04. Gh dung dch HCl vo kt ta, BaCOs
tc dng cho kh C 0 2 (nhn ra ion C0 3 2-), BaS0 4 khng tc dng
(nhn ra ion SO4 2").

ID

NG

Cho dng dch Ba(OH) 2 tc dng vi dung dch nc lc sau khi


loi kt ta trn, nu thy kh mi khai bay ln v lm qu tm ho
xanh ta nhn ra c ion N IW v thu c kt ta trng ta nhn ra
dc ion HCO3 ', cn li ta nhn ra ion Na+khng tc dng
109. nh s tng dung dch: ( 1 ): Ba(N03)2; (2 ): CaCl2;
(3): Na 2 S 0 4; (4): CuCl2; (5): NaN03; (6 ): K2 CO3 .
fif
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Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra:

.Q
UY

(1)-vi (6): Ba(N0 3)2 + K2CO3---- > BaCC + 2KNO3

NH

(1) vi (3 )i Ba(NC>3)2 + N3.2SO4---- BaS 0 4 + 2N&NO3

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(2 ) vi (3): CaCl2 + Na2 S 0 4 CaS04 + 2NaCl

TP

(2) vi (6): CaCIz + K2CO3---- CaCOgi + 2KC1

(4)-----------------------------------vi (6 ): CuCl2 + C2 CO3 >CuCOsi + 2

NG

(2) vi AgN03: CaC2 + 2AgN03 - >2AgCll + Ca(N0 3 ) 2

110. Thnh phn cc dung dch: Khi 2 cation v 2 anion cha


trong cng mt dung dch th chng phi khng tc dng vi nhau
to thnh cht kt ta hay bay hi.

TR

Dung dch 1 cha: Ag+, Mg2+, SO42", CH3COO" tng ng vi cc


cp mui: MgS04, CH3COOAg hoc cc cp Ag2 S04, (CH3 COO)2 Mg.

. a) Dng kim loi ng nhn ra Hg(N0 3 > 2 v HNO3

C
P2

1 1 1

+3

10

00

Dung dch 2 cha: Ba2+, Na+, Br, OH~ tng ig vi cc cp cht:


BaBr2, NaOH hoc cp Ba(OH)2, NaBr.

- Nhn ra dung dch HgCN0 3 >2 : Cho Cu vo dung dch Hg(N0 3 ) 2


th b mt ming ng b ho en do to hn hng.

Cu .+ Hg(N 03)2 Hg + Cu(N 03)2

- Nhn ra dung dch HN03:

-L

4HNO3 + Cu - Cu(N0 3)2 + 2N0 2 + 2H20

TO
N

8HNO3 tong + 3Cu > 3Cu(N 03}2 + 2NOT + 4H2O

Sau : 2NO + 0 2 ---- 2 NO2

b) Dng kim loi Fe nhn ra HCI v CuS04

ID

- Nhn ra dung dich HCl: Cho Fe vo dung ch HC1 th c kh


H2 thot ra.
-

N h n r a dung d c h C u S 0 4: h o F e v o dung d ch C 1 1 S O 4 th

ng c mu vng bm n ming Fe.


Fe + C11 SO4 ---- >FeS0 4 + Cu
c) Dng kim loi AI nhn ra NaOH v NaN0 3

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[ '

UY

.
K2SO4

a (N 0 3 )3

(NH4)2S0 4

Ba(N0 3 )2

k 2s o .

.Q

1 1 2

AI + 2 NaOH + 2H20 ---- > 2NaA102 + 3H2T

NaOH

TP

NH

I
Cho AI vo dung dch NaOH v NaNC>3 ch c dung dch NaOH
I . cho kh bay ra:

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BaS04

Al(OH)3
ri tan

NG

A1(N03)3
BaS04

NH3t

TR

Al(OH)3
ri tan

NaOH

B aS044

BaSC

Ba(N0 3)2

NH 3T

(N4)2S04

P2

+3

10

00

Ln lt cho 1 mu th vo 4 mu th cn li, mu th no to
mt kt ta v to vi mu th khc kh c mi khai (NH3 ) bay ln
th mu th vo l (NH4 )2 S0 4j mu th cho kt ta trng l
Ba(N0 3 ) 2 v mu th cho kh NH3 bay ln l NaOH.

Cho dung dicht NaOH va nhn bit c vo 2 mu th cn i,


mu th no cho kt ta trng ri tan khi d NaOH l A1 (NC>3 ) 3 cn
li l K2 SO4

113. Ly mi dung dch mt t lm th nghim.

ID

NG

TO

-L

Nh dung dch NaOH vo tng dung dch: dung dch no khng


thy xy ra phn ng l dung dch K2 CO3 , dung dch no thy
phn ng xy ra c kh mi khai bay ln l dung dch (NH 4 )2 S0 4,
dung dch no thy c kt ta trng xut hin v khng tan khi d
NaOH l dung dch MgS04, dung dch no thy c kt ta keo
trng xut hin v tan khi NaOH l dung dch Al2 (SC>4 )3 , dung dch
no thy xut hin kt ta trng v kt ta ny dn dn chuyn sang
nu l dung dch FeSC>4 , dung dch no thy xut hin kt ta nu
ngay l dung dch Fe 2 (S0 4 )3 .
114. Dng kim loi AI cho tc dng ln lt vi cc mu th: mu
th no c kh mu nu bay ra l HNO3 , mu th no c kim loi
trng sinh ra l HgCl2, mu th no c bt kh bay ln v xut hin
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

kt ta ri tan l NaOH, mu th no c bt kh bay ra l HC1, mu 1


th cn li l NaN0 3 (hc sinh vit cc phng trnh phn ng).
>

TP
.Q

UY

115. Cho qu tm tc dng vi cc mu th, mu no lm cho qu


tm ho xanh l dung dch NaOH, mu no lm qu tm ho l
dung dch KHSO4 v A1 NH 4 (S0 4 ) 2 (A1 NH4 (S0 4 ) 2 thu phn cho mi
trng axit nn qu tm ho ).

Cho dung dch NaOH ln lt tc dng vi 2 mu va th. Nu l


A1NH4 (S0 4 ) 2 th s c kt ta, sau kt ta tan ra ng thi c kh
mi khai bay n l NH3, cn mu kia l KHSO4 (khng c hin tng
g). Dung' dch cn li cha nhn bit chnh l BaCl2.

TR

NG

116. Trc ht cho mi dung dch mt mu giy qu tm: mu th


no lm qu tm ho l dung dch HC1, qu tm ho xanh l dung
dch Ba(OH)2, C1 li l 2 dung dch Na2 S04, NaCl qu tm khng i
mu. Cho dung dch Ba(OH) 2 tc dng vi 2 mu th, mu th no cho
kt ta l Na 2 S0 4, mu cn li l NaCl.

+3

10

00

117. Cho mt mu nh giy qu tm vo mi mu th, mu th


no lm qu tm ho xanh l dung dch Na2 CC>3 , qu tm ho l
dung dch NH4 CI, qu tm khng i mu l Na 2 SC> 4 v:

P2

- N a 2 C 0 3 l m ui ca baz m n h (N a O H ) v a x it yu (H 2 C O 3 ) n n

thu phn to ra dung dch c tnh baz:


- NaHCOs + NaOH

H
A

Na 2C 0 3 + H20 ,

- NH 4 CI l mui ca axit mnh (HC1) v baz yu (NH4OH) nn


thu phn to ra dung dch c tnh axit:

-L

NH 4 CI + H20 ; ^ NH 4 OH + HC1

TO

- Na 2 S0 4 l mui ca axit mnh (H2 SO4 ) v baz mnh (NaOH)


nn khng b thu phn.

NG

118. Dng Ba(OH) 2 nhn bit, tm t t theo bng sau:

B
ID

Ba(OH) 2

NH4 NO3

NaHCC> 3

(NH4)2s o 4

NH3 T
mi khai

B3 .CO3 4
trng

NH3 mi Fe(OH)2
khai v
trng hi
BaCOsl
xanh
trng

FeCl2

FeCl3
Fe(OH)3>L
nu

88
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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KI

BaCI2

[\la2CO3

N32S04

<NH4)2S0 4

NaOH

nc CI2
l2 tm
sm

BaC03

BaCI2

BaSOi

.Q
UY

NH

KI

119.

BaS04i

TP

Na2C03

l\la2S0 4
(NH4)2S04
NaOH
nc Cl2

NG

NH3
COzt

tm
sm

\2 i

Chit t cc dung dch ra cc mu th nh.

TO

-L

P2

+3

10
00
B

TR

- Mu th nc cl mi hc, mu vng.
- Cn 6 mu cha bit. Ly mt mu vo 5 mu cn li n
khi no 3 trong 5 mu c xut hin kt ta th ta kt lun: Mu
em th cha BaCl- 3 mu xut hin kt ta.th dung dch trc phn
ng cha Na2 C 03, Na2 S 0 4, (NRikSCU- 2 mu khng c biu hin, cha
NaOH v KI.
- Ly mu th nc clo ln lt vo hai dung dch KI v
NaOH, dung dch no cho xut hin cc ht mu tm sm th dung
dch cha KE, cn li l dung dch NaOH.
- Ly dung dch NaOH vo 3 mu th Na 2 C0 3 , Na 2 S04j
(NH^SOs, mu th no c mi khai bay ra l dung dch (NH^SO,}
cn li 2 dung dch l Na 2 C3 v Na2 S 0 4- Ly nc clo vo 2 mu cn li, mu no c si bt kh thot
ra l dung dch Na 2 C0 3 , mu cn li l Na2 S04.

NG

120. Lp bng:

NaHCOs

NaC

ID

NaHCOs
NaCl
CaCl2
Na 2 C0 3

CaCl2
CC0 3 "i

CaC03i

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

Na 2 C0 3

CaC0 3
CaC03
89
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TP

CaC2 + N a2C0 3 -----> 2NaCl + CaC 0 3i

.Q

UY

NH
N

Ln lt cho m t mu th tc dng vi 3 mu th cn li, da vo


bng trn t a thy .khi cho m t mu th vo 3 mu th k ia s xy ra
mt trong bn trng hp- Trong cc trng hp trn , duy n h t ch c
trng hp 3 ch th mt ln phn bit c NaHC3 v Na2C03 vi
khi cho CaCl2 vo lc u xut hin mt k t ta:

Sau un nh cc dung dch cn. i th xut hin tip k t ta:


2NaHCOs + CaCl2 ---- Ca(HC 0 3)2 + 2NaC
Ca C0 3i + H 20 + C0 2

NG

Ca(HC 0 3)2

Mu th cn li khng tc dng l dung ch NaCl.

TR

121. Ln lt cho mt mu th tc dng vi ba mu th cn li


ta c k t qu ghi trong bang sau:
HC 1

h 2s o 4

0B

BaCl2

c o 2t

10
0

HC 1

P2
+3

h 2s o 4

BaCs

co2t

BaS 0 4

BSCO3 V

BaS 0 4
C0 2t

C0 2t

BaCOai

Na2C 0 3

N^COg

TO

-L

Da vo bng trn ta th y khi cho mt mu th nh vo 3 mu


th kia s xy ra 4 trng hp. Trong cc trng hp trn , duy n h t
ch c trng hp 2 l ch phi tien hnh m t ln pht hin c
dung dch BaC2 v Na2C03 VI khi cho H2SO4 v 3 mu th cn li,
mt mu c dung dch trong sut la HC 1, mt mu c kt ta l BaCl2,
mt mu c kh CO2 bay ln l Na2CC>3.
122. a) Dng dung ch H2SO4 (lu H2SO3 c k t ta),

ID

NG

b) ng dung dch AgN0 3.

123. a) ng qu tm nhn bit HC 1, KOH.

Dng dung dch H2SO4 nhn bit BaCl2 cn li KI, KBr.


Dng kh Cl2 phn bit cc dung dch KI v KBr.

b) Dng qu tm nhn bit HCl, H 2 SO4 .


Dng dung dch BaCl2 phn bit HC 1 v H2SO4.

ng gp PDF binn
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TP
.Q

c) Dng qu tm nhn bit cc dung dch NaOH, HC1, HBr.

UY

NH
N

. Dng dung dch AgN0 3 phn bit dung dch KI v NaCl (Agl
mu vng ti, gCU mu trng). Hoc dt: KI cho ngn la mu tm,
NaCl cho ngn la mu vng.

Dng dung dch Cl2 phn bit HC1 v HBr hoc dng AgN0 3 cng
phn bit c AgBr (vng) v AgCll (trng).

H
NG

d) Cho 4 mu th tc dng vi dung dch Na2C03 c hai mu th


c phn ng l CaCl2 v Mgl2.
Phn bit hai mu th CaC2 v Mgl2 bng Cl2. Phn bit NaF v
KBr cng bng Cl2.

00

0B

TR

v 124. a) Dng dung dch NaOH cho vo 5 mu th: nhn bit c


dung dch MgCl2 cho kt ta trng Mg(OH)2 i, nhn bit c
NH4HCO3 cho kh c mi khai NH3T v nhn bit c AgN03 cho
kt ta khng bn AgOH ngoi khng kh chuyn thnh Ag2
(mu en).

2+

31

Dng dung dch AgN3 ' phn bit KBr v KI (AgBr vng
nht, A gl vng sm hn).

C
P

b)
Cho dung dch HC1 tc dng vi 5 mu th s c hai mu th
phn ng: mt si bt kh C 02t (nhn bit c Na2 C 03), mt to kt
ta trng AgCU (nhn bit c AgN03).

-L

Dng AgN0 3 va nhn bit c cho vo 3 mu th cn li nhn


bit c ZnS0 4 (khng phn ng), NaBr cho kt tia AgBi4 vng v
BaC2 cho kt ta AgCl trng.

TO

125. a) CaC03: vi, phn, hoa... ; Fe2 0 3: hematit ,


hem atit nu ; AI2O3: boxit, aluminslicat ; Si02: ct, thch anh...

NG

b) Dng HC1 . nhn bit cc cht trn.

126. Cch 1: Cho ung dch A tc dng vi dung dch xit HC1

ID

Dung dch A + HC1---- >hn hp kh + dung dch B

SO3 2" + 2H+---- >S 02t + H20

CO32" + 2H + ^ C 0 2r + H 20

Cho hn hp kh ln lt qua dung ch KMn0 4 v sau dung


dch Ca(OH)2 - S 02 lm m t mu dung dch KM11O4 (nhn bit c
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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ion SO32"), CO2 lm dung dch Ca(OH)2 vn c ri trong sut (nhn


bit dc ion CO3 2").

NH

Dung dch B + BaCl2 -> to kt ta

TP
.Q

Chng t trong A c ion SO4 2', cn li l ion Na+.

UY

SO4 2 + BaC2 ---- > BaSO-ii + 2 C'

Cc/i 2: Dng dung dch BaCl + A ---- hn hp kt ta c

S 0 42- + Ba2+---- > BaSC


SO32" + Baz+---- B aS03i

NG

C 032' + Ba2+---- BaC03

TR
N

Cho kt ta c tc dng vi axit HC1: cht kilng tan l BaS0 4


(nhn bit c ion s o / ), hai cht tan l BaSC>3 v BaC3 to hai
kh S2 t v C 02t cho hn hp hai kh i qua dung dch KMn4 ri
Ca(OH)2 nhn bit hai ion SO32' v CO32".

00
B

127. Cch 1: in phn dung dch CuS0 4 thu c Cu v 0 2.

10

2CuSO, + 2H20 - - dp- > 2Cu + 0 2 + 2H2 S 0 4

+3

C cn dung dch H2SO4, ngui cho H2SO4 c tc dng vi Zn:

P2

3Zn + 4H2S 04dc---- 3ZnS04 + s + 4H20

Cch 2: Nhit phn CuS0 4 sau dng H 2 hoc c o kh CuO.


* 2CO + 2S 02 + 02

2CuS 04

CuO + H2 - > Cu + H2 O

-L

Cho hn hp (SO2 + O2 ) qua dung dch NaOH:


NaOH + S 0 2 ---- Na 2 S0 3 + H20

Na2 S 0 3 + H2 S0 4 ---- > Na2 S 0 4 + S02t + H20

S02 + 2CO

* s + 2 CO2

NG

TO

ID

Tch cc 'cht rn gm CuSCV CaCO, NH4CI. un nng nii hn


hp, NH 4 CI b phn hu:

NH4 CI

N H 3

+ HC1

Thu HC1 v NH3 cho phn ng vi nhau ta tch c NH4 CI.


Cn li C1 1 SO4 , CaC0 3 ho tan vo nc, CuS0 4 tan, CaC0 3 khng
tch, lc tch CaC03, c cn dung dch thu c tinh th CuS04.
92

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128. a) tch cc ion kim loi khi dung dch c th dng


phng php in phn hoc dng kim loi mnh hn cc kim loi c
trong dung dch mui trn kh cc ion thnh kim loi theo th
t ln lt trc tin l g n Cu ri sau cng l Pb.

NH

I
I

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TP

.Q

UY

b) Ho tan hn hp NaCl, MgC2, A1C3, NH4CI vo nc ri cho


dung dch thu c tc dng vi NaOH d, to kt tua Mg(OH)2,
NaAI0 2 v kh NH3.

H
N

Lc tch kt ta Mg(OH)2, dung dch thu c gm NaCl, NaAI02


v NaOH d cho tc dng vi mt lng va HC1 kt ta hon
ton Al(OH)3. Lc tch k t ta, c dung dch NaCl. Cho tng kt
ta ring r MgCOH)2, Al(OH) 3 tc dng vi dung dch HC1 th c
MgCh v A IC I3.

TR

Kh NH 3 bay ra cho tc dng vi HC1 va cho dung dch


NH4 CI.

+3

10
0

0B

129. Ch hn hp rn tc dng vi dung ch HC1 ta c hai


phn: phn khng tan gm Ag, Cu v phn tan gm FeCl2, FeCl3,
AlCh, MgCl2.

C
P2

Lc tch phn khng tan ri nung trong khng kh ta c Ag v


CuO sau cho tc dng vi dung dch HC1, chi c CuO tan to thnh
C1 1 CI2 , cn li Ag khng tan ta tch c Ag

H
A

CuCl2 em in phn dung dch ta thu c Cu.

-L

Phn tan cho tc dng vi NaOH d ta c dung dch NaA102 v


cc kt ta Fe(OH)2 , Fe(OH) 3 v Mg(OH)2.

TO
N

Dung dch NaAI2 cho tc dng vi CO2 th u li k t ta Al(OH)3,


em nung kt ta c A12 0 3 5 in phn AI2 O3 nng chy thu c AL

ID

NG

Cc kt ta Fe(OH)2j Fe(OH) v Mg(OH) 2 m nung trong khng


kh ta c Fe 2 3 v MgO sau cho tc dng vi H2 ta c hn hp
Fe v MgO. Hn hp ny tc dng vi H2SO4 c ngui, Fe khng tc
dng tch ra ch c MgO to thnh MgS04, cho MgS04 tc dng vi
; ung dch BaC2 ta thu c dung dch MgCl2, c cn dung dch thu
c MgCl- 2 khan, in phn nng chy MgGl2 thu c Mg.
130. a) in phn dung dch hn hp cho cht rn Ni, Cu v dung
dch MgS4
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

93
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I
.

2N1SO4 + 2H20

NH
N

2CuS0 4 + 2H20 dpdd > 2 Cu + 0 2 + 2 H 2 S4


' (lp trong)

TP
.Q
UY

pdd - > 2Ni .+ Os + 2H2SO4


(lp ngoi)

Dung dch MgS04, c cn c MgS04 khan. Cho cht rn Ni, Cu ;


tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4- Ni tc dng, Cu khng tc dng, lc ta ^
thu c C v dung dch N1 SO4 .
Ni + H2SO4 > N iS 04 + H a

H
N

Dung dch NiS0 4 em c cn c N 1 SO4 .

Cho Cu tc dng H2SO4 c, nng thu c dung ch CuS4> c ;


cn v nung c C11 SO4 khan.

CuS04 + S02T + 2 H2O

TR

Cu + 2 H2SO4 dc

00
B

b) Hc sinh t lm.

10

131. Ho tan hn hp vo nc, sc kh C2 vo v un nng:

+3

CaO + H20 Ca(OH) 2

Ca(HC0 3 ) 2

C
P2

Ca(OH) 2 + 2C0 2

Ca(HCQ3 ) 2

> CaC0 3 + H2 0 + C0 2t

H
A

Lc ly kt ta, nung nhit cao, thu c CaO:

CaC03

> CaO + C02t

-L

Nc lc Su khi tch CaC0 3 cho tc dng vi Na 2 C3 :

TO
N

Na2 C0 3 + CaC2 CaC03>l + 2 NaC

NG

Lc ly nc lc, c cn c NaCl. Cn kt ta em ho tan :


trong HC1:
;
CaCOs + 2HC1---- CaCl2 + C02 + H2 0

ID

132. a) Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch HC1 ta c 2 phn:

- Phn I khng tan gm Cu v Au.

- Phn II tan gm AICI3 v MgCl

Phn I em nung trong khng kh th c hn h'p CuO v Au,


cho hn hp ny tc dng vi dung dch HC1 ch c CuO phn ng to '
CuCl2, Au khng phn ng. Lc tch c Au, dung dch CuCl2 em
in phn ta c Cu.

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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UY

NH

P hn II cho tc dng vi NaOH d thu c NaAIC>2 ta n v k t


ta Mg(OH)2, lc tch ly kt ta ny ri cho tc dng vi dung dch
HC1 thu c dung dch MgCl2, c cn c MgCl2 khan, in phn
nng chy Mg2 thu Mg.

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Jpnc ) AI.

- Nhit phn hn hp NH 4 CI b phn tch v bay ho'i thnh

b)

A12 0 3

TP

AKOHU

.Q

Dung dch NaAl2 trn c em phn ng vi C 0 2 to

NG

NH3 v HC, thu hai c h t kh ny v cho tc dng li vi nhau t i


to NH4CI.

TR

- Cho dung dch NaOH va vo hn hp 2 mui cn li, MgCl2


tc dng to kt ta Mg(OH)2i v dung dch NaCl. Lc tch kt ta
ri cho tc dng vi dung dch HC1 ta c dung (ch MgCl2, c cn
c MgCls khan. Dung dch cn li sau kh lc kt ta l NaCl em
c cn c NaCl.

+3

10

00

133. - Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d to thnh


kt ta Cu(OH)2, Mg(OH)2 v cht tan l NaCr02. Cho H2SO4 tc dng
vi dung dch N aCr 0 2 thu c Cr 2(S0 4)3.

P2

2NaGrO + 4 H 2 SO4 ---- > Cr2 (S0

4 )3

+ Na 2 S0 4 + 4 H2 O

-L

- Ra kt ta v nhit phn Cu(OH)2 , Mg(OH>2 cho CuO, MgO.


Sail dng kh H 2 kh th ch c CuO b thnh Cu cn MgO
khng phn ng. Cho hn hp Cu, MgO qua dung dch H2SO4, lc ta
c nc lc l MgS04. Cho Cu tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 c
nng ta thu c dung dch CuS 0 4.

134. Cc oxit ca c v s l CO, CO2 , SO2 , SO3 .

NG

TO

Tch CO v SO2 t hn hp M: Cho hn hp M qua dung dch


(BaCl2 + HC1), un nh ta thu c B aS044< v hn hp kh gm c o ,
C0 2j SO2 (hn hp kh A).

ID

Cho hn hp kh A vo nc vi trong d, kh c o khng tc dng


ta thu kh CO.
CO2 + Ca(OH )2 ---- >CaC 0 3 + H9O

SO2 + Ca(OH>2---- > CaS 0 3i + H 20

Cho (CO2 + H 2 O) vo hn hp rn gm CaS 0 3 , CaC0 3 ta thu c


dung dch Ca(HC(>3)2 v CaSC>3 khng tc dng.
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Cho cht rn CaSC>3 tc dng vi dung dch HC1 cho kh SO2-

NH
N

CaSOs + 2HC1---- > CaCl2 + s c + H20

TP

.Q
UY

135.
Cho hn hp cc mui vo nc, KC1 , MgC2 tan v 2 mu
khng tan l BaCOa v BaS04. Cho kh CO2 d vo ng nghim cha
BaCC> 3 v BaS04, ng nghim no c mui tan l BaCC> 3 v khng tan
l BaS04, nh vy tch c BaS04, dung dch cn li c un nng
thu BaC03.

NG

Cho dung dch KOH va vo dung dch nc lc cha KC1,


MgC2 thu c kt ta Mg(OH)2. Lc ly kt ta Mg(OH) 2 v cho tc
dng vi dung dch HC1 va thu c MgCl.2 . Dung dch nc lc
cn li l KC1.
136 Phng trnh phn ng iu ch kh CO2'

TR

CaCOs + 2HC1---- CaC2 + C0 2t + H20


C h o l n l t k h qua b n h ng N a H C 0 3 v H 2 SO 4 c (hoc

0B

P2O 5).

10
0

NaHCOg + HC1---- NaCl + H20 + CO2

C
P2
+3

Hi hc b H 2 SO4 c hoc P 2 O5 hp th:


p 20 5 + 3H20 ---- > 2H3PO4

a) Tch ly AI2 O3 : Cho hn hp tc dng vi kim d, ch c

137.
AI2O3 tan.

AI2 O3 + 2NaOH---- >2NaA102 + H20

-L
-

Lc, tch ly phn khng tan cho kh CO2 vo dung dch nc lc


thu c Al(OH>3 4 ' kt ta, lc ly kt ta, lm sch, sy kh ri nung
n khi lng khng i thu c AI2 O3 .

