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Volume 5, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

March 2009

Volume 5, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL


THE REGIONS ARCHAEOLOGICAL, CULTURAL,
INSIDE THIS ISSUE:

AND

H ISTORICAL R ESOURCE

LOUISE WELLES MURRAY AND HER GARDEN BY DEB TWIGG,

Louise Welles Murray Garden

Six Popular Myths

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EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR SRAC


The Welles family, whose
Murray, and they had
heritage reaches as far
three children, Jessie,
back as the early settlers
Elsie, and Louise.
of French Azilum, has
Louise and Millards home
been very deeply rooted
was located on Main
and involved in the presStreet in Athens, and in
ervation of our areas his1882 they decided to have
tory for over a hundred
a drainage ditch run from
years. Louise Welles was
their house to the river.
born on January 2, 1854
The PA Bulletin would
to Charles Fisher Welles
later report, The discovand Elizabeth LaPorte. At
ery of an Indian burial
the age of 12, Louises
ground in the garden of
interest in archeology was
their new home in 1882 at
said to be first aroused
once interested both her
when Ralph Pumpelly, a
and her husband, and
cousin, spent some time
4 inch pot from grave #2 (Photo they determined literally to
in her fathers house writleave no stone unturned
ing his first volume on ex- courtesy of Tioga Point Museum)
until they learned the origin
plorations in Asia. By all
of those aboriginal remains . . .
claims, Louise was a very intelligent child,
and attended Wells College at the age of This seemingly dull home improvement
16. By age 22, she married Millard P. became a turning point for Louise; one that
(Continued on page 2)

SIX POPULAR MYTHS ABOUT THE LENAPE: A PROGRESS REPORT


Marshall Joseph Becker, PhD
19 West Barnard Street
West Chester, PA 19382
Mbecker@wcupa.edu

Our Vision
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native
Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is dedicated to education, research and
preservation of the Native
American archaeological, cultural and historical assets of the
Twin Tier Region of Northeastern PA and Southern NY.

Prof. of Anthropology,
Emeritus
West Chester University
West Chester PA 19383

Today there are over 550 different Native


American tribes recognized by the Federal
Government and thereby eligible for special
services and preferred treatment. The real
history of each of these tribes is a fascinating and very complex story. For the Lenape
the major historical events in their aboriginal homeland took place over a period of
some 200 years, ca. 1550 to 1750. During
the first part of this period of European contact some adventurous Lenape began to
move away. By 1737 most of the more traditional members of the Lenape people had
moved out of the Delaware Valley, both to

Sr. Fellow in Anthropology


University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

seek economic opportunity as well as to


maintain cultural traditions that were increasingly altered or influenced by the newcomers. Those who remained in their ancient homeland, or homeland at least since
ca. 1000 CE, merged into the colonial
population (Becker 1990a, 1992c, 1993a).
Many popular beliefs now blur distinctions
between these many aboriginal tribes of the
Delaware Valley, creating a fictitious
"Indian" that never existed. In the twentieth
century a Pan-Indian political movement

The Susquehanna
Archaeological
Native Indian
Studies
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BecomeRiver
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See
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information.

(Continued on page 6)

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 1

LOUISE WELLES MURRAY AND HER GARDEN C O N T .


(Continued from page 1)

would put her on a path that would


change her life forever. The reason for
this is that while digging the trench
through the Murray garden, the workmen uncovered a very special Susquehannock burial ground.
It is important to note that Archaeology
as a science did not even exist in
1882. Antiquarianism in the United
States had begun in the 19th century
and was the basic study of archaeological evidence before there was
much science associated with it. There
is documentation that in fact Millard
Murray at least had been an antiquarian of sorts and knew of many sites
that existed at Tioga Point and the surrounding region. Millard and other antiquarians of the region relied on the
latest books and theories of the time
(many times based on mythology and
legends, rather than science) to try to

explain local artifacts, their design and


their age. While this might seem ridiculous today, until professional archaeology became a science, antiquarianism was the most scholarly approach to understanding the artifacts of
past cultures in the United States.
Louise would later observe that there
were two notable types of antiquarians
that existed: those that looked for artifacts as evidence and a way to preserve the past, and those that looked
for artifacts for their own personal gain.
While most would be categorized as
the latter by the next generation of
scientists, Louise Welles Murray
would actually make the transition
from antiquarian to scientist in her
lifetime.

seum, which was the Wyoming Valley


Historical Society in Wilkes Barre, PA.
The Societys Harrison Wright and S.
F. Wadhams came in April, 1883,
measured off the plot in twelve-foot
intervals from the original grave, and
began excavations.

