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SOLARENERGYTHESUSTAINABLEENERGYOPTION
INKARNATAKA
T.V.RamachandraGaneshHegdeRishabhJain
Energy&WetlandsResearchGroup,CentreforEcologicalSciences,IndianInstituteofScience,
Bangalore560012,INDIA
Email:cestvr@ces.iisc.ernet.in(mailto:cestvr@ces.iisc.ernet.in)

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SOLAR ENERGY THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY OPTION IN


KARNATAKA
ABSTRACT
Solar energy incident on the earths surface primarily depends on parameters like geographic
location,earthsunmovements,tiltoftheearthsrotationalaxisandatmosphericattenuationdue
to suspended particles. The intensity of solar energy insolation quantifies the solar resource
potential or availability of a region. A technoeconomic analysis of the solar power technologies
and a prospective utilization of wasteland in each taluk demonstrate the immense power
generationpotentialwiththeprospectsofgreenhousegases(GHG)emissionreduction.Karnataka
has a very good solar potential which gets an average insolation more than 5 kWh/m2/day,
having about 300330 clear sunny days. The study deals with the prospects and opportunities to
harvestnaturesbountifulsolarpotentialtomeetthedecentralizedenergydemandbyallregions
andactivities.

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Land required for electric power generation (direct or indirect usage) is a major concern due to
the associated ecological and environmental concerns such as deforestation, population
displacement, pollution of air, water and land environment. Considering the scope of harvesting
solar energy at each households roof tops, would minimize the demand for land. Approximate
area required to install 1kW SPV panels is about 100 m2. Rooftop area required through SPV to
meetthemonthlyhouseholddemandof50100units(kWh),wouldbeafractionof100m2 (56%)
as area required is directly proportional to the installed capacity or demand.Similarly, to meet
the irrigation energy demand in rural area, the assessment shows that 1to 3% of current
wastelandissufficient.
Analysis the technoeconomic aspects of different solar technologies (thermal and photovoltaic)
with the current scenario and future challenges have the equal importance in this context. Solar
thermal systems and photovoltaic systems are two fundamentally different concepts of solar
energy conversion. Solar thermal system concentrates heat energy in solar radiations and
transfers that energy to a carrying medium (liquid or gas). Solar photovoltaic directly converts
solar radiations into direct current (DC) using photoelectric effect. It uses semiconductor device
(silicon) which is called as PV cell. Technoeconomic analysis shows the energy harvesting from
solarradiationsinlargescaleisfeasibleconsideringtheotherpowertechnologies.
Karnataka is the pioneer in Renewable Energy (RE) based power generation. Though 25% of the
energy come from RE sources, majority of the RE potential are still not exploited which include
rooftop PV technology and PV installation in waste/barren lands. Currently state is facing
electricity deficiency problem where the supply demand gap is becoming wider. Hence it is
recommendedthatratherthaninstallingcapacityfossilfuelbasedplants,REbaseddecentralized
electricenergygenerationiseffectiveandreliable.
Karnataka receives an average insolation of 5.55 kWh/m2/day annually. Insolation varies from
4.5to7kWh/m2/day throughout the year. All districts of the state receive average insolation of
5.5 to 6.5 kWh/m2/day annually except Kodagu (55.5 kWh/m2/day). This highlights that solar
energybasedelectricitygenerationwouldhelpinmeetingthegrowingenergydemand.
The government support and encouragement for decentralized rooftop generation would
significantly contribute to meet the present and future electricity demand of the state. A
generation based incentive (GBI) would encourage decentralized electricity generation at
individualrooftops.Someoftheotherinitiativestobetakenare1)solarpublicandroadlighting,
2) RE based generation in government organizations and infrastructure, 3) implementation of
solarrooftopgenerationinexistinggovt.buildingandfinancialencourageforthesame.Switching
over to RE technologies would also help in bringing down GHG emission and pressure on
dwindlingstockoffossilfuels.

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KEYWORDS: Insolation, land use, wasteland, thermal and photovoltaic, photoelectric effect,
semiconductordevice.
1.INTRODUCTION
Sun is the largest and everlasting energy source. Human civilization is harvesting energy from
solarradiationsfromtimeimmemorial.Indiabeinginfavorablelocationinthesolarbelt(40Sto
40N)andmorethan300clearsunnydaysinayearreceivesplentyofsolarenergy,whichplays
animportantroleinfoodproduction(fromphotosynthesis)andsustainstheeconomicgrowthofa
region[1].Energyfromthesunisreceivedintheformofelectromagneticradiations.About99%
of the solar energy received is in the wavelength band of 0.154 m and about 40% of the
radiationreceivedisvisibleradiationrangesfrom0.4to0.7m[2].Solarradiationsarebroadly
classifiedasdirectsolarradiations,diffusedsolarradiationandglobalsolarradiation.Depending
onthetypeofincidencedirectsolarradiationisdividedintotwotypes.Radiationreceivedonunit
areawhichisheldnormaltothesolarbeamattheearthssurfaceinunittimeisthedirectsolar
radiation at normal incidence (IN). Direct solar radiation on a horizontal surface is the radiation
passingthroughahorizontalsurfaceinaunittime(IH).Thisisalsocalledtheverticalcomponent
of the direct solar radiation. Diffuse solar radiation is the radiation scattered due to suspended
particles and cloud (D). Global solar radiation(G) includes both direct and diffused solar
radiations. It is the total quantity of solar radiation received on unit horizontal surface area on
theearthssurfaceinaunittime[3,4,7].TherelationbetweenG,D,INandIHis
IH=(GD)andIN=

