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Essentia

ESS 2456x
with

ESS
ProNODE
Operating System
Wireless Outdoor Professional Node

Basic System Manual


5 May 2008
OpenWifless ESS ProNODE: SW v.1.40.T1
Wifless ESS 2456x: HW Ver. 2.0 x
Doc. Rev.: 1.4 MA/AT/20080505

www.wifless.com

Back Cover
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Legal Notes and Warnings


Legal Rights
Copyright 2006-2007 Essentia S.p.A. All rights reserved.
The material contained herein is proprietary, privileged, and confidential and owned by Essentia or its third party
licensors.
Essentia S.p.A. reserves the right to change the equipment features, specifications and descriptions in this
publication without prior notice. No part of this publication shall be deemed to be part of any contract or
warranty unless specifically incorporated by reference into such contract or warranty.

Logo and Trade Names

Essentia, Advasu, Nexit, Wifless, OpenWifless and/or other products and/or services referenced here in
are either registered trademarks, trademarks or service marks of Essentia S.p.A.
All other names are or may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

Statement of Conditions
The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice. Essentia S.p.A. shall not be liable
for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this manual or equipment supplied with it.

Warranties and Disclaimers


All Essentia S.p.A. (Essentia) products purchased from Essentia or through any of Essentias authorized
resellers are subject to the following warranty and product liability terms and conditions.

Exclusive Warranty
(a) Essentia warrants that the Product Hardware it supplies and the tangible media on which any software is
installed, under normal use and conditions, will be free from significant defects in materials and workmanship for
a period of twelve (12) months from the date of shipment of a given Product to Purchaser (the Warranty
Period). During the Warranty Period, Essentia will, at its sole option and as Purchasers sole remedy, repair or
replace any defective Product in accordance with Essentia standard R&R procedure.
(b) With respect to the Product Firmware, Essentia warrants the correct functionality according to the attached
documentation, for a period of three (3) months from invoice date (the Warranty Period). During the Warranty
Period, Essentia may release to its Customers firmware updates, which include additional performance
improvements and/or bug fixes, upon availability (the Warranty). Bug fixes, temporary patches and/or
workarounds may be supplied as Firmware updates.
Additional hardware or professional services, if required, to install or use Firmware updates must be purchased
by the Customer. Essentia will be obligated to support solely the two (2) most recent Software Major Releases.
ESSENTIA SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER THIS WARRANTY IF ITS TESTING AND EXAMINATION
DISCLOSE THAT THE ALLEGED DEFECT IN THE PRODUCT DOES NOT EXIST OR WAS CAUSED BY
PURCHASERS OR ANY THIRD PERSON'S MISUSE, NEGLIGENCE, IMPROPER INSTALLATION OR
IMPROPER TESTING, UNAUTHORIZED ATTEMPTS TO REPAIR, OR ANY OTHER CAUSE BEYOND
THE RANGE OF THE INTENDED USE, OR BY ACCIDENT, FIRE, LIGHTNING OR OTHER HAZARD.

Disclaimer
(a) The Software is sold on an AS IS basis. Essentia, its affiliates or its licensors MAKE NO WARRANTIES,
WHATSOEVER, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE AND THE
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION. ESSENTIA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE. UNITS OF PRODUCT (INCLUDING ALL THE
SOFTWARE) DELIVERED TO PURCHASER HEREUNDER ARE NOT FAULT TOLERANT AND ARE
NOT DESIGNED, MANUFACTURED OR INTENDED FOR USE OR RESALE IN APPLICATIONS WHERE
THE FAILURE, MALFUNCTION OR INACCURACY OF PRODUCTS CARRIES A RISK OF DEATH OR
BODILY INJURY OR SEVERE PHYSICAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE (HIGH RISK
ACTIVITIES). HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES MAY INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO, USE AS PART
OF ON LINE CONTROL SYSTEMS IN HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS REQUIRING FAIL SAFE
PERFORMANCE, SUCH AS IN THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES, AIRCRAFT
NAVIGATION OR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, LIFE SUPPORT
MACHINES, WEAPONS SYSTEMS OR OTHER APPLICATIONS REPRESENTING A SIMILAR DEGREE
OF POTENTIAL HAZARD. ESSENTIA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES.

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(b) PURCHASERS SOLE REMEDY FOR BREACH OF THE EXPRESS WARRANTIES ABOVE SHALL
BE REPLACEMENT OR REFUND OF THE PURCHASE PRICE AS SPECIFIED ABOVE, AT ESSENTIAS
OPTION. TO THE FULLEST EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES SET
FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OR
CONDITIONS, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, EITHER IN FACT OR BY OPERATION OF LAW, STATUTORY
OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES, TERMS OR CONDITIONS OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, SATISFACTORY QUALITY,
CORRESPONDENCE WITH DESCRIPTION, NON
INFRINGEMENT, AND ACCURACY OF
INFORMATION GENERATED. ALL OF WHICH ARE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED. ESSENTIA
WARRANTIES HEREIN RUN ONLY TO PURCHASER, AND ARE NOT EXTENDED TO ANY THIRD
PARTIES. ESSENTIA NEITHER ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME
FOR IT ANY OTHER LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION,
MAINTENANCE OR USE OF ITS PRODUCTS.

Limitation of Liability
(a) ESSENTIA SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO THE PURCHASER OR TO ANY THIRD PARTY, FOR ANY
LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, INTERRUPTION OF BUSINESS OR FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL,
INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER ARISING
UNDER BREACH OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY OR
OTHERWISE AND WHETHER BASED ON THIS AGREEMENT OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
(b) TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL THE LIABILITY FOR
DAMAGES HEREUNDER OF ESSENTIA OR ITS EMPLOYEES OR AGENTS EXCEED THE PURCHASE
PRICE PAID FOR THE PRODUCT BY PURCHASER, NOR SHALL THE AGGREGATE LIABILITY FOR
DAMAGES TO ALL PARTIES REGARDING ANY PRODUCT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE PAID
FOR THAT PRODUCT BY THAT PARTY (EXCEPT IN THE CASE OF A BREACH OF A PARTYS
CONFIDENTIALITY OBLIGATIONS).

FCC Electronic Emission & Radio Frequency Interference Statement


The Essentia Wifless ESS 2456x equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B
digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC rules and to ETSI EN 301 489 applicable rules. These limits are
designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a
residential environment notwithstanding use in commercial, business and industrial environments.
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However,
there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause
harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and
on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one of the following measures:
- Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
- Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
- Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
- Consult the dealer or an experienced RF technician for help.
FCC Caution: Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate this equipment.

ETSI Conformity Statement


This equipment is compliant with the EU Directive R&TTE 1999/05/CE and with the EU Decision 2005/513/CE,
however it is, or it may be, subject to Local Country Usage Limitation and Restriction. Before the use consult
your local Radio Regulatory Authority.
ETSI Caution: Any changes or modifications, including antenna and RF cable type and model, could void the
user's authority to operate this equipment.
The Technical Construction File, for Authority Inspection, is available at the Essentia S.p.A. R&D Department at
Via G.B. Vico, 29 - 42100 Reggio Emilia (RE), Italy.

FCC Radiation Hazard Warning


This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled Indoor and Outdoor
environment. This equipment should be Indoor installed and operated only with the Essentias approved Indoor
Use Antennas and with minimum distance of 50 cm between the radiator (antenna) & your body. This transmitter
must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
To comply with FCC radiation exposure requirement in section 1.1307, Outdoor environment, the antenna used
for this transmitter must be fixed-mounted on outdoor permanent structures with a separation distance of at least

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2 meter from al persons for antennas with a gain up to 28 dBi and at least 3 meter for a 32 dBi dish antenna, and
must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
The equipment transmits radio energy during normal operation. To avoid possible harmful exposure to this
energy, do not stand or work for extended periods of time in front of its antenna. The long-term characteristics or
the possible physiological effects of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic fields have not been yet fully investigated.

ETSI RF Exposure Warning - Limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields


To comply with the European Directive 1999/519/CE and related updates, the system (the device with the
antenna) must be configured in order to be compliant with the maximum E.I.R.P. (Equivalent Isotropic Radiated
Power) allowed for the selected frequency band in respect of the approved Indoor or Outdoor applications
Limits & Rules. For Outdoor permanent installation, it is recommended to have a separation distance of at least
2.7 meter from all persons and shell not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other transmitting
antenna or transmitter.
The equipment transmits radio energy during normal operation. To avoid possible harmful exposure to this
energy, do not stand or work for extended periods of time in front of its antenna. The long-term characteristics or
the possible physiological effects of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic fields have not been yet fully investigated.

R&TTE Compliance Statement


This equipment complies with the appropriate essential requirements of the R&TTE EU Directive 1999/05/CE
and it is compliant to the EU Decision 2005/513/CE.

Safety Considerations
For the following safety considerations, Instrument means the Wifless ESS 2456x systems components and
their cables.

Caution - Electrical Shock Risk


To avoid electrical shock, do not perform any servicing unless you are qualified to do so.

Power Line Voltage & Frequency


Before connecting this instrument to the power line, make sure that the voltage and frequency of the power
source matches the requirements of the provided power supply.

Outdoor Unit (ODU) and Antenna Installation and Grounding


Ensure that the outdoor units, antennas and supporting structures are properly installed to eliminate any physical
hazard to either people or property. Make sure that the installation of the outdoor unit, antenna and cables is
performed in accordance with all relevant national and local building and safety codes. Even where grounding is
not mandatory according to applicable regulation and national codes, it is highly recommended to ensure that the
outdoor unit and the antenna mast (when using external antenna) are grounded and suitable lightning protection
devices are used so as to provide protection against voltage surges and static charges. In any event, Essentia is not
liable for any injury, damage or regulation violations associated with or caused by installation, grounding or
lightning protection.

Important Notice
This user manual is delivered subject to the following conditions and restrictions:
This manual contains proprietary information belonging to Essentia S.p.A. Such information is supplied solely
for the purpose of assisting properly authorized users of the respective Essentia products. No part of its contents
may be used for any other purpose, disclosed to any person or firm or reproduced by any means, electronic and
mechanical, without the express prior written permission of Essentia S.p.A. The text and graphics are for the
purpose of illustration and reference only. The specifications on which they are based are subject to change
without notice. The software described in this document is furnished under a license. The software may be used
or copied only in accordance with the terms of that license. Information in this document is subject to change
without notice. Corporate and individual names and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise
stated. Essentia S.p.A. reserves the right to alter the equipment specifications and descriptions in this publication
without prior notice. No part of this publication shall be deemed to be part of any contract or warranty unless
specifically incorporated by reference into such contract or warranty.
The information contained herein is merely descriptive in nature, and does not constitute an offer for the sale of
the product described herein. Any changes or modifications of equipment, including opening of the equipment
not expressly approved by Essentia S.p.A. will void equipment warranty and any repair thereafter shall be
charged for. It could also void the users authority to operate the equipment. Some of the equipment provided by
Essentia and specified in this manual, is manufactured and warranted by third parties. All such equipment must
be installed and handled in full compliance with the instructions provided by such manufacturers as attached to
this manual or provided thereafter by Essentia or the manufacturers. Non compliance with such instructions may
result in serious damage and/or bodily harm and/or void the users authority to operate the equipment and/or
revoke the warranty provided by such manufacturer.

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Table of Contents
Legal Notes and Warnings..................................................................................................3
Legal Rights ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
Logo and Trade Names .................................................................................................................................... 3
Statement of Conditions ................................................................................................................................... 3
Warranties and Disclaimers .............................................................................................................................. 3
Exclusive Warranty ........................................................................................................................................... 3
Disclaimer ........................................................................................................................................................ 3
Limitation of Liability ......................................................................................................................................... 4
FCC Electronic Emission & Radio Frequency Interference Statement .............................................................. 4
ETSI Conformity Statement .............................................................................................................................. 4
FCC Radiation Hazard Warning ....................................................................................................................... 4
ETSI RF Exposure Warning - Limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields........................................................ 5
R&TTE Compliance Statement ......................................................................................................................... 5
Safety Considerations ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Caution - Electrical Shock Risk......................................................................................................................... 5
Power Line Voltage & Frequency...................................................................................................................... 5
Outdoor Unit (ODU) and Antenna Installation and Grounding ........................................................................... 5
Important Notice ............................................................................................................................................... 5

Table of Contents ................................................................................................................6


Wifless ESS 2456x Package Contents...........................................................................10
The Wifless ESS 24xxx Product Line .............................................................................11
Single, Dual and Quad Radio Wi-Fi/HiperLAN2 Outdoor Professional Equipment ........... 11
Overview of the Wifless ESS 2456x ...............................................................................12
System Components and Technical Specifications ...........................................................13
Essentia Wifless ESS 2456x Hardware Features and Specifications .............................................. 13
Essentia OpenWifless ESS ProNODE Operating System Main Features ......................................... 14
Main Wireless Features: ................................................................................................................................ 14
Main Networking Features (Wireless and Wireline): ...................................................................................... 14
Main Management Features: ......................................................................................................................... 15

Approved Antennas ..........................................................................................................16


Approved RF Cables for Antenna Interconnection............................................................17
Guidelines on Installation..................................................................................................18
Hardware Setup and Basic Knowledge ............................................................................19
Wifless ESS 2456x Ethernet & RS-232 Console Connectors ................................................................ 19
Wifless EPOE01 Power-over-Ethernet Power Supply and Connectors ................................................. 20
Wifless ESS 2456x RF Antenna Connectors.......................................................................................... 21
Mounting the ODU .................................................................................................................................. 22
Pole-Mounting with Strips ....................................................................................................................... 22
Pole-Mounting with Clamps .................................................................................................................... 23
Wall-Mounting ......................................................................................................................................... 24
Electrical Grounding (Safety Grounding) ................................................................................................ 24
Connecting the Antenna Cable to the ODU ............................................................................................ 25
Connecting the Indoor-to-Outdoor Cable to the ODU and IDU .............................................................. 25

Overview of the Essentia Wifless Open Platform ...........................................................27


The OpenWifless ESS ProNODE Operating System .....................................................27

Capabilities and Performances of the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE .................................................. 27


Supported Radius Protocols and Attributes by the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE............................... 28
EAP3 Main Supported Protocols.................................................................................................................... 28
Authentication Authorization & Accounting Attributes ..................................................................................... 28
Essentia Private Attributes ............................................................................................................................. 29
Essentia-System-Time ...............................................................................................................................................29
Essentia-Reply-Message ...........................................................................................................................................29
Essentia-Max-Input-Octets, Essentia-Max-Output-Octets, Essentia-Max-Total-Octets.............................................29
Essentia-MAC-Allowed...............................................................................................................................................29

Essentia Packet Of Disconnect (Essentia POD) ............................................................................................ 30

Essentia Wifless ESS 2456x Setup & Commissioning .....................................................31


Prerequisites for Operation ..................................................................................................................... 31
Log into your Wifless ESS 2456x............................................................................................................ 32
Login as Administrator.................................................................................................................................... 33
Login as Read-Only User ............................................................................................................................... 34
Login as Backup User .................................................................................................................................... 34
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Setup of Physical Interfaces ................................................................................................................... 35
Setup of Ethernet Physical Interfaces ............................................................................................................ 35
Setup of Wireless Physical Interfaces ............................................................................................................ 36

Setup of Ethernet Logical Interfaces....................................................................................................... 38


Creation and Setup of Switch Logical Interfaces .................................................................................... 39
Creation and Setup of Wireless Logical Interfaces................................................................................. 41
Creation and Setup of Trunking Logical Interfaces................................................................................. 43
Provisioning Fast-Ethernet Interfaces ETH0 and ETH1 ......................................................................... 45
Provisioning Switch Interfaces ................................................................................................................ 47
Provisioning Wireless Interfaces WRL0, WRL1, WRL2 and WRL3 ....................................................... 49
Access Point & Station/Client Mode (Point-to-Multipoint & Point-to-Point) ..................................................... 49
Repeater Mode (Simple Point-to-Multipoint Repeater Mode)......................................................................... 50
Redundant / Resilient Point-to-Pont Link Mode (2+0 Aggregated Point-to-Point) .......................................... 51
PMP Mixed Mode (Mixed Point-to-Multipoint and Point-to-Point, PMP-PTP)................................................. 51
WDS and OLSR Mesh Mode (WDS Simple Mesh and OLSR Advanced Mesh) ............................................ 52

Setting Wireless Logical Interface to AP Node Mode ............................................................................. 54


Setting Wireless Logical Interfaces to Station / Client Node Mode......................................................... 57
Setting Wireless Logical Interfaces to WDS Node Mode ....................................................................... 60
Logical Interface Common Settings ........................................................................................................ 62
DHCP Server and Relay Settings .................................................................................................................. 62
IP Aliasing ...................................................................................................................................................... 63
L2-L3-L4 Bandwidth Manager Settings .......................................................................................................... 64

Wireless Logical Interface Common Settings ......................................................................................... 66


Security Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 66
MAC Filtering Settings for the Access Point Interface .................................................................................... 67

Wireless Encryption Settings and IEEE 802.1x AAA .............................................................................. 68


Open System ................................................................................................................................................. 68
Static WEP Shared Key.................................................................................................................................. 68
IEEE 802.1x AAA with Dynamic WEP for Access Point ................................................................................. 69
IEEE 802.1X AAA with Dynamic WEP for Station .......................................................................................... 71
WPA/WPA2-PSK with AES or TKIP (WPA-Personal) ..................................................................................... 73
WPA / WPA2-EAP with AES or TKIP (WPA-Enterprise) for Access Point....................................................... 74
WPA / WPA2-EAP with AES or TKIP (WPA-Enterprise) for Station ................................................................ 75

The Router Settings ................................................................................................................................ 76


Static Router................................................................................................................................................... 76
Dynamic Router ............................................................................................................................................. 77
RIP1/2 Router RFC 1058 and RFC 2453....................................................................................................... 78
OSPF Router RFC 2328 ................................................................................................................................ 78
BGP-4 Router RFC 1771 ............................................................................................................................... 78
IS-IS Router RFC 1195 .................................................................................................................................. 79
OLSR Router RFC 3626 ................................................................................................................................ 80
Policy Router.................................................................................................................................................. 81

Firewall Settings...................................................................................................................................... 83
Class of Service (CoS)............................................................................................................................ 85
Static CoS setting........................................................................................................................................... 85
Dynamic CoS setting...................................................................................................................................... 85
Advanced WISPr Radius Supported Attributes for Dynamic Bandwidth Management .............................................. 85

Quality of Service (QoS) ......................................................................................................................... 86


VLAN Priority QoS ......................................................................................................................................... 87
ToS/DSCP Priority QoS.................................................................................................................................. 88
ToS Prioritization (RFC 795 and RFC 1349).............................................................................................................. 88
DSCP Prioritization.....................................................................................................................................................89

RTP Priority.................................................................................................................................................... 90
WMM-EDCA Priority QoS .............................................................................................................................. 91

The Management Settings, Status Monitoring and Performance Metering............................................ 93


HTTP/HTTPS Management ........................................................................................................................... 93
SSH Management.......................................................................................................................................... 94
Telnet Management........................................................................................................................................ 94
Serial RS232 CLI Management...................................................................................................................... 95
SNMP Management ....................................................................................................................................... 96
Syslog Logging / System Events Monitoring .................................................................................................. 97
Netperf Performance Testing & Metering ....................................................................................................... 97
Iperf Performance Testing & Metering ............................................................................................................ 98
System Status & Resources Allocation Monitoring......................................................................................... 98

Maintenance Settings ........................................................................................................................... 100


General Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 100
Management Accounts and Password Settings ........................................................................................... 101
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Administrator Profile .................................................................................................................................................101
Read-Only Operator Profile ......................................................................................................................................101
Backup Operator Profile ...........................................................................................................................................102

Time and Date Settings................................................................................................................................ 103


FW Upload Procedure (Upgrade / Downgrade) ........................................................................................... 104
Configuration Backup, Restore and Factory Default Settings ...................................................................... 106
Post Start-up Script Settings ........................................................................................................................ 108
Restart (Reboot) Command ......................................................................................................................... 109

Update/Store Configuration Settings .....................................................................................................110


Accessing the Command Line Interfaces ..............................................................................................112
SSH Connection........................................................................................................................................... 112
RS 232 Serial Port Local Connection........................................................................................................... 112
TCP-IP Telnet Remote Connection .............................................................................................................. 112

Troubleshooting Tips & Special Wifless ESS Utilities......................................................113


How to View/Get the Startup/Boot Sequence System Log ....................................................................113
How to Know the Radio Links Status.....................................................................................................114
Reset to Factory Default & to Backup Configuration via MAC Address - LanReset..............................116
LanReset for Windows XP ........................................................................................................................... 116
Reset to Factory Default...........................................................................................................................................117
Reset to Backup Configuration.................................................................................................................................117

LanReset for Linux ....................................................................................................................................... 118


Reset to Factory Default...........................................................................................................................................118
Reset to Backup Configuration.................................................................................................................................118

Tx99 Special Tool ...................................................................................................................................119

Main Useful CLI Commands ...........................................................................................120


Save the Current and Backup Configurations ...................................................................................... 120
Reset of the Password of the Web Admin Account .............................................................................. 121
ResetWebPwd ............................................................................................................................................. 121

Get the System Inventory ..................................................................................................................... 121


Get the Operating System Version ....................................................................................................... 122
Ps Command ........................................................................................................................................ 122
Dmesg Command ................................................................................................................................. 123
Logread Command ............................................................................................................................... 124
Iwconfig and Ifconfing Commands........................................................................................................ 125
Atop Command ..................................................................................................................................... 126
Watch Command .................................................................................................................................. 127

Appendix A......................................................................................................................128
ETH/LAN IP67 Lock-in-type and RJ45 Connectors Wiring Diagram ............................................................ 128
RS232 IP67 Lock-in-type and D-SUB 9-pin Connectors Wiring Diagram .................................................... 130

Appendix B .....................................................................................................................131
Max RF Output Power as per Country Rules and Selected Antenna ........................................................... 131
Legal Notes for EU - ETSI Countries - Attention! ..................................................................................................... 131
Legal Notes for USA & Canada - FCC Countries - Attention! .................................................................................. 131
Note Legali Specifiche per l'Italia - Attenzione! ........................................................................................................ 131

European Union Specific Basic ETSI Rules ................................................................................................. 131


ETSI Max RF Tx Power Calculation Formula for your Antenna.................................................................... 132
Normative Tecniche Specifiche per il Mercato Italiano (ETSI Italia) ............................................................. 132
Formula ETSI per il Calcolo della Potenza Max Applicabile in Antenna ....................................................... 132

Appendix C .....................................................................................................................133
Contacting the Wifless Support Team .......................................................................................................... 133

Appendix D .....................................................................................................................135
Product and Company Certifications ............................................................................................................ 135
CE Declaration of Conformity for Wifless ESS 24562 Rev. B .................................................................................. 135
Italian Radio Regulatory Authority Approval for Wifless ESS 24562 Rev. B............................................................ 136
CE Declaration of Conformity for Wifless ESS 24564 Rev. A .................................................................................. 137
Italian Radio Regulatory Authority Approval for Wifless ESS 24564 Rev. A............................................................ 138
CE Declaration of Conformity for Wifless WFL R108F25X(B) Radio Module ..........................................................139
ETSI R&TTE 99-05 Certification for Wifless WFL R108F25X(B) Radio Module......................................................140
Italian Radio Regulatory Authority Approval for Wifless WFL R108F25X(B) Radio Module .................................... 141
Company ISO 9001 : Vision 2000 Certificate........................................................................................................... 142

Appendix E .....................................................................................................................143
Waste Equipment Disposal Instruction......................................................................................................... 143
Disposal of Waste Equipment by Users in Private Households in the European Union .......................................... 143
Smaltimento di apparecchiature da rottamare da parte di privati nell'Unione Europea ........................................... 143

Appendix F......................................................................................................................144
Copyrights, Trademarks and Credits ............................................................................................................ 144
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Copyrights ................................................................................................................................................................144
Trademarks ..............................................................................................................................................................144

Appendix G .....................................................................................................................145
The Latin Sentences .................................................................................................................................... 145
ALEA IACTA EST.....................................................................................................................................................145
FABER FORTVN ..................................................................................................................................................145

User Notes......................................................................................................................146

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Wifless ESS 2456x Package Contents

1 x Wifless ESS 2456x Outdoor Unit


1 x Wifless PoE Power Supply (model WFL EPOE01)
1 x European AC Power cable with Schuko plug
1 x Wifless ESS 2456x Mounting Kit
1 x Wifless ESS 2456x Legal & Technical Short Guide and Certificate
1 x Wifless ESS Family Documentation CD Rom

Important Note
Using a power supply other than the Wifless PoE Power Supply (WFL EPOE01) included in your
package may damage the equipment and will void the product warranty.
If you intend to use a third party PoE Power Supply, make sure it is compliant with the IEEE 802.3af
wiring standard and that is capable of supplying a minimum of 1A at 48VDC.