ID

NG

TO

b)
Tch ly Fe 2 C>3 : Phn rn khng tan trong kim trn
ho tan trong axit HC1.
!
Fe^Os + 6 H C---- 2FeCl3 + 3H20

MgO + 2HC 1-----> M gCl2 + H 20

in phii dung dch thu c cho n khi catot bt u xut


hin bt kh th dng in phn, catot thu c Fe, auot thot ra
khi C2.
2FeCl3 pdd -> 2 Fe N4 3Cl2t

96
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+Na0H Fe(OH) 2

*02 > Fe2 0 3.

NH

Fe +ddHCI -> FeCl?

Ly Fe ho tan trong HCl, sau tin hnh theo s chuyn


ho sau:

TP
.Q
UY

c)
Tch y MgO: Phn dung ch cn li sau khi in phn, thc
hin theo so chuyn ho sau:
MgCl2 +Na0H Mg(OH) 2 - > MgO

Lu : Tch MgO, Fe 2 0 3 cn c th lm nh sau:

H
N

Cho kh CO (hoc H2 ) qua hn hp MgO v Fe 2 3 nung nng thu


c Fe v MgO. o tan hn hp Fe v MgO trong H2 SO4 c, ngui,
ch c MgO phn ng ta thu c Fe. Sau tin hnh nh cch trn
thu c Fe23.

TR

MgO + H2S04 c, ngui ' > MgS04 + H20

MgS0 4 + NaOH---- > Mg(OH)2 + 2NaCl

10

00
B

Lc thu Mg(OH)2 i, lm kh, nung n khi lng khng i ta


c MgO.

C
P2
+3

138.
a) - Cho hn hp dung dch tc dng vi mt lng va u
dung dch NH'3 kt ta h t nhm hiroxit v canxi hiroxt.
CaCl2 + 2NH4OH > Ca(OH)2 + 2NH4CI
Al(OH)3 + 3NH4CI

H
A

AICI3 + 3NH4OH

- Mt phn nh Ca(OH) 2 c th tan vo dung dch v vy c th


sc kh O2 vo dung ch kt ta ht ion Ca2+ ra khi dung dch.

-L

Ca(0H ) 2 + C 0 2 ---- >CaC03 + H20

TO

- Lc ly kt ta ring ra, phn nc loe c c cn, nung '


nhit cao phn hu NH4 CI.

NG

Sau kt tinh li ta c NaCl tinh khit.

ID

- Cho dung dch NaOH .d vo phn kt ta cha Al(OH) 3 v


Ca(OH)2j CaC03. Hiroxit nhm s tan di dng mui aluminat.

Al(OH) 3 + NaOH---- ^ NaA102 + 2H20

- Lc ly kt ta, sau ho tan trong xit HC1:


Ca(OH) 2 + 2HC1---- CaCl2 + 2H20
7. NB &TCC -A

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

97
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CaCOs + 2HC1 + CaCl2 + C0 2t + H 2 0

NH

C cn dung dch, ta thu c CaCl. 2 khan.

TP
.Q
UY

- Sc kh C 0 2 vo phn nc lc, ta thu c Al(OH)3, lc ly kt


ta ri ho tan trong axit HC1, c cn dung dch ta thu c AICI3
NaAlOs + C 0 2 + 2H20 ---- > AI(OH)3 + NaHCOs

AI(OH)3 4- 3H C 1----- AICI3 + 3H 20

Ca(HC0

H
NG

b)
un si hn hp dung dch trong vi pht, Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 s kt
ta di dng CaC3 .
-

3 )2

> CaC03 + CO2 + H20

TR

- Lc ly kt ta, ra sch, cho v ng nghim mt lng nc


ri sc kh CO2 n khi kt ta tan ht.
CaC0 3 + CO2 + H2 O y Ca(HC0 3 ) 2

31

00
0

- Thm dung dch NaOH v phn nc lc, un cho n khi NH3


bay ht.

2+

2NaOH + NH4 HCO3 ---- > NH 3 + 2H20 + Na 2 C 0 3

C
P

NaOH + NaHCOs---- > Na2 C 0 3 + H20

Kh NH3 bay ln c hp th vo bnH nc, sau sc kh CO2


qua s to thnh NH4 HCO3 .

NH4OH + C0 2 -----> NH4HC3

-L

- Phn dung dch sau khi thm NaOH vo v ui NH 3 i c


sc kh CO2 Na2 C0 3 v phn NaOH d chuyn thnh NaHC3

Na2 C0 3 + C 0 2 + H20 ---- 2NaHC0 3

TO

CO2 + NaOH---- NaHC0 3

ID

NG

139.
a) Nh ta bit trong khng kh ngoi kh N2, 0 2 cn c
kh C 02 hi nc v vy ta cho khng kh qua Ca(OH) 2 ri qua H 2 SO4
c, qua nhiu ln p p tc dng vi 0 X1 cho P 2 O5 . Cui cng ta
c N2.

b)
t chy hn hp sau cho sn phm i qua Ca(0 H ) 2 d thu
c N 2 tinh khit.

2C0 + O2 ---- >2 CO2


CO + Ca(OH > CaC03 + H20
2

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

UY

- Nu O2 cn d, ta cho sn phm sau khi t chy qua Cu nung


d Cu chuyn thnh CuO.

- Nu CO cn d ta cho O2 thm vo sn phm sau khi t chy


CO thnh C 02.

TP

.Q

140. Cho hn hp qua Ca(OH)2 , CO2 v H2S b gi li, tip tc cho


hn hp i qua H2SO4 c, hi nc b gi li sau cng kh i ra ch
cn li N2.

4HC1 + M n0 2 ---- > MnCl2 4 - Cl-2 + 2 HzO

NG

141. a) Cho d kh H 2 vo hn hp ri a ra nh sng, sau mt


thi gian cho hn hp kh qua nc ta c dung dch HC1. Cho dung
dch HC 1 tc dng vi M n0 2 ta c kh CI2 .

TR

b) Cho d kh H 2 vo hn hp ri li tin hnh nh trn.

0B

142. a) Cho dung dch Na2 CC>3 d vo dung dch cha 3 mui trn:

00

MgCl2 + Na2 C0 3 ---- > MgC03 + 2 NaCl

2+

31

Lc kt ta sau cho kh CI2 vo dung dch cha NaCl, Na 2 C0 3


c ln NaBr.

C
P

2NaBr + CI2 ---- 2NaCl + Br2

C cn dung dch, brom bay hi, cn li NaCl v Na2 C0 3 , cho


dung dch HC1 vo n khi ht kh CO2 bay ln, c cn dung dch c
NaCl.

-L

b) Cho dung dch BaCl2 vo dung dch cha HCl, H 2 SO 4 .

BCl2 + H2 SO4 ---- BaSC + 2HC1

TO

Lc ly kt ta ta c dung dch HC1. Nu c d BaCl2 , ta cho hn


hp sau phn ng bay hi, thu ly hi nc v kh HC1, ta c dung
dch HC1.

D
N

143. - Ho tan mui n vo nc ct.

B
I

- Thm BaCl2 d loi ion SO4 2 dng BaS0 4 kt ta trng.


Lc b kt ta BaS04, thm Na2 C0 3 d loi ion Mg2*, Ca2+. Lc b
kt ta MgCC>3 , CaC3 . Thm dung dch HC1 loi b Na 2 C0 3 d.
Na 2 C 0 3 + 2HC1 2NaCl + C0 2 + H20

C cn dung dch ta c mui n tinh khit.


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144. un nng hn hp: NH 4 CI thng hoa, sn phm gm NH3 v


HC1, sau sn phm c lm lnh cho tc dng d thu li NH 4 CI.

TP

.Q
UY

NH

Cht rn sau khi un nng cn li l BaCl2 v MgCl2 cho phn


ng vi Ba(OH)2 , ch c MgC2 phn ng to kt ta Mg(OH) 2 lc ly
kt ta cho phn ng vi dung dch HC1 ta c dung dch MgC2 , c
cn ta c MgC2 \

Hn hp BaCl2 + Ba(OH) 2 cho tc dng vi HC1 ta thu c dung


dch BaC2 , c cn ta c BaC2 .

TR
N

NG

145. Cch 1: - Cho hn hp bt 3 kim loi trn tch dng vi


dung dch HC1 va , cht rn khng tan l Cu, lc, ta c Cu v
nc lc gm AICI3 v FeCl2. Cho dung dch NaOH d, th c kt
ta Fe(OH ) 2 v NaA02- Nung Fe(OH) 2 trong khng kh c Fe(OH)3,
nung Fe(OH ) 3 c Fe 2 0 3. Kh Fe-2 0 3 bng c o c Fe.

[
:

- Cho kh CO2 vo dung dch NaA102 c kt ta Al(OH)3. Nung


Al(OH)s c AI2O3. in phn AI2O3 nng chy, thu c Al.

10

00

Cch 2: - Ngm hn hp kim loi trong dung dch NaOH, c


dung dch NaAlOs v cht khng tan l Fe v Cu.

+3

AI + 2NaOH + 2H20 ---- 2NaAOs + 3H2

P2

k t

t a

Cho khi CO2 vo dung dch NaAK>2 , thu c kt ta keo Al(OH)3.


N u n g

A l(O H )3

A I2 O 3 .

i n

p h n

n n g

c h y

A 2 O 3

A l.

- Ngm hn hp Fe, Cu thu c trn trong dung dch HC1 c


FeC2 , cht khng tan l Cu.

-L

- Cho dung dch NaOH d vo dung dch FeCl2 thnh Fe(OH)2 ,


sau nung Fe(OH) 2 trong khng kh Fe(OH)3. Nung Fe(OH ) 3
c Fe903. Sau kh oxit ny bng c o hay H 2 ta c Fe.

!
;

ID

NG

TO

146 - iu h NaOH, Hg, Cl2


;

---- > Cl2t + H2t + 2NaOH


2NaCl 4 - 2HaO
c vch ngn

- iu ch HC1 , nc javel: Cl2 + H 2 ----- 2HC1

Cho kh HC1 qua nc, c dung dch HC1.

Cho kh CI2 qua dung dch NaOH, c nc javel

Cl2 + 2NaOH---- > NaCl + NaCO + H20


100

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5KC1 + KCO3 + 3H20

- iu ch KC03: 6K0H + 312

NH

- iu ch clorua vi: CaC0 3 - > GaO + CO2


CaO + H20 ---- > Ca(OH) 2

.Q
UY

Ca(OH) 2 + C2 CaOCla + H20

TP

147. Cc phng trnh phn ng iu ch:

- Kim loi Na t Na 2 C3 :
Na2 G0 3 + 2HC1---- > 2NaCl + C02t + H20

NG

2NaCl ~pnc > 2 N a + CI2

- Kim loi AI t A1 (N0 3 )3 :

AI(OH) 3 - > A12 0 3 + 3H20

2A 1A

Mp .

4A1 + 3 0 2

0B

Na3AlP6

00

TR
N

1(N 0 3)3 + 3NH4OH---- > Al(OH)3 + 3NH4NO3

2+
31

- Kim loi Fe t FeS.


4FeS 2 + IIO 2

> 2Fe2 0 3 + 8 SO2

"...

C
P

F 6 2 O3 + 3CO---- >2 F 6 + 3 CO2

148. iu ch K:

-L

- tan ca NaC < tan ca KC1 nhit cao. Ho tan


qung sinvinit nghin nh vo dung dch bo ho NaCl ang si.
nhit cao NaCI khng tan trong dung, dch NaCl bo ho, KC1 tan.

TO

- Gn dung dch ra khi kt ta. ngui dung dch kt ta. Lm


nh vy nhiu ln, tch, ring c KC, ri in phn nng chy KC1,
thu c K.

N
G

iu ch Ca v Mg:
- Ho tan qung vo HC1 va :

B
I

MgCOa + 2HC1 MgCl2 + C0 2t + H 20


CaC0 3 + 2HC1 aCls + C 02T + H20

- Cho dung dch NaO vo dung dch trn, thu dc Mg(OH)2i v


Ca(OH)2 101
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- Lc ly kt ta, ho tan bng mt lng nc ln, Ca(OH) 2 tan


'hon ton, lc ly c kt ta Mg(OH)z, thu c Ca(OH>2 rn bng
cch c cn dung dch.

NH

TP
.Q
UY

- Cho cc cht rn ln lt tc dung vi HCl, cho ta CaCl2,


MgCl2, c cn cc dung ch mui khan,, ri in phn nng chy 2
mui ta thu c Ca v Mg.

H
N

149. Ng nay sa c iu ch theo phng php amoniac.


Ngi ta cho dung dch Nal bo ho vo dung dch amoniac 20%, sau
dn kh C0 2 vo dung dch hn hp, thu c aHCC> 3 t tan. Cc
phn ng ho hc xy ra nh sau:
(1)

N H 4H CO 3 + N a C l NaHCC>3 (t tan) + N H 4C I

(2)

NH3 + H2O + O2---- NH4HCO3

I
;

Na 2 C0 3 + C0 2t + H20

00
B

2NaHC0 3

TR

Tch mui NaHCC> 3 ri nung nhit cao c Na 2 C0 3 :


(3)

10

Kh CO2 thu c dn trd li phn ng ban u (1 ).

C
P2
+3

150. a) Na2 S0 4 + BaCl2 ---- BaS0 4 + 2 NaCI


2NaCl

dpnc > 2 Na + CI2

!
I

b) Phng php iu ch NaOH

'

2Na + 2H2O - > 2NaOH + H2

-L

Na20 + H 2 O - >2 NaOH


2NaCl + 2HsO

> 2NaOH + H2 + Cl2

TO
N

C mng ngn

Mui Na+ + Bazo' kim ---- > Mui kt ta + NaOH

NG

V d:N a 2 C 0 3 + Ba(0 H ) 2 ---- > BaCOs + 2NaOH

ID

T NaOH c th iu ch c Na, nhng phi c thit b khi


Na sinh ra thu n nu khng Na tc ng vi nc:
4NaOH

4Na + O2 + 2H20

151. iu ch Ag t AgN0 3
a) Phng php thu luyn: Cu + 2AgN03 ---- Cu(N0 3 ) 2 +.2Ag
b) Phng php in phn dung dch (in cc tr):

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4AgN0 3 + 2 H 2 0 -pdd -> 4Ag + 0

+ 4HNOs

NH
N

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c) Nhit phn: 2AgN0 3 2 Ag + 2N0 2 + 0 2

UY

iu ch Mg t MgCl2

TP

.Q

C cn dung dch MgC2 c MgCl2 khan ri in phn nng chy:

152.

NaCl + 2 H 2 O

- C7 mng

MgCls -p > Mg + CI2

----- > 2NaOH + Cl2t + HST

ngn

2NaOH + CI2

H
NG

CI2 + H2---- 2HC1


> NaCl + NaClO + H20

2NaCl

TR

Ca(OH)2 khan + CI2---- > COCl2 + H2O


- dp > 2N a + Cl2

00

153. Ho tan hn hp vo nc c dung dch hn hp.

P2

+3

10

- in phn dung dch hn hp n khi ht kh CI2 bay ra ta


c Cu bm in cc.
C1 1 CI2 p > Cu + Cl2

- Cho t t NH4OH vo dung dch sau khi in phn kt ta


hon ton Al(OH) 3

AICI3 + 3NH4OH---- > 3NH4CI + Al(OH)3i

-L

Lc ly kt tia v nung nhit cao thu c AI2 O3 , in phn


nng chy AI2O3 thu c Al.

2AKOH)s > AI2 O3 + 3H20

NG

TO

2A 1A - N a ^ * + 3 0 2
Phn nc lc cha KCl v NH4 CI, c cn nc c cho NH 4 CI
phn hu:
NH4CI

NHs t + HC1^

B
ID

in phn nng chy KC1, thu c K:


2KC1

154.

dpnc- > 2 K + CI2

NaCl + 2H20 ----c-

mng ngn

> 2 NaOH + Cl2 + H2T

2AI + 2NaH + 2H20 -> 2NaA 102 + 3H2t


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H2 + Cl2 ---- > 2HC1


HClva d + H 20 + NaA 102

>2FeC3 + 3 H2 O

NH

F 6 2 0 3 + 6HC1

> Al(OH)3i + NaCl

TP

.Q

UY

155. Cch 1: Qung boxit c ln tp cht l Fe2 0 3 v S1 O2 , mun


iu ch nhm tinh khit cn loi b cc tp cht bng cch nghin
nh qung ri nu vi dung dch NaOH c, AI2O3 v S1O2 tc dng
to thnh mui tan Na2 Si3 v NaAl2 .

NG

A12 0 3 + 2 NaOH---- > 2NaA102 + HzO

Si0 2 + 2 NaOH---- > Na 2 Si0 3 + H20

Lc b phn cht rn l Fe 2 0 3 , cho kh C 0 2 sc vo phn nc


lc, thy c kt ta keo Al(OH)3.

NaAlO + C 0 2 + 2H20 ---- AlOHU + NaHCOg

TR

Lc ly k t ta em nung n h i t cao c AI2O3 k h a n , in

phn nng chy AI2 O3 c AI

10

00

2A(OH),3 > A12 0 3 + 3H20

+3

2A12 0 3 dpnc- > 4AI + 302

P2

Cch 2: Cho dung dch HC 1 tc dng vi qung boxit c ln tp


cht (sau khi qung c nghin nh), lc phn cht rn khng tan
S1 O2 , cho dung dch NaOH d vo nc lc, c Fe(OH)3 >lr. Lc, ta thu
c Fe(OH ) 3 v nc lc. Cho kh C 0 2 vo nc lc thy c kt ta
keo AI(OH)3 . Sau lm nh cch 1 .

-L

156. 2NaCl + 2H2O -

T-J g -dd 7---- 2NOH + CI2T + H2T

c mng ngn

TO

CaC0 3 - > CaO + C0 2

Ho lng khng kh, sau chng ct phn on ly N2, ri 0 2.

D
N

a) iu ch' NH 4 NO3 : S phong trnh iu ch:

B
I

N - t & L - > NH*

NO

N 0

*HgQ > HNOa H^ > NH1NO3

b) iu ch Na 2 C03: C 02u + N aOH


2

NaHC3 - -

> NaHCOa

) Na 2 C0 3 + C 02t + H20

104
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c) iu ch NH4HCO3: Cho CO2 d vo dung dch NH3:

C0 2 + N H 3 + H 20 ---- > NH4HCO3

+ N aC l----> NaHCOa m

+ NH4 CI

UY

NH4 HC0

> Na 2C 0 3 + C 02t + H20

> C 02T

157. * C 02: c + 0 2

TP
.Q

Tch mui NaHCC> 3 ri nung nhit cao:


2NaHC0 3

NH

Ngy nay Na 2 C3 c iu ch bng phng php amoniac:

NG

CaCOa > CaO + C02

NOz: 2Cu(N03)2

Na2 COs + H2 SO4 >Na 2 S0 4 + CO2 T + H 2 O

t0-> 2CuO + 4N02t + 0 2t


t(1 > 4N 02+ 6H 20

4NH3 + 702

S02T

00

S02: s + 02

TR

Cu + 4 HNO3 dc---- > Cu(N03)2 + 2N02T + 2H20

FeS2 + 110 2

> 8 SO2 T + 2Fe2 0 3

+3

10

Cu + H 2 S 0 4 c -> CuS0 4 + S 0 2t + 2H20

C
P2

158. a) iu ch C02, S0 2 bng ba cch:


- Phi kim + 0 2 (hoe hp cht + oxi)

H
A

- Nhit phn mui cacbonat, sunft-T.

- ch cc mui cacbonat, snt... tc dng vi axit mnh.

TO
N

- Kim loi + O2

-L

b) iu ch CuO, AI2 O3 bng hai cch:


- Nhit phn hiroxit, cacbonat...

NG

c) iu ch NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 bng ba cch:


- Kim loi + nc

ID

- Oxit kim loi + nc

- in phn dung dch mui clorua (c vch ngn).


d) iu ch FeC2 bng

cch:

Fe + 2HC1---- FeCl2 + H 2
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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Fe + CuCl2 ---- >FeC2 + Cu


FeCl2 + 2HZ0

Fe(OH) 2 + 2HC1

NH

FeO + 2HC1---- >FeCl2 + H20

.Q
U

FeS + 2HC1---- > FeCI2 + H2S

SO3

+ 2 H 2 SO4 dc

> C3 .(I2 P 0 4 ) 2 + 2CaS04


(supephotphat n)

TR

4 )2

s o 3 + h 2 o H 2 SO4
Ca3 (P 0

2S0Z + 0 2

> 2Fe2 0 3 + 8 SO2

NG

159.---4 FeS2 + l l 0 2

TP

FeC3 + 2HC 1 * FeCl2 + H2C0 3

Ca3 (P 0

4 )2

10
00
B

Ca3(PG4)2 + 3H2SO4---- 2H3PO4 + 3CaS0 4^


+ 4 H 3 PO4 ---- >3Ca(H2 P 0 4 ) 2
(supephotphat kp)

P2
+3

160. Cc phng trnh phn ng iu ch cc cht: Fe, FeCl2,


FeS04, NaN03, NH4NO3:

H
A

4FeS 2 + IIO 2 -------- > 2Fe2 0 3 + 8 SO2


2NaCl + 2H20 - C
, in,phii
H2t + Cl2t + 2NaOH
mng ngn

-L

Ho lng khng kh ri chng ct phn on thu ly N-2 ri 0 2.


> 2 Fe + 3H20

Fe 2 0 3 + 3H2

TO

H 2 + Cl2 > 2HC1

NG

2S0 2 + O2

^ G > 2SO3
V2U5

ID

Hc sinh vit tip cc phng trnh phn ng-

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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UY

NH
N

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

TP

.Q

PHN 2

HO HU c

H
NG

I. Nhng phn ng c trUhg ca hirocacbon, cc dn xut


hirocacbon, cacbohidrat-amin

1. N hng p hn ng c trng c a h drocacb on

TR

2. N hng p hn ng c trng c a c c dn xu t h i rocacb on

3. N hng p h n ng c trng c a cacboh i rat-am in

00

4. N hng p hn ng c trng c a am inoaxit

+3

10

L u : Mt s phng trnh iu c h c c ch t hu c

P2

II. Nhn bit v tch cc ch ra khi hn hp

C h 1: N hn b it hirocacbon

C h 2 : N hn b it c c n xu t hirocacbon (ru, p h en ol,

an eh it, axit ca cb o x y lic, a m in oaxit...)

C h 3 : N hn bit cacbohirat-am in (g lu co z , s a c c a r o z ,

-L

tinh bt, x en u ioz )

C h 4 : Tinh c h c c c h t v t ch c c c h t ra khi hn hp

TO

HI/iu ch cc hp ch hu c

NG

IV. Cu hi v bi p t gii

ID

v Hng dn gii

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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PHN 2

NH

HO HU C

.Q

UY

I. NHNG PHN NG C TRNG CA HIROCACBON, CC DAN


XUT HIROCACBON, cACBOHIRAT-AMIN

Hin tng

Thuc th

Phng trnh phn ng

Cht cn
nhn bit

Sn phm sau phn

Cl2

Ci>H2jh2 +

tm m
Lm mt mu nc
brom

Dung dch

Lm mt mu

thuc tm

thuc tim

TR

Nc brom
(mu da cam)

Anken (oletin)

+3

10

00

KMnO

ng lm hng giy qu

NG

Ankan

TP

1. Nhng phn ng c trng ca hirocacbon

---------------> CpHgn+iCI I HCl

(HCI lm hng giy qu tm m)


C|)H2n + B ----- Cf1H2nBr2

3CnH2n + 2KWln0 4 + 4HaO------*


3CnH2n(QH)2 + 2MnOs + 2KOH
Vi dung dch KMntti m c nhit
cao ni i

c=c

b b gy cho

ceton, axit, hay C2 tu theo cng thc

P2

cu to ca anken.