(1)

wherehistheangleofelevationofthesun.
Solar energy also referred as insolation,incident on the earths surface, primarily depends on
parameterslike geographic location, earthsun movements, tilt of the earths rotational axis and
atmospheric attenuation due to suspended particles [4]. Solar technologies such as Solar
Photovoltaic (SPV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems utilize solar radiation
wavelengths between 0.295.5m as major part of the spectrum gets attenuated in other
wavelengthsduetoeitherabsorptionorscatteringintheatmosphere.Factorsaffectingthesolar
insolation are the solar elevation (at noon), atmospheric particles, duration of the day, and the
total amount of water vapor in the air and the type and amount of the cloud. Installation of SPV
arrays or CSP systems requires land area and the availability of land in a region is one of the
importantfactorsinsolarbasedenergyplants[5].
2.SOLARENERGY:NEEDANDOPPORTUNITIES

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India has the second highest population (1.24 billion) in the world. The industrialization,
urbanisation and consequent activities have increased the energy demand. Electricity meets a
majorportionofthisenergydemandandisnotablyrelatedtothesocioeconomicprogressofthe
country. The energy from conventional sources accounts to 87.89%. The Compound Annual
Growth Rate (CAGR) of power generation in India since 2005 is 5.2% while there was a peak
shortageof12.7%(over15GW)andaverageTransmissionandDistribution(T&D)lossof27.2%
recorded during 20092010. The total installed generating capacity in the country has increased
by255%from58,012MW(1989)to2,06,456MW(2011)[6].Coalisdominant(56.81%) among
conventionalenergy sources.The Integrated Energy Policy (IEPR 2006) in India has envisaged
more than 8,00,000 MW (Megawatts) by 2032 which is 5 times the existing power generation
capacity. Considering the growing environmental problems coupled with the diminishing stock of
fossil fuels, the focus has now shifted to the renewable sources of energy, which as on today
accounts to only 12.11%.Globally India ranks fifth in harvesting renewable energy with 15,691.4
MWgridconnectedplantsand367.9MWoffgridplants[7].
Per capita electricity consumption has gone up by 170 %, from 283 (199293) to 765 (201011)
kWh.Theenergy/GDPinIndiais1020timeshigherthanthatoftheindustrializedcountrieslike
USA, Japan, etc.), indicating scope for improvement of the efficiencies in energy consumptions.
Inordertohavemoredisposableenergy,plausibleapproachhencewouldbetoincreasetheend
use efficiency or to minimize the loss and meeting the energy demand through the renewable
sources.
Adrastic growth in the power sector during postindependence is unable to meet every ones
energydemandevidentfromabout74millionhouseholdsstillnothavingaccesstoelectricityand
nearly 32,800unelectrified villages in the country [8]. This necessitates a decentralized, low
carbon,reliable,efficientandrenewableoptions for energy generation. Key features of RE based
generationare
Decentralizedgeneration,reducingT&Dlosses
Easiervoltagemanagementatsubstationlevelsandminimizedvoltagefluctuations
Easiermaintenanceandreducedpilferages
Possibilityofremotelocationelectrification[9]
Scope for decentralized development at local levels with job opportunities due to the
assuredenergysupplyandavailabilityofnaturalresources[10]
Lowered carbon emissions and scope for availing the benefits under clean development
mechanism(CDM)asperKyotoProtocol
Energyindependenceduetothereduceddependencyoffossilfuelsandimports.
In this perspective, power sector regulators, central policy makers with state authorities have
taken many initiatives to encourage RE generation and usage in the country. Some of the
prominentinitiativesarediscussedbelow.

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2.1. Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO): RPO is an agreement between Regulatory


authorities and the consumers or power supplying utilities. According to this agreement Load
Serving Entities (LSE), Open Access customers and Captive Power Plants (CPP) are required to
purchase a fixed fraction of annual energy purchase from RE based power plants or they are
required to generate that energy by their own. The RPO target is fixed for the energy purchase
and not on the total installed capacity [11]. Table 1 gives the state wise RPO (Renewable
PurchaseObligationforsolarenergyin%oftotalenergypurchase)inIndia.
Table1:StatewiseRPOinIndia(%oftotalenergypurchase)

