This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION SURVEY GRAPHS PAPER AND THE

(with explaination) CONCLUSION REFLECTION BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES

In the Name of Allah……..

Alhamdullilah, Thank to Allah S.W.T finally we have succeeded to finish up this coursework. To complete this task, we have to do many ways to make sure that this assignment really follows the marking criteria. we also had use all skills that we have learn and got in the class.

Firstly we want to thank to En. Ibrahim Bin Ismail, our beloved and dedicated lectures for support and guiding us during the process to finish up this coursework.

Then, we would like to thank to entire our beloved friends for help us and taught us to do this assignment. Not forgotten our parent, person who’s always gives us spirit to continue our study. Hence, to all people that direct or indirect help us finished this assignment.

Lastly, we hope this coursework can get the best marks so that it can help us in final exam. That’s all, thank you

Thank You,

INTRODUCTION

For the coursework of Basic Mathematics, We need to do a survey to Kota Bharu Teaching Institute’s student. So, we did some research to fulfill our assignments. We had chosen the title “Favourite Television (TV) Programmes” for our survey. We did the survey among 70 training teachers.

As we know, there are a lot of programmes in television. Some training teachers are very fabolous to watch those programmes in recreation room. They will choose channel that they like to watch untill take a long time in it. So we decided to do a survey about Favourite TV Programmes among training teachers. Then, we got the results.

Finally, when we got the result, we transferred the data into the three types of chart which is bar graph, pie chart, and scatter plot. According to the type of the graph, we can conclude which is the best graph that can show our data and also the graph is least effective for presenting our data. We had chosen the bar graph is the best graph to present and the scatter plot is least effective to present.

HISTOGRAM

For the histograms' usage in digital image processing, see Image histogram and Color histogram.

An example histogram of the heights of 31 Black Cherry trees. In statistics, a histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies. It shows what proportion of cases fall into each of several categories. A histogram differs from a bar chart in that it is the area of the bar that denotes the value, not the height, a crucial distinction when the categories are not of uniform width (Lancaster, 1974). The categories are usually specified as non-overlapping intervals of some variable. The categories (bars) must be adjacent. The word histogram is derived from Greek: histos 'anything set upright' (as the masts of a ship, the bar of a loom, or the vertical bars of a histogram); gramma 'drawing, record, writing'. The histogram is one of the seven basic tools of quality control, which also include the Pareto chart, check sheet, control chart, cause-and-effect diagram, flowchart, and scatter diagram. A generalization of the histogram is kernel smoothing techniques. This will construct a very smooth probability density function from the supplied data. • Activities and demonstrations The SOCR resource pages contain a number of hands-on interactive activities demonstrating the concept of a histogram, histogram construction and manipulation using Java applets and charts.

Mathematical definition In a more general mathematical sense, a histogram is a mapping mi that counts the number of observations that fall into various disjoint categories (known as bins), whereas the graph of a histogram is merely one way to represent a histogram. Thus, if we let n be the total number of observations and k be the total number of bins, the histogram mi meets the following conditions:

Cumulative histogram A cumulative histogram is a mapping that counts the cumulative number of observations in all of the bins up to the specified bin. That is, the cumulative histogram Mi of a histogram mi is defined as:

Number of bins and width There is no "best" number of bins, and different bin sizes can reveal different features of the data. Some theoreticians have attempted to determine an optimal number of bins, but these methods generally make strong assumptions about the shape of the distribution. You should always experiment with bin widths before choosing one (or more) that illustrate the salient features in your data. The number of bins k can be calculated directly, or from a suggested bin width h:

The braces indicate the ceiling function. Sturges' formula[1]

which implicitly bases the bin sizes on the range of the data, and can perform poorly if n < 30. Scott's choice[2]

where h is the common bin width, and s is the sample standard deviation. Freedman-Diaconis' choice[3]

which is based on the interquartile range

Continuous data The idea of a histogram can be generalized to continuous data. Let Lebesgue space), then the cumulative histogram operator H can be defined by: H(f)(y) = with only finitely many intervals of monotony this can be rewritten as (see

. h(f)(y) is undefined if y is the value of a stationary point.

SCATTERPLOT

Waiting time between eruptions and the duration of the eruption for the Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. This chart suggests there are generally two "types" of eruptions: short-wait-short-duration, and long-wait-longduration.

