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M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI1, A. MOUSSAVI1, A. KORDI2

and A. AHMADI2

1Department

of Mathematics

Tarbiat Modares University

P. O. Box: 14115-170

Tehran, Iran

e-mail: moussavi.a@modares.ac.ir

2Mathematics

ACECR, Tarbiat Modares University

P. O. Box: 14115-343

Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The notions of n-fold fantastic basic logic and the related algebras, n-fold fantastic

BL-algebras, are introduced. We also define n-fold fantastic filters and prove some

relations between these filters and construct quotient algebras via these filters.

1. Introduction

The concept of BL-algebras was introduced by Hajek [5] in order to

provide, an algebraic proof of the completeness theorem of basic logic

(BL, for short). Soon after, Cignoli et al. in [2], proved that Hajeks logic

really is the logic of continuous t-norms as conjectured by Hajek. At the

same time started a systematic study of BL-algebras, too. Indeed,

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06F35, 03G25.

Keywords and phrases: BL-algebra, n-fold (positive) implicative filter, n-fold fantastic basic

logic, n-fold fantastic BL-algebra, (weak) n-fold fantastic filter.

Received September 1, 2009; Revised September 26, 2009

2009 Scientific Advances Publishers

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

28

systems. Deductive systems correspond to subsets closed with respect to

Modus Ponens and they are called filters, too. In [11], Boolean deductive

systems and implicative deductive systems were introduced. Moreover, it

was proved that these deductive systems coincide. In Haveshki et al. in

[7], continued an algebraic analysis of BL-algebras and they introduced,

e.g., implicative filters of BL-algebras. MV-algebras [1], product algebras

and Gdel algebras are the most classes of BL-algebras. Filters theory

play an important role in studying these algebras. From logical point of

view, various filters correspond to various sets of provable formulae.

Hajek in [5], introduced the concepts of (prime) filters of BL-algebras.

Using prime filters of BL-algebras, he proved the completeness of basic

logic.

The language of propositional Hajek basic logic [5] contains the

binary connectives and and the constant 0 . Axioms of BL are:

(A1) ( v/ ) ((v/ w ) ( w )) ,

(A2) ( v/ ) ,

(A3) ( v/ ) (v/ ) ,

(A4) ( ( v/ )) (v/ (v/ )) ,

(A5a) ( (v/ w )) (( v/ ) w ) ,

(A5b) (( v/ ) w ) ( (v/ w )) ,

(A6) (( v/ ) w ) (((v/ ) w ) w ) ,

(A7) 0 w.

The above notion is generalized to an algebraic system, in which the

required conditions are fulfilled (Definition 1). Filters in BL-algebras are

also introduced in [5]. The notions of implicative and positive implicative

filters were introduced in [7].

In Section 2, we give some definitions and theorems which are needed

in the rest of the paper. We then introduce the notions of an n-fold

fantastic basic logic and n-fold fantastic BL-algebra. We also introduce

29

the notion of n-fold fantastic filters. We prove that, every n-fold fantastic

BL-algebra is also an (n + 1) - fold fantastic BL-algebra, but by an

example, we show that the converse is not true. Some characterization

for a BL-algebra to be n-fold fantastic, is given. We define n-fold fantastic

filters, after that we state the equivalent conditions for n-fold fantastic

BL-algebras. By [8], every n-fold positive implicative filter is an n-fold

implicative filter, but the converse is not true. We show that, under some

conditions, an n-fold implicative filter is an n-fold positive implicative

filter.

2. n-Fold Fantastic BL-Algebras

Definition 2.1. A BL-algebra is an algebra ( A, , , , , 0, 1 ) of

type (2, 2, 2, 2, 0, 0 ) satisfying the following axioms:

(BL1) ( A, , , 0, 1 ) is a bounded lattice,

(BL2) ( A, , 1) is a commutative monoid,

(BL3) and form an adjoint pair; i.e., c a b, if and only

if a c b for all a, b, c a,

(BL4) a b = a (a b) ,

(BL5) (a b) (b a ) = 1.