3[ 0 ]

KMnOj|: t
.
R-C =0
1
R

R-C=CH-R' +
T
R

+ R'COOH
KMn04; t

TO

-L

CH3-CH=C-CH3 +3 [ 0]
1
ch3

NG

Cht sau phn ng


tham gia phn ng
rng gng

Ankadien

Nuc brom

Lm mt mu nc

n >

C(iH2n-2 + 2Br2 > CnH2(I_2Br<

brom

(CnH^)

ID
B

Oxi

CH3COOH + CH3-C-CH3
II
0
PdCl / CuCI2
2CH2=CH2 + O2
->
2CH3CHO

Ankin

Nc brom

Lm mt mu nc

CRH2n_2 + 2Brj > CnH2rv_2Br4

brom

(CnH2n-2)
C2H2

1AO
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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Dung dch

Lm mt mu

thuc tm

dung dch thuc tm

3 K2C2O4 + 8MnC>2

3C2H2 + 8KMn04

+ 2K0H + 2H20

C2H2

2 CO2 +

C2H2 + 2KMnO< + 3H2S0<

NH
N

Ankin
(CnH2n_2)

+ 2MnS04 + K2SO4 + 4H2O


5CH3CsCH + 8KM11O4 + 12H2S04 -
5CH3COOH + 5C02 + 8MnS04 +

AgN03 trong

vng nht

CHsCH + 2AgN03 + 2 NH3 ->

AgCsCAg (vng nht) + 2 NH4NO3

TP

Cho kt ta mu

.Q
UY

+ 4 K2SO4 12H20
Dung dch
NH3

Hoc vit: CHsOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2f -

AgCsCAgi + 2NH3 + 2NH<*


Cho kt tia mu

CH^CH + 2CuC + 2 NH3 ->

Dung dch

Cu-CeC-CuI () + 2 NH4CI

CuCI trong

R-C=CH + CuCI + NH3 ->

(bt Fe)

brom

Toluen

Dung ch

Mt mu dung dch

C6H5CH3

thuc tm

thuc tim

R-C=CCu () + NH4CI
bt fe
CfiH2n-6 + Br2 > CnH2n-7Br + HBr

Mt mu dung dch

t
C6HsCH3 + 2KMn04 - C6H5C00K +

TR

Brom lng

Aren CflH2n_6

H
NG

nh3

+ 2 Mn02 + KOH + H20


d KMn4
Hoc v i t C6H5CH3 + 3[0J

KMn04 v

10

00
B

un nng

Dung dch

Mt mu dung dch

GsHs-CH*CH2

thuc tm

thuc tm

P2
+3

stiren

KMnO*

h 2o

C5H5-CHOH-CH2OH

nhit

cshscooh

ddKMnO
C6H5-CH=CH2 + [0 ]
^

thng

Cht Cn

2. Nhng phn ng c trng ca cc dn xut hirocacbon


H intng

Phng trnh phn ng

C kh bay ra

2R0H + 2Na -> 2R0Na + H2

Cu (), sn phm sau


phn ng tham gia

t
R-CH20H + CuO- RCHO + Cu + H20

phn ng trng gng

RCHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]0H - RCOONH4

-L

Thuc th

nhn b i t

Kim loi kim

Ancol

(K. Na)

CuO (en), t

TO

Ancol

Ancol

bc II

ID

bc I

CO {en)rt

+ 2 A g + 3NH3 + H20

cho A g

Lu : CH3-CH2-OH

C2H4 + H20
170C

Cu (), sn phm sau

phn ng khng tham

t
R-CH(H)-Rr + CuO

+ Cu + H2O

........ gia phn ng


trng gng

R-CO-R' +

R-CO -R' khng tham gia phn ng


trng gng

109
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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2C3H5(OH)3 + Cu(0 H)2

Ancol a chc

Vi eu(0 H)2

Dung dch trong xanh

(etylglicol,

xanh lam

mu lam

Anlin CsHsNH2

Nc brom

To kt ta trng

C6HsNH2 + 3 Br2 -> C6H2(NH2)Br3

Anehit RCHO

Dung dch

To kt ta trng

RCHO + NaHS03 -

[C3H5(0 H)20 ] 2Cu + 2H20

.Q
UY

NH

glixerin)

bo ho

Dung dch

To kt ta Ag mu

AgN3 trong

trng

H/

OHi

RCHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

Andeht RCHO

TP

NaHSOs

+ 3 HBr
^SOsNa

RCOONH

+ 2AgJ. + 3 NH3 + H20

: Hoc Vit: RCH0+2AgN03+3NH3V H?0

nh3

NG

t
-> RCOONH4 + 2 A g + 2NH4NO3
t

(xanh lam)

10

RCOONa + Cu20 i + 3 H2P

+3

HCOOH + 2Cu(H)2 + 2 NaOH

CaC03 hoc

N32CO3 + Cu20 l + 4H2O

P2

Axt cacboxylic

Giy qu ho

Giy qu tm

(NH4}2C0 3 + 2A g i + 2NH3 + H20


RCHO + 2Cu(OH)2 + NaOH

CU2O

trong NaOH

Axit cacboxylic

. .
tD
HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

To kt ta mu .

00

Vi Cu(0 H)2

Andehit RCHO

{NH4)2C03 + 4A g + 6NH3 + 2 H20

TR

Lu : HCHQ + 4 [Ag(NH3)2] 0 H

C kh CO2 bay ln

2RCOOH + Na2C03
2RCOOH + CaC03

N22CO3

Giy qu tm

-L

Aminoaxi
(H2N)ftR(COO)m

CaC3 hoc

dung dch

B
ID

NG

TO

Aminoxi

{HaNaRCCOO)

2RCOONa +
+ COgT + H2O

dung dch

(RCOO)aCa +
+ CO2T + H2O

Bin i mu giy qu,


tu theo s nhm
-N H * -c o o h

Nu n = m: Giy qu khng i mu
Nu n > m: Giy qu ho xanh
Nu n < m: Giy qu ho

c kh CO bay ln

2H2l\k R -e 00 H + J\la2C0 3
2H2N-RC0 0 Na + CO2T + H20

3. Nhng phn ng c trng ca cacbohra-amin

Cht cn

nhn b i t
r- n h 2

Glucozo'

Thuc th

Hin tng

Giy qu tm

Lm xanh giy qu tm

Phng trnh phn ng

m
Vi Cu(OH)2

c 6h 52o6

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

Dung dch trong xanh


mu lam
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To kt ta Ag
mu trng

Thu phn
(H+) thi sn
phm tham
gia phn ng
trng gng

Mantoz
C-iH^n

Vi Cu{OH)2

Dung dch trong mu


xanh lam

Mantod

Dung ch
AgN0 3 trong
nh3

To kt ta Ag
mu trng

UY

TP
.Q

TR
B

Dung dch iot

00

Tinh bt

10

Sn phm
thu phn
(H+) tham gia
phn ng
trng gong

(CgHtoOs),,

H'
+ nH20 -+ nCgH^Og
t

+3

Tinh bt
(CgH^Os),,

H
C12H22O11 + H2O > 2C5H12Q6 (9IUCO2O)
tp

P2

Sn phm
thu phn
(H*) tham gia
phn ng
trng gng

H'

+ HO * CgH^Og + CeH^Og
t
glucozo Fmctoz

Mantz
C12H22O11

+ 2Ag

HOCH?(CHOH)4-COOH

Saccaroz
Ci^On

. C12H22O11

NH3.t
H0 CH2(CH0 H)4-CH0 + AgaO

NH

Dung dch
AgN0 3 trong
NH3

NG

Glucoz
CeHigOe

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Cho mu xanh lam

c trng

(CsHtoOs),!

Lu : Mt s phng trnh iu ch cc cht hu c

> HCOOCH==CH2

-L

HCOOH + CH=CH

> CH2 =CHCOOCH3

CH3COOH + C H = C H

> CH3COOCH=CH2

TO

CH=CH + HCOOCH3

> CH2 =C H -0-C 2 H5

NG

CH=CH + HO-C 2 H 5

100 C > 3a t m

2CH3CH0

CH2 OH-CH2OH H2S0;ldc ) CH3 CPO + H20

ID

2CH2=CH2 + 0 2 p<*cycuci2

Nh hp- 2HCHO

Lc hp: 6 HCHO

> CH2OH-CHO (hiroxi etanal)


C a -( 0 H > 2

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

> C6 H 1 2 0 6
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II. NHN BIT V TCH CC CHAT RA KHI HN HP

NH
N

CH 1

Nhn bit hirocacbon

TP
.Q
UY

1 Dng nc brom c th phn bit c etan, etilen, axetilen khng?


Nu c lm th no? Gii thiu trn nguyn tc thm mt phng php
khc c th phn bit c 3 hirocacbon ny.

HNG DN GII

NG

- Cho 3 th tch nh n h a u ca 3 kh i qua 3 th tch bng nhau


ca dung dch brom c cng nng tnh phn ng (nhng
iu kin khc nh nhau). ng nghim m nc brom khng b nht
mu l etan, nht mu t l etilen, nht mu nhiu l axetilen (hc
sinh vit phng trnh phn ng minh ho).

TR

- Cch nhn bit khc: Cho 3 kh qua dung dch AgN0 3 /NH3) kh
no cho kt ta mu vng nht l axetilen, 2 kh kia khng tc dng:

10

00

2NH3 + CH=CH + 2AgN0 3 ---- >AgC^CAg + 2 NH4 NO 3


(mu vng)

P2

+3

Cho 2 kh cn li qua dung dch nc brom, kh lm m t mu


dung dch nc brom l etilen, kh cn li khng tc dng l etan.

H
A

2.
Bng phng php ho hc hy nhn bit c c kh sau y: C 0 2, S 0
C 2H4i C 2H2-

HNG DN G

-L

Cho cc kh CO2 , SO2 , C2 4 , C2 H2 , ln lt qua cc ng ng dung


dch Ba(OH)2, trng hp no c kt tua trng (BaC03, BaS03) th kh
ban u l CO2, S 0 2. Kh cn li C24 v C2H2.

NG

TO

Cho cc kt tua trn tc dng vi H2SO4 long, 2 k t ta tan to


ra 2 kh ban u l C0 2 v SO2- phn bit 2 kh ny ta ch qua
dung dch brom, kh no lm mt mu brom l kh SO2 , kh khng
mt mu l kh CO2 .

ID

phn bit 2 kh C 2H 4 v C2 H 2 cho C2H4 v C2 H 2 ln lt qua


dung dch AgN0 3 trong amoniac, dung dch no to kt ta vng nht,
kh ban u l C2 H2, cn li C2 I 4 khng tc dng.
CH^CH + 2AgN03 + 2 NH3 -> A gO CA g + 2NH 4 N 0 3
(vng nht)
112

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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[-

3. Lm th no :
a) Phn bit n-hexan, n-heptan, hexen-1, hexn-1, benzen, toluen v
stiren cha trong cc binh mt nhn.

b) Phn bit metan, etilen, axetilen, vinylaxetilen, benzen v stiren bng


mt ho cht duy nht?

HNG DN G I I

.Q
U

NH

I
'

?5

TP

a) Ly mi cht mt t cho vo 7 ng nghim th. Cho cc mu


-] th ln lt tc dng vi dung dch AgN03 trong dung dch NH3, hg
nghim no cho kt ta mu vng l hexin-1.
'

H
NG

C 4H 9-C = C H + A g N 0 3 + N H s ------ > C4H 9O C A g + N H 4 N O 3

TR

- Cho 6 ng nghim cn li fcc dng vi nc brom, cht trong 2


ng nghim lm mt mu nc broxn l stiren, hexen-1. phn bit
2
cht ny ngi ta t chy cng mt lng 2 cht, sn phm chy
\. cho i qua bnh ng Ca(OH) 2 d, cht no cho kt ta nhiu l stren
-.; (CeHsCH^CB^), cht no cho kt ta t i C6 Hi2 -

K M 11O4

-> C sH sC O O K + 2 M n 0 2 + K O H + H jO

+3

C6H 5C H 3 +

- 3 ng n g h i m cn l i cho t c d n g v i H N O 3 c + H 2 S O 4 , ng

P2

10

00
B

- Cho 4 ng nghim cn li tc dng vi dung ch KM11O4 (un


nng), ch c dung dch toluen lm mt mu thuc tm

c phn ng to thnh cht mu vng (mi hnh nhn) l benzen, cn


li n-hexan v n-heptan khng phn ng.
c 6h 6 + H O N O 2 dc H2S 4d*

f-\ '

.......

> c h 5n o 2 + h 20

-L

- phn bit n-hexan v n-heptan: t ch cng mt lng 2


t cht, sn phm chy cho i qua Ca(OH) 2 d* cht no cho kt ta
1
nhiu l n-heptan, kt ta t l n-hexan (hc sinh vit phng trnh
. phn ng).

NG

TO

b) - Da vo trng thi vt l ta bit c 2 cht lng l benzen


I v stiren, cho 2 cht lng ny tc dng vi nc brom, stiren lm mt
. mu nc brom cn benzen khng tc dng.

ID

'
- Cho cng mt th tch 4 kh cn li i qua 4 th tch bng nhau
ca dung dch brom cng nng tnh phan ng (nhng iu
^ kin khc nh nhau). Ong nghim bron khng b nht mu l metan,
f . nht mu t n h t l etilen, n h at mu t l axetilen, n h t mu nhiu l
. vinylaxetilen (hc sinh-vit cc phng trnh phn ng).
8. NB&TCC'A
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

113
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NH

4.
Bng phng php ho hc hy nhn bit cc cht khi ng trong cc
brih mt nhn sau: CH4, C2H4, C2 H2, C3H8.
'

CH

C2 H4

C2 H2
i mu vng

TP

Dung dch
AgNO/NHa

NG

Nht mu

Dung dch
brom

CA

.Q
UY

HNG D N GII

- Cho dung dch AgNOg/NHs vo cc mu th cha cc dung dch


trn, mu th no cho kt ta mu vng l C2 H 2 .

C2H4 + Br2 -> C2H 4Br2

TR

- Cho dung dch Br2 vo ba mu th C1 li, m th no lm


mt mu dung dich Br l C2 H 4 .
'

00

- Mun phn bit CH4 v C38 ta ly cng mt lng ca 2 cht

P2

+3

10

ri t chy, cho sn phm chy i qua Ca(OH) 2 d, mu th no cho


kt tiia nhiu (CaCOs) hn l C3 I 8 . Hoc c th dng, phng php
600c
-> CH4 + C2 H4 . Cho sn phm qua dung dch
crckinh: C3 I 8
brom, nu lm m t mu dung dch brom l C3 H8.

HNG D N GII

5. C cc bnh kh (khng c nhn) CH4, 0 ^ 4, C2H2 v C 3H6. Dng


phng php ho hc nhn bit cc kh . Vit phng trnh phn ng.

-L

Dng AgNOs/NH nhn bit C2 H 2 :

CH=CH + 2AgN0 3 + 2NH3

CH=CH + Ag2 - > AgC^CAgi + H 2 O


(vng nht)

NG

TO

Hoc vit:

AgC=CAg + 2NH4NO3

ID

Cn 3 cht dng nc brom nhn ra C2 4 v C3 H6 (lm mt


mu 'dung dch brom) cn CH4 khng tc dng. phn bit C2H4 v
C3 H6: t chy cng mt lng 2 kh, sn phm chy cho qua Ca(O)2.
d, kh no; cho k t t-nhiu.l C3H, cn li l C2H4 (hc sinh t vit
cc phng trn h phn ng minh ho).
6 . Nhn bit cc l mt nhn ng:

a) CH4, c o , C 0 2, SO 2 , N 0 2.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

b) C2H6l N2i H2, 0 2.


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HNG D N G II

UY

- Cho cc kh cn li ln lt sc qua dung dch brom, kh no


lm m t mu dung dch brom l kh S0 2.

NH

a) Kh NO2 c mu nu, nhn ra ngay.

TP

.Q

B 2 + SO2 + 2 H2 O ---- >H2 SO4 + 2HBr

- Cho 3 kh cn li, ln lt qua dung dch PdCl2, kh no cho kt


ta mu en l CO:

NG

C0 + PbCl2 + H20 ---- > P i + C0 2 + 2HC1

- Cho 2 kh cn li qua dung dch Ca(H) 2 d, kh no lm c


nc vi trong d l C0 2 , kh cn li khng tc dng l CH4 .

cch:

TR

- nhn bit kh CH4 , c th c

COs + Ca(OH) 2 CaC03 + H20

10

00

Cch : Cho khi CH4 tc dng vi Cl2, kh sinh ra lm giy


qu tm m l CH4:
CH3 CI -f HC1

+3

CH4 4- Cl2

P2

Cch 2: B t chy kh CH4 , cho sn phm chy i qua Ca(OH) 2 d,


thy xut hin kt t CaCC>3.

b) - Ln lt cho cc kh qua que m cn u, kh no lm


bng chy que m l kh 0 2.
- t chy 3 kh cn li, kh khng chy l kh N 2j kh n o chy

TO

-L

khi lm lnh cho hoi nc l kh H 2 , kh no chy, cho sn phm chy


qua dung dch Ca(OH) 2 d pho kt ta trng l C2 6 (hc sinh t vit
cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho).
7. Phn bit c c cht sau bng phng php ho hc:

NG

a) NH3, C 2H2, C 2H4, C 2H6 v HC1.

b) n-butan, buten-1, butaien 1-3 v butin-1.

ID

c) Butan, buten- 1 , butin-2 v vinylaxetilen m ch dng mt ho cht


duy nht?

HNG D N GII

a)
- Kh no c mi khai hoc lm giy qu tm m chuyn thnh
xanh l NH3.
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NH
N

- Kh no tc dng vi dung dch AgN0 3 trong dung dch NH 3 cho


kt ta mu vng nht khi un nng l C2 H2, kh no cho kt ta
trng l HC1:
AgC^CAg + 2NH4N3

UY

C2H2 + 2AgN3 + 2NH3

HC1 + AgNOs---- AgCU (trng) + HNO3 c

TP
.Q

- Kh no lm mt mu nc brom l C2 H 4 , khng lm m t mu
l C2 H6.

NG

b) - Kh no tc dng vi AgNC>3 trong dung dch NH 3 cho kt ta


Ag mu trng l butin-1 .

TR

- Ly cng mt th tch 3 kh cn li cho qua cng mt lng


dung dch brom c cng nng tn h phn ng, cht kh no
lm m t mu dung dch brom nhiu hn l butaien 1-3 , t 'hn l
buten-X, khng lm m t mu l n-butan (hc sinh vit phng trnh
phn ng minh ho).

C
P2

+3

10
00

c) Cho 4 th tch nh nhau ca 4 kh i qua 4 th tch bng nhau


ca dung dch brom c cng nng tnh phn ng (nhng
iu kin khc nh nhau) mu th no m nc brom khng b nht
mu l butan, n h t mu r t t l buten-1, nht mu t l butin-2, nht
mu nhiu l vinylaxetilen.
8 . Phn bit cc l mt nhn cha:

H
A

a) C2H4, C 2H6l N2i S 0 2.

b) C 2H6, C 3H6, S 0 2, n o , C 0 2.

HNG D N G

-L

a) - Cho cc kh n lt qua nc vi trong d, kh no cho kt


t trng l S 0 2, thu ly 3 kh khng tc dng l C2 H4 , C2 H, N 2 .

TO

S 0 2.+ Ca(0H ) 2 ---- >CaS 0 3i + H 2 0

- Cho 3 kh cn li ln lt qua nc brom, kh no lm m t mu


nc brom l C2 H4 .

ID

- t chy 2 kh cn li, N2 khng chy, C2 I 6 chy, sn phm


chy cho qua dung dch Ca(OH) 2 d cho CaC0 3 kt ta l C2 H6.

b) - M np cc l, l no trn ming l c kh mu nu NO v:
2NO +
(khng mu)

0 2 > 2N 0 2
(mu nu)

116
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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.Q
UY

NH

H'
- Cho cc kh cn li ln lt sc vo nc brom, hai kh khng
lm mt mu nc brom l C2 I 6 v C 02, hai kh lm m t mu nc
1' brom l C3I6 v SO2. phn bit hai kh ny, cho hai kh sc vo
!>. nc Ba(OH) 2 d, kh no cho kt ta l S02, kh cn li l C3I6
II khng tc dng.

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TP

phn bit hai kh C2 I 6 y CO2 ta sc vo dung dch Ca(OH) 2


I . d, kh no cho kt ta trng l kh C02, kh khng tc dng l C2H6.

9. a) Phn bit cc kh N2, H2, CH4 v'C 2 H6.

NG

b)
Ch dng mt ho cht duy nht lm th no nhn bit cc cht
trng binh mt nhn cha n-butan, buten-1 v butaien 1-3.

HNG D N G I I

0B

TR

a) t chy cng mt th tch 4 kh trn, kh no khng chy l


N2 , kh chy khi lm lnh cho hi nc l H2 . Mun phn bit CH4 v
C2 I 6 ta ly cng mt lng CH4 , C2 I 6 ri t chy, cho sn phm
chy qua dung dch Ca(OH)2 d, cht kh no cho kt ta CaC03 nhiu
hn l C2H6.

>

CO2 + 2H20

P2
+3

CH4 + 202

10
0

2H2 + 0 2 2H20

C 02 + Ca(0H)2---- CaCCU + H20

+ 7O2 > 4 CO2 +6 H2 O

2 C26

H
A

C0 2 + Ca(OH) 2 > CaCOgi + H20

-L
-

b) Ly cng mt th tch 3 kh trn cho tc dng vi cng mt


th tch nc brom (cng nng ) kh khng lm mt mu nc brom
l n-butan, mu nc brom mt nhiu butaien 1-3 v mu nc
brom mt t hn l buten-1.

NG

TO

1 0 Ch dng 'dung dch KMn4 hy nhn bit 3 cht lng benzen,


toluen, stiren.

(Trch thi i hc Ngoi thng nm 1996)


HNG DN GI

ID

Ln lt cho dung dch KMn04 mu tm vo 3 mu th.

nhit thng mu th no m m t mu tm dung dch


KM1 1 O4 l stiren.
C6H5CH=CH2 + [O] + h 20 ddKMg0< > C6H5CHOH-CH2OH
1 1

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NH

- un nng mu th lm mt mu tm dung dch KMn0 4 l


toluen:
dd K^ n4 > C C O O H + H 20

UY

CHsCHs + 3[0 ]

TP

.Q

- Mu th no nhit thng v khi un nng khng lm mt


mu tm dung dch KMn0 4 l CeH.

CH 2

H
NG

Nhn bit cc dn xut hirocacbon


(ru, phenol, aneht, axit cacboxytic, aminoaxit)

11.
Cho cng thc C 2H60, C 3H80 , C3H60 2 l cng thc phn t ca 5 cht
n chc A, B, c , D, E trong :

B
>c

10

D +Wa -> D'

00

- Tc dng vi NaOH: D, B, E.

TR

- Tc dng vi Na ch c A, E.

C
P2

+3

Cho bit tn A, B, c , D, E. C th dng nhng phn ng ho hc no


nhn bit 5 cht trn ng trong 5 l mt nhn.
HNG DN GII

a) Xc nh cng thc cu to cc cht: A, B, c , D, E.

A: khng tc dng vi NaOH nn A l ru C26O v C38O.

-L

D, B: khng tc dng vi Na, tc dng vi NaOH nn D, B l este


C3 6 O2 .

E: tc dng vi Na, NaOH nn E l axit no C3H602 (C2H5COOH)

NG

TO

Qua s D
:- D' > c , ta xc nh c D' l ru,
A l ru v suy ra c l ete.
A l C2H5OH, c l CH3-CH2-O-CH3

B
ID

Tng s nguyn t cacbon ca D' v A l 3 nn D' l ru CH3 OH


suy ra D l este ca ru metylic. D l CH3COOCH3. ng phn este
cn li l B: H C00C 2 H5.
b) Phn bit 5 cht:
- Cho tc dng vi Na2 CC> 3 c bt kh bay ra l E.

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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- Dng Na th 4 cht cn li, cht no cho kh bay ra l A.

.Q
UY

NH

- Thc hin phn ng thu phn (un vi H 2SO4 long) cho sn


phm c mi gim l D, c dung dch cho phn ng trn g bc l B
(do sinh ra axit HCOOH). Cht cn li l c (hc sinh vit cc phng
trn h phn ng minh ho).

TP

12. C hai dung dch Ba(HC3)2, C 6H5ONa v hai cht lng C 6H6l
C 6H5 NH2. Nu ch dng H2SO 4 long c th nhn bit c nhng cht g?
Vit phng trnh phn ng.
(Trch thi i hc Ngoi ting H Ni nm 1995)

H
NG

HNG DN GII

Cho dung dch H 2SO4 long vo 4 cht:

- C ht no c kh thot ra v c k t ta trn g l Ba(HC03)2:

TR

Ba(HC0 3)2 + H 2S 0 4 ---- > BaS04* + 2 C0 2T + 2H20

00

+ H 2S 0 4 ---- > 2 C6H5OH + Na 2S 0 4

10

2 C6H5ONa

- C ht no c kt ta nhng khng c kh thot ra l CHsONa:

+3

- C h t n o k h n g t a n t r o n g d u n g d c h H2SO4 lo n g n i l n t r n

P2

l C6H6.

- C ht no tan trong dung dch H 2S 0 4 to dung dch trong sut l


CsH 5NH2:

C6H5NH2 + H2SO4-----> C6H5NH3HS 0 4

-L

13. a) C 4 l m t nhn cha cc dung dch axit acrylc, axit tomic, axit
axetic v axit am noaxetic, hy nu cch nh n 'b it c c dung dch axit trn.

TO
N

b)
C 3 bnh dng 3 cht: C 2 H5 OHt CH 3OH, CH 3COOH, ch dng m ho
ch t hy cho bit cch nhn bit chng.
HNG DN GII

N
G

a) Axit acryic lm m t mu nc brom, axit fomic tham gia phn


ng trn g gng, axit axetc phn ng vi N a 2C0 3 ch CO2 thot r
(si bt) cn axit aminoaxetic hu nh khng tc dng vi Na 2CC>3.

B
I

b) Cho H 2SO4 v 3 .mu th cha 3 cht trn, un nng ln


180c, bnh no c kh tch ra lm m t mu nc brom l C2H 5OH
(CH3COOH khng phn ng, CH3OH to thnh imetyl ete tan trong
nc). Sau dng C2H 5OH vo 2 mu th kia thm Vo mt t
H 2SO4, un nng nh. Mu th no c hi bay ra ging nh mi hoa
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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qu l .mu th cha CH 3COOH, mu th cn li l CHgOH (hc sinh


vit cc phng trnh, phn ng).