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The Wifless ESS 24xxx Product Line


Single, Dual and Quad Radio Wi-Fi/HiperLAN2 Outdoor Professional Equipment
Essentia is glad to present the Wifless ESS 24xxx series, a new line of professional wireless equipment for carrier
class WiFi/HiperLAN2 networks and applications in unlicensed bands. The whole range of products has been designed
to meet the most common needs of modern network applications and Internet Service Providers for MANs and VoIP
services.
The Wifless ESS 24xxx series employs a modular scalable architecture based on Intel XScale network processors,
Mini-PCI system bus and Mini-PCI radio modules.
This architecture provides convenient access for upgrade of software (firmware and OS) and hardware (radio modules).
In particular, users can upgrade their system to the WiMax TDD and the IEEE 802.11n MIMO standards at a
reasonably low cost, as well as enhance it with Essentia Advasu Active Filter technologies to reach state-of-the-art
System Gain and best performance in the 2.4-2.5 GHz frequency band.
Sealed in a ruggedized metal IP 68 case, the Wifless ESS 2456x features extended temperature range, high MTBF, short
MTTR and low power consumption. All components have modern security features and are free from safety hazards or
SAR-related risks.
The Wifless ESS 24002, ESS 24561, ESS 24562 and ESS 24564 are fully compatible with standard L2 protocols such
as RSTP and WDS, as well as with L3 IP advanced routing protocols like OSPF, BGP-4 and OLSR.
The Essentia Wifless ESS 24562 hosts two independent dual-band radios, while the Wifless ESS 24564 hosts four.
Each radio module operates in frequency bands range 2.3 GHz to 2.5 GHz and range 4.9 GHz to 5.9 GHz. Both the
Atheros SuperG/AG (proprietary standard 108 Mbps) and the Atheros eXtended Range (XR) modes are supported.,
and so is the Advasu Ready Design. These features can improve the performance of the Wifless ESS 2456x even
more, thus making it an all-round component for flexible, state-of-the-art radio networks in unlicensed bands.

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Overview of the Wifless ESS 2456x


The Essentia Wifless ESS 2456x is a carrier-class high-performance Dual (ESS 24562), or Four (ESS 24564) Radio
& Dual Band Standard Wireless AP/Bridge/Router/Mesh Node. One, two or four independent radio sets allow for highperformance point-to-point links and point-to-multipoint coverage facility.
The advanced technology of Wifless ESS 2456x means that the best performance can be obtained even in
environments which are affected by severe spectral pollution. The IEEE 802.11 b/g and IEEE 802.11 a/h/j standards are
supported in Time Division Duplex (TDD) operation mode.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding are also
implemented: OFDM modern technologies provide strong insensitivity to multi-path fading, thus making the Wifless
ESS 2456x suitable for use in near-line-of-sight (nLOS) environments or non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments.
The device can operate in the Atheros SuperG/AG Static & Dynamic Turbo mode, as well as in the eXtended
Range (XR) mode. As a result, an extremely high capacity can be obtained at the greatest RF bandwidth, and the
greatest receiver sensitivity can be obtained at the lowest bandwidth. This gives Service Providers the opportunity to
cover areas which had been previously inacessible, thus broadening their subscriber population.
The system features adaptive modulation for automatic selection of modulation schemes, including BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM and 64-QAM for the 64 FFT OFDM, to maximize data rate and improve spectral efficiency. In addition, the
legacy Baker DSSS & Walls CCK Standards of the early IEEE 802.11b are supported.
When used as a mesh node, the Wifless ESS 2456x can provide internetworking capability with the WDS protocol at
Layer 1.5. The same interoperability can be obtained with Ethernet-Switched STP/RSTP at Layer 2, and also with
OSPF, BGP-4, IS-IS and OSLR protocols at Layer 3. These features mean that multiple wireless mesh networks from
different vendors can be internetworked at any Layer level. In addition, the IS-IS-based path selection protocol and the
BGP-4 routing protocol make the system suitable for large-scale TCP-IP networks of Telco carriers, ISP and large
enterprises.
Wherever allowed by the Radio Regulations, the Wifless ESS 2456x can perform 40-MHz-wide RF channels in a
mode called SuperG/AG or Turbo, which is capable of delivering a link throughput nearly twice as high as that of a
20-MHz channel. The eXtended Range operating mode enables RF channels with bandwidths of 10 MHz or 5 MHz.
This features allows to double or even triple link spans and coverage areas.
The Wifless ESS 2456x can support sensitive applications through advanced IEEE 802.11i & IEEE 802.1x
authentication and strong data encryption based on WEP, TKIP or AES algorithms, with key lengths up to 256 bits.
The system is capable of delivering QoS/CoS and supporting VLANs in compliance with the IEEE 802.1Q-2005
standard. This guarantees top performances and maximum security for VPN services, thus providing teleworkers and
remote offices with convenient and reliable access to their corporate networks.
The device supports a large variety of predefined operating modes, allowed by the Local Country Radio Regulations.
However, the operable frequencies, as well as other RF parameters, can be refined according to the applicable radio
regulations and specific deployment considerations.
The Wifless ESS 2456x system can be managed via standard tools, such as HTTP or HTTPS browsers, TCP-IP SSH
and Telnet Command Line Interface, as well as through MIB-based SNMP browsers for remote control and
administration. Extended logging via an external Syslog Standard Server is also possible for long-running detailed
monitoring.

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System Components and Technical Specifications


The Wifless ESS 2456x equipment consists of a radio Outdoor Unit (ODU), containing from one to four independent
radio modules, and a Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) power supply (Indoor Unit, or IDU) that can be paired for redundancy
with an other one.
The IDU interfaces with your Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to supply and receive data through a standard RJ45
port in accordance with the IEEE 802.3u Fast-Ethernet 10/100BaseTX protocol. The IDU can be powered by 100 VAC
to 240 VAC mains (from 50 to 60 Hz).
The IDU connects to the ODU through an outdoor-category 5+ FTP cable to carry Ethernet data, supply 48 VDC
power, and transfer control for system management.
The ODU includes multiple system NPUs (specialized Network Processors) and radio modules; interfaces with external
equipment through N(F)-type antenna connectors, and special circular lock-in type Ethernet ports.

Figure 2 - Wifless ESS 24562 Outdoor Unit (ODU) ETH Connectors View.

Figure 1 - PoE Proprietary Power


Supply (Front view on top).

Figure 3 - Wifless ESS 24564 Outdoor Unit (ODU) RF Connectors View.

Essentia Wifless ESS 2456x Hardware Features and Specifications


Please refer to the products datasheets.

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Essentia OpenWifless ESS ProNODE Operating System Main Features
Main Wireless Features:

Worldwide Atheros Radio Regulatory Country Codes


Multiple Logical Interface capability
UP to 8 Virtual Access Point with Multiple ESSID with VLAN or IP Domain Isolation
Interface Bonding capability (redundancy and throughput aggregation)
NLOS / nLOS (Non Line of Sight / Near Line of Sight) Capability in IEEE 802.11a/h mode (OFDM
Modulation)
IEEE 802.11 Standard Infrastructure and Ad-Hoc operational modes
Flexible L2 Ethernet Switch and L3 IP Router operation modes:
o Bridged/Routed Access Point (Wi-Fi / HiperLAN2 standard modes)
o Bridged/Routed Station or Client (PTP / PMP modes)
o 2+0 Bridged/Routed Resilient PTP Link
o Wireless Repeater
STP/RSTP, WDS Standard L2 Mesh Capability
OSPF and OLSR Advanced L3 Mesh Capability
High Efficiency 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11g Pure G mode
High Speed 108 Mbps in SuperG/AG Dynamic and Static Turbo mode
o Full parameters fine tunable
High Range Atheros eXtended Range mode
Extended Channel Atheros XChan mode
ESSID Hidden Broadcast (Site survey and scanning prevention) with Advanced Proprietary AP ID Key
P2P Zone Blocking Capability (Client Isolation)
Denial or Access List IEEE 802.11abg ANY Station (Connection Prevention or Granted modes)
o Wireless MAC Access Control List (Atheros chip-set HW features)
IEEE 802.11f IAPP Handover Capability
IEEE 802.11d Country Regulatory Domain Roaming
IEEE 802.11e QoS and CoS (Wireless MultiMedia Standard)
o Full Tunable Fine Parameters option
Static IEEE 802.11 WEP encryption capability with keys of 64/128/152 bits and with non standard length
WEP keys (Proprietary implementation for additional security)
Dynamic IEEE 802.11 WEP encryption capability with 802.1x protocol
IEEE 802.11i compliant WPA/WPA2 based on TKIP/AES with PSK/EAP encryption capability with keys up
to 256 bits
o WPA/WPA2 full parameters fine tunable
IEEE 802.1x Standard RADIUS compliant to EAP protocols with TKIP/AES encryption
o EAP-MD5/TLS, EAP-PEAP, EAP-LEAP, EAP-SIM, EAP-TLS and EAP-TTLS and other supported

Main Networking Features (Wireless and Wireline):

Flexible L2 Ethernet Switch:


o IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol compliant
o IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol compliant
Advanced L3 TCP-IP Full Featured Router:
o Static TCP-IP Router
o Advanced TCP-IP Dynamic Router:
RIP1 RFC 1058 & RIP2 RFC 2453
OSPF v2 RFC 2328
BGP v4 RFC 1771
IS-IS RFC 1195
OLSR RFC 3626
o Advanced Policy Router
Extended Firewall with NAT capabilities:
o Conditional Firewall with Priority Policy and Configurable NAT
o Independent Traffic Flow Policy Filtering
o Virtual Server (NAT inbound server)
L3-L4 IP Bandwidth Manager with Traffic Shaper and Multiple Queues capability
IEEE 802.1Q-2005 VLAN capability and Interface Isolation with VLAN routing capability and QinQ
IEEE 802.1Q-2005 QoS and CoS Standard capability (including IEEE 802.1p)
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VPN Transparent (Pass-Through) capability


GRE Tunnel Protocol capability RFC 1701
IEEE 802.3ad Interface Bonding and Bandwidth Aggregation capability:
o 2+0 Radio Optimized + Fail Over mode
o 1+1 Fail Over mode
o 2+0 Round Robin mode
o 2+0 XOR Even/Odd MAC Load Balancing mode
Extended DHCP Client/Server/Relay Capability for each Logical Interface
PPPoE Relay
NTP Network Time Protocol v3 RFC 1305
SNTP Simple Network Time Protocol v4 RFC 2030

Main Management Features:

Remote firmware update and upgrade via TFTP integrated client


Remote device configuration backup and restore
o Unique XML Configuration File for easy off-line setup and replication onto multiple devices
Complete remote system administration:
o via SSH / Telnet CLI (Command Line Interface)
o via web base (HTTP/ HTTPS) GUI (Graphic User Interface)
o via SNMP MNG tools
o via local RS-232 serial port (optional)
SNMP Public and Private (Proprietary) MIBs for Full Remote Control and Monitoring
o Integrated advanced SNMP V1, V2 and SNMP V3 Agents
Monitoring and Diagnostics integrated tools:
o Netperf performance metering
o Iperf performance metering
o Syslog service
o System Status Resource Metering & Monitoring
CPU, Memory, Flash Disk usage
IRQ rate
Physical Interfaces statistics
Main Supervisoring Supported tools:
o NeaNMS Suite (Linux based)
o OpenNMS (Linux OpenSource Project)
o CastleRock SNMPc Enterprise and Workgroup (SNMPc)
o Hewlet-Packard OpenView (HPOV)

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Approved Antennas 1
The following table is the only one complete list of the approved antennas that can be used along with the Wifless ESS
2456x devices in accordance with the current EU ETSI rules.

Mnemonic Code
WFL COA 24-10
WFL PPA 24-13

EAN13 Code
Description
8033171940198 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 8 dBi Omni Collinear Antenna 2.4-2.5 GHz
8033171940501 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 13 dBi 90 Sectoral Patch Antenna 2.4-2.5
GHz
WFL PPA 24-14
8033171940181 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 14 dBi 60 Sectoral Patch Antenna 2.4-2.5
GHz
WFL PPA 24-17
8033171940174 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 16 dBi Patch Antenna 2.3-2.7 GHz
WFL COA 56-10
8033171940150 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 9 dBi Omni Collinear Antenna 5.4-6.0 GHz
WFL PPA 56-15
8033171940235 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 15 dBi 120 Sectoral Patch Antenna 5.1-6.1
GHz
WFL PPA 56-15H 8033171940419 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 15 dBi 120 Sectoral, Horizontal Polarization,
Patch Antenna 5.1-6.1 GHz
WFL PPA 56-16
8033171940242 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 17 dBi 90 Sectoral Patch Antenna 4.9-6.1
GHz
WFL PPA 56-16H 8033171940426 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 17 dBi 90 Sectoral, Horizontal Polarization,
Patch Antenna 4.9-6.1 GHz
WFL PPA 56-17
8033171940259 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 16 dBi 60 Sectoral Patch Antenna 5.1-6.1
GHz
WFL PPA 56-17H 8033171940433 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 16 dBi 60 Sectoral, Horizontal Polarization,
Patch Antenna 5.1-6.1 GHz
WFL PPA 56-23
8033171940112 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 23 dBi Patch Antenna 5.1-6.0 GHz
WFL PPA 56-28
8033171940105 Wifless Pro-Outdoor 28 dBi Patch Antenna 5.1-6.1 GHz
WFL SDA 56-32
8033171940099 Wifless Outdoor 32 dBi Solid Dish Antenna 5.1-5.9 GHz
For more details refer to the products datasheets.
The use of antennas other than the above listed, or expressly certified by Essentia, will void the products EU
certificates of compliances.

Important Notes on Conformity


In order to maintain the Essentia EU Declaration of Conformity valid and to act in accordance with the EU Directive
R&TTE 1999/05/CE and with the EU Decision 2005/513/CE, you must:
Use genuine Essentia Wifless approved antennas only;
Use genuine Essentia Wifless approved RF cable kits;
Select the Radio Country Code in accordance with your Local Country Area Rules.

Not included in Wifless ESS 2456x standard package.


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Approved RF Cables for Antenna Interconnection


The following table is the only one complete list of the approved cables that can be used along with the Wifless ESS
2456x devices in accordance with the current EU ETSI rules.

Mnemonic Code
WFL EKCRF01

EAN13 Code
Description
8033171940020 Wifless RF Antenna Cable Kit, 1m low-loss cable with 2x N(M)
connectors for ProNODE devices
Typical Insertion Loss in the 2.4-2.5 GHz Band: 0.5 dB
Typical Insertion Loss in the 4.9-5.8 GHz Band: 1.3 dB
WFL EKCRF02
8033171940297 Wifless RF Antenna Cable Kit, 2m low-loss cable with 2x N(M)
connectors for ProNODE devices
Typical Insertion Loss in the 2.4-2.5 GHz Band: 1.0 dB
Typical Insertion Loss in the 4.9-5.8 GHz Band: 2.0 dB
WFL EKCRF03
8033171940266 Wifless RF Antenna Cable Kit, 3m low-loss cable with 2x N(M)
connectors for ProNODE devices
Typical Insertion Loss in the 2.4-2.5 GHz Band: 1.5 dB
Typical Insertion Loss in the 4.9-5.8 GHz Band: 3.0 dB
WFL EKCRF06
8033171940037 Wifless RF Antenna Cable Kit, 6m low-loss cable with 2x N(M)
connectors for ProNODE devices
Typical Insertion Loss in the 2.4-2.5 GHz Band: 3.0 dB
Typical Insertion Loss in the 4.9-5.8 GHz Band: 6.0 dB
For more details refer to the products datasheets.
The use of cables other than the above listed, or expressly certified by Essentia, will void the products EU certificates
of compliances.

Important Notes on Conformity


In order to maintain the Essentia EU Declaration of Conformity valid and to act in accordance with the EU Directive
R&TTE 1999/05/CE and with the EU Decision 2005/513/CE, you must:
Use genuine Essentia Wifless approved antennas only;
Use genuine Essentia Wifless approved RF cable kits;
Select the Radio Country Code in accordance with your Local Country Area Rules.

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Guidelines on Installation
The installation of outdoor equipment should ONLY be performed by experienced installation professionals who are
familiar with the local building and safety codes. Wherever applicable, make sure that operation is carried out by
engineers in possession of a license released by the appropriate government regulatory authorities.
Failure to do so may void the Wifless ESS 2456x product warranty and may expose both end users and Service
Providers to legal and financial liabilities. Essentia and its resellers or distributors are not liable for injury, damage or
regulation violations associated with the installation of outdoor units or antennas.
Select the optimal locations for your equipment using the following guidelines:
You can mount your ODU either on a pole or on a wall. Choose a location so that only qualified professionals
can easily access your ODU for installation and tests.
Install the ODU as close to your antenna as possible.
As a rule, the higher you place your antenna, the better the performance of your radio link. This may not apply
to NLOS propagation in urban areas: in such cases, try to move your antenna laterally to achieve the best
performance.
Mark the position where your indoor-to-outdoor cables enter the building and install your IDU in the nearest
position available. Make sure that your IDU can be conveniently connected to a power outlet and to your CPE.
We recommend the installation of high-quality gas-type protectors against electrical surges and lightning for
each antenna installed. Check the local safety code of your country and of your building for proper protectors
installation.
We recommend that you ground your ODU to the nearest building grounding connector. Check the local safety
code of your country and your building for proper protectors installation.

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Hardware Setup and Basic Knowledge


Before you take any action on your Wifless ESS 2456x device, we recommend that you become familiar with the
system and its applications. Under no circumstances the ODU case should be opened. Failure to do so will result in the
immediate loss of your IP 68 Dust & Water Protection as well as in the loss of your Product Warranty.

Wifless ESS 2456x Ethernet & RS-232 Console Connectors


As shown in Figure 4, the ODU Wifless ESS 2456x, has special IP 67 rated input connectors proof against dust and
water. These jacks are commonly referred to as Circular Lock-In-type connectors or MIL-like connectors.

Ethernet 1 Connector (ETH1 port)


Ethernet 0 Connector (ETH0 port)
RS 232 Console Connector (RS232 Port)

Figure 4 Circular Lock-In-type connectors in ODU.

Figure 4 displays the location of the Console Port and the two Fast-Ethernet ports of your ODU.
Both the Fast-Ethernet ports can be used to power the ODU via Power-over.-Ethernet (PoE) supplies. See important
note below.
RS 232 Console (RS 232 Port): This port is used by the Wifless Support Team for troubleshooting purposes and is
disabled by default.
Ethernet 0 (ETH0 Port): This is the main Ethernet port of the ODU; normally used for connecting the PoE power
supply to the ODU.
Ethernet 1 (ETH1 Port): This secondary Ethernet port can be used to connect other equipment to the ODU in a daisychain style, or to connect a secondary PoE power supply to implement a 2+0 Load Sharing Redundant Power Supply
solution.

Important Notes
Connecting the RS 232 Serial Port of your PC to either Ethernet port of your ODU may cause damage
to your PC due to the power supplied by the PoE.
In accordance with the IEEE 802.3af wiring standard, both the Ethernet ports of your ODU can supply
up to 72 VDC, when powered (48 VDC when supplied by the standard WFL EPOE01).

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Wifless EPOE01 Power-over-Ethernet Power Supply and Connectors
As shown in Figure 5, the IDU PoE Power Supply unit has built-in standard connectors. The two Data-In and Power &
Data-Out ports comply with the Ethernet RJ-45 Standard, whereas the Main Line power connector complies with the
IEC 320-C14 Standard commonly used.

Ethernet + PoE Power Port Only for ODU connection


Ethernet only Port to local standard LAN or PC
Red Link Active LED

Green Main Power LED

110/240 VAC Main Line IEC 320-C14 connector


Figure 5 - PoE (IDU) power supply. Front view on top.

Here is a description of each port of the PoE IDU:


AC IN Port: This IEC 320-C14 port is used for connecting the unit to the AC main power line.
POWER & DATA OUT Port: This RJ-45 Fast-Ethernet port is PoE IEEE 802.3af compliant and it is used for
connecting the IDU to the ODU. Electrical power and Ethernet data are supplied to the ODU through this port. Make
sure your indoor-to-outdoor cable meets the requirements specified below in this document.
DATA IN Port: This standard Fast-Ethernet port (with PoE isolation) is used to connect the Wifless ESS 2456x system
either to a LAN or to a PC through an Ethernet cross-over cable or a straight-through cable.

Important Notes
Connecting your IDU to the RS 232 Port of your ODU may damage the ODU and will void the product
warranty.
Use an AC power cord approved by your country safety code with grounded tips and connect to a
power outlet properly grounded. Do not open the PoE power supply! Risk of electric hazard!
If you intend to use a PoE power supply other than the one originally provided, make sure that your
alternative PoE is compliant with the IEEE 802.3af cabling standard and that can deliver 1A at 48
VDC. Failure to do so may damage the equipment and will void the product warranty.

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Wifless ESS 2456x RF Antenna Connectors
As shown in Figure 6, in the case of the Wifless ESS 24562 device, the ODU is equipped with two high-quality IP 68
rated N(F)-type RF connectors proof against dust and water. The number of the RF connectors is related to the number
of the independent radio modules of the device, so the Wifless ESS 24561 has only one RF connector and the Wifless
ESS 24564 has four RF connectors. These RF connectors enable operations up to 6 GHz and are commonly referred to
as N-type female panel connectors.

Wireless 0 or WRL0 RF Connector

Wireless 1 or WRL1 RF Connector

Figure 6 - RF input connectors of ODU.

Each RF N(F) connector (port) is connected to a radio module compliant with standards IEEE 802.11 b/g and IEEE
802.11 a/h. Any radio module is independent from each other. Typically, two, or more, identical antennas are fastened
onto these RF connectors when the Wifless ESS 24564 is used as a Mesh Node.
The RF connectors of a Wifless ESS 2456x are referenced as ports labeled from Wireless 0 (WRL0) to Wireless 3
(WRL3). For a proper connector identification please refer to the label attached in the back of the device.