State

Order
dated

Andhra

Final26th

Pradesh

July,2010

Assam

Draft21st
June,2010

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
11
0.25

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
0.25 0.25 0.25

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.25

0.5

0.75

0.1

1.25

1.25

Final16th
Bihar

November,
2010
Draft 9th

Chhattisgarh November

0.25

0.25 0.25

2010
Gujarat

Final17th
April,2010

0.25

0.5

0.25

0.5

0.75

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.25

0.5

Final
Haryana

November,

1.5

1.75

2.25

2.5

2.75

2010
Himachal
Pradesh

Final12th
March,
2010
Final31th

Jharkhand

March,
2010
Final16th

Karnataka

March,

0.25

2011

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Kerala

SolarEnergythesustainableenergyoptioninKarnataka

Final23rd
November,

0.25

2010
Madhya
Pradesh

Maharashtra

Final19th
0.4

November,

0.6

0.8

0.5

0.5

0.5

2010
Final7th
June,2010

Manipur

Final5th

(JERC)

May,2010

0.25

0.25 0.25

0.25

0.25 0.25

Final21st
Meghalaya

December,

0.2

0.3

0.4

2010
Mizoram

Final5th

(JERC)

May,2010

0.25

0.25 0.25

0.25

0.25 0.25

Final20th
Nagaland

October,
2010
Final16th

Orissa

March,

0.5

0.75

1.25

0.5

0.75

2010

Rajasthan

Final31st

100

January,

MW

2011
TamilNadu

Draft19th
May,2011

(PPA*)
0.15

0.25 0.25

Draft9th
Tripura

November,

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.25

0.5

2009
Uttar
Pradesh

Uttarakhand

Final17th
August,
2010
Final6th
July,2010

0.03 0.05

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WB

(total Final10th

RE)

August,

10

2010
(Source:AnalysisofstatewiseRPORegulationacrossIndia,MNRE.
<mnre.gov.in/file.../Solar%20RPO/analysisofstateRPOregulations.pdf
>)
*PowerPurchaseAgreement
2.2. Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism: REC mechanism provides a choice to
the customer or utility so that RE generated can be sold at pre decided tariffs. This will help to
utilize locally available RE source potential to generate energy and also enables energy trading
option.
REC is a market based aspect which helps customers and utilities to meet their obligations. It is
not related to carbon credits but traded through auction in power exchanges. REC price is
determinedonceamonthandquantifiedconsideringatleastoneMWhofelectricityinjected into
thegridfromrenewableenergysources[12].
2.3.PolicyInitiatives:TheNationalActionPlanofClimateChange(NAPCC)setthetargetof5%
purchaseofelectricalenergyfromREbasedgeneration(FY200910),whichistobeincreasedby
1% per year for the next 10 years. Various federal governments in the country have also taken
upmanyinitiativesthroughincentivestoboosttheREsector.TheMinistryofNewandRenewable
Energy Resources (MNRE), Government of India formulated Electricity Act 2003 realizing the
scopeofREsector.Majorhighlightsare
The State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) to specify, for the purchase of
electricityfromREsources,apercentageofthetotalconsumptionofelectricityinthearea
ofadistributionlicensee.
SERC has to promote cogeneration and RE based generation with suitable measures to
connectgridortosupplylocalconsumers.
FriendlytariffstructuretoencouragecogenerationandREbasedgenerationbySERC.
SERCs have to specify a Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) with the specified feed
intariff and other terms and conditions to promote cogeneration and/or generation of
electricityfromrenewableenergysources.
Subsequent,policyinterventionsare:
NationalElectricityPolicy2005:EmphasisontheshareofelectricityfromREsourcesand
purchasebydistributioncompaniesshallbethroughcompetitivebiddingprocess.
National Tariff Policy 2006: NTP, 2006 mandates that SERCs purchase a minimum
percentage of energy from renewablesources. This policy was further revised to include
solar power purchase obligation of 0.25% in Phase 1 with the expected growth of

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3% by 2022.State utilities can also purchase solarspecificRenewable Energy Certificates


(RECs)fromparticipatingprojects[13].
2.4.FeedinTariffs(FITs)wereintroducedtoencouragetheREbasedgeneration.Itisbasicallya
payment given for the consumer for generating electricity from RE sources and feeding it to the
grid.FITisfixedbythepowersupplyingutilitiesbasedonthegenerationcostorthe present per
unit cost of electricity. Normally the FIT is fixed for certain years in order to encourage the
consumertohavelongtermgenerationofelectricityfromallREsources.FederalstatesinIndia
have separate FIT structure for RE generation [1416]. State wise FIT structure for solar PV and
solarthermalgenerationisgivenintheTable2.
Table2:StatewiseFeedIntariff(FIT)structureforsolarpowerplantsinIndia

State

Tariffstructure

Tariff

(Rs/kWh)

period

OrderDated

Incentives

SolarThermal (Years)

SolarPV

Overall Rs. 17.91 without


AndhraPradesh

Accelerated depreciation (AD)

25

andRs.14.95withAD
Rs. 5.50 for 1st year and 3%
Assam

Draft13.07.2010 incrementineverysubsequent

25

year
Bihar

Final02.08.2010

Overall Rs. 10.9 without AD


andRs.9.85withAD

25
Additional

Rs. 15.84 (1 Rs. 13.26 (1


Chhattisgarh

Final09.07.2010 MW

and MW

above)

and

Rs.