UY

NH

14. C 3 ru etylic, n-propylic v iso-propylic, lm th no phn bit 3


ru ny b ng phn ng ho hc.

.Q

HNG DN GII

TP

phn bit 3 ru, ta thc hin qu trn h chuyn i theo s :

. :t

rrl

>. C H 3 C H 0

> C H 3C O O H (m i g i m )

Mn

NG

C 2H 6O H

- N hn bit C2H 5OH:

> C II3 C II2 C H O

TR

C H 3C H 2C H 2O H

- Nhn bit ru n-propylic:

(k h n g c m i g i m )

- Nhn bit ru iso-propylic:

C H3 C H2 C OOH

r> C H 3 - C - C H 3 (k h rig t h a m g i a p h n n g

10

00

C H 3 -C H -C H 3

trn g gng)

+3

OH

P2

15. Vit c c ng phn, c a C 3 H6O 2 c ch a c c nhm nh chc Khc


nhau v nu phng p h p ho h c nhn bit c c ng phn .
HNG DN GI

H
A

Cc ng phn ca C 3 6O2 c cha nhm nh chc khc nhau l:


C2H 5COOH, CH 3COOCH3, HCOOC2H 5 v CH 3-CHOH-CHO.

-L

- Dng Na 2C 0 3 nhn bit ng phn axit, dng Na nhn


bit ng phn c cha nhm -OH.

N
G

TO
N

- Hai este C1 li cho thu phn trong mi trng kim, sau


chng ct cho 2 ru bay hi, cho H 2SO4 ong tc dng vi 2 mui
CHsCOONa v HCOONa cho 2 axit HCOOH v CH 3COOH. Cho hai
axit n y tham gia phn ng trn g gng, ch c HCOOH phn ng
cho k t t a t r n g A g , n h v y su y r a e s t e b n u l H C O O C 2H 5 v

e s t e cn l i l C H 3C O O C H 3 (h c isinh v i t p h n g t r n h p h n n g ).

B
I

16. a) C '4 hp cht: ru etylic, axit axetic, phenol v b en ze n . Nu


phng p h p h o hc nhn bit 4 ch t d.
b)

Ch dng thm mt h o ch t bng phng php ho iic phn bit 3

ru sau: CH3OH, C2H5OH v C3H7OH.


120PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T
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H
NG

> 2CH3ONa + H 2

2CH3OH + 2Na

b) Ho cht chn l N, nu dng a gam mi ru:

TP
.Q

UY

a) Cho nc brom vo 4 mu th cha 4 ho cht trn, mu th


no cho k t t a trn g l phenol, sau cho mui cacbonat kim loi
Na2C0 3, CaCOa vo 3 mu th cn li, mu th no co kh bay ln l
C H 3C O O H . Cho Na vo 2 mu th cn li, mu th no c kh bay ra
l C 2H 5OH, cn li l benzen (hc sinh vit cc phng trn h phn
iig minh ho).

NH
N

HNG D N GII

mol
64

mol
32

2C2H5ONa + H2

2C2H5OH + 2Na -

moi
92

TR

raol
46

00
0B

2C3H7OH + 2Na - > 2C3H7ONa + H2

+3
1

mol
60

a mol
120

P2

T cc phng trnh phn ng ta thy lng H2 sn phm nhiu


n h t l ca CH3OH, t n h t l C3H7OH cn li l C2H5OH.

17. B ng phng p h p h o hc, h y p h n bit ru etylic, ete etylic, ru


anylic, etaniol.

HNG D N GII

-L
-

- Cho cc cht tr n vo k t t a Cu(OH)2, ch t no tr th n h


Hnng dch trong xanh mu lam l etaniol.

TO

- Cho cc cht cn li tc dng vi nc brom, cht no lm m t


mu nc brom l ru anyic (CH2=CH-CH2-OH).

NG

- Cho 2 cht cn li tc dng vi Na, cht no cho kh bay ln l


ru etylic, cht khng c phn ng l ete etylic (hc sinh vit cc
phng trnh phn ng minh ho).

ID

18. C 6 dung dch C 6HsONa, C 6H 5 NH2, C 2 H5 OH, C 6H6, NH4 HCO 3 v


NaAI0 2 ng trong 6 l khng nhn . Hy chn m t ung dch nhn bit
c c c h t trong 6 l trn.
HNG D N GII

Dng dung dch HC1, c th nhn .bit t t c.


ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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a) NH4HCO3 c kh bay ra:

NH

NH 4H C 0 3 + H C 1---- > NH 4CI + H20 + COzt

.Q
UY

b) NaA102 kt ta ri tan:
N aA i0 2 + HC1 + H20 ---- Al(OH)3i + NaCl

TP

Al(OH)3 + 3HC1,> AlCIa + 3H20

NG

d) C2H 5OH to th nh dung dch ng nht.

C6H5ONa + HC1---- > C6H5O H + NaCl

c) CeHsONa dung dch vn c:

e) C6 6 phn th nh 2 lp.

TR

f) C65NH2 u tin phn lp, sau dn dn m t i tr th n h dung


dch ng nht:

00

C6H 5NH 2 + HC1---- C6H 5NH 3C1 tan.

HNG DN G

C
P2

'

+3

10

19.
Ch dng dung dch H2SO 4 c th nhn bit c nhng c h t no
trong s c c ch t cho di y (cht lng hoc dung dch trong sut): ru
etyc, toluen, anilin, natri cacbona, natri phenolat v natri axetat.

Ta c th nhn bit t t c v chng c th gy ra cc hin tng


khc nhau:
- C2H 5OH to th n h dung dch trong sut, ng nht.

l p .

-L

- T o l e n C 6H 5CH 3 p h n li th n h

TO

- Anilin u tin khng tan, sau tan dn to th nh dung ch


ng nht.

2C6H5NH2 + H2SO4 ---- > (C6H5NH3)2S04

D
N
G

- N atri cacbonat: kh khng mu, khng mi bay ra, si bt.


Na 2C 0 3 + H 2S 0 4 ---- Na 2S 0 4 + C0 2t + H20 .

B
I

- N atri phenolat to cht khng tan, vn c ni ln trn.


2 C6H5ONa

+ H 2S 0 4 ---- > 2 C6H5O H + Na 2S 0 4

- N atri axetat c mi gim chua bay ln.

2CH3COONa + H2SO4---- > 2CH3COOHT + Na2S0 4


ng gp PDF-Tbi
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2 0 . Hy dng c c phng php ho hc phn bit c c h o cht:


HCOOH, ChhCHaCHO, CHgCOOH vCHgCOCHs.

NH

rich thi Hc vin cng ngh Bu chinh Vin thng nm 1999)

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HCOOH + 2AgN0 3 + 4 NH 3 + H20 ---- > (NH 4)2C0 3 +

.Q

C H 3C H 2C H O

TP

- Dng phn ng trng gng nhn bit HCOOH,

UY

HNG DN GII

+ 2NH4NO3 + 2Agi

CH3CH2CHO + 2AgN0 3 + SNHs + H20 * CH3CH2COONH4 +

NG

+ 2NH4NO3 + 2Ag>l

- Dng qu tm n h n bit axit HCOOH, c h t cn li

CH3CH2CHO,

TR

- Hai cht cn li (khng tham gia phn ng trn g gng) nhn


b i t b n g q u tm . D u n g dch C H 3C O O H l m qu tm , c h t cn l i

10
00
B

CH3COOCH3.

+3

21. Trnh by phng php h o hc nhn bit tng ch t trong hn hp


lng gm: axit axetic; axit omic, etanol. Vit phng trinh phn ng.

P2

HNG DN GII

- N hn bit axit fomic bng phn ng trn g gng.

- N hn bit axit axetic (sau khi axit fomic phn ng ht) bng
qu tm hay dung dch Na 2C0 3 - '

-L

- Nhn bit etanol bng cch un nng vi H2SO4 c 180c


kh etilen bay ra lm m t mu dung dch brom (hc sinh vit phng
trn h phn ng).

TO

22. Bng phn ng ho hc hy phn bit c c ch t sau: benzen, m etanol,


phenol v anehit tomic. Vit phng trnh phn ng
HNG DN GI

Dng AgNOyNHs nhn ra HCHO.

B
ID

Dng nc brom nhn ra phenol (cho kt ta trng).


Dng Na nhn ra CH 3OH (c kh H 2 thot ra).

C ht cn li l benzen (hc sinh vit phng trn h phn ng).

23. C hai binh khng nhn ng ring bit hai hn hp: du bi trn
my, du thc vt. B ng phng php ho hc hy nhn ra tng hn hp.
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HNG D N GII

R-COOH 2
I

3K O H

- > 3R C O O K + C 3H 5(O H )3

TP

R -C O O C H

.Q
UY

NH

un nng tng hn hp vi dung ch KOH d, ngui, cho


thm tfcig git dung dch CuS0 4 vo tng hn hp. Hn hp no cho
dung dch mu xanh lam l du thc vt.

R-COOCH 2

H
NG

Glixerin sinh ra t dng vi Cu(OH)2-

2 4 Nu c mt l h cht, trn nhn c ghi cng thc m c on


l C 6H5 NH3C. Hy nu phng php ho hc x c nh xem cng thc c
ng khng?

TR

(Trch thi i hc Quc gia H Ni nm 1998)

HNG DN GII

00

L y m t t h o c h t cho t c d n g v i d u n g dch N a O H , l c n h

10

cho p h n n g th c h i n h o n to n . N u n g l 6H 5N H 3C I t h sa u

+3

p h n n g th u c c h t l n g n h d u t c h r a k h i d u n g dch, ch m

C
P2

x u n g p h a y n g n g h i m . L y p h n c h t l n g n h d u n g dch
b ro m v o t h y k t t a t r n g x u t h i n . V n u cho AgNC>3 v o d u n g

H
A

dch s a u p h n ag; t r n c n g cho k t t a tr n g .


C c p h n g tr in h p h n n g x y r a :

-L
-

C 6H 5N H 3C 1 .+ N a O H ----- C 6H 5N H 2 + N a C l + H 20

CHsNHz + 3Br 2 ---- > C6H 2NH 2Br3 + 3HBr

TO
N

NaCl + AgNOs---- AgCU + NaN 0 3

ID

NG

25.
C 4 ng nghim m t nhn ng ring bit tng cht sa u : dung dch
NH4HCO3, dung dch NaAI2l dung dch C6H5ONa v cht lng C2H5OH. Chl
dng dung dch HCI c th nhn bit c c c ch t trn khng? Vit c c
phng trnh phn ng nu c.
HNG DN G

D n g d u n g dch H C 1 c t h n h n b i t c t n g c h t:
- N h n b i t

NH4HCO3: cho d u n g dch H C l v o t h y c k h b a y r a

NH4HCO3 + HC 1
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

> NH4CI + C0 2f + H2O


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- Nhn bit NaA102: cho dung dch HC1 vo t t, lc u thy


xut hin kt ta keo trng, sau kt ta ta n dn.
N a A lO z + H C 1 + H 20 ----- > A I(O H )s + N a C l

UY

AI(OH)3 + 3H C I---- ACI3 + 3H20

NH
N

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TP

.Q

- N hn bit dung dch CgHsONa: cho ung dch HC1 vo, dung
dch v n c, cho ti p H C 1 v n c c n g n h i u .

CeHsONa + HCl ---- > C 6H5OH + N aC

v n c n i l n tr n

NG

- N hn bit C2H 5OH: cho dung dch HC1 vo ta thy dung dch
vn trong sut.

TR
N

26. Dng c c phn ng h o hc phn bit 4 ch t lng sau: CH3OH,


c 2h 5o h , h c h o

, CH3CHO.
HNG DN GI

00

C h o N a v o c c m u t h c h a c c d u n g dch t r n , h a i m u t h c

10

kh bay ln l CH 3OH v C2H 5OH, hai mu th khng c kh bay ln

+3

l H C H O v C H gC H O

2N

a ----- >

2C 2H 5O N a

2 C 2H 5O H +

P2

2CH3OH + 2N a---- 2CH3ONa + H2


+ H2

L n m e n h a i m u t h n y , m u t h n o c m i ch u a (g i m n ) l

> C H 3C O O H + H 20

-L

C2H 5O H + O2

C H 3C H 2O H cn m u t h k i a ,k h n g c m i g i m n .

C h o O2 v o h a i m u t h cn l i c M n 2+ l m x c t c , s a u m t t h i

gian mu th no c mi gim n l CH3CHO, mu th cn li l

TO

HCHO.

+ Os *M
> 2 CH 3C0 0 H

2 CH 3CH 0

B
I

27. C ho 3 ch t CH 3COOH, HCOOCH 3 v CH 3COOCH 3 . Hy nhn bit


mi cht bng phn ng ho hc.
(Trch thi i hc Kin trc H Ni nn 999)
HNG DN GII

- Dng qu tm nhn bit axit CH 3COOH: qu tm chuyn


sang mu .
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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%

HCOOCH3 + H 20 ^ HCOOH + CH3OH

UY

CH 3COOCH 3 + H20 ---- > CH 3COOH + CH3OH

NH

- T h u p h n 2 e s te r i un n n g , b n h n o t h y c k h m i
chua bay ra l bnh ng CH 3COOCH 3

.Q

Khi un nng axit CH 3COOH bay ra c mi chua.

TP

2 8 C 4 l m t nhn A, B, c , D ch a bn ho cht ring bit sau y


(khng theo th t): n-propylic, anehit propionic, axit propionic, metyl axetat,
bit rng:

- C ht trong l A v ch t trong l B khi phn ng vi Na c khi H 2 thot


ra, cht trong l A c nhit si cao nht.

H
N

- C ht trong l c khi t c dng vi dung dch A gN 0 3 trong NH 3 to ra Ag.


Xc nh ho cht trong mi l v vit phng trnh phn ng.

TR
N

(Trch d thi tuyn sinh i hc Quc gia nm 2000)


HNG DN G

+3

10

00
B

- C ht trong l A v cht trong l B khi tc dng vi Na c khi


H 2 bay ra chng t A, B l axit hay ru, cht trong l A c nhit
si cao nht, vy A l axit propionic v c lin kt hiro bn hn lin
kt hiro trong ru. Suy ra B l ru n-propylic (hc sinh vit cc
phng trnh phn ng minh ho).

P2

- Cht trong l c l CH 3CH2CHO


CH 3e H 2CHO + Ag20

CH 3-C H 2-COOH + 2Ag

H
A

Hoc vit: C2H 5CHO + 2AgN0 3 + 3NH 3 + H20 ---- C2H 5COONH 4
+ 2NH4NO3 + 2Ag
C2H5CHO + 2Ag(NH3)2O H ---- > C2H5COONH4 + 3 NH 3 + 2Ag+H20

-L

- Cht trong l D l CH3COOCH3.

D
N

TO

2 9 Cho 3 ch t hu c n chc c cng nhm nh chc C 3 H4O 2 (A);


H2C 02 (B); C2H4O2 (D). Hy dng phng php ho hc phn bit cc cht
A, B, D (mt nhn).
HNG DN G1

B
I

Ba cht hu co' n chc, c cng nhm nh chc l:


CH 2==CH-C00H (A); HCOOH (B); CH 3COOH (D)

Dng phn ng trn g gng nhn bit HCOOH


HCOOH + 2 AgNOs + 4NHs + H20 ---- >(NH4)2C03 +
+ 2NH4NO3 + 2Agv
N hn bit (A) bng phn ng vi dung dch brom.

ng gp PDF126
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CH 3-C H 2-COH, CH 3COOCH3i CH 3-C H 0 H -C H 0

NH

Trnh by cch nhn bit tng ng phn trong hn hp trn bng


phng php ho hc.

30. C hn hp 3 ng phn:

.Q
U

(Trch thi tuyn sinh Trng Cao ng S phm H Ni nm 1995)


HNG DN GII

+ CaCOs > CaCCzHsCOOk + H20 + C 0 2

2 CH 3CH 2COOH

TP

- Ly mt t hn hp cho tc dng vi mui cacbonat hoc kim


loi Fe, Zn... c kh bay ra, hoc cho giy qu tm chuyn sang mu
hng. N hn bit axit.

H
N

Ly m t t hn hp cho qua dung dch AgN0 3 trong dung dch


NH3, nu c phn ng trng gng, nhn bit anehit.

TR

CHs-CHOH-CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + H20 ---- > CH 3-CHOH-COC)+ 3 N + + NES + 2Agi

10
00

Hoc vit: CH3-CHOH-CHO + 2AgNOs + 3NH3 + H20


CH3-CHOH-COONH4 + 2NH4NO3 + 2Ag

C
P2

+3

- Ly mt t hn hp cho tc dng h t vi Na to mui


C2H5COONa v CH3-CH-CH0.
ONa
Sau chng ct nhn bit mi thm este CH 3COOCH3.

-L

H
A

31. C 5 l b m t-nhn; mi l ng mt ch t lng sau: dung dch anehit


fomic, phenol, anilin, gixerin, dung dch axit am inoaxetic. Nu phng php
ho hc nhn bit c c cht trong mi l. Vit cc phng trinh phn ng
minh ho.

(Trich thi tuyn sini i hc Hu nn 1998)


HNG DN GII

TO

C th nhn bit bng cch sau:

ID

NG

- Cho c 5 cht tc dng vi Cu(OH)2, cht no to ra k t ta


gch l HCHO, cht no to ra dung dch xanh lm l C3H 5(OH)3.
> HCOONa + Cu20 i + 3H20

H 2- 0 H
I

GHs-Ox
:....1 ,

HCHO + 2 Cu(OH >2 + NaOH

C H - O H + C u(O H )2

I
h 2- o h

'

HO-H
I
H O -C H

-----

; I .
,
h -c h 2 .

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

C H -O C ,

!
H
CH2-O H

5 > 0 -C H 2
1
' V
O - C H + 2 H 20
'I
H 0 -C H 2
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NH
N

it cn li cho tc dng vi dng dch Br2, hai ch t c k t


L CgHsOH v C6H 5NH 2, cht cn li l dung dch axit

C6H 5NH 2 + 3Br 2

> C6H 2Br 3NH2 + 3HBr

UY

C6H5OH + 3Br2- C6H 2(H)Br3 + 3HBr

2 C6H 5 0 H

+ 2Na

TP
.Q

- Cho Na tc dng vi hai cht trn, cht no c kh l phenol :


2C6H5ON + H2T

HNG DN GII

NG

32. Dng phn ng ho hc phn bit c c l ng ru etylic, phenol,


anilin, b enzen.

TR
N

Cho bn mu th ng cc ho cht trn tc dng vi Na, mu


th no c kh bay ln l phenol v ru etylic.

2C2H5OH + 2 N a---- 2 C2H5ONa + H2


+2 N a ---- 2C6H5ONa + H it

2 C6H 5OH

10

00

phn bit C2H 5OH v CeHsOH, cho tc dng vi dung-ch


brom, mu th no cho k t ta tr n g l C6 5OH.

P2

+3

C6H5OH + 3Br 2 ---- > C6H 2(OH)Br3 + 3HBr


* .
(trng)

Cho hai mu th cn li tc dng vi dung dch Br 2, mu th no

cho k t t a t r n g l C65NH2, cn m u t h k h n g t c d n g l C SH .

C6H 5NH 2 + 3Br 2 ---- > C6H 2Br 3NH2i +SHBr


(trng)

-L

33. a) Bng phng php ho hc, hy phn bit cc e s te sau:


CH 3C 0 0 C H = C H 2; H C 0 0 C H 2-C H =C H 2; CH 2= C H c o C H 3.

NG

TO

b) C th dng phn ng h o hc g phn bi poietylen v


polivinylclorua.
HNG DN GII

a) Cho ba cht thu phn trong mi trng kim:

B
ID

CH 3COOCH=CH 2 + NaOH > CH3COONa + CH3CHO

HCOOCH2CH=:CH2 + NaOH
CH 2=CHCOOCH 3 + N aO H

> HCOONa + CH2=CH-CH2OH


> CH 2=CH-COONa + CH 3OH

un nh, anehit v cc ru bay hi, cn ii 3 dung dch mui.


128

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

- Cho vi git dung dch H 2SO4 long, cht no c mi gim thot


ra l CH 3COOH, suy r a cht ban u l CH 3COOCH-CH 2.

- Cho nc brom vo ba cht, cht no lm m t mu l


CH 2=CH-COONa, suy r cht ban u l CH 2=CH-COOCH3.

.Q
UY

- Cn li l HCOONa suy ra cht ban u l: HCOOCH 2CH=CH2.

-C H 2- C I t

I Jn

-> C0 2 + H 20 + HC 1

NG

> C 0 2 + H20

TR

[-CH 2-C H 2- t .

HC1 + AgNOa ---- > AgCU + H N 0 3

Ba ng nghim khng nhn cha ring bit tng dung dch sau :

34.

TP

b) Trong PVC c nhiu nguyn t clo, trong PE khng c nguyn


t clo nn c th phn bit chng bng cch nhn bit sn phm HC1
khi phn hu bng nhit.

10
00

a) CH 3COOH, b) H2NCH 2COOH, c) H2N -C H 2-C H 2-CH~COOH


nh

P2

+3

Trnh by phng php h o hc nhn bit tng dung dch.

HNG DN GI

Dng giy qu tm nhn bit cc dung dch:

Dung dch a lm qu tm chuyn th nh .

Dung dch b khng lm i mu qu tm.

C 3 hp cht hu c n ctrc, cng mt loi chc c cng thc

35.

-L

Dung dch c lm qu tm chuyn thnh mu xanh.

TO

p h n t t C H 2C>2, C2H4O2 v C3H4O2.

a) Gi tn 3 h p cht trn.

NG

b) Bng phng php ho hc hy phn bit 3 cht .


HNG DN GII

B
ID

a) Theo u bi 3 cht hu c l axit hoc este don cht:


- CH2O2 c cng thc cu to l H-COOH: axt fomic.
- C2H4O2 c cng thc cu to l CH3COOH: axit axetic.
- C3 4O2 c cng thc cu to l C 2=CH-COOH: axit acrylic.

9. NB&TCC-A

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

129
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- Dng phn ng trn g gng nhn bit HCOOH:


HCOOH +

2A g N 0 3

4N H S +

NH
N

b) Bng phng php ho hc phn bit 3 cht:

H 20 ----- (N H 4)2C 0 3 + 2 A g +

.Q
UY

+ 2NH4NO3
- Cn li 2 axit, axit no lm m t mu nc brom l axit:

Br

Br

TP

CH 2=CH-COOH + Br 2 ---- > CH 2-CH-COOH

- Cht cn li l axit axetic.

H
N

36. C ba bnh ng ba cht: C2H5OH, CH3OH, CH3COOH. Ch dng mt


ho cht, cho bit cch nhn bit chng.
HNG DN GII

CH 3- 0 -C H 3 + h 20

+3

2 CH 3OH

10

00
B

TR

- Cho H 2SO4 vo ba mu th cha ba cht trn v .un n hit


ln hn 170c cho kh bay ra l C2H 5OH v hai mu th khng c kh
bay ra:
c 2h 5o h
> c 2h 4t + h 20

P2

- phn bit CH 3COOH v CH 3OH, ta dng C 2H 5OH vo hai


mu ny, thm vo mi mu th mt t H 2SO4, un nh. Mu th no
c mi ging hoa qu l CH 3COOH.

C2H5OH + CH3COOH H2SQ04dc CH3COOC2H5

(mi hoa qu)

TO

-L

37. Vit cng thc cu to c c ng phn c th c c a cng thc


C 2H40 2. i vi mi ng phn hy nu mt phn ng c trng phn
bit vi cc ng phn khc.
HNG DN GI

D
N
G

- C ng th c c u t o cc n g p h n c c a c n g th c C 2H 4O 2 :

CH3-COOH (A) ; HCOOCH3 (B) ; HOCH2-CHO (C)

B
I

- Cc phn ng c trng dng nhn bit cc cht A, B, c .

+ Nhn bit A: A l mt axit nn c th dng qu tm (ho ),


kim loi hoc mui cacbonat nhn ra n:
2 CH 3COOH

ng gp PDF 130
bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

+ N a 2C 0 3

> 2CH3COONa + C0 2t +HO


. NB&TCC- B

9
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HCOOCH3 + h 20 v

h c o o h + CH3OH

AgsO

> C O 2 + H2O

+ 2A g

.Q
UY

HCOOH +

NH
N

+ Nhn bit B: Thu phn este B ta thu c HCOOH v CH3OH.


Sau dng phn ng trn g gng nhn ra axit fomic.

TP

+ N hn bit C: Tham gia phn ng trng gng v tc dng vi


Na cho kh H 2 bay ln (hc sinh vit phng trn h phn ng).

38.
Oxi ho ru etylic thu c hn hp gm anehit axetic, xit
axetic, nc v phn ru khng b oxi ho.

NG

a) Cn dng phn ng g nhn bit ru etylic cn trong hn hp.

b) Trnh by phng php h o hc iu c h axit axetic tinh khit t hn


hp A v iu c h axeton.

TR

HNG DN GII

(Trch th tuyn sinh Trng i hc Y Dc TP.HCM nm 1994)

P2

+3

10

00

a) Cho H 2SO4 c vo hn hp , ri un nh. Sau ton b


dung dch dun vo mt ng nghim cha dung dch mui n bo
ho, ta s thy mt cht lng ni trn b m t dung dch mui n,
chnh l este CH3COOC2H 5. iu chng -t trong, hn hp c
C2H5OH
.

