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Seismic Isolation for Small
Reinforced Concrete Structures
A Preliminary Investigation on Material Cost

Advisor:
Advisor:

Investigated and Presented by:

Dr. George C. Lee

Abiel Carrillo

Samuel
Samuel P.
P. Capen
Capen Professor
Professor

Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research

Africa Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .Objective The objective of this investigation is to show the effectiveness of a specific rubber bearing isolation design of a symmetrical. low-rise reinforced concrete structure in the region of Algeria.

May.000 injured.Motivation for this investigation One evening uake evening in in May. 2003.000 people were killed and over 9. Many homes were destroyed in the initial quake and thousands more were damaged and made uninhabitable. More than 2. 2003. Algeria Algeria was was struck struck by by its its worst worst earthq earthquake in 23 years. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

preventing disasters like this.A1 Motivation for this investigation To explore a system that could protect similar structures. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

others buckled.Slide 5 A1 Some structures experienced non structural damage. other completely destroyed Abiel Carrillo. 7/25/2004 .

base isolation in general can be one of the safest or most cost effective ways of designing a structure in a highly seismic zone. The results of this investigation. focus on a specific example example. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research ..Objective As will be explained later.

Overview o Method and Codes o Design Loads o Parameters and Assumptions o Base Isolation o Summary of Results o Conclusions o References Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

and the total required material was then compared: A. A and B. Base isolated frame Isolator Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research . Moment resisting frame B.Method and Codes Used Two possible frames were designed.

which means that smaller lateral forces are developed Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research . Acceleration is significantly reduced.Method and Codes The design steps for base isolation ultimately shift the frame’s period.

! Uniform Building Code (1997) For design loads and base isolation design. column and foundation design. girder. ! Algerian Seismic Code For Equivalent static earthquake loading applied to moment frame A Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .Method and Codes ! American Concrete Institute (1999) For floor system.

Design Loads ! Earthquake loads were determined from a !Earthquake static lateral equivalent calculation based on Algerian Seismic Codes. 72 72 kip kip 40 40 kip kip Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

f’c 3 ksi Allowable Soil stress 4 ksi Occupancy Offices Seismic Zone 27 ft 9 90 ft t 0f 3 Dead Load 12 psf Roof Live 20 psf Floor Live 50 psf Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .Parameters and Assumptions Details were as follows: Steel fy 60 ksi Conc.

Does not degrade under cyclic loading Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research . and the Code does not “prefer” a type. Provide increasing resistance with increasing displacement 3. nevertheless it requires that the system have the following three properties: 1. Be stable for the required displacement 2.Base Isolation Design There are various isolation methods and devices available and are being developed.

A2 Base Isolation Design Selected Isolation: High Damping Rubber Bearing Steel plate Thin Thin steel steel shims shims (circular (circular plates) plates) increase increase bearing bearing strength strength Rubber cylinder Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

. Abiel Carrillo.Slide 14 A2 There are many others which i encourage you to look at but in the interest of time. 7/25/2004 .

Relate required dimensions of the isolation bearing unit with target values from step 2. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research . Select a type of bearing and estimate target values. 2. damping ratio and bearing displacement. 4. such as stiffness. Detail actual dimensions for isolation unit. 3.A3 Base Isolation Design Steps for a Code based design: 1. Determine and establish parameter-dependent factors.

..Slide 15 A3 There are many steps but basically. 7/25/2004 . Abiel Carrillo.

Summary of Results The resultant design called for 16 units with the following dimensions: 11 “ height 12 gage shims 17 ” rubber diameter Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

just larger dimensions Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .8 Same rebar diameter.7 4.3 1.2 A minimum amount of concrete required in both columns Foundations 2.Summary of Results B A A A / B weight ratios of main structural elements Concrete ratio Steel ratio Girders 1.9 Steel in Base Isolated frame is not continuous Columns 1.5 3.

which doesn’t compare to having a total of 3.Conclusions ! Base Isolators can be expensive. The final design calls for 16 units.3 times more steel as required in the larger reinforced frame. but the rubber bearings chosen are very common. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

Site plan .Importance of building .Height of structure .Soil profile .Availability and shipping .Conclusions ! Results for other structures can vary significantly Factors that influence structural design: .Labor .Architectural requirements .Other factors Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .

A5 Conclusions ! Base Isolation also protects non-structural elements and equipment by reducing the entire structure’s acceleration during an earthquake. shaking. Frame Frame is is still still standing standing but but non-bearing non-bearing walls walls could could not not withstand withstand the the strong strong shaking. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research . as opposed to reinforcement alone.

like in a museum Abiel Carrillo.Slide 20 A5 include equipment isolation. 7/26/2004 .

Mario. John Wiley & sons. Programs and Examples. Inc. New York. Farzad.. Jack. John Wiley & sons. October. England. Chapman and Hall. James M. 1994. 2001. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research . New York. Naeim. New York. London. New York. Inc. ! Kelly.References ! Paz. 1999. Design of Seismic Isolated Structures: From Theory to Practice. ! McCormack. Design of Reinforced Concrete. International Handbook of Earthquake Engineering : Codes.

Capen Professor ! Civil Engineering Dept. Lee Samuel P.Acknowledgements ! . at Buffalo Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research .Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research ! Dr. . George C. Univ.

“One's mind.Oliver Wendell Holmes .” . once stretched by a new idea. never regains its original dimension.