Proposition 2.2 [3, 4, 5]. In each BL-algebra A, the following

relations hold for all x , y, z A :

(p1) x (x y ) y,

(p2) x ( y (x y )) ,

(p3) x y, if and only if x y = 1,

(p4) x ( y z ) = y (x z ) ,

(p5) If x y, then y z x z and z x z y,

(p6) y ( y x ) x ,

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

30

(p7) y x (z y ) (z x ) ,

(p8) x y ( y z ) (x z ) ,

(p9) x y = [(x y ) y] [( y x ) x ].

In what follows, let n denotes a positive integer and A a BL-algebra,

unless otherwise specified. For any element x of A, let x n denotes

x K x , in which x occurs n times, and x 0 = 1.

(f1) a, b F implies a b F ,

(f2) a F and a b imply b F .

1 F , since x 1 for every x F , and F is nonempty subset, 1 F . It

(f3) 1 F ,

(f4) x F and x y F imply y F .

A subset D of A is called a deductive system in [11], if it satisfies the

above two conditions. It is obvious that for a nonempty subset D, D is a

deductive system, if and only if it is a filter.

Definition 2.4. A nonempty subset F of A is called an n-fold

(f5) x n ( y z ) F , x n y F imply x n z F , for all

x , y, z A.

Theorem 2.5 [8, Theorem 4.6]. Let F be a filter of A. Then for all

x , y, z A, the following conditions are equivalent:

(ii) x n x 2n F , for all x A ,

31

(iii) x n +1 y F implies x n y F ,

(iv) x n ( y z ) F implies ( x n y ) ( x n z ) F .

Definition 2.6. A nonempty subset F of A is called an n-fold positive

(f6) x (( y n z ) y ) F and x F imply y F , for all

x , y, z A.

Theorem 2.7 [8, Theorem 6.2]. Every n-fold positive implicative filter

of A is a filter of A.

Theorem 2.8 [8, Theorem 6.3]. Let F be a filter of A. Then for all

x , y, z A, the following conditions are equivalent:

(ii) ( x n 0 ) x F implies x F , for all x A ,

(iii) ( x n y ) x F implies x F , for all x , y A.

Definition 2.9. A nonempty subset F of A is called a fantastic filter, if

it satisfies 1 F and:

(f7) x , y, z A , z ( y x ) F , z F imply ((x y ) y )

x F.

Theorem 2.10 [7, Theorem 4.2]. Every fantastic filter of A is a filter

of A.

Definition 2.11. Axioms of an n-fold fantastic basic logic are those of

BL plus

(( n v/ ) v/ ) v/ ,

where

n = K for n times,

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

32

Example 2.13. Let A = {0, a, b, 1}. Define and as follows:

1.

Theorem 2.14. The n-fold fantastic basic logic is complete, for each

(i) The n-fold fantastic basic logic proves ,

(ii) is an A-tautology for each linearly ordered n-fold fantastic

BL-algebra A,

(iii) is an A-tautology for each n-fold fantastic BL-algebra A.

Proof. It follows from [5, Theorem 2.3.22]. This is because n-fold

Proof. Let A be an n-fold fantastic BL-algebra and m > n. Then, we

have

(( x n y ) y ) x = y x ,

for all x , y A. Since x m x n , we get

y x = (( x n y ) y ) x (( x m y ) y ) x .

y ( x m y ) y,

33

and so

(( x m y ) y ) x y x.

Thus

(( x n +1 y ) y ) x = y x ,

which shows that A is an m-fold fantastic BL-algebra.

not

true.

Example 2.16. Let B = {0, a, b, c, 1}. Define and as follows:

c

1

0

0

0

a

a

b

a

c

c

1

c

1

a

0

c

a

c

b

1

c

1

1

But, we have ((b 0 ) 0 ) b 0 b, so B is not 1-fold fantastic

BL-algebra.

Theorem 2.17. For each BL-algebra A, the following conditions are

equivalent:

(i) A is n-fold fantastic,

(ii) ( x n y ) y ( y x ) x , for all x , y A,

(iii) x n z y z , z x y x ,

(iv) x n z y z , z x , y y x ,

(v) y x ( x n y ) y x .