Important Notes
Do not apply any electrical signal (DC, AC, or RF) exceeding the power of 30 dBm to the RF
connectors of your ODU. This will damage the system and will void the product warranty. The
installation of GAS or L/4 RF Lightning Arrestors and Surge Protectors next to either RF connector is
strongly recommended. Check the local safety codes of your country and building.

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Mounting the ODU
Ensure that all antennas and supporting structures are properly installed to eliminate any physical hazard to either
people or property. Make sure that the installation of the outdoor unit, antenna and cables is performed in accordance
with all relevant national and local building and safety codes. Even where grounding is not mandatory according to
applicable regulation and national codes, it is highly recommended to ensure that the outdoor unit and the antenna mast
(when using external antenna) are grounded and suitable lightning protection devices are used so as to provide
protection against voltage surges and static charges. In any event, Essentia will not be liable for any injury, damage or
regulation violations associated with or caused by installation, grounding or lightning protection.

Important Note
The following examples of installation show how to use the mounting kit supplied within the package
of your Wifless ESS 2456x. You can mount your ODU either on a pole or on a wall. If the mounting kit
is not adequate for the diameter of the pole or the surface of the wall, make sure that your ODU is
securely attached in accordance with the local safety codes of your country and building.

Pole-Mounting with Strips


Fix your ODU to a pole with the provided metal strips as shown in Figure 7. Take care to correctly grip the strips to the
pole and to the ODU. Then firmly lock the strips screws.

Figure 7 - Pole Mount Example - Rear View

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Pole-Mounting with Clamps
This mounting kit is suited for poles with up to 45 mm in diameter.
Mount first the claps bars through the ODU holes as shown in Figure 9, then fix your ODU to a pole as shown in
Figure 8 and Figure 9 in details.

Figure 8 - Pole Mount Example - Rear and Lateral Views

Figure 9 - Pole Mount Example - Front and Lateral Details Views

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Wall-Mounting
Fix your ODU to a wall as shown in the following Figure 10 using proper nogs for the targeted wall (not parts of the
standard provided mounting kit).

Figure 10 - Wall Mount Example - Front View

Electrical Grounding (Safety Grounding)


The chassis ground terminal (marked

) is located on the bottom of the ODU case as displayed in Figure 11.

Figure 11 - Chassis ground terminal Grounding tip.

Ground your ODU according to the following instructions:


1) Use a ground cable compliant with all the safety codes of your country and building.
2) Fix one end of your ground cable to the chassis ground terminal. Screw the ground bolt tight on the chassis.
3) Fix the other end of your ground cable to a ground point or ground connection in accordance with all the safety
codes of your country.
4) Ensure conformity with all the safety codes of your country and building.

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Connecting the Antenna Cable to the ODU
External antennas connect to your ODU through the N(F) RF connectors shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12 - RF Connectors of the Wifless ESS 24562 - Top View

To connect an antenna to your ODU, follow the instructions listed below:


1) Use a coaxial RF cable of the right type and length in accordance with the specifications of the antenna and the
frequency band being used. We recommend that you use Wifless-approved cable kits to preserve the ETSI and
FCC Approvals as well as your product warranty. The use of poor quality cables may damage the equipment
and void the product warranty.
2) Fasten one end of your cable onto the RF connector being used in your ODU.
3) Fasten the other end of your cable onto the RF connector of the antenna.
4) Protect all the connectors being used against rain and moisture with a high-quality sealing tape for outdoor use.

Connecting the Indoor-to-Outdoor Cable to the ODU and IDU


To connect your IDU to your ODU, use a high-quality FTP CAT 5 cable approved for outdoor use. Your cable must not
exceed 90 meters in length and must comply with the EIA/TIA PoE LAN Ethernet Cabling Standard. Wifless-approved
indoor-to-outdoor cables are strongly recommended. If you need to make an indoor-to-outdoor cable of your own,
follow the instructions listed below:
1) Wire one end of your cable into an ETH/LAN IP 67 Lock-in-type connector according to the instructions in
ETH/LAN IP67 Lock-in-type and RJ45 Connectors Wiring Diagram.
2) Fasten the ETH/LAN IP 67 Lock-in-type connector of your cable onto the ETH0 connector of your ODU.
Because ETH0 is the only Ethernet port which was enabled at the factory, you will be unable to transmit or
receive data through ETH1 by default.
3) Route the cable to the location selected for your IDU in accordance with the EIA/TIA-PoE LAN Ethernet
Cabling Rules and in accordance with all the local safety codes of your country and building.
4) Cut your cable to the appropriate length and wire the end into an RJ-45 FTP CAT 5 connector as described in
ETH/LAN IP67 Lock-in-type and RJ45 Connectors Wiring Diagram. Use a protective cover.
You can now proceed to install your IDU (PoE injector).

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Installing the IDU (PoE Power Supply)
You can either place your IDU on a flat surface - i.e. a desktop or a shelf or wall-mount the unit. The IDU supplied
with the equipment is for indoor use only.
The IDU has no on-off switch. Once you have connected the IDU to the ODU and plugged the AC cord into a power
socket, your IDU will start powering the system performing a Power-On Self-Test (POST). Use AC power cords
approved by your country and grounded power outlets in accordance with your local safety codes.
If you need to customize your AC power cord, see Table 1 below:
Electric:
Phase
Neutral
Ground

Color:
Brown
Blue
Yellow/Green

Symbol:

~
0
or

Table 1 - AC Power Cord Standard Color Codes

To start up your Wifless ESS 2456x system, follow the instructions listed below:
1) Plug the RJ-45 connector of your indoor-to-outdoor cable into the POWER & DATA OUT port of your IDU.
2) Plug the proper end of your power cord into the IEC 320-C14 jack of your IDU and the other end into an AC
socket supplying 100-240 VAC at 50-60 Hz.
3) Verify that the green POWER LED on the right-hand side on the IDU front panel remains constantly
illuminated (no blinking). This means that AC power is being supplied to your IDU.
4) Verify that the red LINK ACTIVE LED on the left-hand side of the IDU front panel remains constantly
illuminated (no blinking). This means that DC power is being supplied correctly to the system through the
POWER & DATA OUT port of your IDU. If the red LED is blinking, power off your IDU immediately and
check the indoor-to-outdoor cable carefully. It might have been wired incorrectly, or the ODU attached to your
IDU might be faulty: once you have performed your tests, repeat the start-up procedure from the beginning. If
the problem persists, contact your local reseller or the Wifless Support Team as explained in Appendix C
Contacting the Wifless Support Team.
5) Configure the basic system parameters as described in the next section.
6) Connect your IDU to your LAN or to a PC. To do so, you need to plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the
DATA OUT RJ-45 10/100BaseTX port of your IDU, and plug the other end either into a LAN port of your
main network device (i.e.: switch, router or firewall) or into the NIC port of your PC. The Wifless ESS 2456x
equipment features auto MDI/MDI X capability that detects the type of Ethernet port being connected to the
DATA OUT port and configures the latter accordingly. However, we recommend that you use an Ethernet
CAT 5 UTP cable of the proper type: use a straight-through cable when connecting your IDU either to a hub, a
switch, or a router; use a cross-over cable when connecting your IDU to the NIC (Network Interface Card) of a
PC.
To reboot your Wifless ESS 2456x device, disconnect either the AC power cord or the indoor-to-outdoor cable from
your IDU and wait at least 5 seconds before you plug the cable in again.

Important Note
Always use grounded power outlets and power cords with grounded tips approved by your country
regulations. Do not connect any PC or LAN device to your IDU through the POWER & DATA OUT
port: the DC power supplied through this port may damage the external device connected.
The indoor cable connecting the IDU to the first LAN device and the indoor-to-outdoor cable
connecting the IDU to the ODU must not exceed the aggregate length of 100 meters.

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Overview of the Essentia Wifless Open Platform


Wifless stands for Wireless & Wireline Flexibility by Essentia. This is the brand name for all the Essentia Carrier
Class products based on the True Open Platform Philosophy described in this section.
Wifless is a completely Open Carrier Class Integrated Platform ranging from Wireless to Wireline technologies. The
Wifless products are Open Systems based on Standard low-cost hardware and software oriented towards TCP-IP
services, SIP-based VoIP, Video Streaming and VoD technologies.
The Wifless ESS 24xxx series has been designed to implement a fully-standard hardware platform for all modern
Wireless embedded operating systems universally accepted. Users are encouraged to fine-tune the system to suit their
specific technical requirements and fully develop their proprietary solutions.

The OpenWifless ESS ProNODE Operating System


OpenWifless ESS ProNODE is a high-performance embedded operating system based on Linux kernel 2.6. It has been
specially designed for the Essentia ESS 42X-X2/X4 Intel IXP 425 platform to bring out optimum performance in
conjunction with all the peripheral modules employed by the Wifless ESS 2456x wireless series. As a result,
OpenWifless users can obtain the best consistency of performance across the whole range of Wifless ESS 2456x
products being deployed. In addition, the utilization of the same release of OpenWifless ESS ProNODE across the
whole systems ensures homogeneous provisioning along with the most user-friendly upgrades and maintenance
procedures.
By default, the Wifless ESS 2456x is powered by the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE operating system. However, users
can easily switch to other embedded Linux-based operating systems such as TimeSys and MontaVista, or choose to
install completely different OS platforms like WindRiver VxWorks and Microsoft Windows CE/Mobile.
The Wifless Open Platform has been specially designed to support this large variety of operating systems so that users
can conveniently upgrade their system anytime.

Capabilities and Performances of the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE


Because OpenWifless ESS ProNODE has been implemented onto a Linux 2.6 kernel, its main capabilities are the
same as those of Linux 2.6 standard distributions. However, in order to improve the overall system performance and
reliability, the Essentia OpenWifless Development Team, together with other independent licensed parties, have
enhanced the OS with dedicated HALs and drivers, and added new kernel portions. For this reason, OpenWifless is
not an Open-Source project.
Capabilities and performance are only limited by the hardware resources available in the system, along with its custom
configuration and adjustment. OpenWifless ESS ProNODE OS is a completely open system which features a rewriteable JFFS2 file system. Therefore, skilled Linux users are allowed to access the file system, the system kernel and
its applications in order to develop and run new applications of their own within OpenWifless ESS ProNODE OS, in
the same way which is allowed by standard Linux distributions. For this reason, OpenWifless ESS ProNODE OS is an
Open Platform.

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Supported Radius Protocols and Attributes by the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE
The OpenWifless ESS ProNODE, when configured to work as Radius controlled Network Access Server (NAS),
supports the most useful standard Radius commands and attributes, to smoothly manage the AAA and the billing, and
implements proprietary/draft-proposed advanced WISPr attributes to provide Class of Service dynamic configuration to
the connected wireless CPE.
To ensure the right interoperability among the majority of the Radius Clients with standard Radius Server implementing
AAA operations on a wireless network, as per the best practices suggested by the Wi-Fi Alliance (http://www. wifi.org), the following Radius attributes and parameters are implemented (or will be implemented in future OpenWifless
ESS ProNODE operating system release):

EAP3 Main Supported Protocols

EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS/MSCHAPv2
PEAP/EAP-MSCHAPv2
PEAP/EAP-MD5
PEAP/EAP-GTC
EAP-SIM
EAP-LEAP

Authentication Authorization & Accounting Attributes

Acct-Session-Id: unique session identifier


Called-Station-Id: access point MAC address
Calling-Station-Id: user station MAC address
Client-IP-Address: Radius client IP address
Framed-IP-Address: user station IP address (if known at the association request)
NAS-IP-Address: network access server IP address
NAS-Identifier: network access server unique identifier
NAS-Port-Type: access port type
Service-Type: service type
User-Name: username to be authenticated (in the form user@realm)
User-Password: password
Acct-Interim-Interval: each time interval in which an accounting record should be generated (see after)
Class: service class
Idle-Timeout: inactivity time interval before the user is disconnected
Reply-Message: optional reply message
Session-Timeout: total session time, after which the user should be disconnected
WISPr-Bandwidth-Max-Down: max download bandwidth allowed
WISPr-Bandwidth-Max-Up: max upload bandwidth allowed
WISPr-Bandwidth-Min-Down: min download bandwidth
WISPr-Bandwidth-Min-Up: min upload bandwidth
WISPr-Session-Terminate-End-Of-Day: true if the session must be terminated at midnight in any case
WISPr-Session-Terminate-Time: show the exact time at which the user should be disconnected
WISPr-Redirection-URL: probably unused (transparent to NAS)
WISPr-Logoff-URL: probably unused (transparent to NAS)
WISPr-Billing-Class-Of-Service: service class for billing (transparent to NAS)
WISPr-Location-Name: location name of access point (transparent to NAS)
WISPr-Location-ID: unique identifier of the access point location (transparent to NAS)

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Essentia Private Attributes

Essentia-System-Time: private network system time (usually set in accordance with the local real time clock)
Essentia-Reply-Message: generic accounting client specific message
Essentia-Max-Input-Octets: client max down-loadable traffic in kB
Essentia-Max-Output-Octets: client max up-loadable traffic in kB
Essentia-Max-Total-Octets: client max total (up + down) traffic in kB
Essentia-MAC-Allowed: client allowed IEEE MAC address

Essentia-System-Time
It is the current Radius server UTC time in UNIX timestamp format. It is sent by the Radius server to the NAS in the
Access-Accept reply. When the NAS receives this attribute it synchronizes its real time clock to this time value.
If the authenticated CPE/client is an Essentia Wifless ESS device, it also receives this attribute from the NAS during the
authentication and its real time clock is synchronized in accordance with it.
Essentia-Reply-Message
It can be included in the Access-Accept message by the Radius server for generic purpose applications.
The NAS temporary records this client specific char-string message for each authenticated and active clients. The NAS
takes care to send the proper char-string message to the Radius server along with the relative client accounting
messages.
Essentia-Max-Input-Octets, Essentia-Max-Output-Octets, Essentia-Max-Total-Octets
These attributes, mainly used for pre-paid accounts, specify in kB the maximum allowed amounts of data sent, received,
or total sum of both, by the client. It is sent by the Radius server in the Access-Accept response. The client traffic
amounts are accounted by the NAS every interim update interval and forwarded to the Radius server that should take
care to update these attributes promptly. When at least one of these attributes is specified, the NAS will disconnect the
client as it exceeds the maximum allowed values of one of the attributes.
If the authenticating client credit is over (it means that at least one of the specified attributes reached the Zero value),
during the client authentication the Radius sends to the NAS a Zero valued attribute to avoid the client to be connected.
Essentia-MAC-Allowed
It is the IEEE MAC address of the user client device allowed to connect to the AP NAS.
The IEEE 802 MAC address must be written in the canonical hexadecimal two-digit format (XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX).

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Essentia Packet Of Disconnect (Essentia POD)
The Radius server (or a specific application), can send an Essentia POD packet to the NAS to enforce an immediate
client disconnection (Administrative Disconnection). When the NAS receives this POD packet, it sends the AccountingTerminate packet to the Radius server and disconnects the client.
This function is implemented in accordance with the RFC 3576 but adding Essentia advanced private security features
for a better network reliability.
The Essentia exclusive private security features-set includes:
The Essentia POD musts uniquely identify the client under disconnection
The Essentia POD musts uniquely identify the NAS managing the client under disconnection
The NAS will accept Essentia POD packets only coming from its own configured Radius server
To identify a NAS, the following attributes are used: NAS-IP-Address, NAS-Identifier and Called-Station-Id.
If an attribute is specified, it musts match the appropriate parameter of the targeted NAS. If more than one NAS
matches the combination of the sent parameters, the Wifless ESS 2456x system will drop the POD and will return a
Disconnect-NAK message to the sender Radius to notify that it is not possible to uniquely resolve the NAS
identification.
To identify a client, the following attributes are used: User-Name, Acct-Session-Id, Calling-Station-Id and Framed-IPAddress.
If an attribute is specified, it must match the appropriate parameter in the targeted client User Session. If more than one
connected client matches the combination of the sent parameters, the Wifless ESS 2456x system will drop the POD and
will return a Disconnect-NAK message to the sender Radius to notify that it is not possible to uniquely resolve the
client identification.
The Radius musts also send to the targeted NAS the Event-Timestamp attribute as specified in the RFC 3576.
After a successful Essentia POD processing, the NAS takes care to update the Radius server with a Disconnect-ACK
message and an Accounting-Terminate message.

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Essentia Wifless ESS 2456x Setup & Commissioning


Once you have installed the equipment as described in the previous chapter, you must set a few basic parameters for the
system to operate correctly.
Your Wifless ESS 2456x is fitted with one, or two, or four independent radio interfaces and two independent FastEthernet interfaces.
For each of these three or six physical hardware interfaces, OpenWifless will set up one or multiple logical interfaces
that can be either managed separately or bridged together as switch groups.
The Wifless ESS 2456x can fully manage the data traffic in and out of these logical interfaces. The only restrictions are
due to the standard protocols and hardware being used. Each logical interface port can be configured to act as a simple
L2 port or as a more advanced L3 TCP-IP port.
A default configuration of the system basic parameters is burnt in at the factory, so you need not set these parameters by
entering CLI commands into the system through the local RS 232 port of your ODU. In fact, the RS 232 port is disabled
by default and reserved for the Wifless Support Team for troubleshooting purposes.
All the system key parameters can be set remotely via SSH CLI or via the user-friendly HTTP/HTTPS GUI. The use of
a standard web browser enables the user to upload pre-set configuration files off line, and to restore backed-up
configurations.
To set up the basic parameters of the system efficiently, you need to use a PC with either Windows, Macintosh, or
Linux, an Ethernet NIC card with TCP-IP stack, and you need to have a browser such as Internet Explorer 6.x, Netscape
Navigator 7.x, or above.

Prerequisites for Operation


The Essentia Wifless ESS 2456x is capable of delivering state-of-the-art performances in every possible scenario.
In order to make the most out of the equipment, we recommended that it only be installed and operated by professionals
who are proficient in Ethernet LANs, TCP-IP and IEEE 802.11 protocols, RF hardware and RF signal propagation.
However, this Basic System Manual is intended for all the individuals who will be dealing with the setup of the system
in simple topology networks.
If you need more advanced support in deploying your Wifless ESS 2456x in complex topology networks, we
recommend that you contact your local reseller or the Wifless Support Team as described in Appendix C Contacting
the Wifless Support Team.

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Log into your Wifless ESS 2456x
We recommend that you use a PC with Windows XP and Internet Explorer 6.0 (or a higher version) installed. Follow
the instructions listed below:
1) Connect the Ethernet port of your PC to the DATA IN port of the PoE IDU and verify that the Ethernet
physical connection is active on your PC. From Windows, either run ipconfig on the Command Prompt
Interface or check Network Resources > LAN Connection > Status.
2) Remember to disable Internet Access via proxy server. From Windows, go to Control Panel > Internet
Options > Connections > LAN Settings and uncheck the enable box.
3) Set a local static IP address within subnet 192.168.2.0/24 for your PC. We recommend static IP address
192.168.2.1 and Mask 255.255.255.0.
4) Start your preferred web browser program and browse URL http://192.168.2.100 (default IP address of the
Wifless ESS 2456x device). You will get a screen like in Figure 13:

Figure 13 Default IP Address.

Note: 192.168.2.100 is the burnt-in default IP address of the ETH0 port of the Wifless ESS 2456x. If you assign a different IP
address to your Wifless ESS 2456x, make sure that it belongs to the same subnet class of your PC.

5) You will be prompted for your User ID and password as in Figure 14 for example with the Wifless ESS 24562:

Figure 14 Wifless ESS 24562 Login Page

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Login as Administrator
Type admin in the User box and type default in the Password box. Press the Enter key or click on the Login
button.
If you have changed your password or your user name, type in your latest valid password and user name.
If you have lost your Administrative Account password, please follow instructions as explained in Reset of the Password of the
Web Admin Account.

A successful login will result in the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE Homepage being displayed as in Figure 15:

Figure 15 Wifless ESS 24562 Home page.

Only two physical interfaces are defined by default, namely the two Fast-Ethernet ports ETH0 (Ethernet 0) and
ETH1 (Ethernet 1) of the ODU.
Three information panes are displayed in the Homepage window:

Wireless Information: Information about radio links/sectors is reported in this panel. It is initially empty, as no Wireless Interfaces
have been defined yet.
Scanning Information: Information about all visible radio links by Station Interfaces on the Wifless ESS 2456x.
Ethernet Information: Information about Ethernet links is reported in this panel. By default, it displays the IP and MAC addresses
of the workstation being used to access the Wifless ESS 2456x and of the other devices that have had a connection to during the last
minutes (during the last refresh interval of the ARP MAC table).

In the top right-hand corner of the homepage are the following information:

Model Name & Hardware Revision: Wifless 2456x Product Name and HW Revision
Firmware Version: OpenWifless ESS ProNODE OS version
PID - Serial Number: Extended format Wifless 2456x Product ID with Serial Number.
Ethernet MACs: Essentia ETH0 and ETH1 MAC addresses
Wireless MACs: Essentia Wireless Cards MAC addresses

In the top left-hand corner of the homepage are the following information:

Hostname: Default is Wifless_ESS_2456X.wifless.com


Date&Time: Date and time in hh:mm:ss
Uptime: Device uptime from last reboot

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Login as Read-Only User
No Read-Only password is initially set by default. Therefore, your first login must be as administrator in order to
set a Read-Only user password; see section Management Accounts and Password Settings for more details.
Once you have set a Read-Only password, type user into the User box and type your Read-Only password in the
Password box. Press the Enter key or click on the Login button.
A successful login will result in the OpenWifless Homepage being displayed as in Figure 16:

Figure 16 Read-Only Access

In this Read-Only User mode, you are not allowed to modify any parameters.

Login as Backup User


No Backup user password is defined by default. Therefore, you must first log in as administrator and set a Backup
user password of your choice; see section Management Accounts and Password Settings for more details.
Once you have set your Backup User password, type backup into the User box and type your Backup User
password into the Password box. Press the Enter key or click on the Login button.
A successful login will result in the OpenWifless Homepage being displayed as in Figure 17:

Figure 17 Backup Access

In this Backup User mode, you are only allowed to save the current configuration of your system. See section
Configuration Backup, Restore and Factory Default Settings for more details.

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Setup of Physical Interfaces
As previously described, the Wifless ESS 2456x comes with four or six independent physical interfaces, each of which
can be matched to multiple logical interfaces.
For a physical interface to be correctly operated, it must be initialized and mapped at least on a logical interface. You
will manage the physical interface by accessing the logical interface previously associated.
Both the Fast-Ethernet physical interfaces of the ODU are pre-defined and initialized by default. These physical
interfaces, labeled as ETH0 and ETH1, are respectively associated with logical interfaces eth0 and eth1 in order to
provide user-friendly access on initial setup.
By default, eth0 has IP address 192.168.2.100/24 on setup, whereas eth1 is set to loopback state for security reasons and
is not accessible.
On first-time start-up, none of Wireless Physical Interface is defined so as not to create any unwanted interference to
other wireless equipment, in accordance with the FCC and ETSI regulations to minimize RF pollution.
Important Note
Accidental deletion or misconfiguration of the ETH0 Logical Interface may lead the system to an
inaccessible state (i.e.: ETH0 configured in loop-back mode) if ETH1 is not accessible either.
Make sure that at least one Logical Interface has been assigned a static IP address which is always
accessible by the PC provisioning your Wifless ESS 2456x.