' GH3COOC2H5 + h 2o

CH3C00H + c 2h 5o h ... ?04^

TO

-L

Lu : in ra ru trong hn hp A, ta cho hn hp A tc
dng vi NaOH; ch c CH3COOH phn ng. un nng ho dung
dch bay hi, cho hi qua CuO nung nng, nu to ra ng kim loi
mu vng, chng t hi i qua c C2H 5H. Hn hp A cha ru Vit
phng trn h phn ng.

NG

b) Cho hn hp A tc dng vi C aC03, ch c CH 3COOH tc dng


to (C3COO)2Ca.
2 CH 3COOH

+ CaCOs---- > (CH 3COO)2Ca + C 0 2 + H20

B
ID

Sau un hn hp, ton b cc cht bay hi ch cn


(CH 3COO)2Ca tinh khit. Cho (CH 3COO)2Ca tc dng vi H 2SO4 v
un nh c CH 3COOH tin h khit.
(CH3COO)2Ca + H 2S 0 4

(CH 3COO)2Ca
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

unnh

> 2 CH3COOHt + C aS04i

CH 3COCH 3 + CaC03
131

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CH 3

NH

Nhn bit cacbohirat-amin


(Glucozo, saccarozd, tnh bt, xeniuloz)

.Q

UY

39. C c hp ch t ch ra di y ng trong 5 l khng nhn: Glucoz,


saccaroz, etanal, etanol, glixerin.

TP

Da vo cc quan s t thc nghim , hy n nh cc ch ci ng cho


cc l:

a) Ch cc hp cht A, c v D cho .mu xanh lam khi thm Cu{OH )2 vo


dung dch nc ca mi cht nhit thng.

H
NG

b) Ch cc hp cht c v E cho kt t a m u gch khi hm Cu(OH )2


vo ung dch nc ca mi ch t v un nng.

c) Hp cht A cng cho kt t a gch sau khi thu phn axit long,
trung ho v un nng vi Ca(OH)2.

TR

(Trch thi Hc vin Quan h Quc t nm 1997)

HNG DN GII

10

00

T quan st thc nghim, dn n k t qu:

+3

A: Sa ccaroz ; B: Etanol ; E: Etanal ; C: GUC0 2 ; D: Glixerin.

P2

Lu : Phn t saccroz c cu to bi mt gc glucozo* v mt


gc fructoz. c im cu to ca phn t saccaroz l khng c
nhm chc anehit, nhng c nhiu nhm hiroxyl (tnh cht ca ru
a chc).

HNG DN GI

TO
N

-L
-

40. Hy dng thuc th phn bit c c h o cht sa u y, ng trong


tng l ring bit b mt nhn: axit propionic, glucozd, glixern, n-propanal. Vit
phng trinh phn ng gii thch cch phn bit.

Nhn bit cc cht:

NG

- Nhn bit axit propionic: dng qu tm, qu tm ho .

- Dng phn ng trn g g n g n h n bit glucoz.

+ 2Ag4'

ID

CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO + g20 - S > CH 2OH(CHOH)4COOH +

- Dng phn ng vi Cu(OH)2 to mu xanh lam nhn bit


glixerin (hc sinh vit phng trn h phn ng).
- Cht cn li n-propanol.

ng gp132
PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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'h n g

NH

41. Ming chui cn xanh tc dng vi dung dch iot cho m u xanh lam.
Nc p q u chui chn cho phn ng trng gng. Hy gii thch hin
tng .

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

d n g i i

(CcHmOs). + nH20

TP
.Q

UY

Trong chui xanh c tin h bt, cht ny tc dng vi dung dch iot
to ra mu xanh lam. Khi chui chn, tinh bt bin th nh glucoz:
men > nC6H ,20 6

> C H 2O H (C H O H )4C O O H +

+ 2 A gi

NG

C H 2O H (C H O H )4C H O + A g 20 H:i

Glucoz trong nc p qu chn tham ga phn ng trn g gng.

TR

42. a) C 4 bnh ch a dn nhn ng ring bit cc cht: glixerin, dung


dch glucoz, ru etylic, dung dch anilin. Bng phng php ho hc lm th
n o nhn ra tng cht. Vit phng trnh phn ng.

00

HNG DN G

b) Lm th no pht hin trong nc tiu c ch a glucoz.

+3

10

- Cho 4 mu th cha 4 cht trn tc dng vi dung dch AgN 3


trong dung dch NH3 , mu th no cho Ag k t ta l dung dch glucoz

P2

- Cho 3 mu th cn li tc dng vi Cu(OH)2, mu th no cho


dung dch xanh lam l glixerin.

- Ch nc brom vo 2 mu th cn li, mu th no cho k t ta


trn g l dung dch aniin.

-L

- Cho Na vo mu th cn li, cho kh bay ra mu th l


C2H 5OH.

TO

b) p h t hin trong nc tiu c glucoz, ngi ta lm th


nghim phn ng trn g gng, phn ng vi Cu(OH)2-

HNG DN GII

ID

NG

43. Ba ng nghim khng nhn ch a ring bit b a dung dch sau:


glucoz, saccaro z , inh bt. Hy nhn bit c c dung dch bng phng php
ho hc.

Cho dung dch iot vo 3 mu cht trn, mu th no chuyn mu


iot th n h mu xanh lam c trng l tin h bt.
Cho dung dch AgN0 3 trong dung dch amoniac vo 2 mu th
cn li v un nng, mu th no thc hin phn ng trn g gng l
glucoz. Cn li mu th khng c phn ng l saccaroz.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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133

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NH
N

44.
a) Bng phng p h p ho hc hy nhn bit c c ch t trong tng cp
cc ch t sau:
(1) S accaroz v m antoz.

(2 ) S accaroz v etylenglicol.

.Q
UY

b) Hai ng nghim khng nhn ch a ring bit tng dung dch sau :
(1) Dung dch H2 N~CH 2-CO O H .

TP

(2) Dung dch H2N -C H 2- C h 2-CH (N H 2)-COOH.

Hy nhn bit c c dung dch b ng phng php h o hc.


HNG DN GII

TR
N

H
N

a) ( 1 ) Cho dung dch AgNC>3 trong dung dch amoniac vo 2 mu


th cha 2 cht trn, mu th no thc hin phn ng trn g gng l
mantoz, cn saccaroz khng tham gia phn ng trn g gng.

0B

(2 ) un nng tng cht vi dung dch axit v c long, trung ho


axit bng kim thc hin phn ng trng gng. Dung dch cho phn
ng trng gng l dung dch cha saccaroz v:

+3

10
0

C)2 220 i -t- K 2O ------- 1----- > CeH^Og + C6 206


(glucoz) (fructoz)

P2

Hoc c th cho 2 mu th tc dng vi Cu(OH)2, mu th no


ho tan kt ta Cu(OH)2, to dung dch trong xanh mu lam l
etylenglicol, cn saccaroz khng tc dng (hc sinh vit phng trn h
phn ng).

b) Dng giy qu tm th 2 dung dch.

-L

Dung dch ( 1 ) khng chuyn mu giy qu.

CH 4

Tinh ch cc cht v ch cc cht ra khi hn hp

ID

NG

TO
N

Dung dch (2 ) chuyn mu giy qu thnh xanh.

45.
Mt hn hp kh gm : propan, etilen, axetilen. Hy tch tng ch t ra
khi hn hp.
HNG DN G

Cho hn hp i qua dung dch Ag20 trong NH3> axetilen b gi


li do phn ng to axetilua bc k t ta mu vng.
ng gp PDF
1 0bi
^ GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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CHsCH + Ag20

3- > gGCAg + H20

NH

Cho axetilua bc tc dng vi dung dch HC1 long thu li axetilen.

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TP
.Q
UY

A gO CA g + 2HC1 ---- CH=CH + 2AgCU

- Cho hn hp kh cn li qua dung dch brom, tleri b gi li do


phn iig:

CH 2=CH 2 + Br 2 ---- * B r-C H 2-C H 2-B r


Cn kh propan khng tc dng bay ra.

NG

- T B r-C H 2-C H 2-B r thu li etilen:

B r-C H 2-C H 2-B r + Zn ---- > CH 2=CH 2 + ZnBr 2

TR

HNG DN GI1

46.
Tinh c h etilen c ln etan, axetilen, kh sunur, kh hiro v kh nit
bng phng php ho hc. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng.

10
00

Cho hn hp kh ln lt qua cc bnh cha:


- Dung dch AgN0 3 /NH 3 th axetiln 'b'gi li do cc phan ng:

P2
+3

CH=CH + 2AgN0 3 +: 2NH3 AgC=CAg + 2NH4NO3


- Dung dch NaOH d, kh S 0 2 b hp th ht:

S 0 2 + 2 N aO H ---- > Na 2S 0 3 + H20

- Sau cng cho qua bnh ng dung dch brom d, etilen b gi li


cc kh C2H6, H 2 v N 2 bay ra:

-L

CH 2=CH 2 + Br 2 ---- B r-C H 2-C H 2-B r


CH 2=CH 2 + ZnBr 2

B r-C H 2-C H 2-B r + Zn ^

TO

4 7 - Tinh c h mt ch t t hn hp:

a) Tinh c h Chi4 c ln c o , C 0 2, S 0 2, NH3.

b) Tinh c h C 2 H6 c ln N 0 2l H2 S, hi nc.

HNG DN G

ID

c) Tinh c h C 3 H8 c ln NO, NH3, CG>2 .

a)
Cho hn hp 5 kh sc qua dung dch H 2SO4 d, ch NH 3 b gi
li to mui, CH 4 , c o , C 02, S 0 2 thot ra, thu ly 4 khi ny:
2NH3 + H2SO4
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

(NELj)2S0 4
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UY

NH
N

Cho hn hp 4 kh qua dung dch NaOH d, kh CH 4 v c o


khng phn ng i ra khi dung dch. Cc kh S 0 2, C 0 2 tc dng vi
NaOH nn b gi li trong dung dch (hc snh t vit phng trn h
phn ng).

C O + P b C l2 + H 20 - > P ( U +. 2 H C 1 + C 0 2

TP

.Q

Cho hn hp 2 kh cn li qua dung dch PdCl2, ch c c o phn


ng vi PdC2, kh CH 4 khng phn ng ta thu c kh m etan.

TR
N

H2S + 2N aO H ---- Na2S + 2H20

H
N

b) Cho hn hp kh li qua dung dch NaOH d, kh C2He khng


tc dng vi NaOH, khng tan trong nc thu c kh C2I 6. Cc kh
H 2S, NO 2 do tc dng vi NaOH nn b gi li, hoi nc cng b
gi li.

2N 0 2 + 2NaOH > N aN 0 2 + N aN 0 3 + H20

00

0B

c) Cho hn hp 4 kh qua dung dch H2SO4 d, ch NH 3 b gi li


to mui, C3H8, n o , CO2 thot ra thu ly 3 kh ny.

+3
1

2NH3 + H2S0 4---- (NH4>2S04

P2

Cho hn hp 3 kh cn li sc qua dung dch Ca(OH )2 d, C3H 8 v


NO khng tc dng thot ra, thu li. Kh CO2 tc dng to k t ta
trng CaC 0 3 .

CO2 + Ca(OH )2 C C 03 + H20

-L

Cho hn hp 2 kh qua bnh kh O2, kh NO tc dng th nh NO 2,


sau cho hn hp kh sau phn ng qua dung dch NaOH d, kh
C3I 8 khng tc dng, khng tan trong nc thu dc kh C 3H 8.

2NO + O2 - 2NO2

NG

TO

N 0 2 + 2 N aO H ---- > N aN 0 2 + N aN 0 3 + H20

48.
C hn hp C2H5OH, (C 2H5)20 v CH 3 COOH. Hy tch chng ra khi
nhau. Vit c c phng trnh phn ng nu c,

ID

HNG DN GII

Cho hn hp tc dng vi CaO, CH3COOH tc dng.


2 CH 3 COOH

+. C aO ---- (CHCOO^Ca + H20

un nng, ru v ete bay hi, ta thu c (CH3COO)2Ca, ri cho


H 2SO4 long vo v dun nng thu c CH 3COOH.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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) 2 CH 3COOHT + C aS04

^ 1?teg

NH

(CHaCOO^Ca + H 2S 0 4

Hn hp 2 cht cn l i cho tc dng v Na.

TP
.Q
UY

2C2H5OH + 2N a ---- > 2C2H5ONa + H2T


Chng ct cho (C2H 5)20 bay hi v thu li.

2 C2H5ONa

Natri etylat c c cn v cho tc dng vi H2SO4 long, chng


ct thu C2H5OH.
+ H 2S 0 4

> 2 C2HsOHT + N a 2S 0 4

49. a) Mt hn hp gm C 6H5 OH, CH 3 COOH, C 2 H5 OH v H2 0 . H y trnh

H
N

by mt phng php ho hc tch tng cht C6H5OH, CH3COOH v

C2H5OH ra khi hn hp trn.

TR
N

b) C ho m t hn hp gm ru n-butylic, pheno (lng), b n g phng


p h p h o hc h y tch 2 c h t ra khi nhau. Vit phng trnh p hn ng.

HNG D N GII

10

00

a) - Phenol t tan trong nc lnh, n n ta lm lnh phenol khng


ta n ni ln trn , ta dng phu chit c phenol.

+ CaCOs > (CH 3COO)2Ca + C 0 2t + H 20

2 CH 3COOH

P2

+3

Cho dung dch cn li CH 3COOH v C2H 5OH tc dng vi


C aC 03, CH 3COOH tc dng C2H 5OH khng tc dng, em chng ct
dung ch hn hp ta c C2H 5OH.

(CH 3COO)2Ca + H 2S 0 4 > 2CHaCOOHt + CaSO-l-

-L

b) Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch NaOH (d). Phenol tc


dng v chuyn th n h C6H5ONa tan trong nc. Ru n-butylic t tan,
ni ln trn , tch bng phu chit

TO

C6H 5OH + NaOH - > CesHgONa + H20

NG

Sc kh C 0 2 vo dung dch C6H 5ONa, phenol vn c ni ln


tr n , tch bng phu chit, dc phenol.

ID

CeHgONa + C 0 2 + H20 ---- CeHsOH + NaHCOa


(vn c ni ln trn )

50. T ch r c c c h t sa u y ra khi hn hp:


a) M etan, etiien, axetilen.
b) Butin-1, butin-2, butan.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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HNG DN GI

UY

NH

a) Cho hn hp 3 kh sc qua dung dch A gN0 3 trong dung dch


NH 3, 2 kh m etan, etilen khng tc dng thu ly 2 kh. Kh axetilen
tc dng cho kt ta mu vng.

.Q

Lc ly kt ta, cho tc dng vi dung dch HC1 thu c axetilen.

NG

TP

Cho 2 kh cn li sc qua dung dch brom, kh m etan khng tc


dng thu ly kh ny. Kh C2H 4 tc dng, b gi li trong dung dch
brom. Cho Zn vo dung dch sau phn ng thu c C2H 4 (hc sinh
vit cc phng trn h phn ng).

TR

b) Cho hn hp 3 kh sc qua dung dch AgN0 3 trong dung dch


NH3. 2 kh butin-2 v butan khng tc dng thot ra ngoi, ta thu
c 2 kh ny. Kh butin-1 tc dng to k t ta mu vng, lc ly kt
ta cho tc dng vi dung dch HC1 thu c butin- 1 .

10

00

Cho 2 kh cn li sc qua dung dch brom, kh butan khng


phn ng thot ra ta th c kh butan. Kh butin-2 tc dng b gi
li trong dung dch brom.

+3

CH 3- O C - C H 3 + 2Br 2 ---- CH 3-C B r 2-C B r 2-C H 3

P2

C H 3- C B r 2 - C B r 2 - G H 3 + 2 Z n ----- > C H 3- C s G - C H 3 +

51. Tinh ch:

2Z n B r 2

a) B enzen khi hn hp vi toluen v stiren.


b) Toluen khi hn hp vi b en zen v stiren.

-L

c) stiren khi hn hp vi benzen v toluen.


HNG DN G1

C6H 5CH 3 + Br 2

C6H 4BrCH 3 + HBr

C6H 5CH=CH 2 + Br 2 ---- > C6H 5CHBrCH2Br

ID

TO

a) Cho hn hp 3 cht tc dng vi nc brom (c bt Fe lm xc


tc), toluen v stiren tc dng, benzen khng tc dng ni ln trn,
phn th n h 2 lp, dng cch chit ta c benzen.

b) Cho hn hp 3 cht tc dng vi nc brom, stiren tc dng,


benzen v toluen khng tc dng ni ln trn, phn th n h 2 lp, dng
cch chit ta c benzen v toluen. Sau dng phng php chng
ct phn on ta c benzen (si 80C) cn li l toluen (si *
111C).

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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C6H 5CH=CH 2 + HCl > CeHs-CHCl-CHa


Cho dung dch trn tc dng vi NaOH c v un nng:

> C6H 5-C H -C H 3 + NaCl

OH

TP

C6H 5-CHC1-CH 3 + NaOH


.......
'

.Q
UY

NH

c)
Cho hn hp 3 cht tc dng vi dung dch HCl, benzen v
toluen khng tc dng ni ln trn, stiren tc dng v phn th n h 2
lp, dng cch chit ta thu c C6H 5CHCICH 3.

^0^ c > C6H 5CH=CH 2 + H 20

NG

CeHs-CH-CHs -

Nh vy ta thu c stren.

OH
.

TR

52. Q hn hp khi gm GO 2 , C 2 H4j C 2 H2, C 2H6. Trnh by phng php


ho hc thu c tng kh tinh khit.

0B

HNG DN GI

00

- Trc ht cho hn hp kh i qua nc vi trong d:

31

CO2 + Ca(OH )2 * CaCOg + H20

2+

CaC03 - ^ C a 0 + C 02

C
P

- Kh cn li ch qua AgN0 3 trong NH3:

HC=CH + 2 [Ag(NH3)2j+---- > Ag2C2 + 2NH4+ + 2NH3

Sau : Ag22 + 2HC1---- > 2AgCU + C2H2t

-L
-

- Hn hp cn li gm C2 4 v C2He cho hp H20 (xc tc axit)


th n h ru:

TO
N

CH 2=CH 2 + H20 ---- >, CH 3-C H 2OH

NG

Sau : CH 3-C H 2OH ..ffl*.? -.> CH 2=CH2 + H20


JnlgiJ^ac

B
ID

V phn ng trn (hp nc) kh t hiu sut 100% nn trong


C2H6 cn li mt t C2H4, mun loi ht C2H4 c th dng nc brom
hoc K M n04.
53. Tch ri cc cht sau ra khi hn hp:
a) CH 4 , C 0 2i NH3b) C2H6, CO2, SO2, HCI.

c) n2i nh3, CO2 , s o 2, c 3h6.


ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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HNG DN GII

a) Cho hn hp 3 kh sc qua dung dch H2SO4 d ch NH3 b gi


CO2, CH4 th o t r th u l y 2 k h n y .

TP

H 2SO4 du + 2 N aO H ---- > N a 2S 0 4 + 2H20

UY

2 NH 3

.Q

+ H 2SO4 ---- > (NH 4)2S0 4


un dung dch to th n h vi NOH d thu kh NH 3

NH

l i t o m ii,

(NH 4)2S0 4 + 2 N aO H ---- > Na 2S 0 4 + 2H20 + 2 NH 3

NG

- Cho hn hp 2 kh cn li sc qua dung dch Ca(OH )2 d ch c


CH4 khng tc dng thot ra, thu li. Kh CO2 tc dng to kt ta
trng CaCC>3, lc kt ta, cho tc dng vi dung dch HC1 thu hn hp
kh CO2, HCl, hi nc.

TR
N

C aC 0 3 + 2HC1---- > CaCl2 + C 0 2t + H20

Cho ln .lt hn hp kh qua bnh dng NaHC3 v H2SO4 c


(hoc P 2O5).
NaCl + CO 2 + H20

00

NaHCOs + HC1

10

Hi nc b H 2SO4 c hoc P 2O5 hp th.

+3

P2O5 + 3H20 ---- > 2H3PO4

P2

Lu : Khng cho C aC 0 3 tc dng vi H 2SO4 iu ch CO2 v


CaS04 c to thnh (t tan) bm vo CaCC>3, khng cho H2SO4 tip
tc tc dng.
b) - Cho hn hp 4 kh sc qua dung dch nc brom d ch SO 2
b gi li, C2I 6, CO2, HC1 th o t ra, thu ly 3 kh ny.

-L

SO2 + Br 2 + 2H20 ---- > 2HBr + H 2SO4

Cho dung dch to th n h tc dng vi s th kh S 0 2

TO

2 H 2SO4

+ s > 3 S0 2 + 2 H 2

ID

- Cho hn hp 3 kh cn li sc qua dung dch NaOH d, C2 6


khng tc dng thot ra, thu ly kh ny. Kh c v HC1 tc dng.
CO2 + 2 N aO H ---- > Na 2C 0 3 + H20
HC1 + N aO H ---- NaCl + H20

- Cho dung dch to th nh tc dng vi H 2SO4 d, N a 2C 0 3 tc


dng cho kh CO2 bay ln, thu li:
N 3-2C 0 3 + H 2SO4 ---- > Na 2S 0 4 + CO2 + H 2O
- un dung dch thu c (H2SO4 d + NaCl) thu c kh HC1.

ng gp140
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NaCl + H 2SO4 c 70 80c

- >20Uc > Na 2S 0 4 + 2HC1T

c) Tham kho cu a v b ri hc sinh t gii.

.Q
UY

54. Tinh c h etilen c ln etan , axetilen, kh sunur kh hiro v kh nit


bng phng php ho hc. Vit c c phng trnh phn ng ho hc

NH

2NaCl + H 2S 0 4 dc

> N aH S0 4 + H C lt

TP

(Trch th tuyn sinh i hc S phm TP.HCM nm 2000)

HNG DN GII

Dn hn hp kh ln lt qua cc bnh cha:

NG

a) Dung dch AgN 0 3 /N I 3 th axetilen b gi li do phn ng:


(CH=CH + Ag20

- CH=CH + 2AgN0 3 + 2NH 3 ---- gC=CAg + 2 NH 4NO 3


> AgC=CAg + H 20)

TR

SO 2 + N aO H ---- > Na 2S 0 3 + H20

b) Dung dch NaOH d, kh SO2 b hp th ht:

10
00
B

c) Dng dch brom d, etylen b gi li, cc kh C2H6, . H2, N 2


bay ra.

55. Tinh ch:

H
A

a) Lm s c h etan c ln etilen.

> CH 2=CH 2 + ZnBr 2

CH 2B r-C H 2Br + Zn

P2
+3

CH 2=CH 2 + Br 2 ---- > CH 2B r-C H 2Br

b) Lm s c h propen c ln CH 4 , S 0 2l C 0 2.

HNG DN GII

TO
N

-L

a) Cho hn hp kh sc vo nc brom d, etilen tc dng b gi


li trong dung dch, kh etan khng tc dng thot ra, thu ly kh
etan. Vit phng trn h phn ng.

ID

NG

b) Cho hn hp kh sc vo dung dch Ca(OH )2 d, hai kh S 0 2j


CO2 tc dng b gi li trong dung dch, hai kh propen v CH4 khng
tc dng, thot ra, thu ly 2 kh ny, vit phng trn h phn ng. Cho
hai kh ny sc vo nc brom d, kh CH4 khng tc dng thot ra,
kh propen tc dng vi nc brom.

CH 2=CH-CH 3 + Br 2 ---- CH 2B r-C H B r-C H 3

Cho dung dch ny tc dng vi Zn un nng, thu c kh propen


CH 2Br-C H B r-C H 3 4- Zn
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

*--> CH 2=CH-CH3T + ZnBr 2


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56. Tch ri c c ch t sau ra khi hn hp:


b) C4H10, O4H3, OO2.

NH

HNG DN GII

) QH4, CgH4, SO2, OO2-

H
NG

2H2SO4 + s 3S02T + 2H20

TP

.Q
UY

a) Cho hn hp kh sc qua nc brom d, 2 kh CO2 v CH 4


khng tc dng thot ra ngoi, ta thu ly 2 kh ny. 2 kh C2H 4 v
SO2 tc dng theo cc phng trinh:
c 2H4 + Br2 ---- > C2H4 Br2
SO 2 + 2H20 + Br 2 ---- > H 2SO4 + 2 HBr
Cho s vo dung dch trn ri un nng thu c kh SOz:
Cho km vo dung dch C2H 4Br 2 thu kh C2H4. Cc kh CO2 v
CH4 c tch nh bi tp trc.

00
B

TR

b) Cho hn hp kh sc qua dung dch brom d, hai kh C 4 10 v


C02 khng tc dng thu ly 2 kh. Kh C4I8 tc dng b gi li trong
dung dch. Cho Zn vo dung dch ny thu c C4I 8. tch 2 kh
C4H10 v CO2, cho hai kh ny sc vo nc vi trong d, kh C^iHo

10

k h n g t c d n g th o t r a th u l y k h n y . K h CO2 t c d n g cho CaCC>3

P2
+3

k t ta, lc ly kt ta, cho dung dch HC1 tc dng vi C aC 0 3 cho


kh C 0 2 c ln kh HC1 v hi nc. Cho hn hp kh ny i qua dung
dch NaHCC>3 v P2O5 loi kh HC1 v hi nc, cho kh CO2 i ra
ngoi tinh khit.

