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Volume 9, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

February 2013

Volume 9, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL
T H E R EG I ON ’ S A R C H A E O LO G IC A L , C U LT U R A L ,
INSIDE THIS ISSUE:

AND

H I S T OR I C A L R E SO U R C E

FACES FROM OUR PAST

Faces from Our Past

1

Loyalist Plantations on the Susquehan-

1

SRAC to hold Fundraising Auction

7

Waverly 4th Grade Field Trip to SRAC

13

Waterman Baldwin

14

Drumbeats 2012 a HUGE Success

15

New Birch Bark Canoe Display

15

Coming Events

16

Museum of the Earth Maize Exhibit

19

NYS Museum and SRAC Team Up

19

BY DEB TWIGG,
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/COFOUNDER, SRAC
Background - The people who ruled the region on and around the Susquehanna River
by fending off the powerful Iroquois Nation
during most of the 16th and 17th centuries
were named "Susquehannocks" by Englishman Captain John Smith in 1608. The Susquehannocks were said to have had at least
five tribal nations located along the Susquehanna River system with several villages per
nation. Because these people were at their
height of power before the European contact
and written records, and the last Susquehannock tribe was annihilated in the late 18th
century, much of the prehistoric information about these people is a mystery to us today.
Questions surrounding what the originating cultures were that formed the Susquehannocks
have long been under debate. Questions like: Was it a clan broken off from one of the Iroquoian nations? Were they somehow Iroquois and Algonquin united together to form a
new culture? Did they evolve from prior cultures in our region? Or were they a separate
culture from another region that moved here? These questions continue to make this cul-

• Our Vision

(Continued on page 2)

The Susquehanna River
Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is
dedicated to education, research and preservation of the
Native American archaeological, cultural and historical assets
of the Twin Tier Region of
Northeastern PA and Southern
NY.

Scan QR code below
to access SRAC
Journals online.

L O Y A L I S T P L A N TA T I O N S O N T H E
SUSQUEHANNA BY J. KELSEY JONES, SCHUYLER
COUNTY HISTORIAN
The struggle for independence in the thirteen colonies from Great Britain during the period
of the American Revolution were difficult times. The outcome was a war that often not only
involved neighbor against neighbor, but drew into conflict the Native Americans, and displaced thousands of people from their homeland and ultimately created two nations. The
inhabitants of the thirteen colonies who did not oppose Great Britain were known as Loyalists. Over 19,000 Loyalists, mostly men, served Great Britain in a military capacity accompanied by several thousand Indians.
This article will endeavor to give some insight into the Loyalist families who resided on the
Susquehanna during the American Revolution. Settlement had begun on the upper Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania prior to the American Revolution. The histories relate that
two families of Germans, also known as Palatines, from the Schoharie Valley in New York,
were settlers in May 1770, leaving their homes in New York and removing down the Susquehanna River into Pennsylvania. Rudolph Fox and his wife Catharine Elisabetha Miller
settled at Towanda and the Shoefelt family further south on the river, the latter family removing to the West Branch of the Susquehanna. Several more German families from the
Mohawk, Schoharie, and other German settlements in New York soon followed. Though
this was considered the interior of civilization, German settlers had removed from Schoharie Creek, crossed the mountains and traveled down the Susquehanna for Tulpehocken
(Continued on page 8)

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ture very interesting to research.

came in April, 1883, measured off a plot in twelve-foot intervals from the original grave, and began excavations.

Deemed by professionals
as Proto-Susquehannock,
archaeologically speaking,
there is no other site that is
a better candidate to be
called the starting point for
understanding the origin of
the Susquehannock people
than the Murray Garden, in
Athens, PA.

The Excavation - Defined Plot: About 80 feet long and
about 20 – 30 feet wide. In the corner, twenty feet from the
north line was found, underground, a pillar of eight large drift
stones, and with them a flat stone on which is roughly cut the
exact proportion of the plot.

In 1882, Louise and Millard
Murray’s home was located
on Main Street in Athens,
PA and they decided to
have a drainage ditch run
from their house, through
their garden and then directly to the river. This seemingly
mundane home improvement actually turned out to be a
turning point for Louise; one that would change her life forever. It began while workmen were digging the trench through
the Murray’s garden and uncovered a very strange ancient
burial ground. The Pa Bulletin would later report, “The discovery of an Indian burial ground in the garden of their new
home in 1882 at once interested both her and her husband,
and they determined literally to leave no stone unturned until
they learned the origin of those aboriginal remains . . .”
Archaeology as a science did not exist yet in 1882. Antiquarianism was underway, but was more of a weekend pothunting effort than any real scientific study. As a result, Millard Murray and other antiquarians of the region read the
latest books and theories of the time (many times based on
mythology and legends) to try to understand many of the
local artifacts they picked up. Sadly, in those days, antiquarianism was the most scholarly approach to understanding
the artifacts of past cultures. Louise would later remark that
there were two notable types of antiquarians that existed in
her opinion: those that looked for artifacts as “evidence” to
preserve the past and those that
looked for artifacts “for their own
personal gain.” While most would
continue to be categorized as the
latter by many professionals, Louise
Welles Murray was one of the few to
make the transition from antiquarian
to scientist.
When the Indian burial ground was
uncovered while digging the trench
in 1882 the Murray’s response was
to take the artifacts to the nearest
museum, which was the Wyoming
Photo of original Murray Valley Historical Society in Wilkes
pot courtesy of Wyoming Barre, PA. As a result, the Society’s
Historical Society
Harrison Wright and S. F. Wadhams

In the first grave was a skeleton above the average height,
buried in a sitting posture, with turtle-shell rattles in good
condition and four small pebbles in each, close to each temple. This grave yielded also a discoidal stone, a quantity of
burnt ochre, a broken antler comb, part of a shell gorget, and
some small shell beads that disintegrated on exposure to the

In Caborn-Welborn burials and in the Murray Garden burials,
“whole ceramic vessels were often placed with the dead. Other
types of grave goods included copper or brass beads, tubes, or
bracelets…” (Pollack: 2004)
Photo courtesy of the Wyoming Valley Historical Society

Pictures and photo of 4” pot from grave 2,
courtesy of the Wyoming Historical Society

air. Wright added in his report that
“these objects might well have belonged
to a squaw, but no skeleton was found
here except of the "medicine man," or
"Turtle chief."
Grave #2 contained a bark covered
grave (hemlock?), 4 ½ inch pot with faces, the pot contained food (?), (clay of

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Murray reported, “The graves were grouped somewhat regularly around the one in the center which was marked with
this pot was burnt black,) a lapstone, and a common “chert” such care that it was believed to be that of a chief surrounded by members of his clan. This burial site accidentally disarrow point.
covered was on a previously unoccupied village lot. The
Grave #3 contained a skeleton that was noted to be of averworkmen unearthed three skeletons buried so close togethage height and with no grave goods, and grave #4 coner as to indicate one grave.“
tained a double grave with 1 pot unWarren K. Moorehead, in his 1916 Susquehanna River Expedition, describes the unearthing of what he deemed a
Susquehannock chief as follows: "The owner like his forebears, long refused to examine the grave at the center of
the plot but at last had consented to celebrate the formal
opening of the Historical Museum, and June 27th, 1895, the
work was begun. The circle of stones proved to be over a
sepulchre about 3 to 5 feet, with an upright stone at each
corner, apparently as a marker, for, of course this would
have been well above the surface originally...
(Continued from page 2)