3.84/kWh for SPV


10

above)

and 3.26/kWh for


solar thermal (1
MWandabove)

Delhi

Final09.072010

Rs.17.91

Rs.15.31

Rs. 15 for (for Rs.


initial
Gujarat

11

12 initial

(for
12

Final31.08.2010 years)andRS. years)andRS.

25

5 (from 13th 4 (from 13th


to25thyear)

to25thyear)

Rs. 9.18 for


Crystalline
Haryana

Final08.07.2010

SPV and Rs.

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8.90 for thin


filmSPV
Jammu&Kashmir Final02.06.2010 Rs.17.91

Rs.15.31

Jharkhand

Final23.06.2010 Rs.17.91

Rs.15.31

Karnataka

Final13.07.2010 Rs.14.50

Rs.11.35

25
Maximum of Rs.
10/kWh for solar
thermal

projects

(commissioned by
Kerala

Final01.01.2009

Overall Rs. 15.18 (including


incentives)

31.12.2009 ) and
10

Rs. 9.50/kWh for


solar thermal and
Rs. 11.40/kWh for
SPV for projects
(commissioned
after31.12.2009)

Rs. 15.35 (>2


MW and for
MadhyaPradesh

Final06.07.2010 rooftop
upto

PV Rs.11.26

25

MW

15.49)
To be higher by Rs.0.50/kWh
Maharashtra

Final07.06.2010 or such higher amount as

25

decidedbycommission
Orissa

Final09.07.2010 OverallRs.15.39

25

Rs.3.13/kWh
Accelerated

Punjab

OverallRs.10.39

25

depreciation

Rs.

1.04/kWh
Rs.15.32
Rajasthan

Final29.09.2010

Rs.

12.58

(commissioned (commissioned
by31.03.2012) by31.03.2013)

25

Accelerated
TamilNadu

Final08.07.2010 OverallRs.15.51

25

depreciation

Rs.

3.35/kWh
UttarPradesh

Final22.06.2010

Rs. 5.50 (for 1styear and

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incrementof3%everyyear)
Accelerated
Uttarakhand

Final06.07.2010 OverallRs.17.7

25

depreciation

Rs.

1.65/kWh
Rs.16.13
WestBengal

Final10.08.2010 (100 kW to 2

25

MW)
(Source:RenewableEnergyPolicy,MNRE,GoI.)
3.OBJECTIVE
Objectivesofthecurrentstudyare
1. Assessmentofsolarenergypotentialregionandmonthwise
2. Assessmentofrooftopavailableintheregion
3. EstimatingthewastelandrequiredtoharvestelectricalenergyusingsolarPVtechnologyto
meetthepresentdemandinalldistrictsand
4. Tosuggestviableapproachesforharvestingelectricityfromsolarsources.
4.MATERIALANDMETHOD
4.1.StudyArea:Karnataka
Karnatakaislocatedbetween74.2to78.5longitudesand11.3to18.8latitudescoveringthe
areaof1,91,791km2(Figure1).Itisthe8thbiggeststateofthecountrywithpopulationdensity
of320/km2. Karnataka state is located in peninsular India and has 30 districts, 176 Taluks with
morethan29,000villages.Statereceivesanaveragerainfallof3,638mmperannumandannual
averageinsolationof5.55kWh/m2/day.Figure1givestheoverviewofthestate.

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Figure1:OverviewofKarnataka
(Source:CensusofIndia2011DirectorateofEconomicsandStatistics,GoKandWastelands
AtlasofIndia2011)
4.2.QuantificationofSolarPotential
NASA SSE Global insolation datasets are derived from a physical model based on the radiative
transfer in the atmosphere along with parameterization of its absorption and scattering
properties. The primary inputs to this model include visible and infrared radiation, cloud and
surface properties, temperature, perceptible water, column ozone amounts and atmospheric
variables such as temperature and pressure measured using diverse satellite instruments. The
long wave and shortwave solar radiations reflected to the satellite sensors along with the
collected primary inputs are studied to obtain the global insolation for different locations and
durations. The 1X1 spatial resolution SSE global insolation data derived from NASA SSE web
portal(http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/)foraperiodof22years(July1st,1983toJune30th,
2005) were validated (RMSE of 10.28%) with Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) data
available as daily, monthly and annual averages obtained from measured values every 3 hours
[17,18].
In this study, the state wise NASA SSE monthly average Global insolation data is collected for
more than 900 grids which optimally cover the entire topography of India within the latitudes 8
to38Nandlongitudes68to98E.Ageostatisticalbilinearinterpolationisemployedtoproduce