57. Tinh ch:

a) Etilen ln m etan, axetilen.

HNG DN G

'

TO
N

-L

b) Axetilen ln propan, b u ten -1 .

ID

NG

a) Cho hn hp kh sc qua dung dch AgN0 3 trong NH3, kh


etilen v m etan khng tc dng i ra ngoi, ta thu ly 2 kh ny. Kh
axetilen tc dng vi dung dch. Cho 2 kh cn li sc qua dung dch
nc brom, kh m etan khng tc dng v thot ra ngoi, etien phn
ng b gi li trong dung dch. Sau cho Zn vo dung dch sau phn
ng, ta thu c C 2H4 (hc sinh t vit cc phng trn h phn ng).

b) Cho hn hp 3 kh sc qua dung dch AgNC>3 trong NH 3, 2 kh


propan v buten - 1 khng tc dng thot ra ngoi. Kh axetilen tc
dng to kt ta mu vng n h t AgCsCAg. Lc ly k t ta, cho kt
ta tc dng vi dung dich HC1, ti to li thu C2H2142

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

58.
Cho hn hp kh gm C2H6, C2H4, C2 H2 v C02, hy tch ring tng
cht ra khi hn hp dng tinh khit v kh.
(Trch thi tuyn sinh Trng i hc Kin trc H Ni nm 995)
HNG DN GI

.Q
UY

Cho hn hp kh qua dung dch nc vi trng d (CO2 b hp th):

TP

Ca(OH )2 + C 0 2 C aC03 + H20

Kh cn li cho qua dung dch AgNC>3 trong NH 3 d to ra k t ta


vng, C2H 2 b hp th:

NG

CH=CH + 2AgN0 3 + 2 NH 3 ---- > Ag2C2^ + 2 NH 4NO 3

Kh cn li cho qua dung dch H 2SO4 long nng, C2H 4 s b


h i rat ho:
> CH 3-C H 2QH

TR
N

CH 2=CH 2 + H20
Cn li C2 6 c ln C2H 4.

10

00
B

- Lc tch kt ta CaC (>3 cho kt ta tc dng vi H 2SO4 long,


thu c C 0 2. (Nu dng HC1 th CO2 thu c c ln hi HC1, phi
cho qua ung dch NaHCC>3 hp th HC1 d).

+3

- Lc tch kt ta Ag2C2't mu vng, ri cho tc dng vi HC1:

P2

Ag2C2 + 2HC1---- 2AgCU + CHeeCH

C2I 2 thu c c. th cn ln hi HC1, cho dung ch NaOH


hp th HC1, cn li C2H 2 tinli khit.

17U (J

> c h 2=c h 2 + h 20

-L

c h 3c h 2o h

- Ly ru thu c trn cho qu dung dch H 2SO4 c, nng


170c thu c CH 2=CH2.

TO

- Kh C2H 6 c ln C2H 4 cho qua dng dch Br 2 (hoc K M n04)} cn


li C2H6.

NG

C2H 4 + Br 2 ---- > C2H 4Br 2

C2H 4Br 2 + Z n ---- ^ C2 4 + ZnBr 2

ID

- Cc kh sau khi tch ra khi hn hp cn cha kh, ch qua


H 2SO4 c (hoc P 2O5) hp th h t hi nc, cn li kh kh.

Hay

H2SO4 c + 11H2O > H2S04.n20

P2O5 + 3H20 ---- > 2H3PO4

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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LLL I CH CC HP CHAT HU c

NH

59.
T nguyn liu chnh l vi, than , mui n, vit s phn ng
iu c h c c ru v c c axit trong .m ch cacbon khng ch a q u 3 nguyn
t ca c b o n .

UY

HNG DN GII

.Q

- in phn dung dch NaCl thu H 2 v Cl2:


2NaCl + 2H20 ---- in.phn v 2NOH + H2 + Cl2

TP

c mng ngn

- T vi v than iu ch CH3CH0 (cht u) the


chuyn ho sau:
CaCV ~ H?0 > ^
_____ -t-HgO____

20000C

NG

CaC0 3 - * CaO

HgS04,80C

a) iu ch ru v axit trong mch cha 1 C:


> c 2h 5o h -xtb~> C4 V

10
00

-----Cracking

> CH 3CI

askt

NaOH

, C sH s + C H ,

) CH 3OH

> HCHO

+02 -> HCOOH

P2
+3

CH4

> C4H 10

TR

CH3CH

Mn 2+

*h 3 > cHiCHsOH

H
A

c h 3c h o

b) iu ch ru v axit trong mch cha 2 C:

*Hf 4lBc ) c 2a ,
i. /u
+d KMnOj -> CH 2-C H 2

-L

+h 20

C2H 5 0 H

C H 3C O O H

TO
N

men gim

CH 2OH-CH2OH

> OHC-CHO

*l

Mn

> HOOG-COOH

NG

c) iu ch ru v xit trong mch cha 3 C:


c 3h 8 .iS* CH 3-C H 2-C H 2-C I

ID

C H 2= C H -C H 3 S S L * C H s - C H C 1- C H 3

CH2=CH-CH2C1

CH3-CH2-CH 2-OH*
C H 3 -C H O H -C H 3

c h 2= c h - c h 2- o h

L*c1 H0> CH2C1-C H H -CH ,C1+-!i^ - C H2,-C


H -C
V-/JL1
o nH.0
1

H H H
144
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tCu0

> c h 3c h 2c h

> C 2H 5C 0 0 H

Md

Hc sinh t vit cc phng trn h phn ng m inh ho.

.Q
UY

60. T etyl fomiat, c c ho cht v 00' v nhng iu kin c n thit khc


hy tm cch iu c h metyl axetat.
HNG DN GI

NG

2CH3CHO + 0 2
2CHsCOOH
2C2H5OH
> C4H6 + 2 HsO + H2
C A + 2 H2
C4H 10
C4H 10
Crackinh > CH 4 + C3H 6

TP

HCOOC 2H 5 + H 20 Na0H HCOOH + C 2H5OH


C2H5OH + CuO > CH 3CHO + Cu + H20

NH
N

* c h 3c h 2c h 2o h

CH3CI + HC 1

CH 3CI + H20

- aQH > CH 3OH + HC1

0B

TR

CH4 + CI2

00

CH3COOH + CH3OH H'2S 4Jc -> CH3COOCH3 + H 20

+3
1

61. a) T cc cht v dung dch: B a(N 0 3)2l CH 3COOH, NaOH, C a C 0 3


iu c h N aN 0 3l N aH C 03j Ba{CH 3COO)2.

P2

b)
T axetilen v nhng ch t v c cn thit khc, hy tm cch iu c h
etyl fomiat v oxalat dimety!

H
A

HNG DN GII

a) iu ch N aN 03, Ba(CH 3COO)2, N aH C 0 3

CaCOs + 2 CH 3CO OH ---- > (CH 3COO)2Ca + C 0 2t + H20

-L

CO2 + 2 NaOH d ---- > Na 2C 0 3 + H20

TO

N a 2C0 3 + Ba(N 3)2 ---- ^ B3.C0 3 'i + 2 N N 0 3


C 02 d + N aO H ---- NaHCOa

-> Ba(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H 20

NG

BaCOg + 2CH3COOH
b) (1) iu ch ety fomiat

ID

S iu ch:
+H20

C 2H 2

+0v

CH 3CHO

HgS04,80uC

NaOH

CH 3COOH
Mn2+

Ni +Hs

+NaOH

CHaCOONa

CH 4
t(1

__

IC2 H5OH
10a. NB&TCC

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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+NaOHjo;illj,

->

+CuO

CH3OH

+0*;

HCHO -> HCOOH


Mn2+

NH

askt

+C1V

CH4 - CH3CI

2HCH0 + 0 2

.Q

> HCHO + H20

Ccoxitnit

-Mn^ > 2H C 00H

TP

CH 4 + 0-2

HCOOC2H5 + H20

(2 ) iu ch oxalat dimetyl:
CH. 2=CH 2
> H2-CH2
I
I
C1 C1

c h 2= c h 2 + Cl2

NG

CHsCH + H 2

UY

HCOOH + HOC2H5

10
00

CH 2-C H 2 + 2CuO
OH OH

P2
+3

OHC-CHO + 0 2 Mn2\

CH 2-C H 2 + 2NaCl
L I
H OH

TR

CH 2-C H 2 + 2 NaOHlng
I I
1 I

OHC-CHO + 2Cu + 2H20

> HOOC-COOH
>CH 3OOC-COOCH3+ 2H20

HOOC-COOH + 2 CH 3O H H-SQ'i^

62. a) T C 7Hb hy vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch CeHsCOOCHgCeHs.

C6H 5-C H 3 + Br 2 (hoi) > C6H 5CH2Br + HBr

a)

HNG DN G1

-L

b)
T tinh bt, cc ch t v c khc v c c iu kin k thut cn thit, hy
vit cc phng rnh iu c h poliviny axetat, p-creolat natri v c a o su.

TO

C6H 5CH2Br + H20

ID

NG

C6H5CH2OH + CuO

2C6H5CHO + 0 2

C sH sC O O H + H O C H 2C 6H 5

C6H 5CH2OH + HBr


-

> C6H5CHO + Cu + H20


2C 6H5COOH
t C 5H 5C O O C H 2C 6H5 + H 20

b) iu ch polivinyl axetat t tin h bt:


(CgHioO),! + 11H 2O ----------- > nCg20g
C6H 120 6 ----L,n_men ru ) 2C2H5OH + 2C0 2
C2H5OH + 0 2 ----Ln men gim ) CH3COOH + H 20

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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to S T L *

> C2H 2 + 3H 2

UY

2CH<

> CH 4 + Na 2C 0 3

NH

CHgCOONa + NaOH 0

CH 3COOH + N aO H ---- > CH3COONa + H20

> C6H6 ; CsHe + Cl2

CeHsCl * CH3CI

r*

+H C I

0B

GHa3
'CH
pcqao > NaO-C 6H 4-C H 3 + N aC l + H20

31

00

C1-C 6H 4-C H 3 + 2NaOH|Cid

Zn0' g

2+

- iu ch cao su buna:
2 C2H 5OH

F > C6HsC1 + HC1

3C 2H 2

H
NG

iu ch para-crezolat natri

TP

- h - c h 21.
CH3COO

TR

iCH 3COOCH=CH2

.Q

CH3COOH + CH=CH > CH3COOCH=CH2

) c h 2= c h - c h = c h 2 + 2H20 + h 2
,

C
P

450 c

nCH 2=CH-CH=CH 2 ---- > (-CH 2-CH=CH-CH2-)n

-L

63.
Vit phng trnh phn ng (ghi r iu kin) iu c h c c cht
sa u t kh thin nhin v c c cht v c" cn thit khc: mety axetat, nh a
phenol om anehit; 2, 4, 6 tribrom anilin; 3,5 ibrom anilin, glixerin, propanol-2.
HNG DN GII

TO

Kh thin nhin ch yu l kh m etan (95%)

a)
p t

B
ID

NG

S iu ch cc cht:
iu ch metyl axetat
1500c

p TT

lm-lnh n h a n h 2 2

CH4 ----> CH3CI

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

+H2O; 80c
HgSC>4

ppr pUA

C H 3C H O

+O2

+ CH 3CO OH ---- > CH 3COOCH 3


+Na^

> CH3OH

2u*L

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1500c

CH4

600 c

->c 2h 2

-> c 6h 6

> C6H5C1

+O5
Cc xt nt

HGHO

.Q

CH4

UY

NH

lm lnh nhanh

b) iu ch nha phenol fomandehit:

nHCHO + nCsHsOH

TP

OH

H
NG

- ^ | - C H 2-j + n H 20

c) iu ch 2 , 4 , 6 tribrom anilin:
600c

TT

+(Fe+HCl)

* c 6h 5n h 2

1500c

600c

*C2THY 2

10

-> C0I 6

1500c

* c 6H5N02

- ~ 2 > C6H2Br3NH2
+HN03de
H2S0 4t.

^CeHgNOs

+H
C *H2

* CitH4

Ni

4-n.jo

Cracking > C sH q _,_+HgO > CH3-CHOH-CH3

-L
-

lm lnh nhanh

H2SO4

+<Fe+HC1> >

e) iu ch propanol-2

P2

) CcHjBrzNOz

>ddBr2

+ H N 0 3de

+3

lm lnh nhanh

CH4

00

d) iu ch 3 , 5 ibrom anilin:
CH*

CeHg

TR

C2H 2

1500c
lm lanh nhanh

CH4

f) iu ch glixerin: hc sinh t gii.

NG

TO
N

64.
V i t phng trnh phn ng iu c h c c cht sau t axetilen v cc
ch t v c cn thit: phenol, anilin, polivinylciorua (PVC) cao su buna. Ghi r
iu kin phn ng.

HNG D N G1

a) iu ch phenol:

ID

3H O C H -

600 c

- >C6H6

+?*

btFe

> C6H5C1-----NaOty

pcao,tcao

) C H0H

b) iu ch anilin:
CeHe ^

3dac

>C 6H 5N 0 2 I i M

ng gp148
PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

) C 6H 5N H 2

. NB&TCC- B

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c) iu ch polivinylclorua:

NH

C H sC H ~HC1 > CH 2=CHC1


r , xt

-C H 2-H-

UY

nCH2=CHCl

Na

TP

(~ c h 2- c h = c h - c h 2)i

> g h 2= c h - c h = c h 2

Pd

-> c h 2= c h - c = c h

CuCl
NHC1

d) iu ch cao su buna: 2CH=CH

.Q

Cl

NG

65. T m e tan v c c ho cht cn thit hy iu c h cao su bu n a bng:

a) 4 phn ng lin tip.

b) 5 phn ng lin tip.

1500c

- -

a) CH 4

TR

HNG DN GII

> C2H 2 4 - HCaC -CH=CH 2

0B

lm lnh nhanh

10
0

iCH 2=CH-CH=CH 2 *> Cao su buna


Pd

+3

1500c

b) CH 4- ..

. . . ,- > C 2H2 xt,


i k CaH,
t

C
P2

lm lnh nhanh

Na

------- > c h 2= c h - c h = c h 2

>C2H5OH

-> Cao su buna

H
A

M g0,450 c

t f r

-L

66.
T m etan, cc ch t v co' cn thit, c c xc t c v c c iu kin, vit
phn ng iu c h polivinyi ancot.

1500c

2-

> c 2h 2

TO

lm lnh nhanh

ID

-C1 H -C H 2-

+ nNaOH

> CH3CHO

-CH-CH2-

+ nCH3COONa

OCOCH3 n

HgSO,

- c h - c h 2i
OCOCH3

> CHsCOOCH=CH 2

NG

Mn

CH4

HNG DN GI

67.
T khi thin nhin v c c cht v c cn thit khc, h vit phng
trnh phn ng ho hc ( dng cng thc cu to) iu ch:
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

a)
Phenol; b) Aniin; c) Axit picric; d) m-brom nitrobeozen; e) o-brorr
nitrobenzen.
HNG DN GII

UY

- Kh thin nhin ch yu l kh CH4.

1500 c
V
Uxi4 ----
-7
Tr >
lm nh nhanh

II

600c

v r u

7;----- >
c

riTi

a) iu ch phenol:

> C6H 5C1

> CeHsOH

NG

CeH*

b) iu ch anilin:

> CeHsNO _ - ^ M >

il2SU4c

*NaO0H<1w > C6H5ONa

10

00

> C6H 5C1

c) iu ch axit picric
C6H 6

> CeHsNHs

TR

CA

TP
.Q

- Cht chung iu ch cc cht trn l C6I 6

>

-^ 3ag > c 6h 2( n o 2)3o h

C
P2

+3

c 6h 5o h

fHC1

d) iu ch m-brom nitrobenzen
>

c 6h 6 5 ^ - + c , h 6n o 2 S s
W2SU<Ici:

-L

e) iu ch: o-brom nitrobenzen


-T, T T

+ B r 2 _____p

bt Fe

X IB t-

+ H N OsC

6 5

H2S 0 4dc

6 6

TO

Hc sinh t vit cc phng trnh phn ng.

6 8 a) T toluen v c c cht v c cn thit hy vit phng trnh phn


ng iu ch: C 6H5CH2OH v p-CH 3C 6H4OH.

ID

b)
T than , vi v cc ch t v c khc hy vit phng trnh phn
ng iu ch: 2,4,6 tribromanilin v 2,4,6 tribromphenol.
HNG DN GII

a)

C6H 5CH 3 4- Cl2

C6H 5CH 2C1 + HC1

C6H 5CH 2C1 + N aO H

> C6H 5CH2OH + NaCl

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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20^ c

NH

> CaO

> CaC

CA

% > e 6He

.Q
U

900c

b) CaCOs
600 c

TP

CeHs l cht chung iu ch 2 cht.

S iu ch 2,4,6 tribrom anilin


c 6He

c 6h 5c h 3 + Cl*
^ tFe > P -C H A H 4C1 + HCl
p-C H sG C l + NaOH > p-CHsCjHOH + NaCl

t T g n 3d*c :- > c 6h 5n o 2

"Fe/HC1- > c 6h 5n h 2 g s _ ^

il2fciU4c

bt r e

> C ensa

+Na H4K > CsHsONa


t

C6Hs

NG

C6H 2Br 3N I 2 (2,4,6 tribrom anilin)


S diu ch 2,4,6 tribromphenol

c 6H 2Br 3 0 H (2,4,6 tribromphenol)

TR

*-HC! ) C6H5OH

10
00

Hc sinh t vit cc phng trn h phn ng minh ho.


69.

T m etan v cc ch t v c cn thit, vit c c phng trinh phn ng

P2
+3

iu ch cc cht sau: CH3OH, CH3CHO, CH2=CH-CH2OH, phenol, cao su


buna.

HNG DN GII

CH4 + Ch - askt

a) iu ch CH 3OH:

CH3CI + N aO H

CH 3GI + HC1
> CH3OH + NaCl

C A + h 20

> CH3CH0

TO

-L
-

b) iu ch CH3CHO: 2CH4 T
T - ^ r TT- C2H2 + ana
lam lnh rinanil

c) iu ch CH 2=CH-CH 2OH: .

NG

2C2H2

CuC1 .S 1 > C A ;

ID

C 4H 4 + 3 H 2

p I I

4Hl0

> C 4H 10

C racking
60 0 -8 0 0 C~

X I . /"'TJ
C 3 6 * c i u

c h 2= c h - c h 3 + CI2 45Q C > C H 2= C H - C H 2- C

1+

HC1

CH2=CH-H2-C 1 + NaOH---- CH2=CH-CH2-OH + NaCl


ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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C6H 5C1 + N a O H

btFe > CH5C1 + HC1

NH

> CjH ; C A + Cl2

J L

600 c

> C6H5OH + NaCl

TP
.Q
UY

3C 2H 2

d) iu ch phenol:

e) iu ch cao su buna:

CH 2=CH-CsCH + h 2 P- > c h 2= c h - c h = c h 2
> (-C H 2-CH =CH -CH 2-)

nCH 2=CH-CH=CH 2

HNG DN GII

2NaCl + 2H20

TR
N

a) iu ch polivinylaxetat:

H
NG

70.
T CH4, NaCI, H20 v khng kh (cht xc t c c )," hy vit phng
trnh phn ng iu c h poiivinyl ax etat v TNT.

d-u! *

> 2NaOH + H 2 + Cl2

00

Cmng ngn

> C2H2 + 3H2


e O c

* CH3C H 0

%'

> CH 3COOH

P2

C + H

+3

10

2CH<

CHsCOOH + CH=CH-----> CH 3COOCH-CH 2

nCH 3COOCH=CH 2

-C H -C H sCOCH 3

-L

b) iu chT N T :'

3C 2H 2

60c

TO

CH4 + Cl2

> G6H 6

,aakt > CH3CI + HC1


> C eH sC H s + H C 1

C sH e + C 1- C H 3 MC3

CgHsCHs + 3 H 0 N 0 2 gggglE > CH 3C6H2(N02)3 + 3H20

B
I

71.
Mt hn hp ch t hu c A c cng thc phn t l C 4H 6C)2 v ch c
mt nhm chc. T A v c c ch t v c khc, bng 3 phn ng lin tip c th
iu c h c cao su buna. X c nh cng thc cu to c th c c a A v
vit Qc phng trinh phn ng.

152
ng gp
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HNG DN GII

A C 3 ng phn tho m n iu kin ca bi:

NH

A: OHC-CH 2-C H 2-CHO ; A2: HOCH2-C=C-CH2OH ;

UY

A s: C H 3 - C - C - C H 3

>HOCH 2-C H 2-C H 2-C H 2OH - 2ff-

> CH 2=CH-CH=CH 2

TP

Ni

Na
Trng hp

> CH2=CH-CH=CH2

NG

~2Hz

Ag +2i k - C H 3 - C H - C H - C H 3
I
I
HH

_
- cao
su >buna

A,

.Q

00

Na
------ >
Trng hp

cao su buna

TR

Hc sinh vit cc phng trn h phn ng.

31

00

0B

72.
T vi, than , nc vi cc cht v c cn thit khc v iu kin
thch hp, hy vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch cc cht sau y: poliviny!
clorua, cao su buna, polimetyl acrylat.

2+

HNG DN GII

-1200- c > CaO

H
A

CaCOs

C
P

- S iu ch poivinyl clorua:

+9, > CaC 2


c

^ C 2H 2

2000

+HC1

-C H 2-C H 4

-L

GI

- S iu ch cao su buna
* CH 2=CH-CsCH

CH 2=CH-CH=CH 2

TO

2CHsCH

- iu ch polimetyl acrylat:

B
I

Cch : CHsCH + c o + H20

CH2=CH- COOH

C H s C H + H 20 H-| 4 > C H 3C H O
80 c

2 CH 3CHO + 0 2

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

2 CH 3C 0 0 H
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CHgCOOH + N aO H ---- CHgCOONa + HgO

NH

CHsCOONa + NaOH vit^ixt > CH4 + Na 2 C 0 3

UY

CHgCl + HC 1

CH4 + Clz

TP
.Q

C H 3 CI + N aO H ---- > C H 3 O H + NaCl

CH 2=CH-COOH+ HOCH 3 > c h 2= c h - c o o c h 3 + h 20

- c h 2- c h I .
COOCH3

NG

Cch 2: 2CH=CH JNri4C > CH 2=CH-C-CH


> c 4h 10

C H 2= C H -C = C H + 3 H 2

TR

C4H10 --- Crackng^ C36 + CH4


50Uc CH 2=CH-CH 2C1 + HC1

00

c h 2= c h - c h 3 + Cl2

10

CH 2=CH-CH 2C1 + N aO H ---- > CH 2=CH-CH2OH + NaCl


C H 2 = C H -C H O + Cu + H 20

P2

+3

C H 2 = C H - C H 2O H + C uO
+

2C H 2= C H - C H O

02

C H 4 + 0 2 o x itf ao itg

H
A

800 c

>

2C H 2= C H -C O O H

> H C H O + H O

> C H 3O H

HCHO + H2

1.

-L

Sau gii nh cch 1 .

NG

TO
N

73.
Ch c p h p s dng hai ho ch t (ru etylc, natri) lm ch t phn
ng ban u cng vi c c iu kin phn ng (p, t, xt) cn thit, hy vit
phng trnh tng hdp CH 4 bng 3 phng p hp khc nhau {cc phng php
tng hp u phi bt u .t ru etylic v c c cht phn ng khc cng phi
iu c h t ru etylic v natr).

ID

HNG DN GII

Phng php 1:

2 C2H 5OH

C2H5OH
C 2H 4 + H 2

ng gp PDFI Sbi
A GV. Nguyn Thanh T

+ 2 N a ---- >2 C 2H5ONa + H 2


> c 2h , + h 20
c 2h 6

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- CH^

Phng php 2: C2H 5OH

'

NH

C + 2 H- - W

> 2C + 3H 2

> C2H 4 + H20

loO c

UY

1000c

TP
.Q

Cas

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2H20 ftn-p D > 2H 2 + 0 2

> 2 NaOH + H 2

2 C2H 5OH

TR

2 C2H 5OH

C4H 6 + 2H20 + H 2

+ 2Na -> 2 C2H 5 0 Na + H 2

C4Hs + 2H2

10

C4H10

Cracking

v /~iur

LI

'-'3-^*6

C
P

^ 4-n-io ----- 600c----

2+
3

ri xj

Ca0 - > CH 4 4. Na 2C 0 3

CH3CQONa + NaOH

Phng php 3:

NG

+ 2H20

00
B

2 Na

+ 2 Na > 2 GH3GOONa + H 2

2 CH 3COOH

CH 3-C H 2-O H + 0 2 menm .> GH3COOH + H20

H
A

74. Vit c c phng trinh phn ng trc tip to. thnh ru etylic. P hn
ng no dng sn xut ru etylic trong cng nghip?

HNG DN GII

(1)

C2H4 + H20 h<-> C2H5OH

(2)

TO

-L

C6H120 6 - men-zima -> 2C2H5OH + 2C0 2t

C2HsC1 + NaOH -

> C2H5GH I NaCl

NG

CH3CHO + H2 ^ - C2H5OH

RCGOG2H 5 + NaOH -

-> RCOOXa + C2H 5OH

ID

Trong cng nghip sn xut ru etylic ch yu s dng phn ng

(1) v (2).