Setup of Ethernet Physical Interfaces


To initialize an ethernet physical interface, you must choose a unique Description name for the interface and the Link
Speed and Duplex setting as in Figure 18:

Figure 18 Ethernet Physical Interface Inizialization

To initialize an Ethernet Physical interface, follow the instructions listed below:


1) In the OpenWifless main window, open Devices menu on the left hand-side menu.
2) In the left hand-side pane, click on the Ethernet Interface you want to initialize.
3) In the right hand-side pane, click on tab Ethernet Interface.
4) In the Descritpion box, type a unique Description name for your physical interface.
5) From the Link Speed & Duplex drop-down list of the interface you intend to initialize, choose the value from
those available.
6) Click button Apply.
7) In order to make your changes permanent, you must follow the instruction as in paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

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Setup of Wireless Physical Interfaces
Due to Atheros HAL restrictions and country-specific Radio Regulations, it is mandatory to define some common
parameters for both the Wireless Physical Interfaces. All the correspondent Wireless Logical Interfaces will share these
parameters.
To initialize a Wireless Physical interface, follow the instructions listed below:
1) In the OpenWifless main window, open Devices menu on the left hand-side menu.
2) In the left hand-side pane, click on the Wireless Interface you want to initialize as in Figure 19:

Figure 19 Wireless Physical Interface Inizialization

3) In the Environment Parameters Section you find the following parameters:

Description: Type a unique Description name for your physical interface.

Country Code: Set this value in accordance with your Local Country Radio Authority Rules.

Antenna Diversity: choose the value Use AUX connector if you are using WFL ESS 24562 HW 2.0 A (or lower), otherwise
select the value Use MAIN connector. IMPORTANT: Using a wrong AUX/MAIN connector option the device will not work
properly (at least 20 dB less in the receiving sensitivity)

Maximum Distance (m): Set the Maximum Distance value (in meters) for your Wireless Interface to optimize ACK timeouts
and interface throughput of your network (PTP link or PMP sector managed by this radio). IMPORTANT: Make sure this value is
greater than the distance from the furthest wireless parent device you want to connect, or the system will not be able to create a
proper association. In the case the Maximum Distance value is wrongly set shorter than the real distance, strong degradation
in the overall wireless network may be experienced

802.11 Reg. Class Required: If this IEEE 802.11 option is enabled, the Radio Slot Time is set in accordance with the
Maximum Distance parameter. It is suggested to leave it disabled for better average performance and for a smoother interoperability.
IMPORTANT: Be carefull to enable this option if Wifless CPE with an operating system older than 1.10 are connected to the
sector. In the case you will forget this setting, some Wifless CPE may not be able to operate correctly and/or performing as expected.

Outdoor mode: Enable this option for outdoor optimized applications.

4) In the Operational Parameters Section you find the following parameters:

Operational Mode: Select your Operational Mode from the drop-down list as shown in the figure. The available modes are:
9
802.11a/h 54 Mbps: IEEE 802.11a/h Mode setting
9
802.11b 11 Mbps only: IEEE 802.11b Mode setting
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9
9
9

802.11g 54 Mbps only: IEEE 802.11g Pure G Mode setting


802.11b/g 11/54 Mbps: IEEE 802.11b/g Mode setting
802.11a Dynamic Turbo: Force the IEEE 802.11a Mode to operate in the Dynamic Turbo Aggregated Mode 40 MHz RF
Channel (also referred as 108 Mbps Turbo).
9
802.11g Dynamic Turbo mode: Force the IEEE 802.11g Mode to operate in the Dynamic Turbo Aggregated Mode 40
MHz RF Channel (also referred as 108 Mbps Turbo).
9
802.11a Static Turbo mode: Force the IEEE 802.11a Mode to operate in the Static Turbo Aggregated Mode 40 MHz RF
Channel (also referred as 108 Mbps Turbo)Type a unique Description name for your physical interface.

Rate Selection Algorithm: Set the Auto-Rate Selection Algorithm between the following:
9
Atheros, for Atheros own Auto-Rate Control Algorithm
9
ONOE Credit Based, for indoor 802.11b environment
9
AMRR Adaptive, for Adaptive Multi Rate Retry Algorithm
9
SampleRate, for Sample Rate Algorithm
9
Minstrel EWMA Based, for Minstrel Rate Algortthm

Channel Bandwitdh: you can lower the Channel Bandwitdh to increase sensitivity or to optimize the RF spectrum
allocation/usage, as well as to minimize the interference effects. You can choose to use the RF Channel Bandwidth as per the
selected Coutry Code Starndard Profile, or to divide it by two or by four:
9
Default, typical 20 MHz for normal sized channels
9
Half, typical 10 MHz
9
Quarter, typical 5 MHz

Extended Channel Mode: Enable this option to activate the Atheros eXtended Channel mode.

5) In the AP Specific Parameters Section you find the following parameters:

Channel: Set the transmission Channel in accordance with your application and your country rules.
All the radio equipment to be connected with this Wireless AP must share the same channel
The most advanced Wireless Adapters (PC Card) will automatically scan for a suitable Wireless AP and automatically
match the broadcasted wireless setting
9
The RF channels are listed by ETSI/FCC Channels Standard Numbering and by Center Frequency in MHz
9
(DFS) labeled RF channels have ETSI DFS enabled
Beacon Time (ms): Set Beacon Time value. Default is 100 ms.
9
9

6) In the Automatic Noise Immunity Parameters Section you find the following parameters:

OFDM Weak Signal Detection: Default is on.


CCK Weak Signal Threshold: Default is off.
Noise Immunity Level: Default is auto.
Spur Immunity Level: Default is auto.
First Step Level: Default is auto.

7) Click button Apply.


8) In order to make your changes permanent, you must follow the instruction as in paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

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Setup of Ethernet Logical Interfaces
Either Fast-Ethernet physical interfaces can be associated with logical interfaces of the following types:

Standard Clear Fast-Ethernet Logical Interfaces (only one allowed per physical port)
Standard IEEE 802.1Q-2005 VLAN Logical Interfaces
RFC 1701 GRE Tunnel Logical Interfaces.

To create an Ethernet logical interface, follow the instructions listed below:


1) In the OpenWifless main window, click on Iinterfaces from the left hand-side menu obtaining a screen as in
Figure 20.

Figure 20 Ethernet Logical Interface Creation

1) In the right hand-side pane, click on tab Ethernet.


2) From the Type drop-down list of the interface you intend to create, choose a logical interface type from those
available (see above in this section).
3) In the ID box, type a unique identifier for your logical interface.
4) Click button Create it.
A successful creation of an Ethernet logical interface will result in a screen as in Figure 21:

Figure 21 Successful Creation of an Ethernet Logical Interface

To delete the logical interface you have just created, click Delete it.

5) In order to make your changes permanent, you must follow the instruction as in paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

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Creation and Setup of Switch Logical Interfaces
As previously mentioned in this chapter, your Wifless ESS 2456x can L2-switch or L3-route data traffic through its
logical interfaces. In order to perform this operation, you must either create at least one L2-Switch Logical Interface to
bridge together the desired Ethernet Logical Interfaces and Wireless Logical Interfaces, or define at least one L3
Route (Static or Dynamic) between the desired Ethernet Logical Interfaces and Wireless Logical Interfaces.
To create a Switch Logical Interface, click on Interfaces from the left hand-side menu of the OpenWifless main page,
then click on tab Switch on the right hand-side panel. In the Switch section, do the following:
1) Type a number (index) for your Switch Logical Interface into the ID box.
2) From the Interfaces box, select at least two of the Logical Interfaces you intend to bridge by pressing the
CTRL key.

Figure 22 Switch Logical Interface Creation

3) Click button Create it. Your new Switch Logical Interface will be displayed in the lower pane as in Figure 23:

Figure 23 Switch Logical Interface Created

4) In order to make your changes permanent, you must follow the instruction as in paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

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5) To configure another Switch Logical Interface, select it and see paragraph Provisioning Switch Interfaces.

Note: As shown in Figure 24, no MAC address is assigned to your newly created Switch Logical Interface. The logical switch will
acquire its MAC address on the next system reboot.

Figure 24 No MAC address is assigned until next system reboot

Important Note
Accidental deletion or misconfiguration of the Logical Interface used to access the device for the
management may lead the system to an inaccessible state.
Make sure that at least one Logical Interface has been assigned a static IP address which is always
accessible by the PC provisioning your Wifless ESS 2456x.
In order to help you prevening this potential cause of loss of device management, the operating
system automatically takes care, during the creation of a new Switch Logical Interface containing
others interfaces, to assign an IP address as per the following rules:
If the Logical Interfaces partecipating to the new Switch Logical Interface have one valid IP
address, this is assigned.
If the Logical Interfaces partecipating to the new Switch Logical Interface have more than one
valid IP addresses, the IP address of the first created logical interface is assigned.
If the Logical Interfaces partecipating to the new Switch Logical Interface have none valid IP
addresses, the Defaul IP address 192.168.2.100 is assigned.

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Creation and Setup of Wireless Logical Interfaces
Each Wireless Physical Interface can be associated with a Wireless Logical Interface of any of the following types:

Access Point Logical Interfaces


Station Logical Interfaces
WDS Node Logical Interfaces

To create a Wireless Logical Interface, click on Interfaces from the left hand-side menu of the OpenWifless main page,
then click on tab Wireless on the right hand-side panel obtaining a screen as in Figure 25:

Figure 25 Wireless Logical Interface Creation in Wifless ESS 24562

Follow the instructions listed below for either Wireless InterfaceS you need to create:
1) From the Type drop-down selection of the Wireless 0 and/or Wireless 1 Card, choose a value among Access
Point, Station and WDS Node.
2) Type a unique number ID (max 2 digits) for your Wireless Logical Interface into the ID box.
3) Click on button Create it. Your newly created Wireless Logical Interface will be displayed in the same section
as its physical interface associate as shown in Figure 26:

Figure 26 Access Point Interface Creation in Wifless ESS 24562

4) You can choose any of the following types for your Wireless Logical Interface from the Type drop-down
selection menu:

Standard Clear Wireless Logical Interfaces (only one per physical interface)
Standard IEEE 802.1Q-2005 VLAN Logical Interfaces
RFC 1701 GRE Tunnel Logical Interfaces.

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5) Type an identifier for your Wireless Logical Interface into the ID box and click on Create it to save your
changes obtaining a screen as in Figure 27:

Figure 27 Wireless VLAN/GRE Logical Interface Created

Note: The ID parameter must be a number of a maximum of 4 digits.

The information about your newly created Wireless Logical Interface will be displayed in the same pane as its
associated Wireless Physical Interface as shown in the figure above.
6) If you need to delete a Wireless Logical Interface, click on Delete it in the relevant section.
7) In order to make your changes permanent, you must follow the instruction as in paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

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Creation and Setup of Trunking Logical Interfaces
A Trunk Interface is a Logical Interface which is used to manage multiple Logical Interfaces as one. In this mode,
multiple Logical Interface can be combined to achieve Protection/Failover or Bandwidth Aggregation functionalities,
thus improving the system performance.
After configuring your Logical Interfaces, do the following:
1) Create a Switch Logical Interface with all the Logical Interfaces you need as described in Creation and Setup
of Switch Logical Interfaces.
2) Type an index number for your Trunk Logical Interface into the Trunk ID box and click on Create it to make
it. You will get a screen like in Figure 28.

Figure 28 Creation of Trunk Logical Interface

Note: The ID parameter must be a number of a maximum of 2 digits.

3) Your newly created Trunk Logical Interface will be displayed in the same section as the relevant logical
interfaces as shown in the figure above.
4) In the Interfaces selection window of your newly created Trunk Interface, select all the Interfaces you need to
trunk by pressing the CTRL key, as in the example of Figure 29 and then click on Apply.

Figure 29 Trunk Logical Interface Confirmation

To configure and activate a Trunk Logical Interface, do the following:


5) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side of your screen, select your Trunk Logical Interface.
6) From the menu bar in the main window, click on tab General to get a view like in Figure 30:

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Figure 30 Trunk Interface General Page

7) In the Description field enter the name for your trunk


8) Select your Trunk Mode from the drop-down list as shown in the figure above. The available modes are:

Radio optimized + failover (also known as FDD Equivalent Optimized with Automatic TDD Fall-back Protection)
Round-robin + failover (also known as 2+0 Static Bandwidth Aggregation with Automatic Single Channel Protection)
Failover (also known as 1+1 Redundant with Hot Stand-by)
XOR + failover (2+0 XOR Even/Odd MAC Load Balancing Optimized with Automatic Single Channel Protection)

9) Click on Apply to save your changes, or click on Reset to restore previous values.
10) If your configuration is finished, then jump to step 13).
11) Click on tab Bandwidth to get a view like in Figure 31. Please refer to Logical Interface Common Settings.

Figure 31 Trunk Interface Bandwidth Management

12) Click on tab Activity to get a view like in Figure 32. Blue printed values mean that they are changed from the
last refresh. The Activity page refreshes about every 2 seconds.

Figure 32 Trunk Interface Activity Page

13) Confirm and activate your new configuration as described in Update/Store Configuration Setting.

Important Note
Please note that the Radio Optimized+Failover trunk mode is a proprietary protocol which is not
included in the IEEE 802.3ad Standard. Therefore, the relevant protocol implemented by OpenWifless
may not be compatible with other protocols of the same type implemented by non-Wifless vendors.

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Provisioning Fast-Ethernet Interfaces ETH0 and ETH1
As previously mentioned, two Fast-Ethernet Physical Interfaces are defined as ETH0 and ETH1 and are respectively
associated to Logical Interfaces eth0 and eth1.
Logical Interface eth0 has default IP address 192.168.2.100/24. Logical Interface eth1 is initially in loopback state and
inaccessible.
ETH0 is the main network interface of your ODU, which is also powered through this port.
ETH1 is a secondary Ethernet port used for connecting other equipment in a daisy-chain style, or to implement a 2+0
Load-sharing Redundant Power Supply solution.
You can view the MAC address of Logical Interfaces eth0 and eth1 in the OpenWifless window by clicking on the
relative interface in the left hand-side selection Interfaces. The current information about the logical interface selected
is displayed above the menu bar in the main window, as shown in Figure 33:

Figure 33 Ethernet Interface General Page

In this view, you can modify the parameters of either logical interface in this way:
1) Click on tab General and type your new values into each of the following boxes:

Description: Insert the name of the Fast-Ethernet Logical Interface.


IP address Assignment: Choose IP address assignment from the following options:
9 Static: Assign a static IP address within IP address range of your network.
9 DHCP: Enables Dynamic IP Client Capability.
9 Loopback: No IP address assigned to Ethernet Logical Interface.
IP Address: Assign a static IP address that is within the IP address range of your network
IP Subnet Mask: Insert subnet mask. All devices in the network must share the same subnet mask.
Gateway IP address: Type IP address of network default gateway.
Metric: Enter Gateway metric.
MTU: Enter MTU length to suit your needs: Default value is 1500 Bytes, Max value is 2290 Bytes.
Masquerade: Tick option to Masquerade the Logical Interface.

2) Click on Apply to save changes or click Reset to restore previous values.


3) Click on tab Activity to get a view like in Figure 34. Blue printed values mean that they are changed from the
last refresh. The Activity page refreshes about every 2 seconds.

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Figure 34 Ethernet Interface Activity Page

4) Configure the Common Logical Interface Settings if you have not yet done so. These are the parameters
shared by logical interfaces Fast-Ethernet, Wireless, and Bridge. For more information, see Logical Interface
Common Settings.
5) Save and activate your changes as described in paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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Provisioning Switch Interfaces
In the previous sections of this manual, you learnt how to create Switch Logical Interfaces.
To configure and activate a Switch Logical Interface, do the following:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side of your screen, select the Switch Logical Interface you need to
set.
2) From the menu bar in the right hand-side pane, click on tab General to get a view like in Figure 35:

Figure 35 Bridge Interface General Menu

3) Enter the following parameters for your interface:

Description: Enter the name of the Bridge Logical Interface.


IP address Assignment: The default IP address Assignment mode is Static mode. The Assignment modes can be defined are:
9 Static: Assign a static IP address that is within the IP address range of your network.
9 DHCP: Enable the Dynamic IP Client Capability of the Wifless ESS 2456x.
9 Loopback: No IP address assigned to the Ethernet Logical Interface.
IP Address: Assign a static IP address that is within the IP address range of your network
IP Netmask: Enter the subnet mask. All devices in the network must share the same subnet mask.
Gateway IP Address: Enter the IP address of the default gateway of your network.
Metric: Enter the Gateway metric.
MTU: Enter MTU length to suit your needs: Default value is 1500 Bytes, Max value is 2290 Bytes.
Masquerade: Enable if you want to Masquerade the Logical Interface.

4) Click on Apply to save your changes, or click on Reset to restore previous values.
5) If your configuration is finished, jump to step 12)
6) Click on tab Switch to get a view like in Figure 36:

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Figure 36 Bridge Interface Switch Menu

7) Set a value for MAC addresses Aging Time. Recommended values range between 300 sec. (default value) and
1200 sec.
8) In the section Spanning Tree Settings, from the drop-down menu Protocol, select STP or RSTP Protocol
option is needed enabled on this logical switch and choose your values for the following parameters of the
protocol:

Switch Priority: Default value is 32768.


Switch Forward Delay: Default value is 15 sec.
Switch Hello Time: Choose a value between 2 sec (default time) and forward delay time.
Switch Max Age: Default value is 20 sec.
Transmit Hold Count: Default value is 6 sec.

9) Enable the STP/RSTP managed interfaces by checking the relative Activate box and set the Priority of each
interfaces of the switch depending on your needs.
10) In section VLAN Isolation Settings, set the following parameters for each of the logical interfaces involved in
your Switch Logical Interface:

VLAN ID: Default value is 0. Take care to note that VLAN 0 means no VLAN and that the Default VLAN is VLAN 1.
VLAN Port: Default value is (none).

11) Click Apply to save your changes, or Reset to restore previous values.
12) Set Common Logical Interface Settings for Fast-Ethernet, Wireless and Switch logical interfaces if you have
not yet done so. For more information, see Logical Interface Common Settings.
13) Confirm and activate your new configuration as described in Update/Store Configuration Setting.
14) The MAC address acquired by your Switch Logical Interface will be displayed as in Figure 37:

Figure 37 MAC address of Bridge Logical Interface

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Provisioning Wireless Interfaces WRL0, WRL1, WRL2 and WRL3
This section describes some of the operational modes most commonly used which are supported by your Wifless ESS
2456x. You can configure different wireless interfaces depending on the type of your Wifless ESS 2456x:
Wifless ESS 24561: WRL0
Wifless ESS 24562: WRL0 and WLR1
Wifless ESS 24564: WRL0, WRL1, WRL2 and WRL3
As previously mentioned, none Wireless Interface is initially defined in the system. These interfaces must be set
according to your specific network topology.

Access Point & Station/Client Mode (Point-to-Multipoint & Point-to-Point)


You can configure your Wifless ESS 2456x to operate as an Access Point compliant with the IEEE 802.11 standards,
serving simple Wireless clients like CPE, PCs, PDAs, Wi-Fi VoIP phones, or more advanced Wireless stations like
Wifless ESS 251 and Wifless ESS 151 for state-of-the-art broadband access service.
This AP-Client mode, as shown in Figure 38, is the easiest way for you to create PTP links and PMP coverage areas.
Because the Wifless ESS 24562 and the Wifless ESS 24564 features two or four independent radio interfaces, it can
perform as a Dual Band Access Point operating at 2.4 GHz in the IEEE 802.11 b/g mode and at 5.x GHz in the IEEE
802.11 a/h mode.
As previously described, each physical radio interface can be associated with multiple logical interfaces via
OpenWifless, which also enables you to set up and manage these logical interfaces one by one.
The Advanced Multiple Virtual Access Point with VLAN or IP Domain Isolation, also supported by OpenWifless ESS
ProNODE OS, makes the Wifless ESS 2456x an ideal component for state-of-the-art multiple ESSID network systems.

Figure 38 - Simple Access Point Scenario with Wifless ESS 24562

The Wifless ESS 2456x can operate, as shown in Figure 38, as Point-to-Point bridge in compliance with the IEEE
802.11 standard, performing L2 Ethernet Bridge or L3 IP Routing operations between two given network devices.
All the security features and encryption techniques most commonly used in PTP traffic trunking are supported, as well
as VPN tunneling and VLAN/GRE Tunnel Isolation.
Thanks to its two independent radios, the Wifless ESS 24562 can also perform as a true PTP Back-to-Back Repeating
Node to improve system performance.

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Figure 39 - Simple Point-to-Point Bridge/Router Scenario with Wifless ESS 24562

Repeater Mode (Simple Point-to-Multipoint Repeater Mode)


The Wifless ESS 2456x can perform as a Repeater Node in accordance with the IEEE 802.11 standard. Incoming traffic
is stored and forwarded to and from the same radio module in a TDD single radio fashion.
In this mode, for each hop the traffic throughput decreases by a factor of about two and the delay increases by a factor
of two, as reported in the IEEE 802.11 standard.
The Wifless ESS 24562 can also be used as a Daisy-chained Access Point Node, thanks to the independent radio
modules. One module operates in AP Mode as standard Access Point while the other operates in Repeater Mode
(Advanced Repeater with AP Functionality shown in Figure 40).

Figure 40 - Advanced Repeater with Access Point Functionality Scenario with Wifless ESS 24562

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Redundant / Resilient Point-to-Pont Link Mode (2+0 Aggregated Point-to-Point)
The Wifless ESS 2456x supports a number of Aggregation & Fail-Over protocols defined in the IEEE 802.3ad standard.
The operating mode which is most commonly used is the 2+0 Round Robin, or 2+0 Radio Optimized, Links
Aggregation; these operating modes enables you to deliver L2 Ethernet services and L3 TCP-IP Aggregated Bridging
services between any two given Wifless ESS 24562 or Wifless ESS 24564 systems. Both the two/four independent
radios and the two independent Ethernet ports can work in aggregation with failover mode, so the Wifless ESS 2456x
performs throughput aggregation and link fault resilience as shown in the Figure 41.
You can enjoy this feature by using either the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE integrated L2 Advanced Switch, the
integrated router, or an external L2 Ethernet switch supporting the IEEE 802.3ad protocol, or an external TCP-IP router
supporting the OSPF protocol. If external equipment is used for the purpose of links aggregation, both the Ethernet
ports and the Wireless ports of your Wifless ESS 2456x must be configured to match the settings of the external L2/L3
equipment.

Figure 41 High Availability & High Bandwidth PTP Link with Wifless ESS 24562

PMP Mixed Mode (Mixed Point-to-Multipoint and Point-to-Point, PMP-PTP)


The Wifless ESS 2456x can operate as Full Standard Access Point for Public Service (for WISP) as well as Proprietary
Access Point to deliver PMP connectivity to a limited number of registered clients in a PTP-style topology. Whilst one
radio module operates in AP mode, the other can perform as Feeding PTP Bridge in PTP mode as shown in Figure 42.
In both the configurations, full standard or proprietary Access Point, the Wifless ESS 2456x can provide high reliability
services by the integrated AP Fail-Over functionality that allow 1+1 or N+1 radio sector protection as shown in Figure
43.

