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Pengantar

SCADA/EMS
Syarif Hidayat

Energy Control System
Why SCADA/EMS
• Facilitate Monitoring and Control of Power
System
• Automating Operation Processes
• Improve Reliability
• Reduce Outage
• Minimize Costs

Open System Characteristics
• The IEEE defines an open
system as one which
"implements sufficient
specifications for interfaces,
services and supporting
formats to enable properly
engineered application
software to be ported across
a wide range of systems with
minimal changes,
interoperate with other
applications on local and
remote systems, and interact
with users in a style which
facilitates user portability."

Existing Utility Information System .

SCADA/EMS Hardware Architecture Energy Management System EMS .

System Performance Data .

g.Server Modes • Process Control Mode • Test Mode (System and Database. e. after Release Upgrading) • Training Mode • Independent Operation Mode (Software Development and Testing) .

. • is an universal interface for remote terminal units (RTUs) • is fully integrated into the network control system SINAUT Spectrum (connected to the Spectrum LAN) • high availability by line redundancy ..Telecontrol Interface TCl Telecontrol Interface TCl .

System Configuraton .

System Configuration Remote TCI .

System Configuration Remote TCR .

System Configuration Remote TCR (redundant) .

Telecontrol Interface Rack (TCR) .

Open System with IEC 870-5-104 .

RDBMS – ORACLE Redundancy .

Advantages of a Relational Source Database • Standard query language SQL • Modification and Extension of the data base scheme is easy • Comfortable tools exist – (Graphical user interface. Security and access rights. Report generator. Data integrity. Backup and Recovery. Queryby-Example) • The data model is independent from the physical data storage • The standard data base provides functions for Transaction management. Distributed data bases .

Menu-Assisted. Zooming. Historical Values. MOTIF) Display Selection via 'Drag and Drop'. etc .UI Functions • • • • • • Full Graphics (X-Windows. Panning.. Network Coloring . On-line Help Function. Decluttering. Console and Operator Specific Access Rights Single Line Diagrams Multi-Layer Based Worldmaps.Terminal (X-11) InterfaceConnectivity for all X-Terminals (PCs. Rear Projection Systems.) Automatic Pixel Mapping (Resolution Adjustment) Operator Alarming and Guidance Navigator Window. Acoustic Annunciations Dynamic Toolbars Object orientated and context sensitive operator dialogue via dynamic toolbar Console Access Rights Password Login Procedure.. Multiscreening Integrated X . Analogs. Visualization of Status Data.

Screen and/or Printer Output • Curve Display/Trending – Display in any Worldmap (separate window or integrated).UI Functions (2) • Lists and Logs Visualization and Operation in Scrollable Windows.25 . Schedule Function • Remote UI I Workstations – No Distance Limitations by Usage of X. Display of Historical and Forecasted Values • Softcopy – Screen or Window Output to Different Printers • Operator Notebook – Integrated Notebook Window.

– Concentrator Function and Transparent Telegram Routing.SCADA Functions -.Data Acquisition • Via RTUs by Telecontrol Interface TCI – Standard Protocol I EC 870-5-101 or Different Proprietary Protocols. Threshold Supervision – Time Synchronization – System Monitoring / Test and Diagnostic Tools • From other Control Centers via WAN Gateways – ELCOM '90 Protocol – ICCP Protocol . – Plausibility Check. Old/New comparison.

Arithmetical / Comparison / Logical / Functional Operators • Counter Value Processing Completeness Check.Data Processing • Status Data Processing Alarms. Sequence of Events • Analog Data Processing Limit Check. Normal Switching State. Network Groups. Threshold Adaption. Operational Status • Data Calculation Definition of Formulas. Statuses. Maximum / Minimum / Average Values • Dynamic Network Coloring Network Topology.SCADA Functions -. Authorization of Values • Counting of Operating Hours / Numbers of Operations .

Lists. – Single / Page Acknowledgement – Alarm Inhibit . Mapboard.SCADA Functions – Alarm and Event Processing • Alarm / Event Administration – Operator Alarming – Assignment to Alarm Classes and Technological Area Responsibility • Alarm / Event Presentation – Visual Annunciation in Displays. Logs. – Additional Acoustic Annunciation • Alarm / Event Handling and Control . Summaries .

Visualization • Mimic Board • Analog and Status Outputs • Display of Communication Link Status . Local Inputs and Lamp Test • Local Acoustic Annunciator Connection .SCADA Functions -.

Supervisory Control .Security Features • Interlocking conditions – Topological interlocking conditions – Freely definable via decision tables • Monitoring features • Monitoring network status changes during control operations Plausibility checks during creation of control sequences • Network applications security check • • Check-back monitoring • Check before operate (dependent on RTU ) .

– – – – Feeder switching Busbar change .Functions • Base functions – Single control .Supervisory Control . break. – Technological editing – Recording of actual supervisory control actions – Integration of organizational steps (wait. comments) • Customer-specific control sequences – Triggered by operator – Triggered by an event / message of the process . Line switching Transformer switching • Switching procedure management . Tagging – Manual update • Predefined control sequences .

Power System Management .

– Schematic Maps only – No Interaction with GIS – Energy huge 0.000 Points 100% Telemetry Meshed Operations Static Network Conf.500.000 Distribution Stations 0 .EMS-DMS Difference • EMS .000 Points 0 10% Telemetry 0 Radial Operation 0 Very Dynamic Network Configuration 0 Schematic/Geographic Maps 0 Interaction with GIS 0 Energy medium .Distribution – – – – – < 200 Substations < 30.Transmission DMS .60.

Characteristics of EMS • Clear and Up-to-Date Information Display and Secure Network Control • Simple and Quick Data Input and Maintenance • Easy Handling of Scheduled Switching Operations • Support for Fault Location & Isolation. Service Restoration and Network Reconfiguration • Better Utilization of Network Capacity • Power Loss Minimization • Increase of Supply Reliability and Quality • Support for Enterprise-Wide Information System Integration .

EMS Functions • Automatic Dispatching • Power System Analysis .

Automatic Dispatching • Operation Monitor (OM). 10 seconds • • • • • System Frequency Actual Generation Actual Load Surplus/Deficiency of power Area Control Error (ACE) – Constant Frequency Control – Frequency and Time Error Control .

Average Power Demand .

Regulation in Large (upper chart) and Small (lower chart) Systems .

Automatic Dispatching (2) • Load Frequency Control (LFC).N*Pr Pg = Unit Desired Generated Power Po = Unit base Point Pr = Unit Regulation Bandwidth N = Analog Signal of LFC (-1 -.+1) . 5 seconds • • • • • Pg = Po +.

Automatic Dispatching (3) • Reserve Computation & Monitory (RM). 5 minutes • • • • • Total available generating capacity Spinning reserve Non-spinning reserve Operating reserve Reactive reserve .

In unobservable set Minimize flow deviation on boundary of observable/unobservable Sets estimation value for generation. load & voltage of all buses in network • Calculate confidence factor of the estimation . load flow & voltage meas.Power System Analysis • Power System Model Update (PSMU) • Network topology • Bus loads • Common model • State Estimation (SE) • • • • • • • Calculate all islands in islanding operation Utilizes multiple bus voltage measurement Supports data input filtering Detects bad data Accepts injection.

Power System Analysis (2) • Contingency Analysis (CA) • • • • • Branch outages Reactor/capacitor switching Generator outages Load outages State changes of switching • Power Flow (PF) • • • • Off-line/on-line modes Utilize base cases Interactive input/output operation Calculate and display: – Active and reactive power flow – Magnitude and angle of bus voltages .