I have to wonder what my response


would have been if workmen dug up
artifacts while working in my yard back
then. The Murrays response was to
take these artifacts to the nearest mu-

Grave #1 contained a skeleton above


the average height, buried in a sitting
posture, with turtle-shell rattles in good

The following is the actual diagram


and explanation of the site by Harrison
Wright, courtesy of the Wyoming Valley Historical Society.
Defined Plot: About 80 feet long and
about 20 30 feet wide. In the corner,
twenty feet from the north line was
found, underground, a pillar of eight
large drift stones, and with them a flat
stone on which is roughly cut the exact
proportion of the plot.

(Continued on page 3)

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 1

LOUISE WELLES MURRAY AND HER GARDEN C O N T .


(Continued from page 2)

Artifacts from graved #1 and 6 (spiral bracelet), courtesy


of the Wyoming Valley Historical Society.

condition and four small pebbles in each, close to each temple.


This grave also yielded a discoidal stone, a quantity of
burnt ochre, a broken antler comb, part of a shell gorget,
and some small shell beads that disintegrated on exposure
to the air. Harrison added in his report that these objects
might well have belonged to a squaw, but no skeleton was
found here except of the "medicine man," or "Turtle chief."
Grave #2 contained a bark covered grave (hemlock?), 4
inch pot with faces (the clay of this pot was burnt black and
possibly contained food), a lapstone, and a common chert
arrow point.
Grave #3 contained a skeleton that was noted to be of average height, with no grave goods; and grave #4 contained a
double grave with 1 pot undecorated, 1 large pot between
them, and 1 pot with red ochre.
Grave #5 contained a skeleton wrapped in bark with an Andaste high-collared pot with clay that was burnt black.
Grave #6 contained another double grave, with one buried
much later on top of the other. Grave items included one
shell, and the earlier grave revealed spiral jewelry - bracelet
(copper/bronze).
Grave #7 contained the only skeleton buried lying flat (full
length) which had a pillow of twigs and was accompanied
by 1 pot. It was noted that there was a deep cut in the cranium evidently by a celt.
NOTE: The upper part of each of the graves we met with a
considerable amount of charcoal. It looked as though subsequent to burial but before the grave was entirely filled in
and slowly smothered out. Whether it was part of the ceremony or was charcoal thrown in is not understood. (Wright,
1883)

Although the 1883 report by Wright seems


quite conclusive, the
digging in the Murray
Garden was far from
over as it was quickly
realized that his test pits
at intervals of twelve
feet left a lot to be overlooked.
In fact, in what was to
be understood later as
the center of the burial
site, was what would be
described later as a
chief that was actually
unearthed as part of the
Tioga Point Museum
High collared pot from grave #5,
opening ceremonies in courtesy of the Wyoming Valley Historical Society
1895.
Louise Welles
Murray reported, The
graves were grouped somewhat regularly around the one in
the center which was marked with such care that it was believed to be that of a chief surrounded by members of his
clan. This burial site accidentally discovered was on a previously un-occupied village lot. The workmen unearthed three
skeletons buried so close together as to indicate one
grave. (Murray, 1921)
Warren K. Moorehead in his Susquehanna River Expedition
describes the unearthing of the Susquehannock chief as
follows:
"The owner like his forebears, long refused to examine the
grave at the center of the plot but at last had consented to
celebrate the formal opening of the Historical Museum, and
June 27th, 1895, the work was
begun.
The circle of stones
proved to be over a sepulchre
about 3 to 5 feet, with an upright
stone at each corner, apparently
as a marker, for, of course this
would have been well above the
surface originally...
The writer, hoping to save the pottery, assisted Messrs. Murray and
Ercanbrack in the excavation. Finally, two large flat stones, full of
devonian fossils, proved to be the
covering to a skeleton of six feet
or more in height. While laying on
back with head to the southeast,
with hands crossed on breast, the
crushed front of the skull and the
unusual position of legs, right foot

Warren K. Moorehead

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(Continued on page 4)

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

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LOUISE WELLES MURRAY AND HER GARDEN C O N T .