Figure 42 - Advanced Point-to-Multipoint with AP Functionality Scenario with Wifless ESS 24562

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Figure 43 - Advanced Access Point With Fail-Over Functionality with Wifless ESS 24564 and Wifless ESS 151 CPE

WDS and OLSR Mesh Mode (WDS Simple Mesh and OLSR Advanced Mesh)
The Wifless ESS 24564 can be extensively used in Mesh Networks as it is capable of supporting all the meshing
protocols which are most commonly used, such as RSTP, WDS, and OLSR.
Although the Wireless Distribution System (WDS) standard protocol is fairly simple, it is not very efficient. However,
the four independent radios of the Wifless ESS 24564 ensure excellent Mesh Performance even when this protocol is
used. The default performance of the Wifless ESS 24562 can be improved by coupling the device with another identical
to implement a state-of-the-art four-radio Mesh Node as per the Wifless ESS 24564 device. To do so, simply connect
the ETH0 of the second Wifless ESS 24562 to the ETH1 port of the first Wifless ESS 24562 in a daisy-chain style.
For either physical radio interface, OpenWifless enables you to define and configure multiple logical interfaces as WDS
nodes to implement a Multiple WDS Node Network; more complex and large OLSR based mesh networks can also be
designed, as shown in Figure 44 and Figure 45.

Figure 44 Simple 2 Channel Star-Mesh Network with AP Functionality Scenario with Wifless ESS 24562

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Figure 45 Advanced 4 Channel Full-Mesh Network with AP Functionality Scenario with Wifless ESS 24564

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Setting Wireless Logical Interface to AP Node Mode
As previously described, the AP mode enables your Wifless ESS 2456x to operate as standard Access Point to serve
CPE and mobile clients. This sections helps you manage your Wireless AP Logical Interfaces.
To set and enable new parameters of an existing Wireless AP Logical Interface, log in to OpenWifless and do the
following:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side of your screen, select your Wireless Logical Interface.
2) In the Wireless AP view on the right hand-side of your screen, click on tab General to get the view as in
Figure 46:

Figure 46 Wireless Access Point Interface General Menu

The IP address of a Wireless AP logical interface is set to Loopback on its creation, as you can see in the screen
dump.
3) Complete the following fields:

Description: Enter the name of the Wireless Logical Interface.


IP address Assignment: The Assignment modes can be defined are:
9 Static: Assign a static IP address that is within the IP address range of your network.
9 DHCP: Enable the Dynamic IP Client Capability of the Wifless ESS 2456x.
9 Loopback: No IP address assigned to the Ethernet Logical Interface.
IP Address: Assign a static IP address that is within the IP address range of your network
IP Subnet Mask: Enter the subnet mask. All devices in the network must share the same subnet mask.
Gateway IP address: Enter the IP address of the default gateway of your network.
Metric: Enter the Gateway metric.
MTU: Enter MTU length to suit your needs: Default value is 1500 Bytes, Max value is 2290 Bytes.
Masquerade: Enable if you want to Masquerade the Logical Interface.

4) Click on button Apply to save your changes, or click on button Reset to restore previous values.
5) Click on tab Radio to get the view as in Figure 47:

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Figure 47 Wireless Access Point Interface Radio Menu

6) Set the ESSID (also referred as Service Set Identifier (SSID)) to the SSID_Value_Name designated for
that specific wireless local area network (WLAN Domain). The ESSID defaults to the Wireless Logical
Interface Name.
7) Check the Hide SSID option if you wish to disable SSID broadcasting.
8) Set the transmission RF Tx Power in accordance with your application, your country rules, and the
antenna in use as specified in Appendix B, Max RF Output Power as per Country Rules and Selected
Antenna.
9) Enable RTS/CTS option to reduce frame collisions introduced by the hidden terminal problem and
exposed node problem, and set the RTS threshold value in accordance with your wireless network needs.
The best values ranges from 250 to 500 bytes. The value 4096 means disabled. Default is 250.
10) Set the Tx Rate to the value desired in accordance with the Band Mode selected. The Auto option allows
the radio module to dynamically adjust its transmission speed to the best possible in accordance with the
radio link path length and the weather conditions. By setting the radio speed manually, you force the radio
module to transmit at the specified rate only.
11) Enable FRAG option if needed and set the FRAG threshold value in accordance with your wireless
network needs. The value 4096 means disabled. Default is off.
12) Check the Inter-Radio Bridge option to enable communication between Radio Bridge Logical Interfaces:
it is MANDATORY to enable this option when using Radio Bridge Logical Interface communications.
13) Set the Client Isolation option to Isolated or to None Isolated.
14) Set the following Atheros Parameters to maximize Wireless Performances:

Fast Frame mode: Allows for more information to be transmitted per frame.
Burst mode: Enables device to send multiple frames in a burst with no pauses in between.
Extended Range: Enables Extended Range capability.
Compression: Enables Atheros Compression mode; Link-level Hardware Compression utilizes the wireless connection more
efficiently to further maximize bandwidth.

In the Atheros Parameters title bar is displayed the current active features.
15) Check the WMM (IEEE 802.11e) option to enable the WMM QoS standard IEEE 802.11e protocol. For
details about the WMM protocol configuration, refer to the paragraph WMM-EDCA Priority QoS.
16) The WMM Aggressive Mode is enabled by default for better average QoS performance. Disable it only if
you experience interoperability issues with the connected clients.
17) Click Apply to save changes, or click Reset to restore previous values.
18) Click on tab Activity to get the view as like in Figure 48. Blue printed values mean that they are changed
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from the last refresh. The Activity page refreshes about every 2 seconds.

Figure 48 Wireless Access Point Interface Activity Page

19) Confirm and activate your new configuration as described in Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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Setting Wireless Logical Interfaces to Station / Client Node Mode
As previously mentioned, your Wifless ESS 2456x can operate as station in a PMP/PTP link to communicate with
another Wifless ESS 2456xconfigured as Access Point.
To set a Wireless Logical Interface as a Station, select it from the Interfaces drop-down list on the left-hand side of the
OpenWifless screen and follow the instructions below:
1) In the main window, click on tab General to get a view as in Figure 49:

Figure 49 Wireless Station Interface General Menu

The IP Address Assignment defaults to Loopback mode.


2) Type in the following parameters for your Wireless Logical Interface:

Description: Enter the name of the Wireless Logical Interface.


IP Address Assignment : Choose among the following options:
9 Static: Assign a static IP address that is within the IP address range of your network.
9 DHCP: Enable the Dynamic IP Client Capability of the Wifless ESS 2456x.
9 Loopback: No IP address assigned to the Ethernet Logical Interface.
IP Address: Assign a static IP address that is within the IP address range of your network
IP Subnet Mask: Enter the subnet mask. All devices in the network must share the same subnet mask.
Gateway IP address: Enter the IP address of the default gateway of your network.
Gateway Metric: Enter the Gateway metric.
MTU: Enter MTU length to suit your needs: Default value is 1500 Bytes, Max value is 2290 Bytes.
Masquerade: Enable if you want to Masquerade the Logical Interface.

3) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous values.
4) Click on tab Radio to get the view as in Figure 50:

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Figure 50 Wireless Station Interface Radio Menu

5) Set the ESSID (also referred as Service Set Identifier (SSID)) to the SSID_Value_Name designated for
that specific wireless local area network (WLAN Domain). The ESSID defaults to the Wireless Logical
Interface Name.
6) Set the BSSID to the AP MAC Address when Hide SSID option in the AP side is enabled. The MAC must
be set separating each two hexadecimal digits with :.If the AP MACs is 00:17:63:05:03:a1, you must
write 00:17:63:05:03:a1.
7) Set the transmission RF Tx Power in accordance with your application, your country rules, and the
antenna in use as specified in Appendix B, Max RF Output Power as per Country Rules and Selected
Antenna.
8) Enable RTS/CTS option to reduce frame collisions introduced by the hidden terminal problem and
exposed node problem, and set the RTS threshold value in accordance with your wireless network needs.
The best values ranges from 250 to 500 bytes. The value 4096 means disabled. Default is 250.
9) Set the Tx Rate to the value desired in accordance with the Band Mode selected. The Auto option allows
the radio module to dynamically adjust its transmission speed to the best possible in accordance with the
radio link path length and the weather conditions. By setting the radio speed manually, you force the radio
module to transmit at the specified rate only.
10) Enable FRAG option if needed and set the FRAG threshold value in accordance with your wireless
network needs. The value 4096 means disabled. Default is off.
11) Check the Inter-Radio Bridge option to enable communication between Radio Bridge Logical Interfaces:
it is MANDATORY to enable this option when using Radio Bridge Logical Interface communications.
12) Check the Background Scanning to enable the Radio Interface to perform a regular scan for other Access
Points.
13) Set the following Atheros Parameters to maximize Wireless Performances:

Fast Frame mode: Allows for more information to be transmitted per frame.
Burst mode: Enables device to send multiple frames in a burst with no pauses in between.
Extended Range: Enables Extended Range capability.
Compression: Enables Atheros Compression mode; Link-level Hardware Compression utilizes the wireless connection
more efficiently to further maximize bandwidth.

In the Atheros Parameters title bar is displayed the current active features.
14) Check the WMM (IEEE 802.11e) option to enable the WMM QoS standard IEEE 802.11e protocol. For
details about the WMM protocol configuration, refer to the paragraph WMM-EDCA Priority QoS.
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15) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous values.
16) Refer to paragraph Logical Interface Common Settings to see the settings common to all Logical
Interfaces.
17) Refer to paragraph Wireless Logical Interface Common Settings to see the settings common to all
Wireless Logical Interfaces.
18) To confirm new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.
After rebooting the machine, the MAC address of the Wireless Interface will be displayed in the RADIO tab as in
Figure 51:

Figure 51 MAC address of Wireless Logical Interface

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Setting Wireless Logical Interfaces to WDS Node Mode
In order to be able to configure a Wireless Logical Interface as WDS Node, you need to have a Wireless Logical
Interface configured as Access Point with the same RADIO parameters you intend to use for your WDS node, as shown
in Figure 52:

Figure 52 Wireless WDS Node Logical Interface Screen

Refer to section Setting Wireless Logical Interface to AP Node Mode to correctly configure the AP interface.
After configuring your Access Point Wireless Interface, do the following:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select the Wireless Logical Interface
you intend to configure as WDS node.
2) In the main window, click on tab General. You will get a screen like in Figure 53:

Figure 53 - Setting WDS General Page

3) In the TCP-IP Section, set all TCP-IP parameters.


4) Click on Apply to save your settings. or click on Reset to restore previous values.
5) Click on tab Radio. You will get a view like in Figure 54:

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Figure 54 MAC Address Filter for logical interface ATH1 in WDS mode.

6) Refer to paragraph Creation and Setup of Wireless Logical Interfaces to see the settings common to all
Wireless Logical Interfaces.
7) Fill WDS peer Address field with the MAC addresse of your WDS peer 2.
8) See paragraph Logical Interface Common Settings to check the settings common to all Logical Interfaces.
9) See paragraph Wireless Logical Interface Common Settings to check the settings common to all Wireless
Logical Interfaces.
10) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous values.
11) To confirm your new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see instructions in paragraph
Update/Store Configuration Setting.

You can record 1 (one) MAC address for each WDS Node.
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Logical Interface Common Settings
As previously mentioned, you must define some settings that will be common to all user-defined logical interfaces, due
to Atheros HAL limitations. All your Fast-Ethernet interfaces, Radio Interfaces, and Bridge Interfaces will share these
settings.

DHCP Server and Relay Settings


All logical interfaces feature an integrated DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Server and Relay agent,
regardless of their type. This capability makes it easier to set up a simple Hotspot, especially in small networks; the use
is less extensive in large corporate networks and carrier-class networks.
DHCP dynamically assigns an IP address to each client that requests one. The clients obtain additional parameters
which are common to other devices in the same network, such as the Default Router/Gateway and the Default
DNS/WINS. The protocol simplifies network management as each client automatically gets its IP address on
connecting to the network, instead of being assigned an IP address by an operator.
To enable the DHCP Server, or the DHCP Relay agent, for a logical interface, follow the instructions listed below:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select your logical interface.
2) From the menu in the main window, click on tab DHCP. The screen will display a DHCP general settings
page as in Figure 55.

Figure 55 DHCP Settings Web Page.

3) In the DHCP Setup section, select your DHCP Mode from the following modes available:

None: DHCP server and realy disabled.


Server: Enables the integrated DHCP Server.
Relay: Enables the relay of the DHCP requests to an external DHCP Server.

4) Fill the following fields with your parameters:

Relay Interface: Select the interface to which all DHCP client requests will be relayed by default.
IP Pool Starting Address: This is the 1st IP address that the DHCP server will assign to a new client.
Pool Size: Quantity of IP addresses available for new clients.
DHCP Server Address: Network IP address of external DHCP server (available in DHCP relay mode only).
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Lease Time: Duration (in seconds) for which an IP address is leased to a new client.

5) In the DHCP Options section, fill the following fields with your parameters:

Gateway IP Address: Gateway IP address of DHCP server assigned to new client.


DNS Server IP Address: IP address of DNS (main or first) for your network. May not lie within your sub-network class of
addresses.
NIS Domain Name:
Time Server IP Address:
WINS Server IP Address:
NBD Server Address:
NetBIOS Node Type:.Choose from b-node, p-node, m-node or h-node.
NetBIOS Scope Name:

6) In the Static DHCP Table section your can specify, for each client served by the logical interface, the
following static values:

Delete: Deletion of a MAC-IP assignement.


MAC Address: MAC address of client served.
IP Address: IP address statically assigned to client served.

7) Click Apply to save your new settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.

Clicking Apply you also delete the MAC-IP assignement selected for deletion.

IP Aliasing
You can implement IP aliasing on a logical interface in the following way:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select your logical interface.
2) In the main window, click on tab IP Alias. You will view a screen like in Figure 56.

Figure 56 Setting IP Alias for a logical Interface.

3) Fill the following fields for each IP Alias you need to have:

Enable: Tick this option to enable IP Aliasing


IP Address: IP Alias for selected logical interface
IP Subnet Mask: Mask for relative IP address
Gateway IP Address: Gateway for the relative IP address.
Metric: IP Gateway metric.

4) Click Apply to save your new settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.

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L2-L3-L4 Bandwidth Manager Settings
You can set a L2-L3-L4 Bandwidth Manager on the EGRESS for each logical interface on which multiple independent
queues are implemented for traffic shaping. Each queue is a Dual-Bucket queue capable of handling both the MIR and
CIR shaping parameters regarding the traffic to and from a pool of IP addresses; selected TCP-IP services can also be
filtered by these queues.
To set a Bandwidth Manager, follow the instructions listed below:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select your logical interface.
2) In the main window, click tab Bandwidth. You will get a screen like in Figure 57.

Figure 57 Default Bandwidth Management Page.

3) Define your Bandwidth settings for your logical interface in the following fields:

Queue: tick this option to enable one common queue for traffic through logical interface to/from pool of addresses specified.
Maximum: Max speed/bandwidth allowed in the queue (MIR, Maximum Information Rate in bps).
Guaranteed: Guaranteed speed/bandwidth allowed in queue (CIR, Committed Information Rate in bps).

4) The Maximum and Guranteed bandwidth parameters are expressed in bit per second (bps), so be careful to
avoid to set very low value to the interface used for the device management, otherwise you may not be able to
manage it anymore. To specify these paramenter you can use the K (kilo) and M (mega) multipliers.
5) Click Apply to confirm each new settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
6) Now that your queue has been defined and enabled, you can define your own TO and FROM Bandwidth
Management L3 and L4 Rules based on IP addresses, network masks and ports of sources and destinations,
as shown in the example in Figure 58, where a queue is limted to 10Mbps with the listed IP L3 and L4 rules.

Figure 58 Setting L3 Bandwidth Management on a Logical Interface.

7) More than one queue can be configured to correctly handle somplex L3-L4 bandwidth management rules.

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8) In the case it is preferred to define a Bandwidth Management L2 Rules, valid for any protocols on that
interface, it is possible to do that defining the special rule on a unique queue as shown in Figure 59 or as
shown in Figure 60, where the only one possible queue on the logical interface is limited to 5Mbps of
maximum rate.

Figure 59 Setting L2 Bandwidth Management on a Logical Interface.

Figure 60 Alternative Setting of L2 Bandwidth Management on a Logical Interface.

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Wireless Logical Interface Common Settings
Due to the Atheros HAL technical restrictions mentioned earlier, you must define some settings that will be common to
all Wireless Logical Interfaces.

Security Settings
The following security protocols and features are supported by the Wifless ESS 2456x:
WEP (Wired Equivalent Security Protocol). This protocol is fully supported mainly for legacy reasons, and
can be used for implementing simple networks. However, we recommend that you choose a more up-to-date
encryption protocol for extra security. Length keys of 64 bits, 128 bits, and 152 bits are supported, as well as
non-standard length keys between 64 and 152 bits.
WPA/WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access / Wi-Fi Protected Access 2). This protocol is a modernized version of
WEP, required by the Wi-Fi alliance for compatibility reasons. WPA identifies and authorizes users based on a
secret encryption key that automatically changes at regular intervals. TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol) and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) will change the temporary key every time a given
number of packets are transmitted over the network. WPA PSK (Pre-Shared Key) ensures that a fresh
security key is obtained on connecting to the network, as per the IEEE 802.11 standards. With WPA/WPA2,
you will only be prompted for a security code once in the configuration menu. This ensures much greater
security than WEP, as the latter requires you to change your security key manually.
WPA with AES/TKIP & 802.1x Dynamic WEP. This protocol is fully supported and recommended with
128-bit keys as your first strong line of defense against intrusion. The IEEE 802.1x RADIUS-server-based
authentication process validates client devices and user accounts as users attempt to connect to the network.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol). This protocol is also supported and has been tested as compatible
with Microsoft Windows XP.
The strongest 256-bit AES encryption is supported without any degradation of the system performance, thus enabling
you to reach the maximum wireless aggregated throughput available.

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MAC Filtering Settings for the Access Point Interface
The Access Point Wireless Logical Interface of the Wifless ESS 2456x features a simple MAC Address Filter.
The MAC Address Filter operates on an allow-all/deny-all policy, meaning that all the MAC addresses specified will
be either granted or denied admittance to the network through the Access Point Wireless Logical Interface.
Only an Access Point interface can have a MAC Address Filter.
To set a MAC filter on a Wireless Logical Interface acting as an Access Point, do the following:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side list on the OpenWifless page, select your Wireless Logical
Access Point Interface.
2) In the main window, click on tab MAC Address Filter. You will get a screen like in Figure 61.

Figure 61 Setting MAC Filter on a Wireless Logical Interface.

3) From the MAC Address Policy drop-down list, select Enable to enable all MAC addresses specified in the
table, or select Disable to disable them.. By default, the MAC Address Policy is set to None.
4) Fill the table with the MAC addresses to be filtered.
5) For each row of the table, specify the following values in the table:

Delete: Deletion of a MAC filtering rule.


MAC Address: MAC address of filtering rule.

6) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.

Clicking Apply you also delete the MAC filtering rule selected for deletion.

7) To confirm the new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

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Wireless Encryption Settings and IEEE 802.1x AAA
Open System
When this mode is enabled, no data encryption is enabled on your Wireless Logical interface. This is the default mode
for Wireless Encryption Settings.
To view or modify the settings of a Wireless Logical Interface, do the following:
1) From the Interfaces list on the left hand-side list on the OpenWifless page, select your Wireless Logical
Interface.
2) In the main window, click on tab Security. You will get a screen like in Figure 62.

Figure 62 Setting Open Network Authentication on Wireless Logical Interface.

In the IAPP Interface field, you must select the interface used for Inter Access Point Protocol communication with
other Access Points in the network.

Note: Set the IAPP Interface carefully, or the Handover IEEE 802.11f protocol will not work properly.

Static WEP Shared Key


This section shows how to set a Static WEP Shared Key on a Wireless Logical Interface.

Figure 63 Setting Shared Network Authentication on Wireless Logical Interface.

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To do so, follow the instructions listed below:
1) In the General section shown in Figure 63, select Shared 3 from the Network Authentication drop-down list.
2) Move to section WEP Encryption Parameters. You can store up to four WEP encryption keys. To set a key,
select your WEP key number from 1 to 4, choose your format from ASCII or HEX
3) Select from Key length drop-down list your key 4 length in bits and fill the box with the key as displayed in
Figure 63.
4) Click Apply to save your new settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
5) To confirm the new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.
In the IAPP interface field you must select the interface used for Inter Access Point Protocol communication with the
other Access Point in the network.

Note: Set the IAPP Interface carefully, or the Handover IEEE 802.11f protocol will not work properly.

IEEE 802.1x AAA with Dynamic WEP for Access Point


To enable this AAA and Encryption Methods on a Wireless Logical Interface, do the following:
1) From the Interface list on the left hand-side on the OpenWifless page, select your Wireless Logical Interface.
2) Click on tab Security.
3) In the General section, select 802.1X from the Network Authentication drop-down list. Your screen will
look like in Figure 64.

The Automatic Key check box is enabled by default and cannot be disabled.

Figure 64 Setting IEEE 802.1X Network Authentication on Wireless Logical Interface.

If you select Open, you can still set Data Encryption to WEP. This Open-WEP configuration means that no
authentication is required for clients with WEB data encryption is enabled.
4
64-bit WEP supports passwords of 5 ASCII characters or 10 HEX digits;
128-bit WEP supports passwords of 13 ASCII characters or 26 HEX digits;
152-bit WEP supports passwords of 16 ASCII characters or 32 HEX digits.
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4) In the IAPP Interface field, you shall select the proper interface used for the Inter Access Point Protocol
communication with other Access Points in the network.

5)
6)
7)
8)

Note: Set the IAPP Interface correctly, or the Handover IEEE 802.11f protocol will not work properly.

From the Broadcast Key drop-down list, select either None or a value between 40-bit and 104-bit.
From the Unicast Key drop-down list, select either None or a value between 40-bit and 104-bit.
In the Rekeying box, type your value in seconds; default value is 300 seconds.
Move on to EAP Parameters section to set all the parameters regarding AAA radius relay functionalities.
Your screen will look like in Figure 65.

Figure 65 Setting EAP Parameters on Wireless Logical Interface.

9) Configure the following general EAP Parameters 5:

Re-authentication Time: type your value in seconds for EAP reauthentication. Default value is 3600 seconds.
NAS ID: type NAS Identifier of the Wifless ESS 2456x.
Packet of Disconnect (POD): Tick this option to enable the Packet of Disconnect functionality.
Retry Primary Time: type your value in seconds for EAP Retry Primary Interval. Default value is 0 seconds.
Account Interim Time: type your value in seconds for EAP Account Interim Interval. Default value is 300 seconds.
POD Listen Port: Packet of Disconnect service listening UDP port.

10) Configure the following EAP parameters 6 for Primary RADIUS Server and Secondary RADIUS Server(s):

IP Address: The IP Address of your IEEE 802.1X-compliant RADIUS server


UDP Port: UDP port for Authentication Service; the standard default is port 1812.
Secret: Password for accessing RADIUS server (secret key).

11) If you do not need to save any accounting information, such as log and history of clients authentications, click
on Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings. The configuration of dynamic WEP
Encryption is now completed.
12) Accounting information such as log and history of clients authentications will be stored on Accounting
Server(s) that can be the same as your RADIUS Authentication Server(s).
13) If you want to store the accounting information on your Authentication Server(s), just click on Apply to save
your settings. The configuration of dynamic WEP Encryption is now completed and the accounting
information will be stored on the RADIUS server(s) in txt format by default. If you click on Reset, no

5
6

If you are unsure about any of these parameters, check with your Network Administrator.
If you are unsure about any of these parameters, check with your Network Administrator.
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configuration will be saved and the previous settings will apply.
14) If you want to store the accounting information on a external RADIUS server 7 (primary or backup), tick option
Accounting server is on a different server and specify the following parameters 8 in the relevant section:

IP Address: IP address of RADIUS Accounting Server.


UDP Port: UDP port configured for accounting; the standard default is port 1813.
Secret: Password for accessing RADIUS server (secret key).

