DESIGNMIND ARCHITECTING A DATA WAREHOUSE

A CASE STUDY
Project: zBis Carl Zeiss Vision North America ELIZABETH DIAMOND DATA WAREHOUSE ARCHITECT, DESIGNMIND
SAN FRANCISCO SQL SERVER USER GROUP SEPTEMBER 9, 2009

Tonight’s Speaker
Elizabeth Diamond Senior Data Warehousing and BI Consultant
DesignMind in Emeryville, CA

Specialist in Enterprise Data Management Systems Lead Data Warehouse Architect and ETL Developer Author and Speaker Building the Connection Between Your Business and Your IT Infrastructure Developing Your Enterprise Data Warehouse Using Business Processes Tonight’s Topic: Architecting a Data Warehouse

The Journey
Determined Need for Enterprise Data Warehouse Worked with Business Users to Understand Business Requirements Determined Software Requirements MS SQL Server 2005 & 2008 MS SSIS (ETL Tool) MS SSAS (Analytic Cube Tool) MS SSRS & Excel (Reporting Tools) SharePoint for Deploying Reports over Company Intranet Designed and Developed zBis Data Warehouse

Z BIS = What We Will Deliver

This project team will deliver the following:

X Consolidated reporting for Carl Zeiss Vision
North America

X Reporting that is consistent and from one
data warehouse

X Reporting that is easy to use and easy to
access

X Toolset will be flexible and able to grow and
change with our business

X Phase I rock solid download from ERP/Manf
– Providing ability to review lab information as a lab network – not individual silos – with accurate reporting across all products and services
We will deliver the best product possible based on the information we can place in our data warehouse!

• Reporting from cubes – off source systems only – No data warehouse • Disparate data systems with different results from each • Most systems not balanced to GL • Reporting for each business unit only • No reporting across all business units

Transactional Cube of Approach
Sales Queries Other Reports Sales Reports

Corporate

Download
Data Mart Finance Data Mart Inventory Data Mart Sales & Marketing

ETL Loads ETL Load

ODS/Staging Operational Data Store
ETL Load

ERP

Manufacturing

Other

BI Tools/Analytics
Excel

Active Reports

Static Reports

PerformancePoint Server SharePoint
SQL Analytics Server (SSAS) SQL Reporting Server

Aggregated Data Mart TBD

Finance Data Mart

Inventory Data Mart

Sales Data Mart

ETL Load (SSIS) Data Warehouse

ETL Load (SSIS) ODS/Staging
Operational Data Store

ETL Load (SSIS)
ERP Manufacturing SW Other Data Sources

Introduction to Data Warehousing
What is a Data Warehouse System Why a Data Warehouse Vs. Cubes on Source Systems Star Schema Vs. Transactional Data Warehouses Star Schemas ease of system integrating Star Schemas provide substantial performance gains Star Schemas hierarchy capabilities or Drill Down Capabilities Ralph Kimball Developed Current Industry Standards for Star Schema – Dimensions and Facts

Data Warehouse Project Lifecycle
Technical Architecture Design Project Planning Business Requirement Definition Dimensional Modeling Product Selection & Installation Physical Design Data Staging Design & Development Report Development Testing ETL & DW/DM Report Testing

Deployment

Maintenance

Report Specifications

Project Management

4 + 1 – Steps Dimensional Design Process
Ralph Kimball’s Process for Developing Star Schemas 1. Determine Business Process
Model business Processes Each Process will determine 1 or more Facts Design DW by Business Process Not Business Unit

2.

Identify the Grain of the Fact
• •

What does 1 row in Fact table represent Transactional or Summary

3. 4.