(Continued from page 3)

cle of graves, about three feet underground on a layer of


clay, were eight pots carefully embedded in sand.
Every one had been perforated by thread-like apple roots,
and all were broken by a careless workman who was removing the stump just after a day's futile excavation by a
second party from Wilkes-Barre.
Throughout this plot with one exception the skeletons
were flexed but buried in a sitting posture, often with the
right hand upraised and bearing a pot containing food,
arrow points, or seeds, the latter leading to the conjecture
that the old apple trees may have grown from these very
seeds
But it was the pottery that attracted most attention; and in
all the museums we have visited we have yet to find faces

Murray Garden pots taken by the Wyoming Historical Society in


1883. Due to flood damage and lost records, sadly these pots
are no longer accounted for or available for research. (Photo
courtesy of Wyoming Historical Society)

under thigh, left leg fallen across right, seemed to indicate


that he might have been buried in a sitting posture, and
overturned by settling of stones of the sepulchre, which
had evidently crushed the large pot, fully eighteen inches
in diameter, at the left side of the head." (Moorehead,
1938)
Many may remember this skeleton because it was actually
placed in the museum for many years, and even I recall it
scaring me to death at my 4th grade field trip to the museum!
In the end, for over a decade, the garden continued to reveal more and more unique artifacts that to date are still
without comparison anywhere else.
Louise Welles Murray explained, It yielded skeletal remains of twenty-five males, one child, and three females,
each of the latter buried shoulder to shoulder with a male.
Several skeletons examined by students indicated a
height of above six and a half feet
After Mr. Wright's investigations, test holes having been
made all over the one hundred foot lot at said stated intervals, it was soon discovered that there were many more
graves and much more pottery.
For long years this had been an apple orchard and under
several of the old stumps, supposed to be from trees of
Indian planting, were Indian graves
Around each of two such stumps were seven graves in a
circle, and directly under one stump in the center of a cir-

North Appalachian Pottery Christopher Wren,


1914 (Photo courtesy of Wyoming Historical Society)
(Continued on page 5)

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LOUISE WELLES MURRAY AND HER GARDEN C O N T .


response to increased contact
with European traders and the
more artistically executed than those on one of the five pots, growing pressure to replace
native items with Europeanall of which were broken in removal. (Murray, 1908)
made goods. By the end of
About the Pottery: The pottery in fact was the most imthe 17th century, brass trade
pressive of all the artifacts from the site, even today there
kettles had almost entirely
are no other pottery specimens ever found to have the hureplaced native-made pottery
man faces that were found there. Christopher Wren wrote in
vessels in the Susquehannock
his North Appalachian Indian Pottery in 1914, The faces
culture.
shown in different views in this plate are the very finest examples of Indian modeling of the human face, made by If this is true, then we have
eastern Indians, which the writer has seen. ..They are in just dated the Murray Garden
high relief and bring out the forehead, eyebrows, the eye- site at 1600-1625 AD, which
lids, the high cheek bones, the aquiline nose, the mouth, supports the idea that the
Susquehannock were here in
and the chin in a quite realistic manner. (Cadzow, 1936)
Louise Welles Murray
1615 when Brule visited the
Even Dr. Barry Kent in his Susquehannas Indians (1984)
nation of Carantouan and Spanish Hill. Add the fact that
wrote, "Many facets of developing Susquehannock culture
brass (copper) spiral bracelets have been unearthed in the
history in the upper reaches of the Susquehanna River valgarden in association with that pottery as well as other sites
ley still need to be worked out. The need for more archeolin Athens, PA that are dated 1570 1625 AD, and I think
ogy here may be tainting our understanding of settlement
we have decidedly uncovered enough evidence to question
patterns, trade good associations, and the evolution of
current beliefs professionals such as Kent (1984) have
Shultz Incised from Proto Susquehannock. Even more munclaimed that the Susquehannocks left our region before
dane questions, such as the relationships of the strange
Brules historic journey.
vessels with faces and rim and body decorations from the
Athens area of Bradford County (see Witthoft 1959; 48; and I look forward to ongoing research on this site and many
illustrations in Wren 1914; Plate 6, figures 1-8; Plate 8, Fig- others in our region. SRAC considers it our responsibility to
ures 1-4) can perhaps be answered through more intensive continue to compel these discussions concerning our region
and the people who lived here. As many of you already
archeology." (Kent, 1984)
know, I personally believe that the truth concerning this part
As I researched this pottery design, the closest face effigies
of our history is long overdue.
on pottery that I could find was a very simple version of this
style found in Washington Boro, Lancaster County, Pennsyl- It is also important to note that as a result of the Murray
vania as reported in Susquehannock Indians of Pennsyl- Garden, Louise Welles Murray went on to found the Tioga
vania by Donald Cadzow, in 1936. Cadzow reported that all Point Museum, and eventually would become one of the
of the vessels at that site had two elevated notched angles cofounders of Pennsylvania Archaeology. I have to wonder
opposite each other on the rim with a molded face upon if the workmen did not uncover the burial site in her back
yard in 1882, if she would have actually been involved with
them.
either.
Interestingly, the Pennsylvania State Museum reports on
their website that Curiously, effigies only appear on Sus- The author expresses special thanks to John Orlandini and
quehannock pottery during the first quarter of the 17th cen- the Wyoming Historical Society for providing reports and
tury. The Susquehannock may have developed this elabo- photos to help preserve this information enabling future rerate decoration, an expression of pride in native tradition, in search.
(Continued from page 4)