The writer, hoping to save the pottery, assisted Messrs.
Murray and Ercanbrack in the excavation. Finally, two large
Pictures and photo of high collared pot from flat stones, full of devonian fossils, proved to be the covering to a skeleton of six feet or more in height. While laying
grave 5, courtesy of the Wyoming Valley
on back with head to the southeast, with hands crossed on
Historical Society
breast, the crushed front of the skull and the unusual position of legs, right foot under thigh, left leg fallen across right,
decorated, 1 large pot between them,
seemed to indicate that he might have been buried in a sitand 1 pot with red ochre.
ting posture, and overturned by settling of stones of the sepGrave #5 contained a skeleton ulchre, which had evidently crushed the large pot, fully
wrapped in bark with an “Andaste” eighteen inches in diameter, at the left side of the head."
high-collared pot with clay that was
The sepulcher described above was a very strange find for
burnt black.
the crew in 1895, and still is today, because these stone box
Grave #6 contained another double styled graves are not commonly found in our region, and as
grave, with one buried much later on we are about to see, this is just one of the things that makes
top of the other. Grave items included one shell, and the the Murray Garden site an important archaeological site
earlier grave revealed spiral jewelry - bracelet (copper/ today. In the end, for over a decade, the garden continued
to reveal more and more unique artifacts that to date are still
bronze).
without comparison anywhere else in our region.
Grave #7 contained the only skeleton buried lying flat (full
length) which had a pillow of twigs and was accompanied by Louise Welles Murray explained, “It yielded skeletal remains
1 pot. It was noted that there was a deep cut in the cranium of twenty-five males, one child, and three females, each of
the latter buried shoulder to shoulder with a male. Several
“evidently by a celt.”
skeletons examined by students indicated a height of above
NOTE: “The upper part of each of the graves we met with a
six and a half feet…After Mr. Wright's investigations, test
considerable amount of charcoal. It looked as though subholes having been made all over the one hundred foot lot at
sequent to burial but before the grave was entirely filled in
said stated intervals, it was soon discovered that there were
and slowly smothered out. Whether it was part of the ceremany more graves and much more pottery.
mony or was charcoal thrown in is not understood.” - HarriFor long years this had been an apple orchard and under
son Wright, Wyoming Valley Historical Society
several of the old stumps, supposed to be from trees of IndiAlthough the 1883 report by Wright seemed quite thorough,
an planting, were Indian graves …Around each of two such
the digging in the Murray Garden was far from over as it
stumps were seven graves in a circle, and directly under
was quickly realized that his test pits at intervals of twelve
one stump in the center of a circle of graves, about three
feet left a lot overlooked.
feet underground on a layer of clay, were eight pots carefulIn fact, in what was to be understood later as the center of ly embedded in sand. Everyone had been perforated by
the burial site, was what was described later as a “chief” in a thread-like apple roots, and all were broken by a careless
stone tomb that was actually unearthed as part of the Tioga workman who was removing the stump just after a day's
Point Museum opening ceremonies in 1895. Louise Welles
(Continued on page 4)
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futile excavation by a second party from Wilkes-Barre.
Throughout this plot with one exception the skeletons were
flexed but buried in a sitting posture, often with the right
hand upraised and bearing a pot containing food, arrow
points, or seeds, the latter leading to the conjecture that the
old apple trees may have grown from these very seeds…But
it was the pottery that attracted most attention; and in all the
museums we have visited we have yet to find faces more
artistically executed than those on one of the five pots, all of
which were broken in removal.”

an modeling of the human face, made by eastern Indians,
which the writer has seen. They are in high relief and bring
out the forehead, eyebrows, the eyelids, the high cheek
bones, the aquiline nose, the mouth, and the chin in a quite
realistic manner.” – Christopher Wren, North Appalachian
Indian Pottery 1914
Even Pennsylvania’s leading archaeologist, Dr. Barry Kent in
his “Susquehanna’s Indians” (1984) wrote, "Many facets of
developing Susquehannock culture history in the upper
reaches of the Susquehanna River valley still need to be
worked out. The need for more archeology here may be
tainting our understanding of settlement patterns, trade good
associations, and the evolution of Shultz Incised from Proto
Susquehannock. Even more mundane questions, such as
the relationships of the strange vessels with faces and rim
and body decorations from the Athens area of Bradford
County (see Witthoft 1959; 48; and illustrations in Wren
1914; Plate 6, figures 1-8; Plate 8, Figures 1-4) can perhaps
be answered through more intensive archeology." (Kent:
1984)
Throwing a Wider Net - The opportunity to share research
and learn from others more freely is available now more than
any time in history thanks to the internet. In my research of
the Murray site and its archaeology, I have been able to
email with specialists from all over the country, and look up
hard to get publications either through amazon.com or
sometimes finding the full articles available online. The following are some new insights to the Murray site that I have
been able to uncover with this help.
First, sculpted and highly defined human faces on early pottery while not a common practice in Iroquoian terms, was a
common practice for other cultures. One category of these
cultures that was of particular interest to me in the beginning
of this research was the Mississippians.

The Mississippians were the most recent of the mound building cultures, who are known for their huge chiefdom structured mound complexes surrounded by extensive plazas
(Cahokia being the largest populated by 10,000 people or
more.) The leaders of these complexes were usually considered god-like to their people, and lived atop the highest
mound looking over his subjects, overseeing all of the commerce, religious practices, and diplomacy and/or conflicts
with other chiefdoms and outsiders in the region. More importantly, these cultures were advanced in the arts and their
archaeology seems to illustrate the peak of the ancient pottery making. In fact, defined human effigy faces on the pottery from this culture are not only common, but expected. By
around 1400BC, because of many internal and external factors many of these chiefdoms began to collapse, and the
people began to disperse from the huge complexes. One of
About the Pottery - The pottery in fact was the most imthe great questions today is where did the people from these
pressive of all the artifacts from the site, even today there
huge complexes go?
are no other pottery specimens ever found to have the human faces that were found there. “The faces shown in dif- One well researched example of a collapse and aftermath of
ferent views in this plate are the very finest examples of Indi- a known Mississippian mound society is that of the Angel
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Mound complex in Indiana which was located along the confluence of the Ohio and Wabash rivers. We know that the
Angel Mound complex collapsed around 1400AD and several resulting villages appeared across the region due to the
displacement of that population (thought to be around 1,000

man remains in that location in the 19th century. This site
shows evidence of the Angel Phase ceramics which literally
may have been taken directly from the Angel Mound complex as well as distinct post-Angel phase ceramics and even
begins to show the intermixing with Late Woodland motifs. In
fact, the incised line filled triangles and descending
chevrons commonly found on Caborn-Welborn pottery (Pollack: 2004) may someday be found to have a
direct correlation with the same incised designs on
pots found in the Murray Garden.
Sadly, most of the site has been washed away by the
changing direction and constant erosion of the river,
and most of what we had until recently from this specific site was either not thoroughly studied by professionals or was lost during antiquarian/pot-hunter
times. But in 1990, Indiana University’s Cheryl Munson began a new phase of excavations with the hope
to salvage what was left from being erased by erosion. Sadly, Munson reported later that the
“Mississippian cemeteries and the residential area on
the highest ground had been destroyed long ago.”

people.) These resulting sites and their inhabitants are referred to as the “Caborn-Welborn culture.” This culture developed at the demise of the Angel Mound society in1400 AD
and disappears from the archaeological record by 1700AD
and it remains unclear if any historic era cultures were their
descendants.
The earliest of the Caborn-Welborn sites, dated approximately at the very time of the Angel Mound collapse at
1400AD, is called the Bone Bank site, situated along the Wabash River east of the Angel Mound complex area. It was
named the Bone Bank because of a large wash out of hu-

It was only by delving deeper into the information
available on the Bone Bank’s earliest excavation by
naturalist, Charles Alexandre Lesueur; that I found that he
recorded in very detailed sketches the archaeology that he
saw during his work at the Bone Bank site in 1873. Using
these sketches allows us to see through this man’s eyes into
what the site looked like; and more importantly, what the archaeological evidence looked like.
Face to Face with the Past - One of the most intriguing images of artifacts drawn by Lesueur from the Bone Bank site
is a human effigy face that probably was once on the rim of a
pot and has been considered a great example of common
decoration for Late Mississippian pottery (shown here on the
left). It in itself is a great piece and if I had not
been researching the pottery at the Murray Garden, I would have considered it in the same way,
but the expression of this face automatically drew
me right back to another ceramic face that I know
quite well. On one of the pots in the Murray garden there is also an effigy face (shown here on the
right) that was on a pot rim, and this one automatically seemed to possibly match the one found at
the Bone Bank site.
If you look at these faces again - you will see some
identical features. 1.) The nose has a bar or a
"plug" shoved upwards causing the nose and face
to look skewed. 2.) The right eye is "winking"
showing discomfort and wrinkle lines. 3.) The
mouth is shoved to one side in effect accentuating
the look of discomfort. Now these are my terms,
but I feel sure that you can see each of these areas on the one face that matches with the other.
What doesn't match is the type of pottery or the
cultural affiliation between the two. It also seems