This scatter plot allows you to visualize multivariate data of up to four dimensions. The Scatter plot takes multiple scalar variables and uses them for different axes in phase space. The different variables are combined to form coordinates in the phase space and they are displayed using glyphs and colored using another scalar variable.[1] A scatter graph or scatter plot is a type of display using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.[2] A scatter plot only specifies variables or independent variables when a variable exists that is under the control of the experimenter. If a parameter exists that is systematically incremented and/or decremented by the experimenter, it is called the control parameter or independent variable and is customarily plotted along the horizontal axis. The measured or dependent variable is customarily plotted along the vertical axis. If no dependent variable exists, either type of variable can be plotted on either axis and a scatter plot will illustrate only the degree of correlation (not causation) between two variables.

A scatter plot can suggest various kinds of correlations between variables with a certain confidence level. Correlations may be positive (rising), negative (falling), or null (uncorrelated). If the pattern of dots slopes from lower left to upper right, it suggests a positive correlation between the variables being studied. If the pattern of dots slopes from upper left to lower right, it suggests a negative correlation. A line of best fit (alternatively called 'trendline') can be drawn in order to study the correlation between the variables. An equation for the correlation between the variables can be determined by established best-fit procedures. For a linear correlation, the best-fit procedure is known as linear regression and is guaranteed to generate a correct solution in a finite time. Unfortunately, no universal best-fit procedure is guaranteed to generate a correct solution for arbitrary relationships. One of the most powerful aspects of a scatter plot, however, is its ability to show nonlinear relationships between variables. Furthermore, if the data is represented by a mixture model of simple relationships, these relationships will be visually evident as superimposed patterns. For example, to display values for "lung capacity" (first variable) and how long that person could hold his breath (second variable), a researcher would choose a group of people to study, then measure each one's lung capacity (first variable) and how long that person could hold his breath (second variable). The researcher would then plot the data in a scatter plot, assigning "lung capacity" to the horizontal axis, and "time holding breath" to the vertical axis. A person with a lung capacity of 400 cc who held his breath for 21.7 seconds would be represented by a single dot on the scatter plot at the point (400, 21.7) in the Cartesian coordinates. The scatter plot of all the people in the study would enable the researcher to obtain a visual comparison of the two variables in the data set, and help to determine what kind of relationship there might be between the two variables. The scatter diagram is one of the basic tools of quality control, which include the histogram, Pareto chart, check sheet, control chart, cause-and-effect diagram and flowchart.

PIE CHART

Pie chart of populations of English native speakers

A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating relative magnitudes or frequencies or percents. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. Together, the sectors create a full disk. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. While the pie chart is perhaps the most ubiquitous statistical chart in the business world and the mass media, it is rarely used in scientific or technical publications. It is one of the most widely criticised charts, and many statisticians recommend to avoid its use altogether, pointing out in particular that it is difficult to compare different sections of a

given pie chart, or to compare data across different pie charts. Pie charts can be an effective way of displaying information in some cases, in particular if the intent is to compare the size of a slice with the whole pie, rather than comparing the slices among them. Pie charts work particularly well when the slices represent 25 or 50% of the data, but in general, other plots such as the bar chart or the dot plot, or non-graphical methods such as tables, may be more adapted for representing information. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Playfair's Statistical Breviary of 1801. Example

A pie chart for the example data.

An exploded pie chart for the example data, with the largest party group exploded.

The following example chart is based on preliminary results of the election for the European Parliament in 2004. The following table lists the number of seats allocated to each party group, along with the derived percentage of the total that they each make up. The values in the last column, the derived central angle of each sector, is found by multiplying the percentage by 360°.

Group Seats Percent (%) Central angle (°) EUL PES EFA EDD 39 200 42 15 5.3 27.3 5.7 2.0 9.2 37.7 3.7 9.0 99.9* 19.2 98.4 20.7 7.4 33.0 135.7 13.3 32.5 360.2*

ELDR 67 EPP UEN 276 27

Other 66 Total 732

*Because of rounding, these totals do not add up to 100 and 360. The size of each central angle is proportional to the size of the corresponding quantity, here the number of seats. Since the sum of the central angles has to be 360°, the central angle for a quantity that is a fraction Q of the total is 360Q degrees. In the example, the central angle for the largest group (EPP) is 135.7° because 0.377 times 360, rounded to one decimal place(s), equals 135.7.

Variants and similar charts Exploded pie chart A chart with one or more sectors separated from the rest of the disk. This effect is used to either highlight at sector, or to highlight smaller segments of the chart with small proportions. Perspective (3D) pie chart

An example of a three dimensional pie chart. This style of pie chart is used to give the chart a 3D look-and-feel. Often used for aesthetic reasons, the third dimension does not improve the reading of the data; on the contrary, these plots are difficult to interpret because of the distorted effect of perspective associated with the third dimension. The use of superfluous dimensions not used to display the data of interest is discouraged for charts in general, not only for pie charts.[9]

POLAR AREA DIAGRAM

"Diagram of the causes of mortality in the army in the East" by Florence Nightingale.