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monthlyaverageGlobalinsolationmapsforallthestates.TheDirectinsolationisgivenby
I=(GD)/sin(2)
whereGistheGlobalinsolation,Disthediffusecomponentandisthesunselevationangle.
4.3.SectorwiseElectricalEnergyconsumption
Sectorwise electrical energy consumption from 200203 to 201011 is listed in Table 3.
Consumption has increased gradually from 21698.23 GWh (200203) to 36975.2 GWh (201011).
Figure 2 shows the relativeincrease in the consumption of electrical energy by various sectors
during 200203 to 201011. State is currently facing electric energy deficiency as consumption
hasexceededthegeneration.
Table3:SectorwiseelectricenergyconsumptioninGWh
Year

Domestic Commercial Agri./Irgn. Industry Others

Total

200203

4251.95

1162.76

8507.91

6504.78 1270.83 21698.23

200304

4462.13

1616.15

8992.48

6068.46 2003.95 23143.17

200405

4923.79

1925.48

9323.81

6470.47 2137.97 24781.52

200708

6322.94

3549.87

10808.65

6903.21 2403.27 29987.94

200809

6876.84

4014.53

11541.41

7266.81 2525.83 32225.42

200910

7360.09

4349.48

11894.9

7513.47 2692.39 33810.33

201011

8280.84

5018.51

12435.2

8442.11 2798.54 36975.2

(Source:TEDDYEnergyyearbookandAnnualReport201112onTheWorkingofStatePower
Utilities&ElectricityDepartmentsbyPlanningCommission,Govt.ofIndia.)
(Note:Electricalenergyconsumptiondataforyear200506and200607isnotavailable)

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Figure2:Sectorwiseelectricalenergyconsumptionfrom200203to201011
Figure 3 illustrates the sector wise electrical energy consumption in 201011. Agricultural and
irrigationpumpsetstopstheconsumptionwith34%(12435.2GWh),followedbyindustrialsector
(23%, 8442.11 GWh), domestic (22%, 8280.84 GWh) and commercial sector (14%, 5018.51
GWh).

Figure3:Sectorwiseshareofelectricenergyconsumption(201011)
Figure 4 gives the share of energy from various sources, where coal powered thermal power
generation constitutes a major share (45%), followed by hydropower (27%) and renewable
sources of energy (Renewable Energy: RE) sources (24%). Diesel and nuclear energy sources
supplyasmallshareof4%(2%byeachsource).

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Figure4:Shareofvariousenergysourcesintotalinstalledplantcapacity
(Source:CEA,India)
5.RESULTSANDDISCUSSION
5.1SolarenergyutilizationinKarnataka
SolarenergyisusedasbothgridinteractivesystemandasoffgridsolarsysteminKarnataka.It
has 6 MWp grid interactive system and 29.41 kWp capacity stand alone solar power plants. The
offgridsolarsystemsinthestatearegiveninTable4.
Table4:SolarenergyutilizationinKarnataka(ason31.03.2011)

Asgridinteractivesystem:6MWp

As Standalone solar systems Solar


Photovoltaic(SPV):29.41kWp

Streetlighting2,694innos.
SPVpumps551innos.
Houselighting36,134innos.
Solarlantern7,334innos.
Solarcookers253innos.
Powerplants255.41kWp

(Source:EnergyStatistics2012(19thIssue),CentralStatisticsofficeMinistryofstatisticsand
ProgrammeImplementationGovernmentofIndiaNewDelhi)
As of March 2013, state has cumulative installed capacity of 14 MW from solar energy under
differentschemesbythegovernment.Table5givesthedetailsoftheinstalledsolarpowerplants
inKarnataka.
Table5:Installedsolarpowerplantsinthestate

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Installer

Capacity(MW) Technology

Scheme

KarnatakaPowerCorporationLimited(KPCL)

SolarPV

JNNSM

KPCL(Kolar)

SolarPV

ArunodayaScheme

KPCL(Raichur)

SolarPV

ArunodayaScheme

KPCL(Belgaum)

SolarPV

ArunodayaScheme

14

Total

(Source:MNRE,Govt.ofIndia)
5.2.SolarpotentialinKarnataka
Karnataka receives an average insolation of 5.55 kWh/m2/day annually. Insolation varies from
4.5 to 7 kWh/m2/day throughout the year (Figure 5). All districts of the state receive average
insolationof5.5to6.5kWh/m2/dayannuallyexceptKodagu(55.5kWh/m2/day).

Figure5:Averageannualsolarinsolation(kWh/m2/day)inKarnataka
Figure6(6.16.12)givestheannualglobalinsolationdetailsofthestate.Globalinsolationdetails
ofallthedistrictsareshownforeverymonth,Figure6.1(January)toFigure6.12(December).

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Figure6.1:SolarpotentialduringJanuary
During January, except Gulberga and Bidar (55.5 kWh/m2/day) all other districts receive the
insolation of 5.56.5 kWh/m2/day. Over all, state gets an average insolation of 5.36
kWh/m2/dayinthismonth.

Figure6.2:SolarpotentialduringFebruary
During February, most of the districts receive insolation ranging from 5.56.5 kWh/m2/day
exceptDakshinaKannadaandMandyawhichgetshigherinsolationover6.5kWh/m2/day.