75. T ru n-propylic, cc cht v c, xc tc cn thit, vit cc phng


trnh phn ng iu ch: propn, este ispropyl propionat.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

155

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c h 3c h 2c h 2o h

> g h 3- c h = c h 2 + h 20
u
CHs-CH=CH 2 + Br2 > CH 3-C H B r-C H 2Br

NH

1 /u

H N G D N G I I

> CHa-CsCH + 2KBr + 2H20


, tu,p

TP
.Q

UY

CHaCHBrCHiiBr + 2K 0H

02

M*~

>- 2 C H 3C H 2C O O H '

NG

2C H sC H 2CH O

OH
CH3CH2CH2OH + C uO ---- > CHsCHCIIO + Cu + H2o

CH3CH2COOH + CH3CHOHCH3 > CH3CH2eOOCH(GH3)2

TR

76.
a) T. metan cng cc cht v c v iu kin cn thit. Vit cc
phng trnh phn ng iu ch ru metylic, ru etylic, etilengic v ru
iso-propylic.
axeton.

0B

b) Vit phng trinh chuyn ho ln nhau gia: propanal

00

HNG DN GII

+3
1

a) S cc phn ng iu ch:

>C2H2 - S t > CH3CH0


80 c

lm lnh nhanh

CH, -

CHCl - Na H > CH3OH

P2

CE,

Ni

>C2H4 - *Bl2 >C2H jB r 2 ;-N Pi j _


V

1/li

C;H5OH

c 2E,(O H )2

>CJHip ----Crckng_ > CH2=CH_CH3

-L

C2H5OH
^ - ~ > C4H 6 -

>C2H5OH

C H 3 -C H -C H ;

OH
Phng trnh phn ng chuyn ho ln nhau gia propanal v

NG

TO

b)
axeton
( 1 ) propanal > axeton

>,C H 3C H 2C H 2O H

ID

S chuyn h o: C H 3C H 2C H O

CH3-CHC-CH;
> CH 3-C H -C H 3
I
OH

- 0

c h 3- c - c h :
II
o

156

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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C H 3C O C H 3 - ^ ^ - C H a C H O H e H s a 8 0 *

Ni, tu

> CH 3CH 2CH2OH A y>


t

UY

> C lC H 2C H g C H ; ----- C 1C H 2- C H 2- C H 3

> CHaCHsCHO

.Q

*N,*0H

>C H 3 - C H = C H 2

TP

502c

170 c

NH
N

(2 ) ax eto n ---- > propanal

IV. CU HI V BI TP T GII

77. a) Nu phng php ho hc phn bit etilen v propilen.

NG

Bng cc phn ng ho hc, hy phn bit pentan, penten- 2 ,

TR
N

78. Dung phng php ho hc hy nhn bit:

b)
pentin-1.

a) A nehit fomie, anehit axetic v pentin-1.

b) Bn bnh cha kh: C4H10, C36, vinylaxetilen v anehit fomic.

10

+3

a) Butan, buten-1, butin-1, butin-2.

00

79. N hn bit cc ho cht sau:

P2

b) Propen, axetilen 5 butaien 1-3, metan.

80. N hn bit cc l m t nhn ng:

p h n g p h p h o h c p h n b i t

81 D n g

b) C3I 8, NO, H 2S, NH 3.

a) CH 4, C2H6 C3Hs.

c h t l n g : b e n z e n ,

ch t ng tro n g

TO
N

$ 2 . C

-L

n -h e c x a n , a n ili n ,.h e x e n - l, h e x in - 1. V i t c c p h n g t r n h p h n n g .

l m t n h n a x it a x e tic , a x it a c r ilic ,

r u e t y lic , e tile n g lic o l, a n e h it a x e tic ; d n g c c p h n n g h o h c


n h n b i t t n g ch t.

ID

NG

83. Mt dung dch cha 3 cht CH 3OH, HCHO, HCOOH, hy


n h n b i t t n g c h t tro n g u n g dch.

84. N hn bit cc l m t nhn sau bng phng php ho hc:

a) Ru propylic, glixerin v phenol.

b) Ru etylic, phenol, benzen.


c) Dung dch phenolat natri, dung dch phenol, ru propylic.

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

157

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NH
N

85. C 4 ng nghim cha dn nhn cha cc cht ring r sau:


ru etylic, axit axetic, anehit axetic, phenol lng. Bng phng
php ho hc hy nhn bit tng cht. Vit phng trn h phn ng.

.Q
UY

(Trch thi i hc Dc H Ni nm 1999)

Hy phn bit cc hp cht trong tng nhm sau bng


phng php ho hc:

TP

86.

a) Dung dch anilin v dung dch amoniac.

b) Dung dch anilin v xicohexylamin (C6HnNH2).

NG

c) Dung dch anilin v phenol.

87. C ba dung cch ca ru etylic, anehit axetic v axit axetic.


Trnh by phng php ho hc nhn bit ba dung dch .

10
00

TR

8 8 . C 4 bnh khng nhn, mi bnh dng mt trong cc cht


lng sau: ru propylic, benzen, glixerin v hexen, trn h by phng
php ho hc nhn bit cht trong mi bnh.

C
P2

+3

89. C 5 l m t nhn ng 5 cht lng sau: CH 3COOH, HCOOH,


CH 2=CH-COOH, CH 3CHO, C2H 5OH, hy nhn bit tng cht bng
phng php ho hc.
(Trch thi i-hc Hu rvrti 2000)

H
A

90. Dng cc phn ng ho hc phn bit 4 l cht lng sau:


CH3CHO, CH3COOH, HCOOH, CH2-CH-COOH.

TO

-L

91. Ba dung dch NH 4HCO 3, NaAlC>2, C2H5ONa v ba cht lng


C2H 5OH, C6 6, C6 5NH 2 ng trong 6 l m t nhn, nu ch dng
dung dch HC1 th c th nhn bit cht no trong 6 cht trn.
92. Cho cc ru: n-propylic (A) v iso-propylic (B)

NG

a) Vit cc phng trn h t A iu ch ra B v ngc li.

b) Cch nh n ra 2 ru cho.

ID

93. C 5 l b m t nhn ng 5 cht lng ring bit l ru


n-propylic, ru iso-propylic, glixerin, anehit axetic, ietyl ete. Trnh
by phng php ho hc phn bit cc cht lng trn v vit
phng trn h phn ng m inh ho.

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

94. C ba bnh ng ru etylic, anehit axetic v glixerin m t


nhn, lm th no d nhn bit c ng tng cht bng phng
php ho hc.

TP
.Q

UY

95. Bng phng php ho hc hy phn bit 5 cht: axit axetic,


axit acrilic, etylacrilat, vnylpropionat v etylfomiat.

96. Vit cng thc cu to ca: etylaxetat, propaiol 1-2, axit


propionic, propanal.

NG

Trnh by phng php ho hc nhn bit tng cht trong cc


bnh khc nhau.

97. C m t hn hp gm CH 4, G2H4, C2H 2 v C 0 2 lm th no c


th tch ring tng cht ra khi hn hp .

TR

98 . a) Tch cc cht sau y ra khi hn hp C2H5CHO,


C2H5COOH v (C3H7)20 bit rng cc cht u th lng, d bay hi.

10

00

b)
Andehit axetic c ln axit axetic. Nu phng php tin h ch
anehit axetic.
Nu cch tch hn hp sau y thu c cc cht ring r:
CH3COOH, CH 3OH, C2H5OC2H5, C6H5OH.

P2
+3

99.

100. C mt hn hp gm H 2O, ROH, RCOOH v RCHO, hy


trn h by phng php tch RCOOH ra khi hn hp , bit rng
ROH, RCOOH, RCHO u l cht lng d bay hi.

-L

101. a) C dung dch hn hp axetat canxi, axetat magie, axetat


n atri, bng cc phn ng ho hc vi cc ho cht tu chn, hy
iu ch th n h cc dung dch mi mui ring bit.

TO
N

b)
C 3 hp cht sau C6H 5NH 3CI, C6H5ONa v CH 3COONa, hy
tm cch tch ring chng.

NG

0 2 . Trnh by phng php tch axit axetic khi hn hp lng


gm axit axetic, ru metylic, axeton v nc.

ID

103. Nu phng php tch anehit hoc metyl xeton ra khi


r hn hp cc cht.

104. Mt hn hp kh gm propan, etilen, axetilen, hy tch

r i n g t n g c h t r a k h i h n h p
(Trch thi tuyn sinh i hc Thng mi nm 1999)

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

105. Bng phng php no tch cc cht kh trong mt hn


hp gm CH, C2H 4, C2H 2.
106. Tch ri cc cht ra khi hn hp:

.Q
UY

a) Ru etylic, phenol, benzen.


b) E tylat natri, phenolat natri.

d) Hexen, etylat natri, phenol v natriclorua.

TP

c) Phenol v ru benzilic.

NG

107. C m t hn hp gm benzen, phenol v anilin, bang phng


php ho hc lm th no tch tng cht ra khi hn hp.

108. Tch hn hp kh CH3NH2, CH4, C 2U, C2H2.

TR

109. a) T propan vit phng trn h phn ng u ch propin


(ch c vit 2 phng trn h phn ng).

00
0B

b) T axetilen hy iu ch cht sau: HCOOCH 2-CH=CH 2-

2+

31

110. T cnxi ccbua v cc cht v c thch hp, hy vit phng


trn h phn ng iu ch hexacloran (6 6 6 ) polivinylclorua (PVC) v
vinylaxetat.

C
P

111. T etan v cc ho cht, dng c cn th it khc hy vit


phng trn h iu ch monclo axetic, axit acrylic.

112. T axit axetic, cc cht v c cn thit, xc tc v iu kin


k th u t c , hy vit phng trin h phn ng iu ch polivinyl
anco (C2H 3OH)n.

-L

113. T axetilen, cc cht v c cn thit, vit cc phng trn h


trn h iu ch CH 3COOH, (COOH)2, HCOOH.

NG

TO

114. T tinh bt hoc xenluloz v cc cht v c, cht xc tc


cn thit, vit phng trn h phn ng iu ch: axit axetic, este etyl
fomiat, anilin, etilen glicol, PVC.

ID

115. T xenluloz vit cc phng trn h phn ng (ghi r iu


kin nu c) iu ch etyl axetat, xenlulozo' trin itra t (cc cht v c v

iu k i n c n t h i t c ).

116. T vi, th an , mui n, nc, hy vit phng trn h


iu ch cc cht etyl axetat, metyl fomiat, poll vinyl clorua, cc cht
v c cn th it khc tu chn.

ng gp 160
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NH
N

117. T C7H 8 hy vit phng trn h phn ng iu 'ch


C6H 5COOGH2C6H5.

TP
.Q
UY

118. T tinh bt v cc cht v c, xc tc cn th it, hy vit


phng trn h phn ng iu ch:
a) PE; b) Cao su buna; c) Glixerin; d) Este metyl axetat; e) Anilin
f) Axit picric.

119. T th an , vi v cht v c khc v iu kin phn ng


thch hp, hy vit cc phng trn h phn ng iu ch cc cht sau:

H
NG

a) m - aminophenol.

b) Cao su buna.

+if

C2H 4

>CHsCH2OH - Cu--> CH 3CH 0

10

xt

a) Cch ; Chuyn ho 2 olefin theo s :

00

77.

TR

V. HNG DN GII

+3

r c h 3- c h - c h 3
I
OH

>CH 3COOH

> c h 3- c - c h 3
II
o

P2

c h 3c h = c h 2 xt

Mn

CH 3CH2CHO

---- > CH 3CH2COOH


Mn

CH 3CH 2CH2OH

TO
N

-L

Cch 2: t chy cng m t lng hai kh, sn phm chy cho qua
Ca(OH )2 d, kh no cho k t ta nhiu hn l C3 6, cn li l C 2 4.

NG

*b) Dng hn hp (AgN0 3 + NH4OH) d cho vo 3 , l no c kt


ta l pentin- 1 , cn 2 l khng phn ng penten -2 v pentan.
+ Ag20 NH4-H >2 AgC=CCH 2CH 2CH 3 + 2H20

2 CKNC-CH 2CH 2CH 3

ID

Cho dung dch brom vo 2 l cn li, l lm m t mu dung dch


brom l penten- 2 , l khng tc dng l pentan.
CH 3CH=CHCH 2CH 3 + B r 2 ---- > CH 3CHBr--CHBr-CH 2CH 3

78.
a) Cho 3 mu th cha 3 cht trn qua dng dch nc brom,
mu th no lm m t mu dung dch nc brom l p entin- 1 .
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

CH=C-CH2-C H 3 + 2Br2---- C B ^
S a u cho 2 m u t h c n i i q u a d u n g dch A gN (>3 d t r o n g N H 3,

UY

cho sn phm sau phn ng tc dng vi dung dch HC1, mu th no


cho kh bay ln l HCHO, mu th khng c kh bay ln l CH 3CHO.

TP

(NH 4)2C 0 3 + 2 H C l---- > 2 NH 4CI + C 0 2 + H20

.Q

HCHO + 4[Ag(NH3)2]O H ---- > (NH 4)2C 0 3 + 4A g + 6 NH 3 + 2H20

CH3COONH4 + H C l---- CH3COOH + NH4CI

CH 3CHO + 2 (Ag(NH3)2]O H ---- > CH3COONH4+2A g+3N H 3+ H20

TR
N

NG

b)
Cho cc kh qua dung dch A gN03 trong NH3, cht kh no cho
k t ta Ag mu trng l HCHO. Ly cng mt th tch 3 kh cn li,
qua cng mt lng dung dch Br 2 c cng nng , cht kh no lm
m t mu dung dch brom l vinylaxetilen, t hn l C3 6, khng lm
mt mu l C4H10 (hc sinh t vit phng trnh phn ng).

2+
3

10
0

0B

79. a) Ln lt cho tng kh sc qua dung dch AgNC>3 trong dung


dch NH3, kh no cho kt ta mu vng nht l butin-l. Ly cng th
tch 3 kh cn li, cho tc ng vi 3 th tch bng nhau ca dung dch
brom c cng nng tn h phn ng, kh no m dung dch
b ro m k h n g b n h t m u l b u ta n , n h t m u t l b u t e n -1 , n h t m u

C
P

nhiu l butin-2. Vit phng trn h phn ng.

b) N hn bit 4 cht: cch lm nh cu .

-L

80. a) Ly cng mt th tch 3 kh CH 4, C2H6, C3 8 ri t chy,


cho sn phm chy qua nc vi trong d, kh no ho kt ta CaCC>3
nhiu hn c l C3H8, kh no cho kt ta CaC0 3 t n h t l CH 4 cn
li l kh C2H6. Vit phng trn h phn ng.

b) - M' np cc l, l no c kh mu nu l NO v:

TO

2NO + 0 2 ---- > N 0 2


Khng mu
Mu nu

ID

- Cho giy qu tm tm nc trn cc l, l no lm giy qu tm


chuyn sang mu xanh l l cha NH 3, giy qu tm chuyn sang mu
l l cha H2S giy qu tm khng chuyn mu l l cha C3I 8.
- N hn bit l cha kh C 3 8 bng cch t chy, cho sn phm

c h y q u a C a ( 0 H )2 d c k t t a t r n g CaCC>3 l C 3I8. V i t p h n g

trn h phn ng.


162

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NH

81
- Ly mi cht mt t cho vo 5 ng nghim th. Cho cc
mu th ln lt tc dng vi dung ch AgN 0 3 /N 3. ng nghim no
cho kt ta mu vng l hexin- 1 .

UY

C4H 9-C=CH + AgNOs + NH 3 ---- > C4H sO C A g + NH 4N 0 3

- Cho bn ng nghim cn li tc dng vi dung dch brom, ng

.Q

n g h i m n o l m m t m u d u n g dch b ro m l h e x e n - 1 , n g n g h i m n o

TP

cho kt ta trn g l anilin.

C4H 9-CH=CH 2 + Br 2 ---- C4H 9-GHBr~CH2B r

C6HNH2 + 3Br2 ^ C6H2(NH2)Br3 + 3HBr

H
N

- Cn hai ng nghim cn i cho tc dng vi HN 0 3dc+H2S 0 4 c


ng c phn ng to th n h cht c mu vng c trng (mi hnh
nhn) l C6H6.
c 6h 5n o 2 + h 2o

TR

c 6h 6 + h o n o 2

0B

C ht cn li l n-hecxan.

+ Na 2C 0 3 ---- > 2 CH3COONa + C 0 2t + H20

P2

2 CH 3COOH

+3
1

00

82. - Ly mt t cc cht trn cho tc dng vi N a 2C 03, c hai


cht cho kh bay ra l axit axetic v axit acrilic.

phn bit hai axit ny, ta cho tc dng vi dung dch nc


brom cht no lm m t mu brom l axit acrilic.

CH 2=CH-COOH + Br 2 ---- > CH 2Br-CHBr-COOH

-L
-

- Cho ba cht cn li tc dng vi Cu(OH)2, ch c etilenglicol cho


dung dch mu xanh lam trong sut (hc sinh vit phng trn h phn
ng ho hc).

TO
N

- Cho hai cht cn li tc dng vi AgN<VNH 3 ch c anehit


xetic tc dng:

CH 3CHO + 2Ag(NH3)2OH - > CH 3COONH 4 + 3NHa + H20 + 2Ag

C ht khng tc dng l ru etylic.

ID

83. - Ly m t t dung dch cha 3 cht trn cho tc dng vi dung


dch N a 2CC>3 d c kh th o t ra chng t dung dch c HCOOH.
2 HCOOH

+ N a 2C 0 3 du---- > 2HCOONa + C0 2t + H20

Sau chng ct phn on ta c CH 3OH v HCHO, tip tc


cho Na vo, nu c kh bay ra, chng t c CH 3OH.
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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2CH30 H + 2Na > 2CH3ONa + H2t

NH

P hn kh cn li cho qua dung ch AgN3/NH 3 v un nh, c


phn ng trn g gng.

UY

HCHO + 4Ag(NH3)2O H ---- > (N H^CO * + 6 NH 3 + 2 H zO + 4Ag

C6H5OH + 3Br 2 ---- > C6H 2B r3O H i + 3HBr

TP

.Q

84. a) Cho ba mu th tc dng vi dung dch brom, mu th no


cho kt ta trn g l phenol:

NG

Cho hai mu th cn li tc dng v'i Cu(OH)2, mu th no cho


ung dch trong xanh mu lam l glixerin, C1 ru propylic khng
tc dng (vit phng trn h phn ng ho hc m inh ho).

b) Gho nc brom vo ba mu th, mu th no cho k t ta trn g


l phenol (vit phng trn h phn ng ho hc m inh ho).

10

-M gite > c 6H5N0 2 + H 20


(mu vng, mi h n h nhn)

+3

C6H6 + HONCV

00

TR

Cho hai mu th cn li tc dng vi dung dch HNO 3 c c


H2SO4 c lm xc tc, mu th no c mu vng (mi hnh nhn)
l benzen cn mu th khng tc dng l ru etylic.

P2

c) Sc kh CO2 vo *3 mu th, mu th no c vn c rii ln


trn l dung dch phenolat n atri.

CHsONa + CO 2 + H20

> C6H5OH + NaHC 3


(vn c ni lri trn)

-L

Cho dung dch brom vo h ai mu th cn li, mu th no cho kt


ta tr n g l phenl, cn ru propylic khng tc dng (vit phng
trn h phn ng ho hc m inh ho).

TO

85. - Dng nc brom nhn ra phenol c k t ta trng.

N
G

- Giy qu tm ho d nhn ra axit axetc.

- Dng AgN 0 3 /N 3 nhn ra anehit axetc: phn ng t r n g


gng.

B
I

- Dng Na kim tra ru C2H5OH: c kh bay ra.

(Hc sinh vit phng trn h phn ng ho hc minh Ho)

8 6 . a) Nh nc brom vo hai dung dch trn, dung dch no cho


kt ta trng l anilin, C1 dung dch amoniac khng phn ng.

164
ng gp
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C6H 5NH 2 + 3Br 2 ---- > C6H 2Br 3NH2 + 3HBr

NH

.Q
U

c) Cho dung dch NaOH d vo hai cht, cht no tan l phenol,


anilin khng phn ng tch th nh hai lp.

b) Nh nc brom vo hai dung dch, cht no cho k t ta trn g


l anilin cn C6 11NH 2 khng phn ng.

TP

C6H5OH + N aO H ---- > C6H5ONa + H20

Hoc c th lm cch khc: cho dung dch HC1 vo hai cht, cht
-no ta n l anilin, phenol khng phn ng tch th n h hai lp.

NG

C6H5NH2 + HC1---- C6H5NH3C1

TR

87. Cho gi qu tm vo ba dung dch, dung dch no lm giy


qu tm ho l CH 3COOH, thc hin phn ng trn g gng vi hai
dung dch cri li, dung dch no tham gia phn ng trn g gng l
anehit axetic, dung dch khng tham gia phn ng trn g gng l
ru etylic (vit cc phng trn h phn ng ho hc minh ho).
- Cho 4 mu th cha 4 dung dch trn tc dng vi Cu(OH)2,
mu th no ho tan dc Cu(OH)2 th nh dung dch mu xanh lam l
glixerin.

31
00

0B

88.

C
P

2+

- Cho kim loi Na vo 3 mu th cn li, mu th no cho kh H 2


' bay ra l ru propylic.

- Cho hai mu th cn li tc dng vi dung dch brom, mu th


no lm m t mu nc brom l hexen, cn benzen khng tc dng
(vit phng trn h phn ng ho hc m inh ho).

TO
N

-L

89 . - Cho dung dch brom vo 5 mu th cha cc cht trn, mu


th no lm m t mu dung dch brom l CH 2=CH-COGH.
- Cho 4 mu th cn li tc dng vi dung dch AgN 0 3 trong
dung dch NH3, c hai mu th cho A g l HCOOH v CH 3CH.

ID

- phn bit CHsCHO v HCOOH ta cho 2 mu th ny tc


dng vi Na, mu th no c kh bay ra l HCOOH, cn mu th
khng tc dng l CH3CHO (c th dng giy qu, mu th no lm
qu tm ho l HCOOH).
- phn bit 2 mu th cn li, cho 2 mu th tc dng vi
dung dch Na2C03, mu th no cho kh bay ra l CH3COOH, mu th
k h n g p h n n g l C2H 5O H (v i t c c p h n g t r n h p h n n g ).

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

90. - Cho giy qu tm vo 4 mu th cha 4 dung dch trn , mu


th khng lm qu tm ho l CH 3CHO, cn 3 mu th cn li u
lm qu tm ho l CH 3COOH, HCOOH, CH 2=CH-COOH.

.Q
UY

- Cho nc brom vo 3 mu th cn li, mu., th no lm m t


mu brom l Cf2=CH-COOH

TP

CH 2=CH-COOH + Br 2 ---- CH 2Br-CHBr-COOH

- C h o d u n g dch AgNC>3/NH3 v o 2 m u t h cn l i, m u t h n o

cho phn ng trn g gng l HCOOH. Phng trn h phn ng:

HCOOH + 2 Ag(NH3)2O H ---- > (NH 4)2C 0 3 + 2 NH 3 + 2 Ag i + H20

H
N

91. C th dng dung dch HC1 nhn ra 6 cht trn.

00
0B

TR
N

Ly mi cht mt t cho vo 6 ng nghim th, ng nghim


no cho kh bay ra l NH4HCO3, ng nghim no cho kt ta trng
Al(OH )3 v nu cho d dng dch HC1 k t ta li tan l NaAIO, ng
nghim no cho mi ru l C2H 5ONa, ng nghim no cho k t ta
trn g m khng tan trong dung dch HC1 d l C6H 5NH 2, ng nghim
cn l i c m i e s te l C 2H 5 0 H , cn l i n g n g h i m b t c h l m 2 l p

> c h 3- c h = c h 2 + h 20

c h 3 - c h 2- c h 2o h

C
P

2+

92. a) T A iu ch B:

31

l benzen (vit phng trn h phn ng).

c h 3- c h = c h 2 + h 20 3L-*- CH 3-CH O H -CH 3

-L

T B iu ch A:

TO

c h 3- c h = c h 2 + h 2
CH 3-C H 2-C H 3 + Cl2-

NG

CHs- CH=CH2 + h 20

i. / u u

CH3-CHOH-CH3

CH 3CH 2CH 2C1 + N aO H

> c h 3 - c h 2- c h 3
as -> CH 3CH 2CH 2C1 + HC 1
> CH 3-C H 2-C H 2OH + NaCl

ID

b) Cch nhn bit 2 ru A, B:

Cho 2 ru tc dng vi CuO nung nng:


C 2H 5-C H 2-O H + C uO ---- C2H5-CHO + Cu + H20
CH3-CHOH-CH3 + CuO ---- CH3-CO-CH3 + Cu + H2O

ng gp PDF166
bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

NB TCC- B

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NH

Cho 2 sn phm thu c tc dng vi AgN3/NH3, cht no gy


ra phn .ng trng gng l C2H5CHO t nhn ra cht A, cht
khng tc dng l B.
C2H5CHO + 2AgN 0 3 + 3NH3 + H 20 -> C2H5COONH4 +

.Q
U

+ 2NH4NO3 + 2A g i

TP

93. - Dng phn ng trng gng nhn bit anehit axetic:

CH3-CH0 + 2Ag(NH3)2OH CH3COONH4 + 2Ag + 3NH3

+ H 20

NG

- Dng Cu(OH)2- nhn bit glixrin: sn phm phn ng l hp


cht ng (II) glixerat mu xanh lam c trng (hc sinh vit phng
trn h phn ng).