Florence Nightingale is credited with developing a form of the pie chart now known as the polar area diagram, or occasionally the Nightingale rose diagram and first published in 1858. The name "coxcomb" is sometimes used erroneously, but this was the name Nightingale used to refer to a book containing the diagrams rather than the diagrams themselves. [10] The polar area diagram is similar to a usual pie chart, except that the sectors are each of an equal angle and differ rather in how far each sector extends from the centre of the circle, enabling multiple comparisons on one diagram. It has been suggested that most of Nightingale's early reputation was built on her ability to give clear and concise presentations of data. Although Florence Nightingale is usually credited with this graphical invention, there are earlier uses. Léon Lalanne used a polar diagram to show the frequency of wind directions around compass points in 1843. André-Michel Guerry is an earlier inventor of the "rose diagram" form, in an 1829 paper showing frequency of events for cyclic phenomena

**SURVEY PAPER AND THE GRAPHS
**

(with explaination)

SURVEY

Title : FAVOURITE FRUIT By : PPISMP BM/PJ/PSV -SEM III (JULY INTAKE)

Class :…………………………………………………………………………..

NO.

FRUIT

NUMBER OF TRAINING TEACHERS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Orange Apple Mango Guava Pineapple

RESULT OF THE SURVEY

:

NO.

FRUIT

NUMBER OF TRAINING TEACHERS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Orange Apple Manggo Guava Pineapple Total

27 14 18 7 4 70

BAR GRAPH OF SURVEY OF FAVOURITE FRUIT

PIE CHART OF SURVEY OF FAVOURITE FRUIT

SCATTER PLOT

OF SURVEY OF FAVOURITE FRUIT

Question 1 Choose one of your graphs has described it.

We choose the first one graph because for us it is interesting to present. The bar graph of survey about favorite’s fruits amount of people in 3 class that eat fruits between orange, apple, mango, guava and pineapple. This survey we had done to 70 students. Then, we can see the result shows that for orange 27 student likes, for apple 14 student likes , 18 student likes mango, 7 student for guava and 4 student for pineapple.

Question 2

Which of the 3 graphs do you feel shows your data in the best way and why?

Graph that we feel shows our data in the best is the first graph also, bar graph. We say that because besides it is interesting to present and also we can see clearly to the number of people that interest to each of the favorites fruits. In spite of that, the bar graph we had make, when people look at the graph, they can understand directly without explanation because all information have been shown in the graph. It is better than the second and the third graphs because of the first graph looked more systematic and simple to explain to other person.

Question 3 Which of the 3 graphs is least effective for presenting your data and why?

A graph is least effective for presenting our data is the third graph or scatter plot of survey about favorite fruits. This graph is not interesting to present to public because it is not colorful so people can only see one color. Color can help student to understand faster and more easier. We also agree it is least for presenting because it is not suitable for this survey. Beside that, the graph is weak to present data due to the items is not many only five items who are orange, apple, mango, guava and pineapple. Furthermore, it is hard to read. So, the graph is suitable for rain report, accident statistic and others.

Question 4 Explain your choice of interval for the bar graph or histogram or choice of symbols on the pictograph.

We had chosen the first one graph that is bar graph because in our opinion, it is most interesting to present compared to another graphs. To create a bar graph, we have to choose the interval for the graph. After making the analysis from seventy training teachers, we found that they have their own choices totally. From the analyzed, the training teachers who likes orange 27 student, for apple 14 student likes , 18 student likes mango, 7 student for guava and 4 student for pineapple

After thinking deeply and making some discussion, we choose to use the multiply by ten in every interval because we find that it is suitable to present the result of survey. If we choose the multiply of two, the bar will be height compared when we use the multiply by ten. And so, if we choose the multiply by twenty, the graph will be smaller and make difficulty to anyone who see it. So, in this bar graph, the interval has only three because the result shows that the seventy training teachers in IPKB have the balanced of favorites fruits. For the first interval, it is from 0 to 10 persons. Next, the interval has 11 to 20 persons. Lastly, it started from 21 to 30 persons.

As the conclusion, we can conclude that the multiply by ten in every interval was so suitable to present the result of the survey. Here, we can see also the graph stated that orange has the highest bar in the graph with twenty-seven persons and pineapple was the lowest bar with four persons.