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Figure6.3:SolarpotentialduringMarch

Figure6.4:SolarpotentialduringApril
Figure6.3and6.4showstheinsolationreceivedinMarchandAprilstategetshighestinsolation
inthesemonths.Allthedistrictsofthestatereceivetheinsolationmorethan6.5kWh/m2/day.

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Figure6.5:SolarpotentialduringMay
During May, 5 districts in the southwest region receive insolation of 5.56.5 kWh/m2/day and
otherdistrictsgetinsolationover6.5kWh/m2/day.

Figure6.6:SolarpotentialduringJune
Districtsinthecoastalregiongetslowerinsolationof45kWh/m2/dayinJune.Mysore,Hassan,
Dharwad and Belgaum receive the insolation of 55.5 kWh/m2/day in this month. All other
districtsreceiveinsolationof5.56.5kWh/m2/day.

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Figure6.7:SolarpotentialduringJuly
Districtsinthewesternregion(coastalregion)getslowerinsolationof45kWh/m2/dayinJuly.
Other12districtsexceptKolar(5.56.5kWh/m2/day)receiveinsolationof55.5kWh/m2/day.

Figure6.8:SolarpotentialduringAugust
During August, 8 districts in the westrrn region and Bidar get lower insolation of 45
kWh/m2/day. Other districts except Kolar (5.56.5 kWh/m2/day) get insolation of 55.5
kWh/m2/day.

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Figure6.9:SolarpotentialduringSepetmber
During September, all districts in the western part and northern part of the state receive
insolationof55.5kWh/m2/day.Other11districtsgethigherinsolationof5.56.5kWh/m2/day.

Figure6.10:SolarpotentialduringOctober
During October 7 districts in the northern part of the state receive insolation of 5.56.5
kWh/m2/day. Southern districts get insolation of 55.5 kWh/m2/day, but kodagu gets lowest
insolationinthismonth(45kWh/m2/day).

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Figure6.11:SolarpotentialduringNovember
Most of the districts of the state receive insolation of 55.5 kWh/m2/day except Kolar (45
kWh/m2/day)andUttaraKannada(5.56.5kWh/m2/day)inNovember.

Figure6.12:SolarpotentialduringDecember
During December, Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada, Shimoga, Chikkamagalur, Hassan and
Kodugu receive insolation of 5.56.5 kWh/m2/day. All other districts receive insolation of 45
kWh/m2/day.
5.3.Landrequirement

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Landusebypowerplantsisoneofthemajorfactorstobeconsideredintheearlyplanningofany
power plant. The assessment shows that to setup 1 kW solar power plant (SPV based) land
required is about 100 m2. Scope for solar energy is assessed considering i) the present energy
demand, ii) extent of wasteland available in the region, and iii) scope for rooftop based SPV for
meetingtherespectivehouseholddemand.
5.4.Districtwiseavailabilityofwastelandsandbarrenland
Table6summarizesthedistrictwisewastelandandbarrenlandinthestateaspertheATLASof
wastelands(2011).AvailabilityofwastelandinKarnatakarangesfrom1.88%(Bijapur)to15.88%
(Bellary) of TGA (Total Geographical Area). Unproductive barren land ranges from 0.02%
(Haveri)to1.58%(Raichur)
Table6:Districtwisedistributionofwastelandsandbarrenlandsinkm2

Districts

TGA
(km2)

WL
(NRSC)
(km2)

%ofWL
inTGA

Barren
Land*
(km2)