Design the DW Dimensions Design the DW Facts

+1 Determine Hierarchies

Business Driven vs. Data Driven
Design DW/BI System via Business Process Develop DW/BI System via Data from Source Systems Profile Data as early as possible Understand data and design DW using existing data Design & Develop using both Business Process and available Data if possible

Understanding Your Business
Identify key business sponsors for DW project Use Corporate Org Chart Setup initial interviews with key sponsors Develop Business Process diagrams Develop high level Use Case Diagrams Determine Business Hierarchies

The Business Executive Interview
• What are the objectives of your organization? • What Business goals do you want to accomplish with the

development of zBis data warehouse System?
• How do you measure success? How do you know you are doing

well? How often do you measure your corporate performance?
• What are your key business issues that you are trying to solve

from the zBis system? If these issues are not justified what is the impact to your department and organization?

The Business Executive Interview
• How do you identify problems or know when you might be

headed for trouble?
• How do you spot exceptions in your business? What

opportunities exist to dramatically impact your business based on improved access to information? What is the financial impact
• If you could….., What would it mean to your business? • What is your vision to better leverage information within your

organization?
• How do you anticipate that your staff will interact directly with

this information?

The Business Manager Interview
• What are the objectives of your department? • What are you trying to accomplish? How would do you go

about achieving your objectives?
• What are your success metrics? • How do you know you are doing well? • How often do you measure your department/team? • How do you anticipate that your staff will interact directly with

this information?

Business Process Diagrams
Understand Business Requirements for building DW/BI system. Defines the Measures and Dimensions for data warehouse

Determine Hierarchies
Customer Hierarchies – Sales Channels
Distribution Channels Business Channels Customer Channels Product Divisions Sales Organizations Sales Office Buy Groups/Directly Purchase

Determine Hierarchies
Product Hierarchy Manufacturer Brand Product Type – Each product type had own Hierarchy Lens Service Equipment etc… Design Make/Model

Determine Hierarchies
Geo Hierarchy Sales Division Sales Region Sales Territory

Conformed Dimensions
Standardized dimensions across data warehouse Dimensions are associated with multiple business processes Determine by using Bus Matrix & enforced in ETL Conformed Dimensions are shared and consistent across fact tables

Use Data Warehouse BUS Matrix
Use Data Warehouse BUS Matrix for Understanding & mapping of Business Processes and Dimensions Ongoing DW/BI planning efforts Team & Management Communications Understand Business Process unions across the enterprise

Data Warehouse BUS Matrix
Date Company Sales Customer Discounts Product Cost Company Inventory Dist Ctr Inventory Company Customer Product Geo Dist Ctr Promo

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X

X X X X X

X X X X

X X X

Develop Dimensional Schema

Slow Changing Dimensions
Type 1 – Overwrite existing Dimension Row Use when don’t need to keep history data row Can be used to correct bad data Type 2 – Create a new Dimension Row Use date and/or active non-active fields to identify current and inactive data rows Type 3 – Keep old and add new attributes in Dimension Row Allow Alternate realities to exist simultaneously in one Dimension Row Slow Changing Dimensions are handled in the ETL

Type of Dimensions
Mini-Dimension Junk Dimensions Outrigger Dimensions Small Static Dimensions Lookup tables

Type of Facts
Transaction Fact Tables Snapshot Fact Tables Accumulating Snapshot Fact Tables Consolidated or Aggregated Fact Tables

Bridge Tables

Bridge Tables

Recommended Reading list
The Data Warehouse Toolkit: The Complete Guide to Dimensional Modeling (Second Edition) by Ralph Kimball and Margy Ross The MicrosoftData Warehouse Toolkit: With SQL Server2005 and the MicrosoftBusiness Intelligence Toolset by Joy Mundy, Warren Thornthwaite, and Ralph Kimball Building a Data Warehouse: With Examples in SQL Server (Expert's Voice) by Vincent Rainardi The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit by Ralph Kimball, Margy Ross, Warren Thornthwaite, and Joy Mundy The Data Warehouse ETL Toolkit: Practical Techniques for Extracting, Cleanin by Ralph Kimball and Joe Caserta

Elizabeth Diamond
Senior Data Warehouse Architect

DesignMind Emeryville, CA www.designmind.com

www.bayareasql.org To attend our meetings or inquire about speaking opportunities, please contact: Mark Ginnebaugh, User Group Leader mark@designmind.com

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