Question 5 What is the answer to your question? Fully describe how you reached this conclusion

When we receive this assignment, we do not know to do the survey on what topics. After a day discussion with our members group, we make a conclusion to do the survey about favourite Fruits. It is because after a year we become the training teacher, we found that majority of the training teachers like to eat fruits. So, we choose this topic to survey on what kind of fruits their likes to eat.

After that, we create a survey to give to them and after all the surveys completed, we discuss the work that we have to do. After discussion, we had chosen three types of graph likes bar graph, pie chart and scatter plot. Next, based on the results, we transferred the data into them.. According to the kind of the graph, we can conclude which is the best graph that can show our data and also the graph is least effective for presenting our data.

After finishing creating and drawing all the graphs, we found that bar graph is most suitable way to show our data. Why? It is because bar graph is easily to show any data’s. Besides that, it is interesting to present and also we can see clearly to the number of people that interest to each of them. In spite of that, the first graph or bar graph we make, when people look at the graph, they can understand directly without explanation to them because all information have been shown in the graph.

Then, we felt that is the least effective for presenting our data because it is not interesting to present to public moreover it is not colorful only use one color. We also agree it is least for presenting because it is not suitable for this survey except doing many surveys to many places. So, we can explain it using this graph because we can see comparison between places that we have chosen. Besides, the graph is weak to present data due to the items is not many only five items that are orange 27 student likes, for apple 14 student likes , 18 student likes mango, 7 student for guava and 4 student for pineapple

Once again, we say that to create and draw a bar graph, we have to look for the result first. From that, we can make a choice to choose any interval that we feel suitable for the graph. In this situation, we choose to use the multiply by ten because we feel that when we look towards the graph, we can know the results clearly without explaining in words. So, this is why we choose the bar graph as the best way to representing data.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we had chosen the first one graph that is bar graph because in our opinion, it is most interesting to present compared to another graphs. To create a bar graph, we have to choose the interval for the graph. After making the analysis from seventy training teachers, we found that they have their own choices totally. From the analyzed, the training teachers who likes Orange is about 27, Pineapple is about 4, Mangos is about 18, Apple is about 14 and Guava is about 7 persons. Besides, Graph that we feel shows our data in the best is the first graph also, bar graph. We say that because besides it is interesting to present and also we can see clearly to the number of people that interest to each of them. In spite of that, the first graph or bar graph we make, when people look at the graph, they can understand directly without explanation to them because all information have been shown in the graph. It is better than the second and the third graphs because of the first graph looked more systematic to explain to other person In spite of that, we agree a graph is least effective for presenting our data is the third graph or scatter plot of survey of favorite’s fruits. We say that because it is not interesting to present to public moreover it is not colorful only use one color. We also agree it is least for presenting because it is not suitable for this survey except doing many surveys to many places. So, we can explain it using this graph because we can see comparison between places that we have chosen. Besides, the graph is weak to present data due to the items is not many only five items who are orange, apple,

mango, guava and pineapple. So, the graph is suitable for rain report, accident statistic and others.

Reflection

REFLECTION Alhamdulillah. Thanks to Allah S.W.T because giving us the opportunity to finish up this coursework on the dot. While received this coursework, we already had another’s coursework. So we felt that is a burden to me, but then we realised that is our responsible as a student to complete this coursework and we managed our time wisely. First of all, we want to thanks to Mr. Ibrahim Bin Ismail because give this

assignment to us. This assignment gives us more benefits. When we do this assignment, we can make a revision and preparation to the coming final examination. Thus, we want to thanks very much to our lecture again because he willing to help us in completing this assignment and also guide us to complete this assignment. In order to complete this assignment, we had used all skills had we gets and learn while in the class. We have learned many things while finished this course work like new knowledge and experience. confident to answer the question. Besides that, from doing this course work it’s teaching us to answer the question carefully. This is because, most of our mistakes are coming from our careless. We did not read question until finish and do the solution with completely. We also will panic when see different question form and we also must study hard and make more exercise in mathematics subject to get a good result. Lastly, we hope this assignment can get the best marks so that it can help us in final exam. Thank you. We also can know the process of solving problems with other concepts how to answer the question and that entire make us

bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY GRAPH, G. How to explain it. (1957) Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., Inc

Long, C. T., & DeTemple, D. W., Mathematical reasoning for elementary teachers. (1996). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley . Reimer, L., & Reimer, W. Mathematicians are people too. (Volume 2). (1995) Dale Seymour Publications . Types of graph – Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia.htm

- http://www.edu.gov.on.ca

APPENDICES