%ofBarren

%ofBarren

LandinTGA

LandinWL

Bagalkot

6575

787.55

11.98

82.75

1.26

10.51

BangaloreRural

5815

588.27

10.12

87.86

1.51

14.94

2190

90.3

4.12

1.68

0.08

1.86

13415

1108.38

8.26

1.31

0.01

0.12

Bellary

8419

1336.8

15.88

75.41

0.90

5.64

Bidar

5448

383.01

7.03

2.12

0.04

0.55

10494

198.43

1.89

44.71

0.43

22.53

Chamarajanagar

5685

373.94

6.58

5.41

0.10

1.45

Chikmagalur

7201

284.96

3.96

14.65

0.20

5.14

Chitradurga

8440

935.97

11.09

77.79

0.92

8.31

4843

172.88

3.57

26.99

0.56

15.61

Davanagere

5966

483.81

8.11

4.87

0.08

1.01

Dharwad

4230

112.38

2.66

0.6

0.01

0.53

Gadag

4657

305.75

6.57

16.13

0.35

5.28

16224

994.35

6.13

107.19

0.66

10.78

6814

328.48

4.82

5.49

0.08

1.67

Bangalore
Urban
Belgaum

Bijapur

Dakshina
Kannada

Gulbarga
Hassan

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Haveri

4851

137.14

2.83

0.86

0.02

0.63

Kodagu

4102

107.4

2.62

3.25

0.08

3.03

Kolar

8223

752.8

9.15

129.11

1.57

17.15

Koppal

7189

472.42

6.57

53.06

0.74

11.23

Mandya

4961

374.41

7.55

35.29

0.71

9.43

Mysore

6269

115.71

1.85

1.82

0.03

1.57

Raichur

6828

658.25

9.64

108.14

1.58

16.43

Shimoga

8465

481.53

5.69

2.98

0.04

0.62

Tumkur

10598

623.77

5.89

102.16

0.96

16.38

3598

181.45

5.04

36.75

1.02

20.25

10291

640.48

6.22

7.59

0.07

1.19

6.79

1035.97

0.54

7.95

Udupi
UttaraKannada
Total

191791 13030.62

(Source:WastelandsAtlasofIndia2011)
*BarrenLands:SandsCoastal,SandsDesertic,SandsSemiStab.Stab>40m,SandsSemiStab.
Stab1540m,MiningWastelands,Industrialwastelands,BarrenRocky/Stonywaste.
5.5.Scopeforelectricitygenerationusingsolarpotential
Electric energy can be harvested directly from solar radiations using solar photovoltaic (SPV)
cells (modules). These SPV modules can be mounted on rooftop (domestic supply) or can be
installedinanoutdoorarea(wasteland/barrenland)forhighercapacityofgenerationwhichshall
meettheirrigationdemand.
5.5.1.SolarrooftopPVtechnology
About 68.43% of the population lives in rural areas of the state where the domestic electrical
energyconsumptionrangesfrom40to60kWhpermonthperhousehold.Inruralareapercapita
energy consumption is about 10 to 12 kWh/month. This domestic demand can be supplied using
solarPVinstallationontherooftopwheretheaveragerooftopareaavailableis109.83m2. Figure
7 shows the digitization of rural and urban household rooftop in the state. To generate 60 kWh
permonthusingrooftopsolarPVtechnology,roofarearequiredisabout4.12%(3.62m2)ofthe
totalareaavailable(=10%,effectivearea=80%ofavailablearea).
Inatypicalurbanhouseholdtheavailablerooftopareaisabout1,200sq.feet(112m2) in which
80% of the area can be optimized for solar energy harvesting. The average electricity
consumption in urban area ranges from 100 to 150 kWh. This domestic energy demand can be
metbyrooftopPVinstallationwhichutilizes10.1%(9.1m2)oftheavailablerooftoparea.

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Figure7:Digitizedimagesofurbanandruralhouseholdrooftoparea(GoogleEarthimage2012)
5.5.2.Electricenergyharvestedfromsolarenergyusingwasteland
Figure 8 shows the month wise electric energy that could be generated using 2% of wasteland
area (260.61 km2 or 25.1% of the barren lands) and the average demand. The estimate shows
thattheelectricitygeneratedwouldbeatleast1.9timeshigherthanthepresentdemand(2010
11).

Figure8:Electricalpowergenerationfromwastelandwithmonthlyaveragedemandand
averageinsolation
Figure 8 also gives the wastelands required (1.2%, 156.36 km2) to generate sufficient electrical
energywhichcouldmeetthepresentelectricitydemand(36,975GWh)inKarnataka.

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6.RECOMMENDATIONSFORSUSTAINABLEENERGYDURING21STCENTURY
Solar energy based generation seems promising and environmental friendly option to meet the
growing demands. India is blessed with the good solar potential and harvesting this potential
would minimize the environmental implications associated with the fossil fuels. Solar PV
technology has the potential to meet the domestic and irrigation demandsin the decentralized
way. Appropriate policy incentives might help in the large scale deployment of solar devices at
householdlevels.Thereisaneedtofocusonenergyefficientdecentralizedelectricitygeneration
technologieswithmicrogridandsmartgridarchitecture,whichwouldgolongwayinmeetingthe
energydemand.Inthisregard,suggestionsare:
1. ElectricitygenerationusingSPVandCSPtechnologieswouldbridgethedemandsupplygap
asIndiareceivesabundantsolarenergyofmorethan5kWh/m2/dayforabout300daysin
a year. The adequate potential with mature technologies and apt policy incentives would
helpinmeetingtheelectricitydemandinaregion.
2. RooftopbasedSPVwouldhelpinmeetingthehouseholdenergydemandinruralaswellas
urban households. Rural household require about 70100 kWh per month and to meet this
requirement 56 m2 rooftop is adequate (at =10%, and insolation of 5 kWh/m2/day) and
the average rooftop in rural locations in Karnataka is about 110 m2 and about 115 m2 in
urbanlocalities.
3. Adequatebarren/wastelandisavailableinKarnatakaastheavailablewastelandisabout
7% of the total geographical area less than 1% area is sufficient to generate electricity
requiredforirrigationanddomesticsectorthroughSPVinstallation.
4. SPV installation in waste/barren lands supports decentralized electricity generation and
enables multi utilization of the area for activities such as grazing, livestock farming, etc.
About 45 million households are still not electrified in India, which have potential to
generateenoughelectricityfromrooftopSPVinstallationrooftopSPVinstallation would be
therevolutionarymethodofruralelectrification.
5. Rooftop SPV installation is the most adoptable technology in highly populous countries like
India, where the monthly electricity consumption of a household ranges from 50 to 100
kWh.Encouragement for roof top SPV based electricity generation rather than centralized
generationthroughincentives,financialaidforinitialinstallationandtaxholidays.
To supply electricity to households in remote areas entails investment on infrastructure
apart from transmission and distribution (T&D) loss of electricity. Current assessment
reveals that T&D loss in Karnataka is about 19.5% resulting in the loss of 7,210.16 GWh