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that this specific “wrenched” face is not a common motif in
our region. As I spent a day going through the NYS Museum collections in Albany, there are no matches to be found.
I also sent the images to and spoke with people from the
Rochester Museum who also state that this is not found in
their collections either. In addition, I sent the images to the
Rochester museum’s Martha Sempowski, PhD and she
has never seen a face effigy with the same expression either.
Another important point to make is that the Mississippian
face from the Bone Bank on the right is a “human face”
with very human features, and created exactly the way Mississippian pottery effigies resemble human features. However the one from the Murray Garden is integrated into an
Iroquoian pot rim design and might very well be described
as a “mask” with slits for eyes to look through. In fact,
Christopher Wren in 1914 in his “Study of North Appalachian Pottery” believed that the Murray Garden face represented a “man-being,” a character from a well-known Iroquois legend.
Students of the Iroquois cultures & belief system may immediately realize that Wren was relating the legend of the
“False Face” masks, which has many variations of the exact text. Generally speaking, the legend relates the story
of a human being that believes he is a god and that he created the mountains and the earth. He is met by a benevolent spirit which is described with many names, and for the
purposes of this paper I will refer to as the “Spirit Medicine
Being“ who teaches the human that he is not “god like” by
asking him to move the mountain that he claims to have
commanded before them; and when he cannot, the “Spirit
Medicine Being“ does move the mountain so fast that it
strikes the human in the face, breaking his nose and leaving him disfigured forever. The story continues that the
human becomes a very famous healer knows as "Old Broken Nose." Iroquoian False Face healing ceremonies are
said to honor Old Broken Nose and the Iroquois False
Face masks are created to be very deformed faces to represent his smashed face.
More importantly, the story of “Old Broken Nose” and the
false face masks is “one of the oldest and may be as old as
the creation story,” (per personal conversation with a Seneca historian.) Additionally, false face mask ceremonies include the use of a turtle rattle to drive away sickness, disease, and evil spirits. This again has an interesting relationship to the Murray Garden site as we have already discussed one burial found there was later deemed by the
excavators to be the burial of a ”turtle chief” complete with
turtle adornments and rattle.

Spirits is an interesting theory to consider. Add the fact
that this False Face legend is used as a healing story
where turtle rattles are used to heal those who are sick or
facing a great turmoil not unlike the challenges the CabornWelborn culture must have faced following the collapse of
their whole society makes it a great candidate for a future
thesis paper.
Other clearly Mississippian artifacts found at the Murray
Garden site also may be of some assistance to a researcher willing to delve deeper, to include an owl effigy pendant
(which is also a common motif in the Angel Phase archaeological record), a ceramic sun effigy, a dog effigy, and another effigy that has yet to be understood.
Is the Murray Garden Proto-Susquehannock or Late
Mississippian OR BOTH?
The Murray Garden site (1450 – 1525 AD) and the Athens
area are deemed “Proto-Susquehannock” by professionals;
and as such, is considered to be the melting pot where the
Susquehannock culture supposedly formed.

Indiana’s Bone Bank site (1400 AD) and effigy face is representative of a Late Mississippian people whom we already understand had just dispersed from a collapsed society/community and travelled away from it to begin a new
Whether the False Face legend and ceremony still held way of life, which archaeologically resulted in the manifestoday actually is a remnant story passed down through the tation of a new and distinct culture that we now call
generations, originating from the collapse of a chiefdom “Caborn-Welborn.”
where man-made mountains (mounds) were overseen by
In order to understand the relationship of these two faces
leaders who were held in the same regard as the Great
that originated so far apart from one another, I think it is
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important to begin to ask the following questions:
1) Do these faces represent “Old Broken Nose?”
2) Does the Old Broken Nose/False Face legend actually originate
from the collapse of Mississippian chieftains like the Angel
Mound Complex, whose leaders believed themselves to be
gods, and built man-made mountains (mounds)?
3) Were the people buried in the Murray Garden a former chief
and his followers that had left the Angel Mound, or a similar
collapsed Mississippian mound society?
4) Since the Murray Garden is already deemed ProtoSusquehannock by professionals, does the evidence found
there prove there was melding of an intrusive Mississippian culture with the local prehistoric people; and was the result the
birth of the Susquehannock people?
I believe that this research at least shows that the possibility exists;
and it is my hope that this paper has provoked thought and interest
to further research dedicated to finding the answers.

SRAC

HOST FUNDRAISING AUCTION

TO

We’ve all got things that are taking up space around the house or
office. They’re too good to throw away, and you’d like to find some
use for them. SRAC will be hosting in an outdoor fundraising auction. Please consider donating your items, working and clean condition, for auction! Once the sale is completed. you will receive a letter
indicating the value of your donation for tax deduction purposes .
We will begin accepting donations immediately, and continue to accept your items up to the auction date in the spring. Call SRAC at
607-565-7960 to make arrangements. Watch for further details.

So let SRAC find a new home for
your “too good to throw away”
stuff!

SRAC Board of Directors

SRAC Volunteers

Deb Twigg

Tom Vallilee

Don Hunt

Dick Cowles

Janet Andrus

Mary Keene

Ted Keir

Mary Ann Taylor

Michael Sisto

Susan Fogel

Mark Madill

Natasha
Waschezen

Sig Wilkinson

Nicole Rogers

Marilyn Weber

Barb Richards

John and Dee
Margetanski

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L O Y A L I S T P L A N TA T I O N S

ON THE

SUSQUEHANNA

(Continued from page 1)

and Swartara in Pennsylvania at much earlier dates, the
first in 1722, fifty or more families in 1725, and again in
1729.
Prior to, during, and after the American Revolution, the
State of Connecticut claimed a large portion of Pennsylvania, including that portion that is now Bradford and Wyoming Counties through which the Susquehanna River
flows. Those settlers who attempted to obtain land titles
either secured title under the Susquehanna Company,
which had been formed in Connecticut for the purpose of
settlement in the Wyoming Valley and nearby lands or under Pennsylvania title. Others had leasehold interests,
some of which appeared to be ten-year contracts with the
landholder. Many others simply settled without title, hoping
for obtainment by possession or to secure title after settlement. Pennsylvania had issued warrants for land interests
before the settlement by the Fox and Shoefelt families, as
evidenced by the warrant for Peter Hunt dated 3 April 1769
for 300 acres on the Susquehanna River adjoining Adolph
Wallrad “on this side of Wialoosing” (Wyalusing).
Most of the settlers along the Susquehanna were farmers
and built homes along the river where they planted crops,
often in already cleared fields they found when arriving,
that had been previously cultivated by the Indians. They
built barns and other storage facilities, erected fences, and
began the task of clearing more land. The farms or plantations as they were known were productive on the fertile
soils of the Susquehanna River Valley.
Research into these families who were settling on the Susquehanna reveals they were of various ethnic groups and
from various locations within the colonies. Several families
were Germans from the Mohawk and Schoharie Valleys in
New York, a few were of French Huguenot extraction from
the Hudson Valley region, others were of Dutch extraction
from New York, others were New Englanders from Connecticut, a few were from Sussex County, New Jersey and
others were Germans from settlements in southern Pennsylvania.
As the days of the American Revolution drew closer, the
reasons for becoming Loyalists were varied and many. The
native German, for instance, had deference for authority
and loyalty to Great Britain for giving them passage to the
colonies. This allegiance also held true for the majority of
the German families along the Susquehanna. Scattered

CONT.

along the Susquehanna, both Loyalists and Patriots differed in their perceptions of the country and its future. The
line between Patriot and Loyalist was not always sharply
drawn and often circumstances dictated ones choice. As
circumstances developed it would appear several families
from the Wilkes Barre area of the Wyoming Valley removed
further up the Susquehanna River prior to the Revolution
into present Bradford and Wyoming Counties perhaps to be
further from their neighbors who were beginning to pledge
allegiance to the struggle against Great Britain.
At an adjourned town meeting of the inhabitants of Westmoreland held at Wilkes Barre January 6, 1776, among the
several resolutions adopted was the following relating to
the families settled some thirty or forty miles above Wilkes
Barre: “Voted that Solomon Strong and Robert Carr and
Nathan Kingsley be a committee to proceed up the river
and let the people known that the inhabitants of Westmoreland are not about to kill and destroy them and take
any of their effects as reported, but they may keep their
effects and continue in peace on reasonable terms provided they conform to the laws of the Colony of Connecticut
and the Resolves of the Continental Congress, and confirm
their intentions by signing the subscription paper for that
purpose that said committee will produce.”
In 1776 there was an assessment list compiled of the settlers in the Upper River District, County of Westmoreland,
State of Connecticut. The Upper River District was comprised mostly of settlers in present Bradford and Wyoming
Counties who were settled along the Susquehanna River.
The list contains the names of 60 males. The names of Anger, Bender, Bowman, Brunner, Buck, Depue, DeWitt, Fox,
Frank, Hickman, Hopper (Hover), Kentner, Pauling, Pensler
(Pencel), Phillips, Shout (Short), Showers, Searls (Sills),
Simmons, Smith (originally Schmidt), Stephens, Strope,
VanAlstine, Vanderbarrack (Vanderburgh), Vanderlip, VanValkenburg, Windecker, Winter, and Wartman indicate several families of German and Dutch nativity were settled on
the Susquehanna. Of those 60 names, it has been determined that 37 were Loyalists, 16 were non-Loyalists, and 7
are presently unknown. Pennsylvania also soon levied taxes, not recognizing Connecticut titles and landholders, several Pennsylvania titleholders probably living along side
many of the settlers on the Upper River District assessment
list who do not appear on that list. The first tax lists for the
same jurisdiction under Pennsylvania and known as Wyoming Township, Northumberland County exists for 1778
(Continued on page 9)