15) Click Apply to save your changes, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
16) To confirm the new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

IEEE 802.1X AAA with Dynamic WEP for Station


To enable this AAA and Encryption Methods on the Wireless Logical Interface, do the following:
1) From the Interface list on the left hand-side on the OpenWifless page, select your Wireless Logical Interface.
2) Click on tab Security. Your screen will look like in Figure 66.
3) In the General section, select 802.1X from the Network Authentication drop-down list.
4) In the WEP Encryption Parameters section, you will get the option Automatic Key enabled by default. The
Access Point will automatically provide the WEP Dynamic Keying.

The Automatic Key check box is enabled by default and cannot be disabled.

Figure 66 Setting IEEE 802.1X Network Authentication on a Station Wireless Logical Interface.

Must be compliant with IEEE 802.1x.


If you have defined your Accounting Server(s) the same as your Authentication Server(s) as per step 13, these
parameters will be automatically replicated from your Authentication Server(s).

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5) In the EAP Parameters section, select your Authentication EAP Method from the following modes available:

PEAP
TTLS
TLS

6) In the case you select EAP TLS, you will get a screen like in Figure 67, where you will have also the
capability to upload the required user certificate.

Figure 67 Setting EAP TLS Parameters

7) In the Phase 2 Method drop-down menu, select one of the following modes:

MSCHAPV2
MD5
OTP
GTC

8) In the Username & Password/Passphrase fields, set your account details.


9) Click Apply to save your changes, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
10) To confirm the new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

Important Note
If you use EAP autentication with Certificate, it is mandatory to set the time and date manually before
to upload the certification file, regardless of the current time and date setup.
The time and date manually entered must be within the Certificates validity period.
After the successful upload of the Certificate, the system time and date can be configured again as
preferred (manual or get from NTP/SNTP server).

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WPA/WPA2-PSK with AES or TKIP (WPA-Personal)
To enable this Encryption Method on a Wireless Logical Interface, do the following.
1) From the Interface list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select your Wireless Logical Interface.
2) Click on tab Security.
3) From the Network Authentication drop-down list in the General section, select WPA or WPA2. In the
Station Mode also available the WPA/WPA2 functionality.
4) From the Data Encryption drop-down list, select TKIP or AES.
5) From the Key Management drop-down list, select PSK. Your screen will look like in the example shown in
Figure 68.

Figure 68 Setting WPA-TKIP encryption on Wireless Logical Interface ath0.

6) Complete section WPA GENERAL with the following parameters:

GTK Rekeying Interval: Time elapsed before a new generation.


GMK Rekeying Interval: Time elapsed before a new key generation.
Strict Rekeying Interval: IEEE 801.11i option disabled by default. Set it in accordance with your wireless network general
settings.

7) In the WPA-PSK section, select a format for your password and insert an 8-63 ASCII passphrase or a 64 hex
digit secret code of your choice.
8) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous values.
9) To confirm the new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

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WPA / WPA2-EAP with AES or TKIP (WPA-Enterprise) for Access Point
To enable this AAA and Encryption Methods on a Wireless Logical Interface, do the following.
1) From the Interface list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select your Wireless Logical Interface.
2) Click on tab Security.
3) From the Network Authentication drop-down list in the General section, select WPA or WPA2.
4) From the Data Encryption drop-down list, select TKIP or AES.
5) From the Key Management drop-down list, select EAP. Your screen will look like in the example shown in
Figure 69.
6) Complete the configuration of the sections WPA General and EAP Parameters as described in the
paragraphs WPA/WPA2-PSK with AES or TKIP (WPA-Personal) and IEEE 802.1x AAA with Dynamic
WEP.

Figure 69 Setting WPA-Enterprise Encryption on Wireless Logical Access Point Interface.

7) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous values.
8) To confirm the new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.
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WPA / WPA2-EAP with AES or TKIP (WPA-Enterprise) for Station
To enable this AAA and Encryption Methods on the Wireless Logical Interface, do the following.
1) From the INTERFACE list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select your Wireless Logical
Interface.
2) Click on tab Security.
3) From the Network Authentication drop-down list in the GENERAL section, select WPA, WPA2 or
WPA/WPA2.
4) From the Data Encryption drop-down list, select TKIP, AES or TKIP/AES.
5) From the Key Management drop-down list, select EAP or PSK/EAP. Your screen will look like in Figure 70.
6) Complete the configuration of the sections WPA General and EAP Parameters as described in the
paragraphs WPA/WPA2-PSK with AES or TKIP (WPA-Personal) and IEEE 802.1x AAA with Dynamic
WEP.

Figure 70 Setting WPA-Enterprise Encryption on Wireless Logical Station Interface

7) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous values.
8) To confirm the new Wireless Logical Interface Security parameters, see paragraph Update/Store
Configuration Setting.

Important Note
If you use EAP autentication with Certificate, it is mandatory to set the time and date manually before
to upload the certification file, regardless of the current time and date setup.
The time and date manually entered must be within the Certificates validity period.
After the successful upload of the Certificate, the system time and date can be configured again as
preferred (manual or get from NTP/SNTP server).

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The Router Settings
Static Router
The Wifless ESS 2456x features a Routing Engine. You can set up static routing in the following way:
1) From the Advanced list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Router.
2) Click on tab Static Router tab. A table will be displayed as in Figure 71. Each row corresponds to a static
route.

Figure 71 Setting a Static Routing Table.

3) To set a static route, tick box Enable and complete the following fields on the same row:

IP Address: Destination IP address.


IP Subnet Mask: Subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
Gateway: Next Hop IP address.
Metric: Metric route value (cost).

4) Click button Apply to save your new settings, or click on Reset to restore previous values.

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Dynamic Router
The Wifless ESS 2456x implements two famous routing engines that provide all the most advamced dynamic routing
protocols available today:

RIP1 RFC 1058 & RIP2 RFC 2453


OSPF v2 RFC 2328
BGP v4 RFC 1771
IS-IS RFC 1195
OLSR RFC 3626

Quagga engine manages the RIP1&2, OSPF, GBP and IS-IS protocols, while an OLSR specific engine takes care of this
protocol only.
To set Dynamic Routing on your Wifless ESS 2456x, select Router from the Advanced list on the left hand-side of the
OpenWifless page and follow the instructions listed below.
1) Click on tab Dynamic Router. Your screen will look like in Figure 72.

Figure 72 Dynamic Routing Settings Page.

2) First, activate the needed routing engine by checking the proper enable checkbox.
3) Then activate the wanted Routing Protocol(s) by ticking the relative checkbox as shown in Figure 73

Figure 73 Enabling the Dynamic Routing Protocols.

4) Click on Apply to make your changes effective and reboot the system to have the routing protocols running.
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RIP1/2 Router RFC 1058 and RFC 2453
This section shows how to configure RIP on your Wifless ESS 2456x.
1) To configure the RIP router, click on RIP Console button; a Telnet session on port 2602 will be opened
automatically as shown in Figure 74.

Figure 74 RIP router console access

2) Enter your Password; default value is default. A successful login will result in the command prompt being
displayed as in Figure 75.

Figure 75 RIP command prompt.

For more information on RIP, refer to the official Quagga Manual included in the CD ROM supplied.

OSPF Router RFC 2328


This section shows how to configure OSPF on your Wifless ESS 2456x.
1) To configure the OSPF router, click on OSPF Console button; a Telnet session on port 2604 will be
automatically opened as shown in Figure 74.
2) Enter your Password. Default value is default. A successful login will result in the command prompt being
displayed as in Figure 76.

Figure 76 OSPF command prompt.

For more information on OSPF, refer to the official Quagga Manual included in the CD ROM supplied.

BGP-4 Router RFC 1771


This section shows how to configure BGP-4 on your Wifless ESS 2456x.
1) To configure the BGP router, click on BGP Console button; a Telnet session on port 2605 will be
automatically opened as shown in Figure 74.
2) Enter your Telnet password. Default value is default. A successful login will result in the command prompt
being displayed as in Figure 77.

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Figure 77 BGP command prompt.

For more information on BGP-4, refer to the official Quagga Manual included in the CD ROM supplied.

IS-IS Router RFC 1195


This section shows how to configure IS-IS on your Wifless ESS 2456x.
1) To configure the IS-IS router, click on IS-IS Console button; a Telnet session on port 2608 will be
automatically opened as shown in Figure 74.
2) Enter your Telnet password. Default value is default. A successful login will result in the command prompt
being displayed as in Figure 78.

Figure 78 IS-IS command prompt.

For more information on IS-IS, refer to the official Quagga Manual included in the CD ROM supplied.

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OLSR Router RFC 3626
Your Wifless ESS 2456x includes a high-performance OLSR routing module provided by OLSR.ORG, complete with
its web-based GUI provisioning tool.
This section explains how to set your parameters on the built-in OLSR router.
1) In the OLSR Engine section shown in Figure 73, click on OLSR Configuration. You will get a screen like
in Figure 79.

Figure 79 OLSR Configuration Main Page

Figure 79 shows the web-based OLSR GUI provisioning tool, mapped on http server port 88. In order to be able to
change the OLSR settings, you need to edit the OLSR router configuration file olsrd.conf. The file is in directory /etc
and can be edited via SSH.
For more information, refer to the official OLSR Manual included in the CD ROM supplied.

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Policy Router
To set Policy Router rules on your Wifless ESS 2456x, select Router from the Advanced list on the left hand-side of
the OpenWifless page and follow the instructions listed below.
1) Click on tab Policy Router. Your screen will look like in Figure 80:

Figure 80 Setting Polcy Router rules on Wifless ESS 2456x

2) Enable Policy Router by ticking the relevant box.


3) From the Priority drop-down list, select Delete if you want to delete the rule or 0 to create the first rule.
4) From the Incoming packets matched by drop-down list, select Input Device for the source traffic and from
the Rule drop-down list field the interface to use or to drop packets coming from the interface selected as in
the following figure.

Figure 81 Setting Input Device Rule

5) From the Incoming packets matched by drop-down list, select Source IP or Destination IP for the
source/destination traffic and their IP/mask parameters as in the following figure.

Figure 82 Setting Source IP Rule

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6) In Any row select the Default Action from the available following options:

Device: Destination Interface or drop action.


Gateway IP: IP Address of DG for default rule
System: no default rule

Figure 83 Setting Default Rule

7) Click on Apply to make your changes effective.


8) If you need to remove the rule, please select Delete option from Priority field and click on Apply.

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Firewall Settings
The Wifless ESS 2456x features an integrated firewall capable of managing data traffic through all your logical
interfaces. This section explains how to set your rules for traffic management on the built-in firewall.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Firewall.
2) In the main window, click tab Default Rule. You will get a screen like in Figure 84.

Figure 84 Setting Firewall Rules

3) In the Default Rule Setup panel, tick option Enable Firewall and specify your rules as follows:

Packet Direction: select your route.


Default Action: select required action for that route.
Log: tick option to save log.

4) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
5) If you want to add any firewall rules of your own, click on tab Rule Summary. You will get a screen like in
Figure 85.

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Figure 85 Firewall Rule Summary

6) In the Rule Summary section, you need to define the following:

Packet Direction: by default, your rule is applied to all network interfaces.


Priority: Default value is 10.

7) Click Add Filter button, or Add SNAT or Add DNAT or Add SNAT+DNAT button, to make your wanted
new rule available and to configure it. In the case you select an Add Filter rule, you will get a screen like in
Figure 86.

Figure 86 Editing Firewall Rule.

8) In the General section, tick box Activate rule.


9) Complete sections Edit Source and Edit Destination specifying the following:

Interface: default value is any.


Address Type: choose from Single Address, Subnet Address, and Any Address. Default value is Single Address.
IP Address and Subnet Mask.
Protocol: select your Filtered Protocol. Default value is any.
Port Range: select Single Port or Port Range specifying port number or port range.

10) In section Packets Handler, tick Packet Information Logging to save log, and select either Forward or
Block in Action Performed drop-down list.
11) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
12) To confirm the new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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Class of Service (CoS)
The OpenWifless ESS Operating System manages user definable Class of Services (CoS) by the use of the Bandwidth
Manager alone or by the use of the Bandwidth Manager in combination with the QoS prioritization engine on the
EGRESS of each logical interface defined in the system.
Considering only the setting of the CoS by the use of the Bandwidth Manager alone, the Wifless ESS 2456x supports
Static CoS setting, by the provisioning of the L2-L3-L4 Bandwidth Manager, for each of the defined intefaces, as well
as supports Dynamic CoS setting for the connected wireless CPE by special Radius attributes forwarded to the Wifless
ESS 2456x device, operating as Network Access Point (NAS), by the Radius Server.

Static CoS setting


For Static CoS setting, by the provisioning of the L2-L3-L4 Bandwidth Manager, refer to paragraph L2-L3-L4
Bandwidth Manager Settings.

Dynamic CoS setting


For the Dynamic CoS setting to work, it is required, as mandatory pre-requisites, to have configured the Wifless ESS
2456x wireless interface delivering the service, to operate as an Access Point controlled by a Radius Server.
Then it is necessary to configure the Radius Server to deliver the advanced WISPr attributes to the account used by the
connected wireless CPE to access the network.
Advanced WISPr Radius Supported Attributes for Dynamic Bandwidth Management
The Wifless ESS 2456x is a state-of-the-art wireless NAS that implements the IEEE and Wi-Fi Alliance proposed draft
for Radius controlled L2 Bandwidth Manager, as per the following list:
WISPr-Bandwidth-Max-Down: defines the max download bandwidth allowed;
WISPr-Bandwidth-Max-Up: defines the max upload bandwidth allowed;
WISPr-Bandwidth-Min-Down: reports the expected min download bandwidth;
WISPr-Bandwidth-Min-Up: reports the min expected upload bandwidth.
As the Wifless ESS 2456x NAS receives the first two attributes jus after the authentication of a wireless CPE, a
dynamically created rules in the BWM of the competent Access Point interfaces will limit the bandwidth as defined and
will stay in place until the wireless CPE remain authenticated.
The L2 Bandwidth Manager used by the Dynamic CoS acts as a special BWM limiting both the EGRESS and the
INGRESS of the proper wireless logical Access Point interface.

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Quality of Service (QoS)
The Wifless ESS 2456x features layer-2 traffic prioritization based on VLAN Priority, a layer-3 traffic prioritization
based on either ToS/DSCP Priority (RFC 2474) in compliance with the IEEE 802.1Q-2005 standard (including the
previous IEEE 802.1p) and a simple layer-4 traffic prioritization based on RTP filtering.
Each interface has four hardware queues, so each packet received is placed in one of these accordingly to the Traffic
Prioritization classifiers of the used protocol.
The prioritization of the packets is done using different classifiers/filters:

VLAN Priority

ToS/DSCP Priority

RTP prioritization
Each one of these classifiers/filters can be enabled or not. In the case you enable filters that may have conflicting rules,
the first filter in the chain will be applied. We kindly suggest to enable only one classifier/filter per logical interface.
The QoS for interface is completely controlled from the QoS tab of each logical interface page as shown in Figure 87.
1) In the QoS Settings section, tick box Enable to enable QoS engine co-processor and you will get a page with
the VLAN and the ToS/DSCP mapping as shown in Figure 87.

Figure 87 QoS Default Rules Settings.

2) From the Default Priority drop-down list select the default queue for the unclassified traffic:

BK: Background
BE: Best Effort
VI: Video
VO: Voice
None

3) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
4) To confirm the new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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VLAN Priority QoS
VLAN prioritized traffic is mapped to an output queue based on the VLAN Priority classifier.
To enable the VLAN Prioritization QoS engine, in the VLAN Priority section, select Enable from drop-down list.
You will get a page like in Figure 88.

Figure 88 VLAN Priority default queues mapping.

While queue mapping is user-configurable, the VLAN prioritization predefined mapping is as shown in the Figure 88.
To modify the predefined VLAN priority mapping you have to define the wanted TAG mapping, in the VLAN Priority
section, as follows:
1) Maps each of the VLAN Priority # from 0 to 7 to the proper queue of four available.
2) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
3) To confirm the new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

Note on VLAN ID Standard Convention


Take care to note that VLAN 0 means no VLAN but handle the priority and that the Default VLAN is VLAN 1.

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ToS/DSCP Priority QoS
ToS or DSCP classified traffic is prioritized on the proper output queue based on the classifier field value.
To enable the ToS/DSCP Prioritization QoS engine, in the ToS/DSCP Mapping section, from the Mapping Type
drop-down list, select the ToS or the DSCP option as you need. You will get a page like in Figure 89 or in Figure 90.
ToS Prioritization (RFC 795 and RFC 1349)
ToS IP Precedence prioritized traffic is s mapped to an output queue based on the 3 bit of the IP Precedence header,
plus the 4 bits of the IP ToS and plus the bit of the MBZ.
ToS QoS default mapping is like shown in the following Figure 89:

Figure 89 ToS IP Precedence default queues mapping.

To modify the predefined ToS mapping you have to define the wanted ToS Value mapping, in the ToS/DSCP
Mapping section, as follows:
1) Maps each of the ToS Priority # from 0 to 255 to the proper queue of four available.
2) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
3) To confirm the new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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DSCP Prioritization
DSCP prioritized traffic is s mapped to an output queue based on the 6 bits of the DSCP (Differentiated Services Code
Point) field in accordance with RFC 2474 and IEEE 802.1Q-2005.
DSCP QoS default mapping is like shown in the following Figure 90:

Figure 90 DSCP default queues mapping.

To modify the predefined DSCP mapping you have to define the wanted DSCP Value mapping, in the ToS/DSCP
Mapping section, as follows:
1) Maps each of the DSCP Priority # from 0 to 63 to the proper queue of four available.
2) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
3) To confirm the new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting
For more information on QoS protocols, refer to the official RFC included in the CD ROM supplied.

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RTP Priority
Voice over IP is commonly transported using IP Real Time Protocol (RTP). When an application uses RTP, it chooses
for destination ports consecutive numbers. In the case the UDP packets port is between the selected range, OpenWifless
ESS ProNODE OS maps these packets to the selected queue with its own priority (default is VO queue with
maximum/highest priority).
The RTP Mapping option is implemented to provide an higher level of fine tuning of the VoIP applications that will be
managed by the OpenWifless ESS ProNODE operating system.
RTP QoS default mapping is like shown in the following Figure 91:

Figure 91 RTP mapping settings

To modify the predefined RTP mapping you have to define the wanted queue mapping, in the RTP Mapping section,
as follows:
1) In the RTP Mapping section, from the RTP Priority drop-down list select the queue to map RTP packets
coming from the filtered port range:

2)
3)
4)
5)

BK: Background
BE: Best Effort
VI: Video
VO: Voice
None

Set RTP Start port filtered value.


Set RTP End port filtered value.
Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
To confirm the new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting

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WMM-EDCA Priority QoS
The radio modules equipping the Wifless ESS 2456x features layer-1-2 traffic prioritization based on WMM-EDCA
(Wireless Multi Media + EDCA) Priority in compliance with the IEEE 802.11e standard.
Check the WMM (IEEE 802.11e) option to enable the WMM-EDCA QoS Engine and be careful to disable the
Aggressive Mode only if required by your network configuration or for interoperability issues (the default is to have the
Aggressive Mode enabled).

Figure 92 WMM Queues & Classifiers and EDCA parameters

Each radio interface has four hardware WMM queues, as shown in Figure 92. Each packet received is placed in the
proper queue accordingly to the WMM Traffic Prioritization classifiers.
You can fine tune the WMM-EDCA QoS engine setting the following parameters:

ECWmin: Minimum size of Exponential Contention Window. Maximum value is 15.


ECWmax: Maximum size of Exponential Contention Window. Maximum value is 15.
AIFS: Arbitration Inter Frame Space.
TxOpLimit: Transmission Opportunity Limit.
ACM: ACM policy.
No Ack policy: WMM acknowledge policy.

The WMM parameters can be re-set to the defaults by clicking the button Default WMM Parameters.
Apart the No Ack policy paramter, each of the other parameters should be correctly configured for the Access Point
(AP), in the WMM speaking called Channel, and for the Clients (Stations), referred as BSS in the WMM speaking.
Suggested known good-values for the WMM-EDCA Parameters for typical applications are reported in the following
Table 2:

WMM
Parameters
CW-min
CW-max

Application
type
PTP Link
3

with up to 5
CPE
4

10

10

Application type PMP Links


with up to 10 with up to 20 with up to 40
CPE
CPE
CPE
5
6
7
10

10

10

with up to 80
CPE
8
10

Table 2 Suggested CWs WMM Parameters.

Note: ECWmin is related to CWmin with the formula CWmin = 2ECWmin - 1.


ECWmax is related to CWmax with the formula CWmax = 2ECWmax - 1
For application with more than 20 CPE per sector or for more information on WMM-EDCA, refer also to:
the official Atheros Madwifi manual included in the Documentation CD ROM supplied;
the official Wi-Fi Alliance WMM Power Save White Paper included in the Documentation CD ROM
supplied.

Be careful to consider that the WMM Parameters set in the AP configuration will be propagated to all the associated
Clients/Stations, so it is necessary to correctly tune these parameters only at the AP configuration. However, the
Client/Station has initial WMM Paramters settings, as shown in Figure 93, that are used during the initial connection
period before to get the configured parameters from the associated AP.

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Figure 93 Station/Client WMM Initial Setting

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The Management Settings, Status Monitoring and Performance Metering
Your Wifless ESS 2456x features a single administrative profile, allowing for convenient remote management via any
of the following tools:

http/https server
SSH
Telnet server
Serial port CLI
V1, V2 and V3 standard SNMP agents
Syslog server

In addition, the Wifless ESS 2456x integrates a Netperf and an Iperf tools for troubleshooting purposes.

HTTP/HTTPS Management
This section shows how to enable management operations via http or https.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab WWW. You will get a screen like in Figure 94.

Figure 94 Enabling remote management via WWW.

3) In the WWW section, specify the following parameters:

Server Mode: select http (default value) or https.


Server Port: default value is 80.
Server Access: default value is any.
Secure Client IP Address: Secure IP Address to access the system via HTTP/HTTPS.

4) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
5) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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SSH Management
This section shows how to set management operations via SSH. This mode is enabled by default.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab SSH. You will get a screen like in Figure 95.

Figure 95 Remote Management via SSH.

3) In the SSH section, specify the following parameters:

Server Port: default value is 22.


Server Access: any is by default.
Secure Client IP Address: Secure IP Address to access the system via SSH

4) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
5) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

Telnet Management
This section shows how to set management operations via Telnet. This mode is enabled by default.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab Telnet. You will get a screen like in Figure 96.

Figure 96 Enabling remote management via Telnet.

3) In the Telnet section, specify the following parameters:


Server Port: default value is 23.

Server Access: any is by default.

Secure Client IP Address: Secure IP Address to access the system via Telnet.

4) Click Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
5) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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Serial RS232 CLI Management
This section shows how to enable management operations via RS232 serial port. This port is enabled by default.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab Serial. You will get a screen like in Figure 97.

The Enable check box is enabled by default and cannot be disabled.

Figure 97 Enabling remote management via serial port.

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SNMP Management
The Wifless ESS 2456x integrates V1, V2c and V3 standard SNMP agents for simple and efficient management
operations. This section shows how to enable these agents.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab SNMP. You will get a screen like in Figure 98.

Figure 98 Enabling SNMP agents for remote management.

3) In the SNMP section, specify the following:

Server Port: default value is 161.


Server Access: select which logical interfaces are to be managed via SNMP. Default value is none that means disabled.
Secure Client IP Address/Mask: set IP address and subnet mask for secure SNMP access.