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(annual demand is 36,975.2 GWh in 201011) of energy. Cost of energy loss ranges from
Rs. 1,514.13 crores (@ Rs. 2.10/kWh) to Rs. 5,047.11 crores (@ Rs. 7/kWh) depending
uponthetariff(intherespectivestate).
Decentralized generation of electricity through SPV would help in meeting the respective
households electricity demand apart from the removal of T&D losses. Generation based
incentives (GBI) would herald the decentralized electricity generation, which would help in
boostingtheregionaleconomy.ConsideringthecurrentlevelofT&Dlossesincentralized
system, inefficient and unreliable electricity supply, it is necessary to promote
decentralized energy generation. Small capacity systems are efficient, economical and
moreimportantlywouldmeetthelocalelectricitydemand.Theincentivecouldbe
Rs. 4.00 per unit for first five years (comparable to subsidies granted to mini
hydelprojects,thepowerpurchaseatRs3.40)andRs.3.50forthenexttwoyears
fortheelectricitygeneratedfromrooftopsolarPV.
Buyback programmes for the electricity generated at household level and in micro
grid GBI of Rs. 5 to be provided for electricity generation (< 5 kW) feeding to the
gridbySPV.
Free solar home lighting (with LED lamps) under the Chief Ministers Solar Powered
Green House Scheme (CMSPGHS), Government of Karnataka or JNNSM (Jawaharlal
NehruNationalSolarMission,GovernmentofIndia).
AllstreetlightsandwaterSupplyinstallationsinlocalbodiestobeenergizedthrough
solarpower(orhybridmechanism)inaphasedmanner
Install solar rooftops in all new government/local body buildings implementation of
solar rooftops could be in a phased manner in the existing government/local body
buildings,etc.
Exemption from payment of electricity tax to the extent of 100% on electricity
generated from solar power projects used for selfconsumption/sale to utility to be
allowedforatleast10years.
Fixingofstandardsforqualityinstallation.
6. Commercial lighting in advertisement boards should only be from SPV panels. Complete
banonusageofgridelectricityforthesepurposes.
7. Impetus to energy research through generous funding for the R and D activities to ensure
furtherimprovementsinthegrid,technologies,twowaycommunicationenergymeters(to
connect rooftop generation with existing grid), efficient luminaries production, low cost

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wiring,switchgears,appliances,etc.
8. Energy education (focusing mainly on renewable energy technologies, enduse energy
efficiencyimprovements,energyconservation)atalllevels.Schoolcurriculumshallinclude
renewableenergy(RE)concepts.
9. Awareness about energy independence and the necessity of RE sources in the present
gloomyenergyscenariototheconsumers
10. Educationandawarenessaboutapplicationsandimportanceofrenewableenergysources.
11. Capacity building of youth through technical education for installation and servicing of SPV
panels.
12. Diploma/ITIcourseswithhandontrainingonrenewableenergytechnologiesinalltaluks
13. Settingupservicecentersinblockdevelopmentofficestomeettherequirementofservice
supportforREtechnologies(Solar,biogas,energyefficientchulas,etc.).
14. PeriodicrevisionofFITstructureandincentivestoencouragetheconsumers.
15. Mandatoryoneweekcapacitybuilding/trainingprogrammestoallbureaucratsandenergy
professionals at the initial stages of the career. This is essential as lack of
awareness/knowledge among the bureaucrats is the major hurdle for successful
disseminationofrenewableenergytechnologiesinIndia
7.CONCLUSION
SolarenergyisthemostwidelyavailableREsourcefordecentralizedenergygenerationthrough
PVandthermalenergyconversion.Geographicinformationsystem(GIS)basedinsolationdata is
usedforassessingthepotentialanddesignofthesystemwherethevariations are in acceptable
limitandcomparisonwithgroundmeasurementshavegivenbetteraccuracy.Withtheknowledge
ofinsolationreceptionandrooftopdigitization,potentialassessmentisdonewhichrevealedonly
about 5 to 7% of the available rooftop area is sufficient to meet household electricity demand.
The fraction of open/wastelands (1 to 3%) in the region can be utilized to meet the electricity
demandofirrigationpumpsetsusingsolarPVsystemwithmicrogridarchitecture.Incentivesfor
thegenerationofelectricityfromREsourceswouldboostupthenumberofinstallationsinfuture
leading to decentralized generation which will scale down dependency on conventional power
plants.
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