Meetings:
407 E. Main St,
Endicott, NY
7:30 PM, 4th Thursday,
except July, Aug., & Dec.
email:
nysaatcc@yahoo.com

Have a Dandy Day!


Nearly 60 stores in
PA and NY

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Volume 5, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

SIX POPULAR MYTHS ABOUT THE LENAPE: A PROGRESS REPORT CONT.


(Continued from page 1)

began among various people of native


descent as a means of creating a new
identity, and sometimes to gain political
power. My people, the Lenape, called
themselves "Lenape" (Le-NAH-peh), a
self-referent term that means "The
People" (as in "We are Lenape."), or
human beings. With the recent passing of the last of the final generation of
native speakers in Oklahoma, the language spoken 100 years ago in eastern Oklahoma no longer survives in the
United States. All of these people were
born to Lenape parents, who spoke
Lenape at home in the first half of the
twentieth century. Efforts to reconstruct
that language are ongoing. There is a
caveat, however, that remains to be
studied. The people living in the Bartlesville area of Oklahoma may actually
have been descended from the Lenopi
(Len-OH-pee) from southern New Jersey (Becker 2008a). Efforts to trace the
genealogies of these two separate cultures have been a focus for my research for more than 30 years
(Beckera, 1998b). I believe that this
line of research ultimately will provide
answers to questions relating to the
descent lines of each of the two groups
of "Delaware" who settled in different
parts of Oklahoma. The different decisions made by the ancestors of these
groups regarding where to settle in
what had been "Indian Territory" appears to reflect their long standing cultural differences.

During the winter each of these bands


separated into its individual families,
each of which moved into the interior
for winter food collecting and hunting.
The basic fact that most people find
difficult to understand is that in aboriginal times the total population of Lenape
was only about 300 individuals, typical
for a foraging society. These numbers
are confirmed by the archaeological
evidence as well as from the documentary record. In particular, the land sales
records from the Lenape list every
adult male as well as some females,
providing the basis by which full genealogies can be constructed.

2. Myth: The Lenape lived on both


sides of the Delaware River.

Reality: The Lenape lived only on the


western side of the lower Delaware
River. The people who lived on the
east side of the Delaware, in New Jersey south of the Raritan River (Becker
2008a) were an entirely different tribe.
The name "Lenopi" was used by the
peoples of southern New Jersey, and
also means The People. Both the
Lenape and the Lenopi had been one
people during the Middle Woodland
period. Technological developments at
the beginning of the Late Woodland
period, ca. 1000 CE, such as the development of the bow and arrow, led to
more specific or focused foraging
strategies throughout the region. The
Lenape focused on anadromous fish
spawning in the streams in a specific
part of the west side of the Delaware
A few of the most common myths drainage (Becker 2006a), while the
about the Lenape are listed here, fol- Lenopi focused on marine (salt water)
lowed by the reality that is based on resources. These separate lifestyles
what we now know about their history led to two distinct cultural traditions,
and archaeology between 1000 and and to linguistic differences that devel1750.
oped after ca. 1200 CE. The similarities in the names Lenape and
1. Myth: The Lenape lived in one or
Lenopi led to the Lenopi being identitwo large villages, the largest now burfied consistently by the English coloied under Philadelphia.
nists as the "Jerseys" (see Becker
Reality: The members of the 13 iden- 2008a).
tified Lenape bands lived most of the
The distinction between these two culyear at a series of very small fishing
tures was common knowledge before
stations spaced all along their territory,
1740. The distinction was
a stretch of the lower Delaware River
"rediscovered" by John Heckewelder
extending from Old Duck Creek on the
late in the 18th century, and by two
south to Tohiccon Creek on the north..

other scholars (Nelson 1894, 1899,


1902, 1904, then Stewart 1932) in the
early 20th century. At the end of the
20th century I became the fourth person
to point out the distinctions between
these two very different Native American tribes. [Thank you, Josephine Tay].