2 CH 3-C H 2-C H 2-O N a

+ H2t

+ 2 N a > 2CH 3-C H -O N a + H2T


1

ch3

+3

2 CH 3-C H -O H
1
ch3

+ 2Na

10
00
B

2 CH 3-C H 2-C H 2-O H

TR

- Ba cht cn li cho kim loi Na vo, ete khng phn ng nn


nhn bit c:

P2

C2H 5~0 -C 2H 5 + Na khng phn ng

- phn b i t 2 ru, trc h t oxi ho cc ru bng CuO:

CH 3-C H 2-GH2- H + CuO


t0

> CH3-C = 0 + Cu + H20

-L

CH 3-C H -O H + CuO
i
C h

> CH 3-C H 2-CHO + Cu + H20

__

ch3

TO

Nu sn phm phn ng cho phn ng trng gng th d l


anehit, suy ra cht ban u l ru n-propylic (ru bc nht):

CH 3-G H 2-CHO + 2 Ag(NH 3 )aOH

t0

> C 1 3 CH 2 COONHi +
+ 2Ag + 3NHs + H20

Cht cn li l ru iso-propylic.

ID

94. Ly mi bnh mt t cc cht trn cho tc dng vi Cu(OH)2,


cht no cho ung dch trong xanh mu lam l glixerin. Sau cho 2
cht cn li tc dng vi Na, cht no cho kh by ra l C2H5OH, cht
khng cho kh bay ra l CH 3CHO (hc sinh vit cc phng trn h
phn ng m inh ho).
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

95. - L y m i c h t m t t l m m u t h ch o t c d n g v i d u n g
dch brom, mu th no khng lm mt mu dung dch briQ, mu th
l axit axetic, etylfomiat. Tip tc cho hai mu th ny tc dng
vi Na2C03, mu th no khi bay ra l CH3COOH.
+ Na 2C 0 3 ---- 2CH3COONa + 0 2 + H 20

.Q
UY

2 CH 3COOH

TP

Mu th cn li l HCOOC2H 5.

- Ly ba mu th tr n cho tc dng vi Na 2C 0 3 mu th no cho


kh bay ra l CH 2=CH-COOH.

H
NG

2CH2=CH-COOH + Na 2C 0 3 ---- > 2CH 2=CH~COONa + C 0 2T+ H20

TR

- Ly hai mu th ca hai cht cn li cho tc dng vi dung dch


NaOH, sau ly sn phm ca pHn ng trn tc dng vi dung dch
AgN03/NI3, un nh s thy xut hin lp gng bc (Ag kt ta) th
cht l CH3-CH 2-C 0 0 CH=CH2.

0B

CH 3-C H 2~C00CH=CH 2 + NaOH * CH 3CH2COONa + CH3CHO

00

CH 3CH 0 + 2 Ag(NH 3)2O H CH 3COONH 4 + 2 Ag i + 3 NH 3 + H20

31

Mu th cn li khng cho phn ng trng gng.

C
P

2+

96. Cng thc cu to: CH 3COG2H 5 (A), CH 3CHOHCH2OH (B),


CH3CH2COOH (C), CH3CH2CHO (D).

- Cho vi git dung dch A gN0 3 trong ung, dch NH 3, vo tng


mu th c cc cht trn, mu th cho phn ng trng gng l D.

-L

- Cho giy qu tm vo cc mu th cn li, mu th no lm qu


tm ho l c .

- Cho Cu(OH>2 vo cc cht cn li, cht no ho tan to dung


dch trong xanh mu lam l B.

NG

TO

- C ht cn li un nng vi NaOH, sau thm vi git dng


dich H2SO4 c mi gim thot ra l A (vit phng trnh phn ig).

CO2 + Ca(OH )2 ---- > C aC C + H20

ID

98.
Cho hn hp 4 kh i qua dung dch nc vi trong d, kh
CO2 b gi li:

Kt ta thu c em sy kh v nung nhit cao, thu


c C0 2.

168

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NH
N

Cho 3 kh cn li qua dung dch AgNOa/NHs, kh C2H 2 phn ng*


GH=CH + Ag20 - > AgCsCAg + H20

Cho 2Ag2 tc dng vi dung dch HC1, thu c C2H2:

.Q
UY

C2Ag2 + 2 HC 1 ---- > 2 A gCl + C2H 2

TP

Tin hnh phn ng hp nc vi 2 kh cn li, ch c C2 4 tc


dng. Ngng t C2H5OH ri tch ra cn li kh CH4 khng tc dng.

C + h 20 > C2H5OH

Cho hn hp tc dng vi Ca(OH )2 c mui

TR
N

98. a) -

c 2H4 + h 20

C2H5OH -

NG

Dng H 2SO 4 c d loi nc khi ru, thu c C 2H 4.

10
00
B

(C2HsCOO)Ca, chng ct tch hn hp hai cht hu c cn li ra khi


mui trn. Cho mui tc dng vi H2SO4. Tch b kt ta, chng ct
c C2H 5COOH nguyn cht.

C
P

2+
3

Cho hn hp hai cht hu c cn li tc dng vi H 2 c Ni lm


xc tc c C2H5CH2OH. Lm ngng t c cc cht lng gm
(C3H7)20 v C3H7OH* Cho cht lng trn mt lng Na d chuyn
C3H 7OH r C3H 7ONa. Chng ct tch c (C3H 7)2 0 , cn C3H?ONa
cho tc dng va vi dung dch axit HC1, ri chng ct c
C3H7OH. Cho C3H7OH qua CuO nung nng c C2H5CHO (hc sinh
vit phng trnh phn ng).

-L

b) Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch Na 2C 0 3 d:

2CH3COOH + Na2C0 3---- > 2CH3COONa + CO2 + H20

TO

Chng ct hn hp thu ly CH 3CHO.

99. u tin cho hn hp vo nc lnh, phenol t ta n trong nc


lanh, lc ta c phenol, cho hn hp cn li tc dng vi Na2C0 3 ch

c CH3COOH tc dng, chng ct ta thu hi CH3OH, C2H5OC2H5. Cho

B
I

mui CHsCOONa tc dng vi H 2S 0 4j chng cht ta thu c


CH3COOH. P hn ct sau gm CH3OH v C2H5OC2H5 em lm khan
ri 'cho tc dng vi Na, ch c CH3OH phn ng. Ct thu hi
C2H 5OC2H 5. P hn cn li cho tc dng va vi dung dch axit HC1,

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

169

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NH
N

chng ct, lm khan thu c CH3OH (hc sinh vit phng trnh
phn ng).

.Q
UY

100. Cho vi sng vo hn hp bin axit th nh mui.


2RCOOH + C aO ---- > (RCOO)2Ca + HzO

TP

un bay hi ru, xeton v nc ri cho mui tc dng vi H2SO4.

101. a) - Cho dung dch NH 4OH ti d:

NG

Chng ct thu c RCOOH nguyn cht.

(RCOO)2Ca + H 2S 0 4 ---- > 2 RCOOH + CaSOA

Mg(CH3COO)2 + 2NH4OH---- * Mg(OH)2 + 2CH3COONH4

TR
N

Lc tch Mg(OH)2-i' em ho tan trong dung dch CH3COOH:


Mg(OH )2 + 2 CH 3CO OH ---- > (CHsCOOJzMg + 2 H 20

00

un nng loi b NH 4OH d:

NH 3 + H 20

10

NH 4OH

P2

+3

- Cho dung dch Na 2C 0 3 d vo dung dch nc lc:

(CH 3COO)2Ca + N a 2C 0 3 ---- > C aC 03i + 2 CH3COONa

Lc ly kt ta cho phn ng vi axit axetic:

CaCOs + 2 CH 3CO OH ---- > (CH 3COO)2Ca + H20 + C 0 2t

-L
-

- P hn nc cn li gm CHsCOONa, CH 3COONH4 , Na 2C 0 3 cho


tc dng vi NaOH, un nng dung dch:

CH 3COONH 4 + NaOH

> CH3COONa + H20 + NH 3T

ID

NG

TO

Cn li dung dch gm CH 3COONa, Na 2C 03, NaOH d, cho tc


dng vi CH3COOH va ' c dung dch CH3COONa (vit phng
trn h phn ng).

b) Cho hn hp vo dung dch NaOH d, ch c C6H 5NH 3CI


phn ng:
C5H 5NH 3C1 + N aO H ---- > C6H 5NH 2 + NaCl + H 20

Anilin khng tan, lc tch ring anilin ri cho tc dng vi HC 1


thu c C6H 5NHsC1:
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

TP
.Q
UY

P hn nc lc cho tc dng vi dung dch HC1 d cho phenol v


axit axetic:
C6H5ONa + HC1---- >. C6H5OH + NaCl
CHgCOONa + H C l---- CH 3COOH + NaCI

+ Na 2C 0 3 > 2 CH3COONa + C 02T + H20

NG

2 CH 3COOH

tch ring phenol ta lc vi dung dch Na 2C 0 3, khi ch c


CH 3COOH c phn ng to th n h mui tan trong nc.

Phenol khng tan, lc- c tch ring ra v cho tc dng vi


NaOH (ly ) ri cho bay hoi nc thu hi c mui C6H5ONa

TR

CfiHsOH + N aO H ---- > CgHsONa + H20

00
B

Dung dch nc lc cha CHgCOONa v NaCl cho thm H2SO4,


chng ct thu c CH3COOH.

+3

10

2CH3COONa + H2S0 4 - -> 2CH3COOHT + Na2S0 4

P2

Cho CH 3COOH tc dng vi NaOH va , lm bay hi nc thu


hi CHaCOONa.

CH 3COOH + N aO H ---- > CHsCOONa + H20

+ Ca(OH )2 ---- > (CH 3COO)2Ca + 2H20

2 CH 3COOH

102. Cho hn hp tc dng vi nc vi trong:

ch

-L

un nng axeton, metanol bay hi, cn li dung


(CH3COO)2Ca. Cho dung dch mui ny tc dng vi H2SO4:

TO

(CH 3COO)2Ca + H 2S 0 4 --
> 2 CH 3COOH + C aS04i

B
ID

NG

103. Cho hn hp anehit hoc metyl xetn tc dng vi NaHS 0 3


to kt ta, sau ti to anehit hoc metyl xeton bng dung dch
axit hay ung dch baz (hc sinh vit phng trn h phn ng).
104. - Cho hn hp i qua dung dch Ag20 trong NH 3, axetilen b
gi li do phn ng to ra axetilua bc:
CH=CH 4- Ag20

NH3 -> AgC=CAgl + H20

- Cho axetilua bc tc dng vi HC1 long thu li axetilen:


ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH
N

AgCsCg + 2 HC1 * CH=CHt + 2gCU


- Cho hn hp kh cn li i qua dung dch nc brom, etilen b
gi li do phn ng:

UY

CH 2=CH 2 + Br 2 ---- > CH 2Br~CH2Br

.Q

Cn kh propan CH 3-C H 2-GH 3 bay ra.

TP

- T CHgBr-CH^Br ta thu hi etilen:

CH 2B r-C I 2Br + Z n ---- > ZnBr 2 + CH 2=CH 2

NG

105. Cho h.n hp li qua dung dch AgNOs/NHOH th kh C2 2


s tc dng tp th n h k t ta vng:

CHbCH + AgzO - - 5- > A g -C C -A g + H 20

Cho k t ta tc dng vi HCI ta s thu li kh C 2 2

TR

AgC^CAg + 2HC1 > CH=CHt + 2AgCl

+3
1

C
P2

C2H 4 + H20 -

00
0

Hai kh CH4, C24 cho li qua dung ch H2SO4 un nng nh th


C2H4 b hp th, kh CH4 thot ra ngoi:

CH 3-C H 2-O H

> CH3-CH 2 -O H
> C A + H20

-L

H
A

106. a) Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch NOH; benzen khng


tan ni ln trn , dng phu chit ta -th u c benzen, ch c phenol
tc dng, sau sc kh CO2, phenol c ti to, khng ta n ni ln
trn, dng phu chit ta c phenol.

C 6H5ONa + C 02 + H20 * NaHCOs + C6H5OH


(khng tan, ni ln trn)

TO

Chng ct phn on nhit 78c ta thu c ru etylic.

ID

NG

b) Sc kh CO2 vo hn hp, phenol c ti to, khng ta n ni


ln trn, dng phu chit ta tch c phenoL

Cho hn hp cn li sau phn ng tc dng vi HG1, sau chng


ct phn on nh it 78c ta thu dc ru etylic.
C2H 5ONa + HC1---- > C2H5OH + NaCl
c) v d) hc sinh t gii.
..

..

172
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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NH

107. ' Cho dung dch NaOH (d) vo hn hp, phenol ta n trong
NaOH to mui n atri phenolat. Ta dc hn hp gm 2 phn lng
khng ta n vo nhau. Dng phu chit ta c 2 phn:

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UY

.Phn 1 l hn hp gm benzen v anilin (lp trn)

TP

Cho dung dch HC1 vo phn 2, lc ly k t ta l phenol.

.Q

P hn 2 l dung dch mui C 6H5ONa (c ln NaOH d) (lp di).

Cho dung ch HC1 (ly ) vo phn 1 , ch c anilin tc dng

C6H5NH2 + HC1---- > C6H5NHsC1

H
N

Dng phu chit tch hn hp sau phn ng ta thu c:


Lp trn: benzen.

TR

Lp di: dung dch hn hp mui corua ca anilin v HC1 (dung


dch nc lc)

10
0

0B

Cho dung dch NaOH vo dung dch nc lc, ta thu c anilin


khng tan ni ln trn. Dng phu chit ta thu c anilin (hc sinh
vit cc phng trn h phn ng ho hc).

P2

+3

108. Cho hn hp qua dung dch AgN 0 3 /NH 3 ch c C2H 2 tc dng


cho kt ta vng.

CH=CH + 2AgN0 3 + 2 NH 3 ---- > A g O C A g + 2NH4N0 3

Sau cho kt t a tc dng vi HC1, ta thu c C2H2.

-L

Cho hn hp kh sau khi tch C2H 2 tc dng vi dung dch brom,


ch c etilen tc dng, sau sn phm cho tc dng vi Zn, thu c
c7 h 4.

C2I 4 + Br 2

^ C2H 4Br 2

TO

C2H 4B r 2 + Z n

C 2H 4 + ZnBr 2

NG

Cho hn hp kh cn li tc dng vi dung dch HC1, ch c

ID

CH3NH2 tc dng, cn CH4 th khng tc dng thot ra khi dung


dch, ta thu c CH4.
CH 3NH 2 + H C l---- CH3NH3CI
CH3NH3CI + N aO H

109.-a) C3H8 + 2 C12

CH 3NH 2 4- NaCl + H20


C3H6C12 + 2HC1

C3I6CI2 c mt s ng phn, trong d c CH3-CH2-CHCI2


ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

173

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CH 3CH 2CHC12 + 2 NaOH(khaDj

> CH 3-C=CH + 2NaCl + H 20

t ,p

CH 2= C H -O C H + 3H 2

> C4H 10

Crackiag > c h 4 + CH 2=CH-CH 3

CH4 + 0 2 ----Cc oxit nito

HCHO + H 20

c 4h 10

UY

CH 2=CH-C=CH

.Q

xt

TP

2 CH=CH

NH

b) iu ch HCOOCH 2-CH=CH2:

2HCHO + 0 2 Mn"+ > 2HCOOH

NG

60 -8 0 c

TR
N

c h 3- c h = c h 2 + Cl2 5p.p. > CH2C1-CH=CH2 + HC1


CH 2=CH-CH 2C1 + N aO H ---- > CH 2=CH-CH2OH + NaCl

d = HCOOCH2GH=CH2 + H20

00

HCOOH + HOCH2CH=CH2

10

110. So phng trn h phn ng:

C
P2

+3

CeHgCle:
CaC2

' H;;0 ) C2H2

J L

> C6H6 ig * -> CeHeCle


as

600 c

H
A

PVC: C2H 2 + H C ---- CH 2= eH -C l


nCH 2=CH-Cl

-CH2-CH I
C1 _

-L

Vinyl axetat:

6g

^ c

> CH 3CHO

NG

TO

c 2h 2 + h 20

ID

11 l

2CH3CHO + 0 2'

> 2CH3COOH

CH 3COOH + C2H 2 ---- CH 3COOCH=CH 2

S iu ch monoclo axetic:

C2He

as

> C2H5C1

+NaH""E , C2H5OH
t

* t

men giam

CH3COOH +C_2 ) C1CH2-C 0 0 H


as

- iu ch axit acrylic:
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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vit0ixt > CH4 + Na 2C 0 3

Lm lanh nhanh

-> C2H 2 + 3H 2

1500c

Cch 2: 2 C2H5OH

TP

Ni(CQ)< ) CH 2=CH-COOH

CH=CH + CO + H20

g g > C4H 5 + H2t + 2H20

C4H 6 + 2H 2 - NU > C 4H

2CIL

10

500c

NG

C4H 10 Cracking > C3H 6 + CH 4


c h 2= c h - c h 3 + Cl2

.Q
UY

CH3COONa + NaOH

NH
N

Cch 1: CHgCOOH + NaOH > CH3COONa + H20

-> CH 2=CH-CH 2C1 + HC1

TR

CH 2=CH-CH 2C1 + N aO H ---- CH 2=CH-CH2OH + NaCl


Mn2+

00

2CH2=CH-CHO + 0 2

A
H

-CH-CH2'
- c h - c h 2-

-L

- c1h - c h 2- + nNaOH

TO

_ OCOCHi n

-> CH 4

> C2H 2 ----*CHCOOH ) CH 3COOCH=CH 2

nCH 3COOCH=CH 2

P2

lm lnh nhanh

+NaOH
vi ti, t

*50f c

+3
1

112. S iu ch:
+NaOH
c h 3c o o h
-

0B

CH 2=CH-CH2OH + CuO > CH 2=CH-CHO + Cu + h 2o

113. - iu ch CH 3COOH

NG

CHsCH + H20 6^
Mn2 +

* 2CH3COOH

ID

2 CH 3CHO + 0 ,

> CH 3CHO

- iu ch (COOH )2
CHsCH + H 2 -

Pd

c h 2= c h 2 + [03 + h 2o
ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

MKMnO HOCH 2-C H 2OH


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NH
N

HOCH 2-C H 2OH + 2CuO---- > OHC-CHO + 2 Cu + 2H20

!^a0H|, > CH,

'

+ 0 ,

v it i, t

- HCHO

M u *

(Hc sinh vit cc phng trn h phn ng).

Iaenn' > C A O H

men gim .) CH3COOH

> C6HI20

__I02
_
+

H
NG

114. S iu ch cc cht:

M2* --> HCOQH

t t o t t a

cc oxit nt

a) (CgHioOs)

TP
.Q

CH,CONa

CH3COOH

UY

OHC-CHO + 0 2 - Mn2+ . > HOOC-COOH


- iu ch HCOOH
S d iu ch:

TR

b) iu ch este etyl omiat: S dng GH3 COOH iu ch trn.

CH 3COOH ^- aQH- > CHsCOONa +N*QW


1500c

+3

HCHO u i*

* 2

P2

CH4 -----,

-H^ so C * CHsCHO

->C2H2

lm lnh nhanh

HCOOC2H5 + H20

HCOOH + C2H5H , H2S 4<i

c) iu ch anilin
S dng C2H 2 iu ch cu b
>C6Hs

> CeHsNOs;

lggC)

>C6HsNH 2

-L

C2H2 60c

> C.H5OH

> HCOOH

+0

ccoxitnit

> CH4

10

00

CaO, t

TO

d) iu ch etilen glicol
S dng C2 2 iu ch 'cu b

NG

C2H2 p 2 > C2H4 - *ddKM0< > C.,H4(OHfe

ID

e) iu ch PVC
S dng C2H 2 iu ch ' cu b

C2H2

+H C 1

> CH2=CH-C1 trnghp


t ,p

- c h 2- g h 1

C1 _

Hc sinh vit cc phng trn h phn ng ho hc.

1nPDF
c.
ng gp
bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

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115.

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(C6H io sV +nH 20 S'- * > nC6H 20 6


C6H 120 ..j e n ngu > 2 C0 2 + 2 C2H5OH
C 2H 5O H +

02

men gim ^ C H 3C O O H + H 20

.Q
UY

CHsCOOH + C2H5OH , H-?S 4 CH3 COOC2 H5 + H2O

NH
N

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TP

[C6H 70 2(0H )3]n + 3 n H 0 N 0 2 ' Hf iliL=: ' {C6H 70 2(0 N 0 2)3] +


+ 3nH20

116. - iu ch etyl axetat

CaO + 3C -

NG

CaC 3 - 50 CaO + C 0 2 ; th an *000 > th a n cc


CaC 2 + CO

lo aien

^ 2

Pd

ln men gim

>CH 3COOH

TR

C2H 2

CaC 2 + 2H20 ---- Ca(OH )2 + C2H 2


+%-.->c 2h 4 + ;0 - >C 2H5OH .. . 2

----+g 2H5OH_ CH 3COOC 2H 5

00

NaQ H-> C H 3 C O O N a

* Na ty
CaO, t

> C H < s > C H 3C I

10

C H 3C O O H
'

- iu ch metyl fomiat

P2

+3

,|-Na0H > CH3OH +g-u -> HCHO ---- > HCOOH


> HCOOCH3

H
A

- iu ch polivinyl cloraa: xem cu e bi 115.


117. S iu ch C6 5COOCH2C6H 5
+b-5 - > C 6H 5C H 2B r

*Ny H -> C 6H 5C H 2O H

C 6H 5C H 3

> C6H5CHO % > C6H5COOH +csH5CH;OH >

-L

*Cu0

TO

^ 6HgCH2OH_ > c 6H 5COOCH 2C6H 5

118. S iu ch cc cht

> C6H1206

meS- > C2H5OH

C A > ( - c h 2- c h 2-)

ID

NG

a) PE: (C6H10O5)

b) Cao su buna:

C2H5OH AJso3 >CH2=CH-CH=CH2


450 0

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

(-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-)n
177
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c) Glixerin
v r XJ

Cracking

p u

+C12

>c 3Hs - - 5<"(fc

1i*0 H -> Glixerin

1500c
^ p XJ
+H2O, 60-80C
PU p u n
- Italihnhah * C22 -------- Hiso;---------* H 3CH 0

CH4

> CH3C00H > CH3C00CH3

NG

*l

Mn

CHsCH - 6^ c

TR
N

e) Anilin
>C e a

>C6H5N 0 2 f 7h C1 -> C N H z

00

> c 6h 5c i tfaOHji - > c 6h 5o h

10

bt Jf e

+3

f) Axit picric
c 6h

TP

CH3CI QH > CH3OH

OUT

.Q

) Este metyl axetat


as

>

UY

CH2=CH-CH2C1 H0C1 > C1CH2CH0 HCH2C1

CH4

'.x

+H2

3,7 - c 4h 10

NH

n u
c 4h 6

> CdHsOTOJsOH

C
P2

H^ 3

119. a) iu ch m-aminophenol

H
A

Than 1000c ---- > th an cc

S iu ch:

CaO

-L

CaCOs

>C6H 5N 0 2

>C2H2

>B rC N O -

60c ) CsHe

"N01*' >H 0C 6H 4N 0 2

TO

>CaC2 -

NG

b) Cao su buna

ID

Dng C2H2 iu ch trn

2C2H2 t > CH2=CH-C=CH


c h 2= c h - o c h + h 2 ^ c h 2= c h - c h = c h 2
CH 2=CH-CH=CH ---- (-CH 2-C H =CH -CH 2-)
t , p

178bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T


ng gp PDF

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NH

Trang

MC LC
PHN 1: HO V C

II. Nhn bit v tch cc cht ra khi hn hp

Ch d 1: Nhn bit kim loi, ion kim loi v hp cht ca


chng

TP

.Q

UY

I. Nhng phn ng c trng ca kim loi, phi kim v kp cht


cua chng

H
N

Ch d 3; Tch cc kim loi, phi kim v hp cht ca


chng ra khi hn hp

Ch 2; Nhn bit phi kim v hp cht ca chng

i n . iu ch cc cht v hp cht v c

TR

IV. Cu hi v bi tp t gii

12

12
37
44

55
67
74

00

V. Hng dn gii

107

10

i>#AT2:HOHUC

108

P2

+3

I. Nhng phn ng c trng ca hirocacbon, cc dn xut


hirocacbon, cacbohirat-amin
II. Nhn bit v tch cc cht r khi hn hp

112

112

Ch 1: Nhn bit hrocacbon

118

Ch 3: Nhn bit cacbohirat-amin (glucoza, saccaroza,


tinh bt, xenlidozoj

132

Ch 4: Tinh ch v tch cc cht ra khi hn hp

134

TO
N

-L

Ch d 2: Nhn bit cc dn xut hirocacbon (ru, phenol,


anehit, axit cacboxyic, aminoaxit...)

144

IV. Cu hi v bi tp t gii

157

V. Hng dn gii

161

ID

NG

in . iu ch cc hp' cht hu c

ng gp PDF bi GV. Nguyn Thanh T

179

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