SRAC operates with 100% volunteer staffing. Our volunteers and
Board members donate hundreds of hours every month to make
SRAC a success. Thank you for all that you do! We survive because of your efforts!
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(Continued from page 8)

and 1779 though at that date the majority of Loyalist families had left the Susquehanna.
The original Up the River District, County of Westmoreland,
State of Connecticut, August 1776 assessment list is here
given: At the October 1776 session of the General Assembly of Connecticut a certificate was received from the Listers of Westmoreland setting forth that “the Grand List for
the town of Westmoreland, made on the August lists for the
year 1776 is £6996, 13 shillings.
As the days darkened, those who felt loyalty to the crown
made various preparations, many of the men joining the
ranks of Butler’s Rangers and departing for New York and
Canada, often leaving women and children behind to care
for the plantations. Those who remained were branded as
traitors and often threatened. Nearly every man on the Susquehanna who joined Butler’s Rangers to fight against the
American Colonies were in Walter Butler’s Company or William Caldwell’s Company. At least twelve of the names
found on the 1776 assessment list of the Upper River District can be found on the list of Caldwell’s Company and at
least eleven on the list of Walter Butler’s Company.
Families along the Susquehanna did not escape conflict.
Threats, plunder, and death struck on both sides. Many of
their families suffered great hardships, women often endeavoring to maintain livestock and crops while their husbands and sons were away. In the early conflict it soon became apparent that the Susquehanna was under Patriot
control. Often fleeing in panic and confusion, Loyalist exiles
began on the Susquehanna, forced to leave behind possessions and often faced with an unpromising future. Families
were driven from their homes to watch them burn, livestock
driven off and entire household contents plundered and
taken. Loyalist men who were away in Butler’s Rangers
returned to vulnerable families and were often imprisoned.
Some families ventured to the Mohawk Valley in New York,
others to Niagara, and still others to the refugee camps of
Sorel and Machiche in Lower Canada (now Quebec) where
barracks were built and provisions secured. Harsh living
conditions often plagued families in refugee camps.

CONT.

quehanna river, in the upper part of the county aforesaid,
nearly adjoining the Indian settlements, and were very
much exposed to being plundered, robbed, and captivated
by the Indians and Tories, and were obliged to leave our
possessions and move off with our families and effects to a
different part of the country for safety, whereby your memorialists are deprived of the privilege of our settlements and
improvements for the support of our families; whereupon
your memorialists pray your Honours would take our case
into your consideration, and grant that our several rates
made on the list of August, 1777, may be abated, or in
some other way may grant relief, as your memorialists in
duty bound will ever pray. Signed Elijah Phelps, on behalf
of himself and others. Hartford, the 27th day of May, 1778.”
The above petition is not a true statement of the facts or
perhaps an awareness was unknown of the fate of some
families or their allegiance. Fitch, Kingsley, and York were
captives among the Indians while the Forsythe, Millard,
Phelps, Vanderlip, and Williamson families were Loyalists.
Some of the Loyalists fighting on the British side who tried
to return to their plantations and families were executed by
those who they were serving.
Richard McGinnis, a soldier in the Rangers, wrote of Jacob
Hutsinger and Peter Simmons, Rangers:

While we were at Tioga, there was two men who had wives
and children there that had lived somewhere down the river,
the name of the place I don't remember. Their sir names were
Hotsinger and the other Simmons. These two men was good
subjects and had been at the Orisque battle with Colonel Butler and Captain Brant and behaved with honour to themselves.
These men told me more than once that Colonel Butler had
gave themselves leave to stay and go and gather in their harvest for the use of their families to support them on the road
to Niagara. But on the whole Captain Caldwell would not let
them go at any rate. Upon this these men, to wit Hotsinger and
Simmons, took leave and went off by stealth. Captain Caldwell
immediately sent off Lieutenant Turney with a party to Tioga.
When they came to Tioga they were informed by the people
going to Niagara they had not seen them. When on the way
back they met those unhappy men and Turney immediately
gave orders to shoot them, which was executed accordingly.
In 1777, another assessment was taken of the same dis- Their scalps were taken likewise and brought to Oughquaga
trict, several of the Loyalist families not appearing, already and hung up at Captain Caldwell's tent. In my judgement this
was not well done, as they might have made prisoners of
having departed. (See page 4.)
them.
The following petition is of interest:
A monthly return of the Rangers dated late in 1778, record“To the Honourable General Assembly of the State of Con- ed that they were killed at Tioga on 18 August 1778. In April
necticut, now sitting at Hartford, the memorial of Lemuel 1779, Henry Simmons, Peter's father was paid £12, the
Fitch, Richard J. Jeralds (Fitzgerald), Amos York, Benjamin balance due for his son's outstanding pay.
Skiff, Benjamin Eaton, Benjamin Merry, John Williamson,
Frederick Vanderlip, Nathan Kingsley, Nicholas Depew, As the conflict progressed, armed Loyalists and Indians
Elijah Brown, Elijah Phelps, Ichabod Phelps, Elijah Phelps, returned to the Susquehanna and the Patriots were in turn
Jr., James Forsythe, Thomas Millard, Thomas Millard, Jr., driven from their homes. The once developing and flourishand James Wells, of the County of Westmoreland, humbly ing plantations on the Susquehanna were soon void of most
showeth: That your memorialists were settlers on the Sus- families as the conflict and dangers of living on the frontier
(Continued on page 10)

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(Continued from page 9)

intensified. Many Loyalist families
had hoped to return. The terms of
the capitulation worked out between Colonel John Butler after
the attack on Wyoming in July
1778 in the sixth article stated “That the properties taken from
the people called Tories up the
River be made good and they to
remain in peaceable possession
of their Farms and unmolested in
a free Trade throughout this state
as far as lies in my power.”
It is probable that some plantations may have extended beyond Tioga Point on both the Chemung River and Susquehanna River in New York. Rev. David Craft stated – “It is
very certain that quite a number of Loyalists had homes of
more or less permanence extending from Tioga Point to
Chemung. A Fitzgerald farm was mentioned by Sullivan’s
soldiers as opposite Barton in present Tioga County, New
York “and in ruins in 1779.” Lieutenant William McKendry
with the Clinton Campaign enroute to meet General Sullivan
wrote – “We are now 6 miles from Genl. Sullivans camp –
one Fitch Jerritt had lived at this place and is now with Genl.
Sullivan as a Pilate.” Lieut. John Jenkins with the Sullivan
campaign on their return trip wrote on September 29, 1779 –
“The army left Fort Reed (located at present Elmira) and
marched 10 miles toward Fort Sullivan passing Butler's
breastworks. We encamped at night on a flat 2 miles below
Chemung. This evening Capt. Spalding returned from a command up the Tioga branch where he destroyed a small town
and about 10 acres of corn, the fences, &c. This town appeared to have been built by white people.”
Many journals of officers and enlisted men of the Sullivan
campaign recorded the plantations they encountered along
the Susquehanna River on their expedition in 1779 to destroy the settlements of the Six Nations. One of the journals
states – “After this we soon arrived at Standing Stone Flats,
distant from Wyalusing ten miles. Here is plenty of good
land, fit for meadow and for raising wheat and other grain. It
was formerly settled by a few families, some of whom have
since been so villainous as to join the savages.” (Journal of
Rev. William Rogers, D. D., Chaplain of General Hand’s Brigade).
Another journal states – “Aug 4 - Marched at 6 o'clock proceeded 17 miles to a dessolated farm call'd Vanderlips which
is an excellent tract of land we passed several dessolated
farms to day one of which was on a Streem 5 miles from
where we incamp'd last night call'd Meshoping. Aug 8th The Army march'd at 6 o'clock I had the flank Guard passed
Several high mountains & several dessolate farms proceeded to what is call'd the Standing Stone bottom where there is
a learge body of excellent land that has been Improv'd. Aug
9 - March'd at 7 o'clock proceeded 3 miles to a dessolate

farm on the
mouth of a
streem
call'd
Wesawking” (Journal of
Lieutenant
Colonel Henry
Dearborn).
Another journal
relates