4) If you want to use SNMP V1 and V2c, complete section SNMP V1 and V2c Settings. Default values are
public for Get Community and private for Set Community.
5) If you want to use SNMP V3, compete all fields in section SNMP V3 Settings to match the account being
used for the SNMP V3 agent as following:

Username: Username for SNMP V3c Account.


Password: Password for SNMP V3c Account.
Access: You can choose between Read Only and Read-Write options.

6) In the SNMP Traps section, specify the following:

Trap Destination: Enter up to 2 (two) SNMP Server IP Addresses or a Full Qualified Domain Names.
Send Network Interface Status: Tick on this option if you want to receive traps when interfaces change state.

7) In Radio Interface Traps section, specify which Traps and values you want to set.
8) Click on Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
9) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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Syslog Logging / System Events Monitoring
A Syslog server can be used for monitoring your Wifless ESS 2456x. To enable this option, do the following.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab Syslog. You will get a screen like in Figure 99.

Figure 99 Enabling Syslog Server monitoring.

3) In the Syslog section, specify up to 4 (four) Syslog Server IP Addresses or Full Qualified Domain Names.
4) Click on Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
5) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

Netperf Performance Testing & Metering


This section shows how to enable the built-in Netserver tool NetPerf. By default, this tool is disabled.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab Netperf. You will get a screen like in Figure 100.

Figure 100 Enabling and configuring NetPerf.

3) In the Netperf section, tick option Enable.


4) In the Netperf Settings section, complete the following fields:

Remote Host IP Address.


Test Type: choose stream type between TCP Stream Perform and UDP Stream Perform.
Local Send Size: -m NetPerf parameter.
Remote Send Size: -M NetPerf parameter.

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Test Time: -l Netperf parameter

5) Click Run Test to start a test and the results will be displayed on your screen.
6) Click on Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
7) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

Iperf Performance Testing & Metering


This section shows how to enable the built-in Netserver tool IPerf. By default, this tool is disabled.
1) From the Advanced menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Management.
2) In the main window, click tab Iperf. You will get a screen like in Figure 101.

Figure 101 Enabling and configuring IPerf.

3) In the Iperf section, tick option Enable.


4) In the Iperf Settings section, complete the following fields:

Remote Host IP Address.


Test Type: choose stream type between TCP Stream Perform and UDP Stream Perform.
Send Size: -w Iperf parameter.
Test Time: -t Iperf parameter.

5) Click Run Test to start a test; the results will be displayed on your screen.
6) Click on Apply to save your settings, or click Reset to restore previous settings.
7) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

System Status & Resources Allocation Monitoring


The Wifless ESS 2456x features a tool for monitoring system status and resources allocation.
System parameters and usage of resources are metered every 5 minutes. You can set the tool to output a status report
either over the last 24 hours, the last 7 days, or the last 4 weeks.
The following are the system parameters and main resources monitored by the tool:

CPU Usage

Memory Usage

Flash Disc Usage

Interrupts Rate/Load

Physical Interfaces Statistics


You can view the reports and change the relevant settings by selecting Remote MGMT from the Advanced list and
then Status from the main OpenWifless window.
Some examples of the output reports are displayed in Figure 102 and Figure 103.

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Figure 102 Reports of CPU Usage after Reboot.

Figure 103 Reports over 24 hours.

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Maintenance Settings
This section shows how to perform the maintenance of your Wifless ESS 2456x via OpenWifless. From the menu list
on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, click on Maintenance.

General Settings
The parameters reported under the General tab of the Maintenance window are:
inventory-only fields used for device identification and administrative notes;
two-key system parameters regarding DNS settings and the automatic logout inactivity timer.
In the Maintenance window, click tab General. You will get a screen like in Figure 104.

Figure 104 General Setup.

1) In the General Setup section you can specify the following parameters:

System Name
System Location
System Contact
Domain Name
Primary Nameserver
Secondary Nameserver
Administrative Inactivity Timer

2) Click Apply to confirm your newly-entered parameters, or click Reset to restore previous values.
3) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

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Management Accounts and Password Settings
There are three privilege access levels and three predefined Users for the Wifless ESS 2456x:

Administrator: top privilege level 9, recommended for provisioning and administration via http, https or
SSH servers.
Read-Only Operator: recommended for monitoring and alerts (usually performed by NMS tools).
Back-Up Operator: recommended for automatic backups of configuration files (usually performed by
external machines).

In order to perform password changes, you must enter a valid User ID and password; User IDs cannot be modified,
while passwords can be reset at any moment.
These settings are working on-the-fly.
To change a predefined password, log in as Administrator and click tab Password in the Maintenance OpenWifless
window. You will get a screen like in Figure 105, then follow the instructions as per each predefined User ID.

Figure 105 Setting a new password.

Administrator Profile
By default, the administrator profile is as follows:
User Name: admin
Password: default
To change the password of the Administrator Profile, complete all fields in the Administrator Password section and
click on Change.
Read-Only Operator Profile
By default, the Read-Only Operator Profile is disabled and you must define its password as follows:
User Name: user

In this operation mode, a user could potentially damage the file system via SSH.
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Password:
To set the password of the Read-Only Operator Profile, complete all fields in the READ-ONLY Operator Password
section and click on Change.
Backup Operator Profile
By default, the Backup Operator Profile is disabled and you must define its password as follows:
User Name: backup
Password:
To set the password of the Backup Operator Profile, complete all fields in the BACKUP Operator Password section and
click on Change.

Important Note
If you forget your Administrator password, the system can be reset to the Factory Defaults User ID
and Passord using the ResetWebPwd command as explained in the Reset of the Password of the
Web Admin Account paragraph.
The device will be unlocked either via Serial port under the supervision of the Wifless Support Team.

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Time and Date Settings
The Wifless ESS 2456x has an internal real-time clock (RTC) equipped with a back-up battery which allows for correct
time keeping even when the device cannot access a Network Time Server.
The RTC allows both manual or automatic (via NTP/SNTP protocol) setup of time and date.
In the Maintenance window of OpenWifless, click on tab Time and Date. You will get a screen like in Figure 106.

Figure 106 Setting Time and Date.

In section Current Time and Date, the current values are displayed in the YYYY-MM-DD format and default to the
CEST (Central European Summer Time) time zone.
To change the current settings, do the following:
1) In section Time and Date Setup, choose between Manual and Get from Time Server.
2) If you have chosen Manual, set New Time (hh:mm:ss) and New Date (yyyy-mm-dd).
3) If you have chosen Automatic, the system will automatically search a worldwide list of official public
servers for an available NTP/SNTP Server. However, if you prefer to define an NTP/SNTP server of your
own or select a specific one, tick box Enable time server and specify the following:

4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Time Protocol: Currently supported NTP v3 (Network Time Protocol) and SNTP v4 (Simple Network Time Protocol) with
automatic selection.
Time Server Address: IP Address(es) or Server Name(s) Full Qualified Domain Name(s).

Move on to section Time Zone Setup and select your Time Zone.
Enable Daylight Saving if required.
Set Start Date and End Date.
Click Apply to store your values, or click Reset to restore previous values.
To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

For your NTP/SNTP service to work correctly, you must set the following parameters first:

DNS (Domain Names Server) entries (see MAINTENANCE GENERAL web page and tab);

DG (Default Gateway) for the main logical interface used to reach the NTP/SNTP server(s)
specified.

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FW Upload Procedure (Upgrade / Downgrade)
Preliminary important notes on firmware upgrade
The Firmware upgrade - also referred to as Operating System Software upgrade - is a critical procedure
that could lead the system to an unusable state if not conducted correctly. Systems left in an unusable
state must be returned to factory for complete firmware re-flashing. The firmware re-flashing is an outof-warranty service.
Once started, the Firmware upgrade procedure cannot be stopped and must not be interrupted by
accidental causes. It is important that all devices involved in the traffic data path are kept under UPS
(Uninterruptible Power Supply).
Do not confuse the Firmware upgrade procedure with the Embedded OS replacement. The latter is an
extremely complex operation which should be performed by the manufacturer only. Any other attempt
to perform Embedded OS Replacement will result in the immediate void of the users product warranty.
For Embedded OS Replacement, contact the Wifless Support Team.
Preliminary important notes on firmware downgrade
The Firmware downgrade, also referred to as Operating System Software downgrade, is a very critical
procedure that often lead the system to an unusable state. Systems left in an unusable state must be
returned to factory for a complete firmware re-flashing. The firmware re-flashing is an out-of-warranty
service.
Never perform a Firmware downgrade without an express approval by your local qualified supplier or
by the Wifless Support Team.
Once started, the Firmware downgrade procedure cannot be stopped and must not be interrupted by
accidental causes. It is important that all devices involved in the traffic data path are kept under UPS
(Uninterruptible Power Supply).
After a Firmware downgrade, the device must be reset to Factory Default and only XML configuration
files which refer to the firmware version restored can be used for a restore procedure.
You can load a different firmware version onto your Wifless ESS 2456x via OpenWifless OS as follows:
1) From the menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Maintenance.
2) From the menu bar on the Maintenance window, select FW Upload. Your screen will look like in Figure
107.

Figure 107 Firmware Upload.

3) Click on Browse to locate your image file for firmware binary upgrade. The file extension is .BIN.
4) Once you have selected your BIN file, click Upload. A page like in Figure 108 will be displayed on your
screen:
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Figure 108 Confirmation prior to writing flash.

5) Confirm your action by clicking on Write to flash, or click Cancel to abort the procedure.
6) The system will reboot automatically after the completion of the flash memory re-writing. It can take up to 5
minutes for the upgrade procedure to be completed. Do not to stop the procedure and do not power off the
Wifless ESS 2456x or any other device connected to it 10.
7) If the upgrade procedure has been successfully completed, you will get a screen like in Figure 109.

Figure 109 Upgrade procedure being successfully completed.

8) If your web browser has not automatically refreshed after 5 minutes, either refresh the browser page
manually, or click on the HOME button of the latest cached page; the newly-uploaded firmware version will
be displayed in the top right-hand corner of your screen, like shown in Figure 110.

Figure 110 Newly-uploaded Firmware Version being displayed.

10

If any errors are reported at this stage, try repeating the procedure from step 1. If some errors are still reported,
contact the Wifless Support Team prior to powering off the system, if possible.

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Configuration Backup, Restore and Factory Default Settings
The Wifless ESS 2456x allows for easy backup and restore of configuration files. This section shows how to perform
these operations:
1) From the menu on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Maintenance.
2) From the menu bar on the main window, click on Configuration. Your screen will look like in Figure 111.

Figure 111 Backup and Restore Configuration.

From this window, you can either back up the current configuration file onto your computer, restore a
configuration file onto the Wifless ESS 2456x, or restore all settings to Factory Defaults.
3) To restore all settings to Factory Defaults, click on Reset in section Back to Factory Defaults. To confirm
the operation, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.
4) To back up your current system configuration, click on Backup in section Backup Configuration. A
configuration file will be created on your computer and displayed as in Figure 112.
5) To restore a system configuration onto your Wifless ESS 2456x, browse your computer for the relevant
configuration file 11 and then click on Upload. The system will take a few seconds to load the configuration
file. Confirm the operation as per paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.
Note: To restore the Backup Flash Configuration, please refer to the paragraph Reset to Factory Default and Restore
the Backup Flash Configuration via MAC Address using the LanReset.

11

File type: XML.


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Figure 112 Configuration File created on backup.

Important Notes
Configuration Files are not cross-platforms between major releases. Compatibility is reasonably
achievable within two successive minor releases, though some parameters may not be correctly
restored even across close software releases.
If you experience any problems when attempting a system backup, copy the screen dump of your
error pages on a clean MS Word document and submit the document to the Wifless Support Team.
Your cooperation will help us fix the problem promptly.

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Post Start-up Script Settings
You can edit a post start-up script that is executed in background after the start-up (full initialization) of your Wifless
ESS 2456x.
To edit the post start-up script, follow these instructions:
1) From the menu list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Maintenance.
2) From the menu bar in the main window, click on tab Postup Script. A page like in Figure 114 will appear.

Figure 113 Postup script page.

3) Write into the blank page the Linux commands, or other defined scripts, you want to be executed in
background after system initialization.
4) Click Apply to store your values, or click Reset to restore previous values.
5) To confirm your new configuration, see paragraph Update/Store Configuration Setting.

Important Note
Errors in the Post Start-up Script may prevent the Wfless ESS 2456x device to properly operate and,
in the wors case, may lead the system to an unusable state (i.e.: system does not reboot).
Systems left in an unusable state must be returned to factory for a complete firmware re-flashing.
The firmware re-flashing is an out-of-warranty service.

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Restart (Reboot) Command
You can easily restart/reboot your Wifless ESS 2456x via OpenWifless.
Follow the instructions listed below:
1) From the menu list on the left hand-side of the OpenWifless page, select Maintenance.
2) From the menu bar in the main window, click on tab Restart. A page like in Figure 114 will appear.

Figure 114 System Restart.

3) In the System restart section, click button Restart. The system may take up to 2 minutes to reboot.

Important Note
If your Wifless ESS 2456x fails to reboot within 5 minutes, try forcing a system reboot either by
powering off and on your IDU, or by disconnecting and reconnecting your LAN cable. If the problem
persists, copy the screen dump of your error pages on a clean MS Word document and submit the
document to the Wifless Support Team. Your cooperation will help us fix the problem promptly.

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Update/Store Configuration Settings
Prior to updating the configuration of your Wifless ESS 2456x, a prompt message like that shown in Figure 115 will be
displayed in the top right-hand corner of your OpenWifless page; this reminds you that some changes have been made
as to your system configuration and that you may want to confirm these changes before they become effective.

Figure 115 Update Prompt.

1) On clicking the Update Prompt, a page like in Figure 116 will appear on your OpenWifless window as a
final prompt to confirm your new configuration:

Figure 116 Updating Flash Configuration.

2) On clicking on Update, your new configuration will be saved as Current Flash Configuration and the
previous configuration will be moved to Backup Flash Configuration. The Version counter will be
increased and a Reboot button will appear as shown in Figure 117; your changes will not be effective until
you accept to reboot the system.

Figure 117 Flash Configuration successfully updated.

3) Click Reboot when a reboot of your system is acceptable please note that all the services being currently
delivered will be temporary disrupted. After rebooting the system, your modifications will eventually be
effective.

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Note about Version number displayed
The Current Flash Configuration Version being displayed is automatically determined by the system
according to the number of modifications that have been made.
Therefore, the OpenWifless page may display a gap between Current Flash Configuration Version
and Backup Flash Configuration Version which is greater than 1, as shown in Figure 117.
This gap does not affect the current configuration of your Wifless ESS 2456x or its functionalities;
rather, it is simply related to its history from the time of manufacturing until the latest FW upgrade.

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Accessing the Command Line Interfaces
The Wifless ESS 2456x supports the quite standard Linux kernel 2.6 Command Line Interfaces for the benefit of
advanced users.
For a detailed description of the available commands and usage, please refer to:
the Linux manuals and documentation (http://www.linux.org/docs/);
the Madwifi manuals and documentation included in the Documentation CD ROM supplied.
For security reasons, some Command Line Interfaces are disabled by default as the input of some improper commands
into the system may lead it to an unusable state.

SSH Connection

Enabled by default;
Connection settings as follows:

IP Address: same address of Wifless ESS 2456x;

Port: 22 (default SSH port).


Login account:

Username: root

Password: default
To change the password of root administrative account, use the Linux standard passwd command.

RS 232 Serial Port Local Connection

Enabled by default;
Connection settings are 9.600,8,N,1,N:

Speed (bps): 9.600

Data Bit: 8

Parity: No

Stop Bit: 1

Flow Control: None


Login account:

Username: root

Password: default
To change the password of root administrative account, use the Linux standard passwd command.

TCP-IP Telnet Remote Connection

Enabled by default;
Connection settings as follows:

IP Address: same address of Wifless ESS 2456x;

Port: 23 (default Telnet port).


Login account:

Username: root

Password: default
To change the password of root administrative account, use the Linux standard passwd command.

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Troubleshooting Tips & Special Wifless ESS Utilities


How to View/Get the Startup/Boot Sequence System Log
After you Login into the Wifless ESS 2456x, browse the URL http://x.x.x.x/startup, where x.x.x.x is the IP Address
of the device. A page like in Figure 118 will appear:

Figure 118 Startup WEB Page.

In the Startup WEB page is shown the sequence of the operations done by the OS from the reboot.

Note
If the startup operation has been not successfully completed, you will get Error or Warning
Messages.

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How to Know the Radio Links Status
If the radio link is well established, after you Login into the Wifless ESS 2456x, a page like in Figure 119, for an
Access Point device/interface, or as in Figure 120, for a Station device/interface, will appear:

Figure 119 Access Point HomePage when radio link well established.

Figure 120 Station HomePage when radio link well established.

In the Wireless Information Side are the following information:

Interface: Description Name of the Radio Interface


SSID: Defined SSID.
BSSID/MAC: BSSID/MAC of the connected device. If Hide SSID option enabled in the Access Point, no SSID information
displayed.
Channel: Channel defined in the Access Point
SNR: Signal to Noise Ratio measured value of the radio link
RSL/Noise: Received Signal Level and Noise measured values.
Rate: Trasmission Rate
Tx Power: Tx Power defined value. Between brackets if ATPC changes it.
Security: Security Protocol used.
Link Uptime: Time from last Radio Link establishment.

In the Scanning Information Side (ONLY in Station!!) are the following information:

Interface: Description Name of the Radio Interface


SSID: Defined SSID
BSSID: BSSID of the connected Access Point. If Hide SSID option enabled in the Access Point, no SSID information displayed.
Channel: Channel defined in the Access Point
Beaconn RSL: Beacon Signal to Noise Ratio measured value of the radio link
Max. Rate: Maximum Trasmission Rate
Information Elements: Information Elements about Radio Link Supported Features and Vendor Specific Parameters (these
information are broadcasted by the Beacons)
Security: Security Protocol used.
Interval: Beacon Time Interval (milliseconds)

In the Ethernet Information Side are the following information:

Interface: Description Name of the Ethenrnet/Switch Interface


MAC: MAC Address of the Ethenrnet/Switch Interfaces connected with
IP: IP Address of the Ethenrnet/Switch Interfaces connected with

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If something wrong, can happens that the wireless information side is empty or all the informations are written in red
color as in Figure 121 and Figure 122:

Figure 121 Station Association Problems.

Figure 122 Access Point Association Problems due to Security Mismatch.

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Reset to Factory Default and Restore the Backup Flash Configuration via MAC
Address using the LanReset tool
The LanReset tool is useful to reset to Factory Default and to restore the Backup Flash Configuration of the Wifless
ESS 2456x via the Ethernet MAC address.
This utility, mainly needed when the device IP is forgot or when the device does not correctly boot and operate, uses
special EAPOL Ethernet frames.
To use it, you will only need to have the physical L2 Ethernet connection to the device and to know its Ethernet MAC
address.

LanReset for Windows XP


To use LanReset version for Windows XP, please follow the instructions below:
1) Take care to use a PC/Laptop with Microsoft Windows XP 32bit edition. LanReset for Windows works only
on Windows XP 32 bit edition.
2) Enable in your PC/Laptop the Wireless Zero Configuration service:
3) In Start Run type service.msc: this command open the services window where it is possible to find the
Wireless Zero Configuration as in the following Figure 123.

Figure 123 Services window.

4) Select Wireless Zero Configuration and change the Startup Option from Manual to Automatic, like in Figure
124, then the service is enabled.

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Figure 124 Wireless Zero Configuration Startup option.

Reset to Factory Default


To reset to Factory Default settings please follow the instructions below:
1) Copy the file lanreset.exe in the directory you want and then issue the command
lanreset device_mac_address default default
taking care to type the MAC address without the : separators, as shown in Figure 125:

Figure 125 Windows LanReset default command output.

2) The Wifless ESS 2456x will restart to its factory Default settings.
Do not worry if you get erros from Windows CLI, as reported in Figure 125, it is only a matter of Windows, the lanreset
tool worked fine anyway. Wait for your Wifless ESS 2456x to reboot and access it at its Factory Default IP Address,
192.168.2.100.
Restore to Backup Flash Configuration
To restore to the Backup Flash Configuration settings please follow the instructions below:
1) Copy the file lanreset.exe in the directory you want and then issue the command
lanreset device_mac_address default revert
taking care to type the MAC address without the : separators, as shown in Figure 126:

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Figure 126 Windows LanReset revert command output.

2) The Wifless ESS 2456x will restart to its Backup Flash Configuration settings.
Do not worry if you get erros from Windows CLI, as reported in Figure 125, it is only a matter of Windows, the lanreset
tool worked fine anyway. Wait for your Wifless ESS 2456x to reboot and access it at its Backup Configuration IP
Address.

LanReset for Linux


To use LanReset version for Linux, copy the file lanreset in the directory you want.
Reset to Factory Default
To reset to Factory Default settings please follow the instructions below:
1) Issue the following command from the directory where you copied Lanreset
.\lanreset device_mac_address default default
taking care to type the MAC address without the : separators, as shown in Figure 127:

Figure 127 Linux LanReset default command output.

2) The Wifless ESS 2456x will restart to its factory Default settings.
Wait for your Wifless ESS 2456x to reboot and access it at its Factory Default IP Address, 192.168.2.100.
Restore to Backup Flash Configuration
To restore to the Backup Flash Configuration settings please follow the instructions below:
1) Issue the following command from the directory where you copied Lanreset
lanreset device_mac_address default revert
taking care to type the MAC address without the : separators, as shown in Figure 128:

Figure 128 Linux LanReset revert command output.

2) The Wifless ESS 2456x will restart to its Backup Flash Configuration settings.
Wait for your Wifless ESS 2456x to reboot and access it at its Backup Configuration IP Address.

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Tx99 Special Tool
This tool is useful whenever is needed to have a radio interface continuosly transmit multicast packets at the maximum
allowed throughput.
Typical applications of tx99 tool are:
Measurement of the RF Tx Power
To simplify the antennas alignment of long-haul links
To test performace with heavy background radio traffic
To use tx99, please follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Run tx99 with the proper parameters as shown in the usage dump screen in the following Figure 129:

Figure 129 tx99 Command usage output.

3) The usage of the tool is as follow:

Interface: the name of the radio interface that you want to have sending the multicast traffic
Time: the duration of the transmission in seconds (set -1 for never ending transmission)
Random: this option force tx99 to transmit radio frames filled with random data instead of having the default 0s padding
MTU: size of the radio frame in bytes
Slave: option to have tx99 running in slave mode, receiving the radio frames sent by the master and displaying the received
rate and metering details

4) Carefully remember that tx99 always transmits traffic at the maximum allowed throughput, so it tends to use
all the radio and system resources available. So, it is kindly suggested to not run tx99 on network element(s)
having valuable service traffic enabled.

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Main Useful CLI Commands


Save the Current and Backup Configurations
To save the Current and Backup Configurations (also referred as Config1 and Config2) in the Wifless ESS 2456x
device using CLI instead of the Web GUI procedure described in the Configuration Backup, Restore and Factory
Default Settings, please follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Issue the command saveconfig as shown in Figure 130.

Figure 130 Saveconfig command.

3) Issue the command saveconfig 1, as shown in Figure 130, to save the main configuration (usually the current)
and/or issue the command saveconfig 2 to save the backup configuration.
The two files are saved in the directory /tmp with the names Config-hostname.domain_name-YYYYmmDDHHMM1.xml and Config-hostname.domain_name-YYYYmmDDHHMM-2.xml as shown in the following Figure 131:

Figure 131 Saved file names.