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

34

(( x n y ) y ) (( y x ) x ) = ( y x ) ((( x n y ) y ) x )

= ( y x ) ( y x ) = 1.

assume that the inequality (( x n y ) y ) ( y x ) x holds for all

x , y A. Then,

( y x ) ((( x n y ) y ) x ) = (( x n y ) y ) (( y x ) x )

(( x n y ) y ) (( x n y ) y )

= 1.

y ) x . Now, we have

((( x n y ) y ) x ) ( y x ) y (( x n y ) y )

= ( x n y ) ( y y)

= (xn y ) 1

= 1,

and so ((( x n y ) y ) x ) ( y x ) = 1, that is, (( x n y ) y )

x y x. Hence, A is n-fold fantastic.

z x. Using (p4), (p5), and condition (ii), we have

1 = ( x n z ) ( y z ) = y (( x n z ) z )

y ((z x ) x )

= y (1 x )

= (y x ),

35

and so y x = 1, i.e., y x .

(iii) (iv). It is trivial.

(iv)

(v). Let

x, y A

y x.

be such that

Note that

(iv) that ( x n y ) y x .

(v) (ii). Since x ( y x ) x , we have (( y x ) x )n y

x n y by induction. Since, y ( y x ) x , it follows from (p5) and

(v) that

( x n y ) y ((( y x ) x )n y ) y ( y x ) x.

This completes the proof.

Definition 3.1. A nonempty subset F of A is called an n-fold fantastic

(f8) x , y, z A, z ( y x ) F , z F (( x n y ) y )

x F.

(f9) x , y, z A, z (( y n x ) x ) F , z F imply (x y )

y F.

a

b

1

0

0

0

a

0

0

a

a

b

0

a

b

b

1

0

a

b

1

0

a

b

1

0

1

a

0

0

a

1

1

a

a

b

1

1

1

b

1

1

1.

1

1

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

36

fantastic filter of C.

Theorem 3.4. Any n-fold fantastic filter of a BL-algebra A is a filter

of A.

Proof. Let x , x y F . Hence, x y = x (1 y ) F . Since,

is, F is a filter.

The following example shows that the converse of Theorem 3.4 is not

true.

Example 3.5. In Example 3.3, {1} is a filter. Since, 1 {1} and 1

fantastic filter.

Theorem 3.6. Let F be a filter of a BL-algebra A. Then,

(ii) F is a weak n-fold fantastic filter of A, if and only if

Proof. Assume that F is an n-fold fantastic filter of A and let

x , y A be such that y x F . Then 1 ( y x ) = y x F and

1 F . It follows from (f6) that (( x n y ) y ) x F . Conversely,

x, y A

with

y x F.

Let

x , y, z A

z ( y x ) F and z F . Then y x F

be

such

that

filter of A. Similar argument induces the second part.

F G. If F is n-fold fantastic filter, then so is G.

37

x , then

y k = y (( y x ) x ) = ( y x ) ( y x ) = 1 F .

Since, F is n-fold fantastic filter, it follows from Theorem 3.6 (i) and (p4)

that

( y x ) ((( k n y ) y ) x ) = (( k n y ) y ) (( y x ) x )

= (( k n y ) y ) k F G.

have k n y x n y, so (( k n y ) y ) x (( x n y ) y ) x .

Using (f2), we know that (( x n y ) y ) x G , and hence G is nfold fantastic filter of A, by Theorem 3.6 (i).

Theorem 3.9. An n-fold fantastic filter is an m-fold fantastic filter for

every m > n.

Proof. Let F be an n-fold fantastic filter of A and for x , y A, y

xF

(( x n y ) y ) x (( x m y ) y ) x.

Hence by (f2), (( x m y ) y ) x F , i.e., F is an m-fold fantastic

filter.

The following example shows that the converse of Theorem 3.9 is not

true.

Example 3.10. In Example 2.16, it is clear that F = {1} is a 2-fold

0 b = 1 F . But ((b 0 ) 0 ) b = c

/ F.

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

38

follows: For every x , y A, x y, if and only if x y F

and

y x F.

where [x ] := {y A x y}, and define binary operations , , ,

and on A F as follows:

respectively. Then ( A F , , , , , 0, 1 ) is a BL-algebra.