“Thursday 5th.
- Thus
we
moved for several miles, then
arrived in a
small
valley
called Depue's
farm; the land very good. Continued our march . . . and arrived in a fine and large valley, known by the name of Wyalusing. This valley was formerly called Oldman's farm, occupied by the Indians and white people; together, they had
about sixty houses, a considerable Moravian meeting house,
and sundry other public buildings; but since the commencement of the present war the whole has been consumed and
laid waste, partly by the savages and partly by our own people. The land is extraordinarily calculated chiefly for meadows. The grass at this time is almost beyond description,
high and thick, chiefly blue grass, and the soil of the land
very rich. The valley contains about 1200 acres of land,
bounded on one side by an almost inacessible mountain,
and on the other by the river Susquehanna.” (Journal of
Lieutenant Colonel Adam Hubley).
Many of the Loyalists of the Susquehanna can be found on
provision lists of Machiche or at Niagara. The July/Aug 1779
provision list of Machish (Machiche) included Widow Sipes,
Elizabeth Bowman, Conrad Sell (Sill), Isaac VanAlstine,
Isaac Larroway, Widow Beebe, Elizabeth Phillips, Henry
Winter, Lambert VanAlstine, Mrs. Franks, Stephen Farrington, Margaret Buck, Garret Vanderbarrack, George Kentner,
Edward Stokes, and Frederick Vanderlip, all former residents
on the Susquehanna. Of the 294 people on the list, only 18
(Continued on page 11)

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(Continued from page 10)

were men, the remainder woman and children.

SUSQUEHANNA

CONT.

The provisioning lists and land petitions for Loyalists and
children of Loyalists, offer valuable information about the
Susquehanna families. Many petitions indicate extensive
cleared lands, large quantities of animals, homes and buildings along the Susquehanna River. The claim of Philip Buck
stated – “He had a proprietor’s right on Susquehanna, settled in 1771. Paid $10, 15 acres clear, built a house, barn
and barrick. Lost 2 cows, 2 young creatures, 4 sheep, 20
hogs, furniture, utensils, grain, 100 bushel. Lost grain, 20
hogs by the rebels when we went away in ’77. The Indians
had his other cattle in ’78. His furniture and utensils were left
behind.” Michael Showers witnessed his statement and stated – “He had settled on the Susquehanna. He had 20 or 25
acres clear and very good buildings.” Neighbors often were
witnesses, which further helps to establish the identities of
some families who did not appear on the August 1776 and
August 1777 assessment lists.

Many of the Susquehanna plantation owners removed to
Niagara as the majority were part of Butler’s Rangers. In
1781, Lieutenant Colonel John Butler declared that four or
five families newly settled would require for seed sixty bushels of spring wheat and oats, twelve of buckwheat and a
barrel of Indian corn. Peter and James Secord, two of the
heads of families, were about to build a saw and gristmill. A
census of the new settlement was taken by Col. Butler on
August 25th, 1782. Besides the Secords were “George Stuart, George Fields, John Depuis, Daniel Rowe, Elijah
Phelps, Philip Bender, Samuel Lutz, Michael Showers, Harmonious House, Thomas McMicking, Adam Young,
McGregor VanEvery, and Isaac Dolson. There were sixteen
families consisting of eighty-three persons. Cleared land
made a total of 238 acres (Haldimand papers).” Several of
The Loyalist and non-Loyalist families from the 1776 asthese families had been former residents on the Susquehansessment list are here given:
na.
• Elisha Wilcox - Loyalist - Thorn Bottom (20 miles from
When the war drew to a close in 1783, more than 40,000
Pittstown)
men, women, and children displaced from the colonies, set•
Icahbod Phelps - non-Loyalist
tled in Canada. The greatest numbers removed to present

Ephraim Tyler - non-Loyalist
day Ontario, including the majority of the Susquehanna set•
John Secord - Loyalist - opposite Tunkhannock
tlers. Colonel John Butler, whose land and home had been

James Secord - Loyalist - Mehoopany
in the Mohawk Valley of New York and who had led disastrous strikes against the Patriot settlers on the Susquehan- • Jacob Sage (perhaps Jacob Segar or Sager) - if Segar/
Sager perhaps Loyalist
na, including the Wyoming Battle in July 1778, led his followers to the west bank of the Niagara River when the regiment • Peter Secord - Loyalist - Mehoopany
disbanded in 1784. The government provided land in Cana- • Joshua Beebe - Loyalist
da for Loyalists and the petitions of many are valuable re- • Isaac Laraby (perhaps Larabee) - unknown
sources for learning of the trials and misfortunes that many • Frederick Vanderlip - Loyalist - Black Walnut Bottom
of these families experienced. A few, such as Jacob Bow- • Abram Workman (Wartman) - Loyalist - Tunkhannock
man returned, but for most, their homes and plantations on • Philip Bender - Loyalist
the Susquehanna were lost forever.
• John Williamson - Loyalist - Black Walnut Bottom
“Since the settlers were going into the wilderness with little • Elijah Phelps - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany Creek on
west side of Susquehanna River
prospect of supporting themselves until they had cleared

Read Melory (perhaps Mallory) - unknown
sufficient land, the British Government provided them with
rations on a reducing scale for three years (beginning in • Prince Bryant - non-Loyalist
1784). In the first year they received full rations for each per- • Nathan Kingsley - non-Loyalist
son over 10 years of age, two thirds in the second year, and • Stephen Ferrington - Loyalist – “Crossed over the hills to
one third in the third and final year. Small children under 10
Farringdon's, who lives at a small run's mouth 8 miles
years of age received half of the amount that adults were
above Tunkhannock” (Jesse Lukens journal)
given. After the end of the third year the settlers were ex- • Jacob Bowman - Loyalist
pected to be able to support themselves. A typical daily ra- • Nicholas Depue - non-Loyalist
tion consisted of one pound of flour and one pound of beef • Thomas Wigton - non-Loyalist
or 12 ounces of pork, but there were considerable variation • Adam Bowman - Loyalist - Tunkhannock
depending on availability in different localities (Crowder).”
• Amos York - non-Loyalist
Besides rations, Britain also compensated them for war • Elijah Brown - unknown
losses. The definition for eligibility was – Loyalists were • Josiah Dewey - unknown
those born or living in the American colonies at the outbreak • Philip Buck - Loyalist - mouth of Tunkhannock Creek
of the Revolution who rendered substantial service to the • Edward Hicks - Loyalist - Sugar Run (present Wilmot
royal cause during the war, and who left the United States
Township, Bradford County)
by the end of the war or soon after. Some left substantially
(Continued on page 12)
later, mainly to gain land and to escape growing intolerance.
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Forsyth and wife Eunice at Wyalusing, Philip Fox and Catherine Lamar at Terrytown, John Lord at Sheshequin, Joseph
Thomas Millard - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany Creek Page a tenant of the Pawling family at Wyalusing, Thomas
Silk, Jacob Sipes and Annatje Schauers (Showers) at Maceon west side of Susquehanna River
Thomas Millard, Jr. - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany donia, George Stewart and Mary Depue, Jacob Teague and
Anna Margretha Weaver on Tagues Creek near TunkhanCreek on west side of Susquehanna River
nock, Parshall Terry, Jr., John Young.
David Bigsby (Bixby) - non-Loyalist
Gasper Hopper (Caspar Hover) - Loyalist - Terrytown on For preliminary genealogies on the above Loyalist families
prepared by J. Kelsey Jones, see the files at the Bradford
west side of Susquehanna River
County Historical Society.
Hendrick Winter - Loyalist - Wyalusing
John Stephens - Loyalist
References:
Frederick Smith - Loyalist
Luzerne County Historical Society - original Upper River District assessment lists,
Huldrick Shout (Johan Hendrick Short) - Loyalist
1776 and 1777.
Frederick Frank - Loyalist
Butler’s Rangers, Caldwell’s Company - We the undermentioned Commissioned
Henry Simmons - Loyalist
& non Commissioned Officers & Privates of Captain William Caldwell’s Company of Rangers do acknowledge to have received from John Butler Esqr. Major
Henry Windecker - Loyalist
Commandant of a Corps of Rangers the full amount of our Pay from 24th DeBen & Will Pawling - Loyalists - Wyalusing
cember 1777 to 24th October 1778 inclusive. Gives list of several men of whom
Nicholas Phillips - Loyalist - north of Wyalusing
at least fourteen were from the Susquehanna and appear on the 1776 assessGeorge Kentner - Loyalist - Sugar Run Creek
ment list of the Upper River District, County of Westmoreland, State of ConReuben Herrington - non-Loyalist
necticut.
John Depue - Loyalist - Skinner's Eddy (though he may Murray, Louise Wells. A History of Old Tioga Point and Early Athens, Pennsylvahave removed up river to Wyalusing)
nia. 1908.
Andrew Hickman - unknown
Craft, Rev. David. History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Illustrations and
John Dewit - unknown
Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1878.
Zebulon Marcy - non Loyalist
Frederick Anger - Loyalist - Asylum
Bradsby, H. C. History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Biographical
Sketches. Chicago, Illinois. 1891.
Abel Palmer - non Loyalist
Reid, William D. The Loyalists in Ontario: The Sons and Daughters of the AmeriFox (probably Rudolph) - non-Loyalist - Towanda
can Loyalists of Upper Canada. Lambertville, NJ, Genealogical Publishing Co.,
Isaac VanValkenburg - non-Loyalist though eldest son
1973.
and a daughter removed to Canada as Loyalists Fraser, Alexander. Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of
Wysox
Ontario. Toronto, Canada: L. K. Cameron, 1905.
Cole - non-Loyalist
Centennial
Committee. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Toronto, Canada:
Bastian Strope - non-Loyalist - Wysox
Rose
Publishing
Co., 1885.
Jacob Brunner - Loyalist - Macedonia
Connecticut
Archives,
Susquehanna Settlers, No. 90.
Lemuel Fitch - non-Loyalist
Land
under
Certificates
of Location, Districts of Mecklenburg and Lunenburg 1790
Isaac VanAlstine - Loyalist - Standing Stone
RG1,
L4,
Volume
12.
Old VanAlstine (Lambert VanAlstine) - Loyalist - StandMunger, Donna Bingham. Connecticut’s Pennsylvania Colony 1754-1810 – Susing Stone
quehanna Company Proprietors, Settlers and Claimants. Three volumes. WestJames VanAlstine - Loyalist - Standing Stone
minster, Maryland: Heritage Books, 2007.
Coonrad Seaerls (Conrad Sills) - Loyalist - Rummerfield
The Loyalist Gazette, Volume XLIII, No. 1, Spring 2005.
Isaac Laraway - Loyalist - Wysox