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Reset of the Password of the Web Admin Account
To reset to Factory Default value the Wifless ESS 2456x Password for Web Admin Account, we developed a tool
named ResetWebPwd: this utility help you to recover the Password of the Web Admin Account resetting it to its default
value, that it means default.

ResetWebPwd
To use ResetWebPwd, please follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Change to /usr/lib/sysconfig/ directory.
3) Issue the command ./resetwebpwd.esc as shown in Figure 132:

Figure 132 ResetWebPwd Directory.

4) The Password is automatically changed and it will works on the next Web access.

Get the System Inventory


To get via CLI a useful device system inventory report, is possible to use the getinventory command.
To use the getinventory command, please follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Type getinventory and click enter: you will get a screen dump as the following in:

Figure 133 GetInventory Command output.

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Get the Operating System Version
To know via CLI the firmware version installed and running on the Wifless ESS 2456x, there is the command named
version.
To use the version command, please follow the instructions below:
3) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
4) Type version and click enter: you will get a screen dump as the following in Figure 134:

Figure 134 Version Command output.

Ps Command
The Linux ps command is used to list all the processes active (currently running) in the system.
To use ps command, please follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Type ps and click enter, you will get a screen dup as shown in Figure 135:

Figure 135 Ps Command output.

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Dmesg Command
Dmesg command prints-out the boot-up diagnostic messages, so it is very useful for troubleshooting hardware errors or
start-up scripts errors.
To use dmesg follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Issue the command dmesg, you will receive the whole boot sequence dump, like the one shown in Figure 137:

Figure 136 Dmesg Command output.

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Logread Command
Logread command prints-out the boot-up diagnostic messages in a more detailed way than the dmesg command,
stamping also the date and time information for each logged event.
Security related logs about WPA/WPA2 rekeying and Radius AAA logs are reported.
To use logread follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Issue the command logread, you will receive the whole boot sequence dump, like the one shown in Figure
137:

Figure 137 Logread Command output.

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Iwconfig and Ifconfing Commands
The iwconfig and ifconfig commands are used to set many common parameters of the most used devices.
To properly use ifconfig standard Linux command, please refer to the Linux Hot-to guide (not included in the
Documentation CD ROM).
To properly use iwconfig standard Madwifi command, please refer to the official Atheros Madwifi manual included in
the Documentation CD ROM supplied.
To basically use the iwconfig command, please refer to its usage follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Type iwconfig h and click to get the usage help as shown in the following Figure 138:

Figure 138 Iwconfig Command usage output.

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Atop Command
The atop application is an interactive monitor to view the system load of a Linux system.
It shows the load/occupation of the most critical hardware-resources (from a performance point of view) of the system
(i.e.: cpu, memory, disk, network interfaces).
It also shows which processes are responsible for the main system load/overload.
To use atop command, please follow the instructions below:
1) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
2) Type atop and click enter receiving a screen like in the following Figure 139 and Figure 140:

Do not take care of the initilization warning message, it is just for information

Figure 139 Atop initialization output.

Figure 140 Atop Command typical output.

Note
Use command atop -1 to have update statistics each second.

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Watch Command
This command is useful to execute a program, or a script periodically.
To use watch command, please follow the instructions below:
3) Access the device CLI via SSH or Telnet (SSH is preferred for security).
4) Type watch and click enter receiving a screen like in the following Figure 141:

Figure 141 Watch Command usage output.

5) To execute the program athstats i wifi0 each 1 second type the command as in the following Figure 142:

Figure 142 Watch Command typical usege.

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Appendix A
ETH/LAN IP67 Lock-in-type and RJ45 Connectors Wiring Diagram
The Wifless ESS 2456x employs high quality ETH/LAN port circular lock-in-type connectors rated IP67.
The circular lock-in-type connectors pinout (wiring) are compliant with the EIA-TIA T568B standard for performance
and cabling rules and with the IEEE 802.3af standard for PoE wiring.
Figure 143 and the next show the pinouts, respectively for the IP67 circular lock-in-type and for the RJ45 parent
connectors.
3-6 Eth Rx
7-8 (-)

4-5 (+)

1-2 Eth Tx

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

4
6

5
8

9 GND
Shield

7
10

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

9-10 GND
Shield

Figure 143 - IP67 ETH/LAN Connector - Front View

Standard
EIA-TIA T568B
Cable Color:
White-Orange

Figure 144 - Standard RJ45 Shielded Connector Front View

Standard RJ45
Connector EIATIA 568B Pin:
1

Wifless ESS
IP67 Special
Connector Pin:
1

IEEE 802.3af
Standard Use:
Pair 2 Ethernet Tx or Rx

Orange

Pair 2 Ethernet Tx or Rx

White-Green

Pair 3 Ethernet Rx or Tx

Blue

Pair 1 PoE +VDC

White- Blue

Pair 1 PoE +VDC

Green

Pair 3 Ethernet Rx or Tx

White-Browne

Pair 4 PoE -VDC

Browne

Pair 4 PoE -VDC

Shield / Nude wire

Protective Ground / Shield

Shield / Nude wire

10

Protective Ground / Shield

Table 3 Match between wires (colors) and pin numbers.

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When assembling your indoor-to-outdoor cable, follow the EIA-TIA-568A/B wiring guidelines on cable pairing,
twisting, total cable length, welding and crimping. Use professional crimping tools designed for the RJ45 standard.
As per EIA/TIA-568A/B, your Channel Link must not exceed 110 m in length. See Figure 145 for a definition of
Channel Link.

Figure 145 EIA-TIA 568A/B Channel Link.

Therefore, your ODU must not be placed further than 110 m apart from the first network device you intend to connect
to your ODU. This first network device may be either your PC, a server, a LAN Ethernet switch, or a front-end IP
router.
The position of your IDU corresponds either to the Cross Connect or to the Outlet in Figure 145. Therefore, your IDU
must not be placed further than 90 m apart from your ODU. This is the maximum length allowed for your indoor-tooutdoor FTP cable.

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RS232 IP67 Lock-in-type and D-SUB 9-pin Connectors Wiring Diagram
The Wifless ESS 2456x employs a high-quality RS232 port connector. Figure 146 shows the pin-out of the circular
IP67 circular lock-in-type connector and the next figure shows the matching pin-out of a standard 9-pin serial port
connector, in accordance with EIA/TIA-232E and EIA/TIA-562 standards. A complete matching chart is displayed in
Table 4.

2
5
9

1
3

4
8

12

7
10

11
14

13

9-10 GND
Shield
Figure 146 - IP67 RS232 Connector - Front View

Standard D-SUB
9-pin EIA/TIA 562
Pin name:
DCD

Figure 147 - Standard D-SUB 9-pin Connector - Front View

Standard D-SUB 9pin EIA/TIA 562


Connector Pin:
1

Wifless ESS
IP67 Special
Connector Pin:
-

Standard D-SUB
9-pin EIA/TIA 562
Pin Description:
Data Carrier Detect

RxD o Rx

Received Data

TxD o Tx

Transmit Data

DTR

Data Terminal Ready

GND

9 - 10

DSR

Data Set Ready

RTS

Request To Send

CTS

Clear To Send

RI

Ring Indicator

Protective Ground

Table 4 Match between pin-outs.

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Appendix B
Max RF Output Power as per Country Rules and Selected Antenna

Attention! Read these notes carefully before you attempt to operate the equipment!
Legal Notes for EU - ETSI Countries - Attention!
This equipment is compliant with the EU Directive R&TTE 1999-05-CE, however it is subject to Local Country Usage
Limitation and Restriction. Prior to operation, consult your local Radio Regulatory Authority. The Technical
Construction File is available for authority inspection at the Essentia S.p.A. R&D Department based in Via G.B. Vico,
29 - 42100 Reggio Emilia (RE), Italy. For additional details, feel free to contact us at support@wifless.com: we will be
glad to assist you in getting in touch with our local Qualified Partners or with your Country Radio Regulatory
Authority.
Legal Notes for USA & Canada - FCC Countries - Attention!
This equipment is compliant with the FCC Rule Parts 15C & 15E, however its operation is subject to the condition that
it may not cause harmful interference. The usage of this device may be subject to Local Country Usage Limitation and
Restriction. Prior to operation, consult your local Radio Regulatory Authority. The Technical Construction File is
available for authority inspection at the Essentia S.p.A. R&D Dep, based inVia G.B. Vico, 29 - 42100 Reggio Emilia
(RE), Italy. For additional details, feel free to contact us at support@wifless.com: we will be glad to assist you in
getting in touch with our local Qualified Partners or with your Country Radio Regulatory Authority.

Attenzione! Leggere con attenzione questo documento prima delluso!


Note Legali Specifiche per l'Italia - Attenzione!
Questo prodotto conforme ai requisiti essenziali della Direttiva Europea 1999-05-CE, recepita con il D.L.vo
9/05/2001 n. 269 e sue successive modifiche ed integrazioni, incluso quanto previsto dalla Decisione UE 2005-513-CE,
per tanto luso dello stesso soggetto allottemperanza di quanto previsto dal D.Lgs. 1/08/2003 n. 259 e sue successive
modifiche ed integrazioni. In particolare si avvisa che luso soggetto a limitazioni di potenza e di frequenza
impiegabili, come pure soggetto allottenimento di Autorizzazione Generale se utilizzato al di fuori di propri fondi. Il
TCF a disposizione delle Autorit Competenti presso Essentia S.p.A., Direzione Tecnica, Via G.B. Vico, 29 - 42100
Reggio Emilia (RE). Per maggiori ragguagli e per una prima assistenza, non esitate a contattarci scrivendo a
support@wifless.com, saremo lieti di fornirvi i pi ampi dettagli in merito alle normative vigenti e ad assistervi
mettendovi in contatto con il ns. pi vicino Rivenditore Qualificato o con lIspettorato Territoriale del Ministero delle
Comunicazioni di vs. competenza.
Why I need to read the notes above?
Radio Regulations are in continue evolution worldwide due to the acts of local authorities, and so are the consequent
technical restrictions. As a result, you need to be notified of any limitation imposed on the use of the product by your local
authority. In order to meet these legal requirements, we strongly recommend that you consult your local supplier and your
Radio Regulatory Authority about any limitations on RF parameters, such as output power and frequencies allocation or RF
channel bandwidth availability.

For general information on Radio Regulatory, refer to the official Atheros White Paper Atheros Regulatory
whitepaper.pdf provided along with the Wifless Documentation CD Rom.
Up-to-date Atheros WP releases can be freely downloaded at http://www.super-ag.com/papers.html.
For further detailed information about technical limitations in the major countries, refer to:
ETSI for European Union areas of operation (http://www.etsi.org/)
FCC for United States of America and Canada areas of operation (http://www.fcc.gov/)
TELEC for Japan areas of operation (http://www.telec.or.jp/)

European Union Specific Basic ETSI Rules

In accordance with the European Decision EU Dec 2005/513/CE, the following band-specific limitations to the
Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) apply 12:
In the band 2.4-2.4835 GHz, the max EIRP is of 100 mW = 20 dBm
In the band 5.15-5.35 GHz, the max EIRP is of 200 mW = 23 dBm with DFS and ATPC
In the band 5.47-5.725 GHz, the max EIRP is of 1 W = 30 dBm with DFS and ATPC

12

For a more detailed overview of EIRP restrictions, see the documentation in the CD-ROM supplied with the
equipment.
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ETSI Max RF Tx Power Calculation Formula for your Antenna
Considering these max EIRP limitations, the max Tx power allowed can be computed with the following simple
formula (in dBm in accordance with the equipment menu field):
Max_Tx_Power_Allowed (in dBm) = Max_EU_Allowed_EIRP_in_that_band (in dBm) Selected_Antenna_Gain (in
dBi) + Selected_RF_Cable_Insertion_Loss.
So, for example, if we set up an outdoor point-to-point link in the 5.6 GHz band, connecting the antenna WFL PPA 5623 through the RF cable kit WFL EKCRF02, the formula will be:
Max_Tx_Power_Allowed (in dBm) = 30 23 + 2 = 9 dBm
Therefore, the maximum value for selection in the Tx Power field of your radio interface will be 9 dBm.
Important Notes on Conformity
In order to maintain the Essentia EU Declaration of Conformity valid and to act in accordance with the EU Directive
R&TTE 1999/05/CE and with the EU Decision 2005/513/CE, you must:
Use genuine Essentia Wifless approved antennas only;
Use genuine Essentia Wifless approved RF cable kits;
Select the Radio Country Code in accordance with your Local Country Area Rules.

Normative Tecniche Specifiche per il Mercato Italiano (ETSI Italia)


In accordo con la Decisione Europea EU 2005/513/CE necessario rispettare i limiti di potenza EIRP e di densit
spettrale di potenza definiti, come indicato nel documento originale incluso nel CD Rom che accompagna lapparato, e
come sinteticamente qui di seguito riportiamo (solo i valori massimi di EIRP):
Nella banda 2.4-2.4835 GHz, la EIRP massima ammessa di 100 mW = 20 dBm
o In tale banda ammesso sia un uso Indoor che Outdoor
Nella banda 5.15-5.35 GHz, la EIRP massima ammessa di 200 mW = 23 dBm con DFS ed ATPC
o In tale banda ammesso solo un uso Indoor
Nella banda 5.47-5.725 GHz, la EIRP massima ammessa di 1 W = 30 dBm con DFS ed ATPC
o In tale banda ammesso sia un uso Indoor che Outdoor

Formula ETSI per il Calcolo della Potenza Max Applicabile in Antenna


In considerazione di questi limiti sullEIRP massimo, la massima potenza RF impostabile sullapparato pu essere cos
semplicemente calcolata (espressa in dBm in accordo con lunit metrica utilizzata nel men di configurazione
dellapparato):
Max_Tx_Power_Impostabile (in dBm) = Max_EIRP_ammesso_nella_banda_selezionata (in dBm) Guadagno_
Antenna_Selezionata (in dBi) + Perdita_Introdotta_Cavo_RF_Selezionato.
Per esempio, considerando di voler correttamente configurare un apparato preposto alla realizzazione di un punto-punto
outdoor sulla banda dei 5.6 GHz, utilizzando unantenna tipo WFL PPA 56-23 collegata con un cavo RF tipo WFL
EKCRF02, la formula di calcolo sar:
Max_Tx_Power_Impostabile (in dBm) = 30 23 + 2 = 9 dBm
Quindi, 9 sar il massimo numero che si dovr impostare nel campo Tx Power della relativa interfaccia radio.
Note Tecniche Importanti
Per garantirsi la validit della Dichiarazione di Conformit CE originale emessa da Essentia e per garantirsi che
loperativit dellapparato nel suo complesso sia conforme alla Direttiva R&TTE 1999/05/CE ed alla Decisione
2005/513/CE necessario:
Usare solo antenne Essentia Wifless originali ed approvate per lapparato radio specifico impiegato
Usare solo cavi RF Essentia Wifless originali ed approvate per lapparato radio specifico impiegato
Non dimenticarsi di impostare correttamente il parametro di Radio Country Code con il codice 380: ITALY
Reg: 55

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Appendix C
Contacting the Wifless Support Team
Preliminary Note
In order for you to enjoy prompt technical support in your own language, your first port of call should be your local
supplier. Usually, your local supplier is also our local reseller, and your best bet for 1st level assistance as they are
familiar with your application domain and its typical problems.
In addition, our local representative can promptly issue an RMA for the product to be returned to our facility for repairs.
Our local representative will be responsible for the shipment.
What we need
Make sure you can provide the Wifless Support Team with the following information:
i. Serial Number and Model/Item Code of your Wifless ESS equipment.
ii. Screen dumps of status pages on a clean MS Word document.
iii. A copy of your configuration file; see instructions in paragraph

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iv. Configuration Backup, Restore and Factory Default Settings.
v. A description of your application scenario and nearby network configuration.
Your cooperation will enable us to fix the problem quickly.
If you seem to have any problems with your Wifless ESS equipment, escalate as follows:
1) Contact your Local Supplier, whom is usually our Qualified Local Reseller and System Integrator as well.
They will provide 1st level support in your language and contact local qualified on-site engineers if you need
a call-out. Your supplier is your best bet for quick problem resolution and replacement of faulty units.
2) Contact our Official Distributors for your country. If your Local Supplier has been unable to provide a
satisfactory solution to your problem or request, our accredited distributors operating in your country will
give you further assistance in your language. For a list of our Official Distributors in your country, just email
us at support@wifless.com typing "Looking for Official Distributors in my country" into the Subject and
inserting your full address in the body of text. Our support team will reply to you in English within one
business day, according to Italy local time and business calendar. We can arrange for our distributor to
contact you directly.
3) Contact Essentia Wifless Support. If neither your supplier nor your distributor has been able to assist
you satisfactorily, or if you prefer to get in touch with us directly, just email us at support@wifless.com
typing "Asking for direct support" into the subject and inserting your full address in the body of text.
Provide a detailed description of your problem. The Wifless Support Team will take care of your email
to determine the cause of your problem. If our support team detects any problem (HW or SW)
affecting your equipment, a reply in English will be sent within five business day, according to Italy
local time and business calendar. If your email does not describe an actual problem with your
equipment - i.e. you just need help on system setup - the Wifless Support Team may not reply to your
email, or will simply ask you to raise a ticket for it.

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Appendix D
Product and Company Certifications
CE Declaration of Conformity for Wifless ESS 24562 Rev. B

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Italian Radio Regulatory Authority Approval for Wifless ESS 24562 Rev. B

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CE Declaration of Conformity for Wifless ESS 24564 Rev. A

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Italian Radio Regulatory Authority Approval for Wifless ESS 24564 Rev. A

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CE Declaration of Conformity for Wifless WFL R108F25X(B) Radio Module

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ETSI R&TTE 99-05 Certification for Wifless WFL R108F25X(B) Radio Module

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Italian Radio Regulatory Authority Approval for Wifless WFL R108F25X(B) Radio Module

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Company ISO 9001 : Vision 2000 Certificate

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Appendix E
Waste Equipment Disposal Instruction
Disposal of Waste Equipment by Users in Private Households in the European Union
The crossed trash can symbol on the product or on its packaging indicates that this product must not be disposed of with
your other household waste. Instead, it is your responsibility to dispose of your waste equipment by handing it over to a
designated collection point for the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment. The separate collection and
recycling of your waste equipment at the time of disposal will help to conserve natural resources and ensure that it is
recycled in a manner that protects human health and the environment. For more information about where you can drop
off your waste equipment for recycling, please contact your local city office, your household waste disposal service or
the shop where you purchased the product.

Smaltimento di apparecchiature da rottamare da parte di privati nell'Unione Europea


Il simbolo del bidone dei rifiuti barrato che appare sul prodotto o sulla confezione indica che il prodotto non deve essere
smaltito assieme agli altri rifiuti domestici. Gli utenti devono provvedere allo smaltimento delle apparecchiature da
rottamare portandole al luogo di raccolta indicato per il riciclaggio delle apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche. La
raccolta e il riciclaggio separati delle apparecchiature da rottamare in fase di smaltimento favoriscono la conservazione
delle risorse naturali e garantiscono che tali apparecchiature vengano rottamate nel rispetto dell'ambiente e della tutela
della salute. Per ulteriori informazioni sui punti di raccolta delle apparecchiature da rottamare, contattare il proprio
comune di residenza, il servizio di smaltimento dei rifiuti locale o il negozio presso il quale stato acquistato il
prodotto.

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Appendix F
Copyrights, Trademarks and Credits
Copyrights
Linux kernel is by Linus Torvalds and used under GNU GPL V2 license.
OpenIXP Original Applications Embedded within the OpenWifless ESS Operating System are of Essentia S.p.A.
OpenWifless Original Applications and Protocols/Stacks are of Essentia S.p.A. and/or of its controlled company
OpenWifless K.f.t. Gruppo Essentia.
All other Linuxs Applications Embedded within the OpenWifless ESS Operating System are by the respective
owners and used under GNU GPL V2 license or Free BSD license.
Intel IXP 400 Software, Drivers and Microcodes are of Intel Corporation and used under Intels authorisation.
Atheros AR 5005 and 5006 HAL and related Software are of Atheros Corporation and used under Atheros
authorisation and license.
Source codes of the GNU GPL V2 and Free BSD licensed software modules embedded within the OpenWifless ESS
Operating System are available on request from the OpenWifless Support Team. Software modules modified by
Essentia are available directly from the official download area of the related development team.
For any issue or for any details about the Open-Source modules embedded in the OpenWifless ESS Operating
System, contact our Wifless Support Team writing to support@wifless.com.
For any legal issue related to software Copyrights or use of licences, contact the Essentia Legal Department in any of
the following way:
Email legalmail@essentia.it;
Fax +39 0522 948.333 to Attention of the Legale Rappresentante;
Write to Essentia S.p.A., Via G.B. Vico 29, 42100 Reggio Emilia (RE), Italy, specifying Attention of the
Legale Rappresentante.

Trademarks
Essentia, Advasu, Nexit, Wifless, OpenWifless and/or other products and/or services referenced herein are
either registered trademarks, trademarks or service marks of Essentia S.p.A., Italy.
Intel, XScale, IXP 400 and/or other similar products referenced herein are either registered trademarks, trademarks
or service marks of Intel Corporation, USA.
Atheros, SuperG/AG, eXtended Range and/or other similar products and/or services referenced herein are either
registered trademarks, trademarks or service marks of Atheros Corporation, USA.
All other names are or may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

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Appendix G
The Latin Sentences
Dear reader, hoping you will enjoy to know the meaning of the Latin sentences that come along with our trademarks
Wifless and OpenWifless, we provide you herein the literal translation and the real meaning we want to
communicate.
ALEA IACTA EST
ALEA IACTA EST (pronunciation [jakta a:la st], but all in capital letters because lower case simply was not yet
invented at that time!) is the Latin sentence that means The die has been cast.
The ancient writer Suetonius reported that the Roman leader Julius Caesar (the correct name writing is GAIVS JVLIVS
CSAR) said it on the night of January 12, 49 BC (yes, more than 2000 years ago!), as he led his army across the River
Rubicon in northern Italy, violating the Law of that time. With this step, he entered the domestic country heading his
army against the Roman Senate, becoming the dictator Julius Caesar and beginning his long civil war against Pompey
and the Optimates.
The phrase is still used today to mean that events have passed a point of no return.
With the establishment of the Wifless brand and phylosophy, Essentia wants to strongly highlight that a new
disruptive generation of advanced networking products arrived on the market challening the major vendor and changing
the level of the competition.
As has been for us developing our exceptional Wifless products, you should experience the same new fantastic feeling
of innovation and extreme performace using our products.
If so it will be, you should feel something so disruptive that it will make you in love with our products and, at that time,
ALEA IACTA EST!

FABER FORTVN
QVIVSQV FABER FORTVN SV EST is an other very famous Latin sentence that means Every man is the
maker of his own fortune.
The sentence is ascribed to the Roman consol Appius Claudius Caecus by the Roman senator Gaius Sallustius
Crispus and dated aroud the 50 BC.
Sallustius used this famous sentence in the first two letters he wrote to Julius Caesar senator.
The meaning of the sentece is extremely clear and simply underline that the life of everybody is quite totally in himself
capability and obstinacy.
We use this sentence to underline the flexibility and the virtually ulimited operating capabilities of our OpenWifless
operating systems that totally unleashed the power of your mind.
With our OpenWifless operating systems you are really the FABER FORTVN of your network!

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User Notes

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User Notes Page 2

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User Notes Page 3

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User Notes Page 4

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&

ESS
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