Theorem 3.11. A filter F of A is n-fold fantastic, if and only if every

Proof. Assume that F is an n-fold fantastic filter of A and let

x , y A be such that [x ] [ y] = 1. Then x y F , and so (( y n x )

x ) y F by Theorem 3.6 (i). Hence,

which proves that {1} is an n-fold fantastic filter of A

F . By Corollary 1,

filter of A F

be such that

that is, (( x n y ) y ) x F . Hence by Theorem 3.6 (i), F is an nfold fantastic filter of A.

Theorem 3.12. A BL-algebra A is n-fold fantastic, if and only if its

39

x = 1. Hence, {1} is n-fold fantastic filter. Conversely, assume that {1} is

for every

x , y A. Then,

y k = y (( y x ) x ) = ( y x ) ( y x ) = 1 {1},

x k implies k n y x n y, and so ( x n y ) y ( k n y )

y. It follows that

1 = (( k n y ) y ) k (( x n y ) y ) k,

so that

(( x n y ) y ) (( y x ) x ) = (( x n y ) y ) k = 1,

it means that, ( x n y ) y ( y x ) x. Hence by Theorem 2.17, A

is an n-fold fantastic BL-algebra.

filter.

Proof. Let F be an n-fold fantastic filter of A. Then A F is n-fold

( [ y]n [x ]) [x ]

= [ ( y n x ) x ] = [1],

and so

By [8], every n-fold positive implicative filter is an n-fold implicative

filter, but the converse is not true. Now, we show under some conditions

an n-fold implicative filter is an n-fold positive implicative filter.

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

40

fantastic filter.

Proof. Let F be an n-fold implicative and n-fold fantastic filter and

0 ) , by Theorem 2.5 and (f2), we have

( x 2n 0 ) ( x n 0 ) F .

Since, F is an n-fold fantastic filter and ( x n 0 ) x F , by Theorem

3.6 (i), we have

(( x n ( x n 0 )) ( x n 0 )) x = (( x 2n 0 ) ( x n 0 )) x F .

On the other hands, since ( x 2n 0 ) ( x n 0 ) F , by (f4), we have

x F.

A. Conversely, let F be an n-fold positive implicative filter of A. Consider

x , y A and y x F . Putting k = (( x n y ) y ) x , then by

( k n y ) k = ( k n y ) ((( x n y ) y ) x )

= (( x n y ) y ) (( k n y ) x )

(( x n y ) y ) (( x n y ) x )

y x F.

positive implicative filter, by Theorem (2.8), k = (( x n y ) y )

x F , i.e., F is an n-fold fantastic filter of A.

not an n-fold positive implicative filter.

41

filter.

The following example shows that every n-fold fantastic filter of A is

not an n-fold implicative filter.

Example 3.16. In Example 3.3, F = {1, b} is a 1-fold fantastic filter,

F , but a 0

/ F.

is not an n-fold fantastic filter.

Example 3.17. Let D = {0, a, b, c, 1}. Define and as follows:

0

0

c

0

a

0

b

0

1

0

0

1

c

1

a

1

b

1

1

1

b

1

b

1

b

1

b

1

2-fold implicative filter, but it is not a 2-fold fantastic filter. We have

0 c F , but (( c 2 0 ) 0 ) c = c

/ F.

References

[1]

[2]

C. C. Chang, Algebraic analysis of many valued logic, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 88

(1958), 467-490.

R. Cignoly, F. Esteva and L. Godo, Basic fuzzy logic is the logic of continuous t-norm

and their residual, Soft Comput. 4 (2000), 106-112.

[3]

Logic. 8(5-6) (2002), 673-714.

[4]

Computer Science, University Aarhus, BRICS Report Science (2002).

[5]

M. SHIRVANI-GHADIKOLAI et al.

42

[6]

P. Hajek, What is mathematical fuzzy logic?, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 157 (2004),

597-603.

[7]

M. Haveshki, A. Borumand Saeid and E. Eslami, Some types of filters in BLalgebras, Soft Comput. 10 (2006), 657-664.

[8]

(2008), 176-186.

[9]

419-423.

[10]

E. Turunen, BL-algebras of basic fuzzy logic, Math. Soft Comput. 6 (1999), 49-61.

[11]

467-473.

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