(Continued from page 11)































60 names: 37 Loyalist, 16 non-Loyalist, 7 unknown
In addition to the above, on the 1777 assessment list the
Loyalist who appeared were:
• John Pensler (Pensel)
• Frederick Anker (Anger)
• Michael Showers
• Gart Vanderbarrack (Garrett Vanderburgh)
In addition, there were Loyalist families who did not appear
on the assessment lists and they included Jacob Anguish
and wife Elisabeth, Redman Berry who is related to have
been a tenant of the Pawling family at Wyalusing, James

Reaman, G. Elmore. The Trail of the Black Walnut. Scottdale, Pennsylvania,
Herald Press, 1957.
Siebert, Wilbur H. The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. Columbus, Ohio: University at
Columbus, 1920.
Cruikshank, Lieut-Colonel E. Ten Years of the Colony of Niagara 1780-1790.
Welland, Ontario: Tribune Print. 1908.
16. Cruikshank, Brig. General E. A. Records of Niagara –A Collection of Documents Relating to the First Settlement 1778-1783.
17. Linn, John Blair. Annals of Buffalo Valley, Pennsylvania 1755-1855. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Lane S. Hart Printer. 1877.
Turner, O. History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase
and Morris' Reserve: embracing the counties of Monroe, Ontario, Livingston,
(Continued on page 13)

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(Continued from page 12)

Yates, Steuben, Most of Wayne and Allegany, and parts of Orleans, Genesee
and Wyoming. Rochester, New York: 1851.
Crowder, Norman K. Early Ontario Settlers – A Source Book. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1993.
Egle, William Henry. Notes and Queries – Historical and Genealogical Chiefly
Relating to Interior Pennsylvania. Volume I, Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical
Publishing Co. 1970.
Records of St. Mark’s and St. Andrew’s Churches, Niagara.
Booth, Charles Edwin. The Vanderlip, Van Derlip, VanderLippe Family in America. New York: 1914.
Records of the Lutheran Trinity Church of Stone Arabia, Palatine, Montgomery
County, New York.
Records of the Reformed Dutch Church of Stone Arabia, Palatine, Montgomery
County, New York.
Taylor, Robert J. The Susquehanna Company Papers.Vol V: 1772-74, Wilkes
Barre, PA.

CONT.

Reid, William D. Death Notices of Ontario. Lambertville, New Jersey: Hunterdon
House. 1980.
Cook, Frederick – Secretary of State. Journals of the Military Expedition of Major
John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 with Records of Centennial Celebrations. Auburn, New York: Knapp, Peck & Thomson. 1887.
Harvey, Oscar Jewel. A History of Wilkes Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania.
Vol II, Wilkes Barre. 1909.
Detty, Victor Charles. History of the Presbyterian Church of Wysox, Pennsylvania
1791 - 1936. Elmira, NY: Barber & Doane, Inc. 1937.
Penrose, Maryly Barton. Baumann/Bowman Family of the Mohawk, Susquehanna & Niagara Rivers. Franklin Park, New Jersey: Liberty Bell Associates. 1977.
Boyd, Julian P. The Susquehanna Company Papers. Vol. IV 1770-1772: Wilkes
Barre, Pennsylvania. 1933.
McBride, Robert Collins. Biography of John Stevens Senior UE. The Loyalist
Gazette, Volume XLIII, Spring 2005 and September 2005.
Siebert, Wilbur H. The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. University at Columbus, Ohio.
1920.

WAVERLY 4TH GRADE FIELD TRIP TO SRAC BY DEB TWIGG
On days like today I am reminded of my fourth grade field trip to Spanish
Hill. That experience was something that I talk about every week at
SRAC. But I also have asked many visitors to SRAC if they remember
where they went for their fourth grade field trip -(4th grade is the curriculum that covers our Native American history) and there has never been a
person who couldn't tell me. To me, this gives us at SRAC a huge responsibility as we now provide the fourth grade field trips for more and
more schools in the area. Recently we hosted Waverly School District's
whole fourth grade - and it was the best one yet! A total of five classes
came to SRAC either in the morning or afternoon shift, and were split up
into four groups who rotated through 4 stations.
Station 1 was hosted by SRAC's Ted Keir who talked about the Ice Age
and what our region was like 12 - 15,000 years ago. Station 2 was hosted by SRAC's Dick Cowles who discussed the arrival of the white man to
our region. By the way, Ted Keir and Dick Cowles are both 88 years
old! Station 3 was the Museum of the Earth MAIZE: Mysteries of an
Ancient Grain, hosted by SRAC's Janet Andrus. Station 4 was the ever
popular SRAC gift shop where many of the kids were able to buy something for as little as 25 cents and also could draw a Christmas scene to
enter or Christmas drawing contest and be automatically entered into our
contest where they could win great prizes!
In the meantime, back at the grade school, we had our own Jack Andrus
who was fully dressed in Native American dress who visited the 3rd and
4th grade classes and shared many Native American children's stories.
Most importantly, we did ALL of this free of charge. Some people ask why
we don’t charge the schools. And to that I can only ask if people realize that the whole Waverly fourth grade actually had to
walk to SRAC today for their field trip for lack of funding for buses. The point is that we are a community, and we take care
of one another. The teachers teach and try to give best learning experiences they can - to include a field trip to SRAC. And
we at SRAC give what we can to those teachers and kids. We are all volunteers at SRAC, and we love doing our part.
That's how it works. I hope that you consider what it is that you can do for your community too. Together we are all better
for it.
SRAC is a 501c3, are staffed 100% by volunteers, we rely on our memberships, admission donations, sales in our gift shop
and generous donations from our community to support all that we do.
I hope that you will stop in SRAC sometime soon, consider supporting us and see what a community can create.
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Page 14

THE SRAC JOURNAL

WATERMAN BALDWIN
SRAC MEMBER

BY

Volume 9, Issue 1

DR. EARL P. ROBINSON, MD,

This is the fourth in a series of articles written by local historian Dr. Earl P.
Robinson, MD. He is a Revolutionary War historian, and is particularly
knowledgeable about the events that occurred in our region during that
pivotal point in our nations history.