3. Myth: William Penn held a single big


treaty with the Lenape under an elm
tree at Shakamaxon and bought all
their land at one time
Reality: The several bands of Lenape
each claimed the lands that they used,
and each band made its own decisions
regarding sales. Land was held in common by all the members of a band,
thus supposed sales bearing the signature of only one vendor are to be
questioned (cf. Becker 1998 MEH) In
addition to numerous small tracts of
land sold by individual Lenape bands
to Swedish immigrants after 1638,
small parcels also were sold to many
other individuals long before William
Penn came to the New World. By 1661
many of the Lenape had abandoned
the Delaware Valley to move west and
become involved in the lucrative pelt
trade. Penn made dozens of purchases
from all of the various Lenape bands
during the 21 years between 1682 and
1701 (Kent 1979; other volumes on
Native Land Cessions also are available), ultimately purchasing all of the
lands of the Lenape. Many of these
purchases were followed by
"confirmation" treaties, at which the
earlier deeds were reviewed with the
Lenape vendors and their descendants.
The myth of a single treaty became
common after Benjamin West painted
his masterpiece; a painting of a fictitious event that depicted Penns supposed treaty (one) with the Indians.

4. Myth: The Lenape were forced off


their lands.
Reality: Every inch of Lenape land
was sold to William Penn, and at very
high prices. In fact, the prices paid by
William Penn were a major factor in his
venture going broke. Somewhat related
is the fact that much of the land of the

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SIX POPULAR MYTHS ABOUT THE LENAPE: A PROGRESS REPORT CONT.


bounds as well as detailed lists of
goods given for the land and excruciatLenape had been sold before, to ingly detailed accounts of what rights
Swedes as well as to other English were included in the land sale, such as
colonists. Some of these Lenape had fishing, fowling, etc. Furthermore, periabandoned these lands more than 100 odic confirmation treaties were held for
years before Penn first arrived in the almost every one of these sales! At
Delaware Valley in 1682. Many more these confirmation treaties, the vendors
had moved west by 1661 to become would be invited to attend with all their
involved in the lucrative pelt trade. kin. The deeds then would be read so
Many other Lenape groups left after that all present could hear what had
1675 when the Susquehannock Con- been paid and what lands had been
federacy of central Pennsylvania was bought, and the ancient (and usually
destroyed by the Five Nations Iroquois. non-literate) vendors would confirm
Other Lenape never left. By the time (verify) their marks (signatures) for the
that Penn arrived, so many of the Le- next generation, whose members then
nape bands had left the area to be- could sign the confirmation record. All
come rich in the pelt trade that he had these native people were then predifficulty in calling them back into the sented with gifts or resources that
Delaware Valley to arrange the pur- were, in effect, a type of payment for
chases of their abandoned areas. Still their services as legal witnesses to the
other Lenape married among the colo- original treaties.
nials, or otherwise merged into colonial
Modern claims that the natives did not
society.
understand what was going on reflect
A myth related to the idea that these ignorance of the documentary record,
people were forced from their lands is or deliberately ignore that record. I do
one suggesting that the Lenape (and not know when the first claims of ignoother Indians) were ignorant of con- rance regarding European land rights
cepts of land ownership. This basically were made, or if they were made by
is a racist view in that it suggests that natives or by non-natives. All fail to
the Indians were uniformly stupid and consider the vast numbers of docuunable to conceptualize land rights ments and make up stories regarding
such as those held by the immigrants. the historical and archaeological reAt best it reflects ignorance of the cords.
changes in land sales over a period of
5. Myth: Disease was a major factor in
more than a century, which can be unthe "demise" of the Lenape.
derstood only through reading the
many deeds in chronological order Reality: Disease had no more impact
(e.g. Kent 1979). People who make on the Lenape than on the colonists (cf.
such claims about ignorant Indians Snow 1995). The popular myth regardhave never read any of the documents. ing disease wiping out the Indians is a
The early land sales from the Lenape racist view suggesting that the native
were for small holdings, and the peoples of the Americas, after many
boundaries are generally as imprecise years of contact with Europeans, reas they are unimportant. The definition mained biologically inferior to the immiof precise borders became a problem grants. This view also depends on the
common throughout the colonies. Even idea that the only Indians are people
the very important and very famous who wear buckskins and feathers or
Mason and Dixons Line was not sur- wampum, and that once natives
veyed until 1763 to 1767. This survey adopted European dress and lifestyles
provided some resolution to border is- they were no longer native. Using the
sues between four colonies; issues that perspective that dress equals culture,
had led a number of conflicts among we may ask what event killed all the
these colonial governments. By the Quakers? The myth of disease, and of
1660s native land sales documents disease ridden blankets (see Becker
generally list precise meets and
(Continued from page 6)

2005) being given to Indians, merits a


study by itself.