Waterman Baldwin was the third son of Isaac Baldwin Sr. He was
born in Connecticut on August 1, 1757 and migrated with his family
to the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania in 1772. He began his service in the Continental army fighting for General Washington in the
area of New York City and New Jersey. He later enlisted in Captain Durkee’s Company on January 7, 1777, near Easton, Pennsylvania and saw service in New Jersey around Morristown spending
the winter at Valley Forge. Being a superb horseman and an excellent shot with the long rifle he was in great demand by superior
officers as a scout and courier. In this capacity he frequently delivered the personal messages of General Washington on his famous
horse Roanoke. Being a frontier scout and carrying messages through hostile territory was dangerous work and Watt, as he was referred to, was captured three times by the Indians. At one
time he was made to “run the gauntlet,” a life threatening event. On the last occasion of his capture it was decided that he should be burned at the stake. On the way to the Indian village he
spoke in joking terms with his capturers. Upon arrival at the village, he requested an audience
with Cornplanter, their chief, a request the Indians thought quite unusual. As arrangements were
being made for his sacrifice Watt continued to engage the Indians in conversation and his cool
and intrepid manner in the face of a certain gruesome demise gained Cornplanter’s admiration
and he took him by the hand and cancelled the torture. The great Indian Chief then took Watt to
his village at the headwaters of the Alleghany River where he adopted him as his son. Here he
learned to speak the Seneca language fluently and became very much attached to Cornplanter
and the other Seneca Chiefs. Cornplanter had a daughter Falling Feather who was one of his
close companions at the village. He remained there until exchanged for 2 bushels of oats and 2
bags, an expense of 30 S.

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Phone:
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Email:
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Location:
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Phone:
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Following the Revolutionary War the officers gave Watt a silver saddle in appreciation of his serSRACenter.org
vice. Watt then returned to Pennsylvania, where Connecticut Yankees were not well liked due to
the ongoing feud over land rights with the Pennsylvanians. A woman in the Pennsylvania group
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had a vicious dog that she delighted in setting after Watt. He put up with it for a while and then
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shot the dog. The incident was seized as an excuse for prosecuting another “Wild Yankee.” He
was brought in front of a Pennamite Magistrate and fined for his act of self-defense. Later he met
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the Justice out in the open and gave him a whipping with the ramrod of his rifle. As soon as he
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could the Judge sent the Pennsylvania authorities after Watt. Baldwin easily kept ahead of his
pursuers but tiring of the chase he halted and placed a pole across the road. When the authoriSRAC Blog:
ties arrived he shouted from his concealment “the first man who passes that mark is a dead
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man.” Knowing Watt’s aim and reputation the posse wheeled around and left.
At another time, again being pursued by the Pennsylvanians, he came upon a farm family that
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he had helped in the past. Seeing that he was in trouble the farmer’s wife suggested that he
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hide in the milk house. Roanoke went in and never disturbed any of the gourds or pots lying on
the stone floor and made not a sound. The woman threw the officers off the track and Watt reMobile Website:
sumed his Journey.
Watt was once married to an Indian maiden. Her previous lover had been an Indian Chief named
Lone Wolf. Lone Wolf killed the maiden and in the ensuing struggle Waterman killed the chief
and put his head on a pole at the river’s edge. Later, Celinda Burnham married Waterman in
1788, moving with him from Pittstown, Pennsylvania to Chemung in 1799. After his wife’s death
legend has it that Falling Feather, Watt’s adopted sister, came to care for Watt as was the Indian
tradition.

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Captain Waterman Baldwin died April 21, 1810, and is buried with his father and brothers in the
Knoll (Baldwin) Cemetery on the Newtown Battlefield in Lowman, NY with Falling Feather at his
side.
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 15

Volume 9, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

DRUMBEATS 2012 A HUGE SUCCESS!
The day began with our membership luncheon. As a thank you for their
support of SRAC, each member was given a dozen tickets to drop in bags
to win any of the fifty door prizes…..from $50 gas cards from the Dandy
Mini Mart to 2 vintage tulip chairs valued at $500. Before the doors were
opened to the public, the members were given a tour of the site of the new
SRAC Research Library at the Teaoga Development building.
Dr. David Oestreicher traveled from New York City to present "The Lenape:
Lower New York's First Inhabitants.” Dr. Oestreicher is recognized as a
leading authority on the Lenape (Delaware), our region's first inhabitants,
having conducted linguistic and ethnographic research among the last tribal traditionalists for over 30 years. David actually stayed for the whole day
after his presentation, which is a testament to the event for everyone!
Dr. Martha Sempowski followed David's presentation with "Changing Styles
of Smoking Pipes Used by Seneca Iroquois A.D. 1550-1800." This talk
was very interesting to collectors and archeologists, as well the rest of our
packed lecture hall, including grade school children who stayed the whole
day! The presentation consisted of a slide-illustrated overview of smoking
pipes from Seneca Iroquois village sites spanning a 250 year period from
the mid-sixteenth to the late eighteenth centuries, and many could be
found in the SRAC collections!

Members of the Seneca Buffalo Creek Dancers

The event closed with our dear friends the Seneca Buffalo Creek Dancers, who have won national awards at Pow-Wows
across the country. But more importantly, Dick and Marci and the gang are like family to us, and we all enjoy catching up
each year and spending the time together. The event was a great mix of professionals, students and locals of all ages.
Drumbeats is an annual event to honor our membership and inspire the community, and it is always totally free!
Thanks to all of the businesses that donated door prizes, the speakers and dancers who traveled hours to be a part of this,
to our board members who make every day at SRAC an amazing experience for our visitors, the media who helped us get
the word out about the event, and to everyone who attended the event and supported us throughout the year. It was a
good day for everyone involved. We think it was the best Drumbeats yet.

NEW BIRCH BARK CANOE DISPLAY AT SRAC
Visitors to the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center(SRAC) in Waverly, NY
now will be able to enjoy an up close view of an over 100 year old Native American
birch bark canoe. Birch bark canoes were being used by the people who inhabited
the Great Lakes region since around 1500AD. Just as they were made centuries ago,
the canoe at SRAC was created solely with hand carved split spruce, sheets of birch
bark, spruce root strapping and sealed with a mix of spruce gum and charcoal. Surprisingly, the canoe is over 13 feet long but only weighs only about 70lbs. This made
it the perfect way for the Native Americans to travel where they had to cross from
portage to portage, meaning that the canoe would be carried over land to different
streams that lead to their destination. As a result, the birch bark canoe was superior
to the dugout canoe and any boat that the early Europeans brought to America for
travelling on our streams, rivers and lakes.
SRAC’s Deb Twigg explained, “The canoe was donated in 2008 by Waverly native
Les Rolfe and until now was not able to be safely displayed. Recently, we had
brought the canoe down for a local school field trip, and we decided that moving it
around for special occasions was just not a good idea anymore. At that point we
contracted with Barbara Koehn who is known well for her work at the Don Merrill Museum, to help us figure out how to suspend the canoe safely. The result is a glimpse
into our past that will stay with people long after their visit.”
SRAC is located at 345 Broad Street in Waverly, NY and is open from 1-5pm Tues- Barb Koehn, and SRAC's Don Hunt &
days through Fridays and Saturdays from 11am-5pm. To learn more, visit Tom Vallilee stand below the suspended
canoe
www.SRACenter.org.
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 16

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 9, Issue 1

Coming Events at SRAC
Jewelry & Beading Class
Second Saturday of each month, 11:30am – 1:30pm
SRAC, 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Local artisan Ellen Sisco creates jewelry from a wide variety of materials. Having worked with stones, metals, and beads
of all kinds in her jewelry for 25 years, she conducts a popular class on basic beading techniques here at SRAC . You
will be provided with instruction and all the supplies you will need, including semiprecious stone beads, glass beads,
metal beads, pearls and tools so that you may create your own gift, keepsake, or special piece. Beads in all colors of the
rainbow are available, and she has made a special purchase of unusual and beautiful semiprecious stone beads just for
our classes. Learn to make necklaces, bracelets, earrings and other jewelry. Just ask about any style you would like to
try, and Ellen will teach you to create jewelry to match your wardrobe, and to make things for the holidays; now you can
make your own jewelry for Halloween and Christmas, etc. The fee for this two hour beading class is $25.00. Reserve by
calling the Center at (607)565-7960 or by emailing info@SRAcenter.org.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Deb Twigg—Faces of the Past
Tuesday, March 5, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

SRAC’s Deb Twigg is offering the public a first view of an upcoming article to be published in the national magazine, Ancient American, titled “Faces of the Past.” In this well researched presentation, the audience will be drawn back to the
earliest times of Iroquois in our region. Twigg will slowly unwind yet another mystery of our region’s past that has until
now been all but forgotten, with new information that has never been discovered. A general admission donation of $6 for
adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to
the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Jim Nobles—Then and Now Around Sayre—A Trip Down Memory Lane
Tuesday, April 4, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

What was in the building where Rock and Docs is? What building predated the Sayre American Legion Post No. 283 in
Milltown? What is now located where the trolley barn of the Waverly, Sayre & Athens Traction company was located?
Answers to these questions will be part of a presentation by Jim Nobles, a life-long resident and local historian of Sayre.
Jim will be making a visual presentation of changes that have occurred over the many past decades. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free admission for all students every day at
SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For more information, visit
www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Dr. William Engelbrecht—Point Mends in an Iroquois Village
Tuesday, May 7, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Past NYSAA President and author William Engelbrecht will present “Point Mends in an Iroquois Village.” Dr. Engelbrecht
has spent the last two years trying to fit Madison Point bases and tips together and then trying to figure out what the distribution of mends mean. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free
admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For
more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.

(Continued on page 17)

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 17

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 9, Issue 1

Coming Events at SRAC
(Continued from page 16)

~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum Presents—Amazing Animals—Live!
Saturday, May 25, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

This program highlights an animal from each of the 5 animal groups: a mammal, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian and an
arthropod. Learn about the distinctive features of each group while you get a varied look at some of Tanglewood's animal
ambassadors. Bring your family to enjoy a live animal show presented by Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum. Free
admission for this presentation and to the SRAC exhibit hall. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Emma Sedore—Gone, But Not Forgotten, Owego’s Ahwaga Hotel
Tuesday, June 4, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Tioga County historian, Emma Sedore returns to SRAC to tell the history of Ahwaga Hotel. It’s the history of a grand old
hotel that stood on the corner of Front and Church Streets in Owego from 1852 to 1959. Emma has authored a book by
the same name that will be available at the presentation. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC
members is requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is
included in this donation. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center
at 607-565-7960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Lance Heidig—Lincoln
Tuesday, July 2, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Waverly native and Cornell Outreach and Learning Services Librarian Lance Heidig has spent the past year creating an
exhibition about Abraham Lincoln for Cornell and will present his program which gives us little known information while
celebrating the 150th anniversary of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (January 1863) and the 150th anniversary of
the Gettysburg Address (November 1863) A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is
requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in
this donation. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-5657960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum Presents—Hawks, Owls, & Company—Live!
Saturday, July 6, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Check out Tanglewood’s local bird residents Sophie, the Great-horned Owl, Icarus the Broad-winged Hawk, Lucy the
Barred Owl, Hank the Red-tailed Hawk or Ellie our American Kestrel. Get up close and personal with these high-flying
species and learn what makes birds special in the world of animals. Bring your family to enjoy this special ive animal
show presented by Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum. Free admission for this presentation and to the SRAC exhibit hall. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

(Continued on page 18)

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 18

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 9, Issue 1

COMING EVENTS AT SRAC
Charles Mitchell—Nature: From Howling Wilderness to Vacation Destination
Tuesday, September 3, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Drawing on landscape painting, photography, traveler’s accounts, and other sources, this presentation explores the evolution of American attitudes towards nature. Beginning with the perceptions of the American landscape as a howling
wilderness, a wasteland to be tamed and transformed, the lecture traces the social, cultural and economic forces that
led to the perception of wild nature as something of value to be experienced and preserved. Key topics and figures
along the way include the sublime, romanticism, Henry David Thoreau, Thomas Cole, and the Hudson River School,
John Muir, Ansel Adams, and the Lorax. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is
requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in
this donation. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-5657960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum Presents—Lizards, Snakes, and Turtles, Oh My! - Live!
Saturday, September 14, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Learn about our fascinating and fun collection of reptiles and amphibians. The delightful cast of characters may include:
a salamander, toad, leopard gecko, bearded dragon, bullfrog, and/or a large variety of turtles and snake species. Who
has scales, how about skin? Who lives in water? Compare and contrast these animal groups in a very educational and
interesting program. Bring your family to enjoy this show presented by Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum. Free
admission for this presentation and to the SRAC exhibit hall. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email info@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
9th Annual DRUMBEATS THROUGH TIME
Saturday, October 5, 11:00am – 4:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

Watch for further details!!!
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
Ron Heines—Underwater Archaeology in the Finger Lakes
Tuesday, November 5, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY

With over 50 years of experience in underwater archaeology in the Finger Lakes region, Ron Heines will take us back to
a time of the great ships like the “Half Moon” of Henry Hudson to the time of the “Horse Drawn Navy” otherwise known
as canal ships. Bothe historical and archaeological in nature, this presentation will show us the remains of these great
ships now found covered in leopard mussels at the bottom of our great lakes. A general admission donation of $6 for
adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to
the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For more information, visit www.SRACenter.org, email in
o@SRAcenter.org, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 19

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 9, Issue 1

NYS MUSEUM AND SRAC TEAM UP—AGAIN! BY DEB TWIGG
The NYS Museum Research & Collections Department and SRAC have had a close relationship for
several years. About five years ago Ted, Susan
and I went there to view and record all of their Native American artifacts from our area. They have
also facilitated several presentations at SRAC over
the years. Last year they allowed me to go through
all of their collections in my latest research on the
faces that I will be giving a presentation on this
coming March 5th. We are all on a first name basis and have become very good friends.

Merideth Young, Ralph Rataul, and
Ron Arnold

When I called Ralph Rataul a few weeks ago about
a huge collection that was donated by SRAC member Ron Arnold, he was happy to come down and
help us go through it and figure out a plan of how
to start the cataloging process. Thanks to Ralph
and Merideth Young for driving down form Albany
and spending the day with us!

Ron Arnold and Ralph Rataul

MUSEUM OF THE EARTH MAIZE EXHIBIT AT SRAC
Did you hear about this amazing exhibit in MAIZE (corn) which covers from
the ancient uses through current technologies and research of this amazing
grain that is used more than any other grain in the world? No it wasn’t on
exhibit in Syracuse, Ithaca, or NYC....It was right here in the Valley- at
SRAC!
Maize is the largest production crop in the world and plays a central role in all
of United States agriculture and food production. Explore the science of
maize, one of the most significant crops to humankind for thousands of
years, and why it continues to surprise us today.
This ancient grain was among the many organisms that evolutionary scientist
Charles Darwin examined. In his travels to South America, Darwin recognized the tremendous variation in maize and its long history of intentional
breeding. In regards to domestication, Darwin stated, “Although man does
not cause variability and cannot even prevent it, he can select, preserve, and
accumulate the variations given to him by the hand of nature almost in any
way which he chooses; and thus he can certainly produce a great result” (from The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication,
Charles Darwin, 1868).
The exhibition explores how scientists utilize the process of evolution to encourage the selection of “functional” and useful mutations for increased disease resistance, healthier and larger plants, and maintained diversity. The
natural diversity within a species can provide a plant with a buffer against changes in its environment, providing the plant
with the flexibility to adapt. Scientists are using conventional and molecular plant breeding to combat world health issues,
such as Vitamin A Deficiency, a major health problem for millions of people in the developing world. In extreme situations, for example drought or disease epidemics, diversity can be essential for the survival of the population.
Learn about fascinating advances in the science of plant genetics, the history, the process, and the controversies. Don't
miss this opportunity to explore evolution in action through history and science in Maize: Mysteries of an Ancient Grain.
Funding for this exhibition is from the National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program DBI-0820619.
This exhibition is developed and managed by the Paleontological Research Institution and its Museum of the Earth located in Ithaca, New York and has traveled the country, landing in Waverly, NY only until January 26th – Although it has
now traveled on to Texas A & M, while it was here, it was another reason to see for yourself why everyone continues to
say - "There's Always Something Going on at SRAC!"
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 20

THE SRAC JOURNAL

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840

Volume
9, Issue
1
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