6. Myth: Archaeological sites where


large numbers of stone tools are found
represent Lenape villages.
Reality: Archaeological sites in southeastern Pennsylvania and much of the
northeast have a long history, and
many have been reused for thousands
of years (multi-component sites). The
use of these sites by a single family, or
a small band, even only once a year,
for 15,000 years, can easily create
huge collections of stone tools. The
historic Lenape, as a distinct people,
came into being after 1000 CE. These
Lenape, and most of their neighbors,
rapidly shifted to the use of metal tools
after 1600 CE. By 1650 or perhaps as
late as 1660 the Lenape had all but
abandoned the use of stone for making
tools.
Some Notes on What the Lenape
and Their Neighbors were Called:
"Lenni Lenape" is a usage found
largely among historians that can be
traced to the nineteenth century. It was
not and is not in common use by the
Lenape or their descendants. It appears to have derived from a letter from
the Ohio frontier that included a call to
the "real Lenape" who remained behind
in various parts of Pennsylvania to join
their kin in the west. The alliterative
qualities of this designation appear to
be the principal reason that non-native
speakers seem to like this designation.
A related problem is the development
of the common fiction that "Lenape"
and "Delaware" are synonymous.major
native groups have, at one time or another, been glossed as "Delaware": the
Lenape, the Lenopi, and the Munsee.
All three of these groups were collectively called the "River Indians" in the
seventeenth century. All three of these
groups did use the Delaware River as
one part of their respective boundaries.
All three also were foragers, but with
three very differnt foraging strategies
(see Becker 2006a). Even the Sekonese (Ciconicin) chiefdom, the north-

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(Continued from page 7)

ernmost true chiefdom in the Middle


Atlantic Region (see Becker 2004c)
have commonly been called
"Delaware" by amateur historians, and
now are commonly called "Lenape" by

some claimants to native descent from


them.

means "treacherous" or "stealthy" is a


bowdlerization. I'll gladly provide in a
journal article the translation that Nora
More interesting is the Lenape term
Thompson Dean reluctantly offered to
"Minquas" or "Minquasy" [not Minqua]
me many years ago; one that has
to describe the neighboring Susquesasince been confirmed by scholars of
hannock, theof the Susquehannah
the Algonquian languages.
River region. The idea that "Minquas"

A LENAPE CHRONOLOGY
1000 CE: Origins of Lenape culture. Transformation from Middle to Late Woodland cultural tradition. This
is marked by the invention of the bow and arrow and developments of region-specific, intensive foraging
patterns.
1500-1550: Earliest contacts with Europeans; sporadic and minimal direct influence. However, this period
established the basis for the continental pelt trade and the development of the great Susquehannock and Five
Nations Iroquois confederacies.
1623: Susquehannock use routes through Lenape territory to vend pelts to Dutch on the Delaware River.
1638: Swedish colonization of the Delaware Valley has little direct impact on the Lenape. A number of
Swedish colonists have Lenape wives and bilingual children.
1640-1660: Gardening of maize provides a cash crop to be sold before leaving on winter hunting (Becker
1995? ETC.
Land sales and other economic activities provides the Lenape with access to European cloth and
other desired goods.
1650s: Five Nations aggression weakens the Susquehannock, who provide concessions to allies such as the
Lenape. Some Lenape moving west. Traditional bands summering upstream from ancient fishing stations.
1655-1660: New England farmers can sell maize at cheaper rates than Lenape, accelerating Lenape movement west to participate in the pelt trade. Mill dams interfere with fish runs.
1674-75: Five Nations destroys the Susquehannock confederacy, leaving the Lenape as de facto principals in
the pelt trade. Further migration takes place.
1681: Beginning of William Penn land purchases (1681-1701). Penn protects rights to summer fishing stations. Continuing flow of individual Lenape into the colonial population.
1733-35: Last of the Lenape fishing bands shift their summer stations to location along the Susquehanna
River or further west. A small number of Lenape remain at the headwaters of the Schuylkil River, in the
Tulpehocken area, and others live among the colonists.
A few Lenopi move from New Jersey into the Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania, a formerly uninhabited mutual resource area north of Lenape territory.
1800: The last Lenape remaining in their homeland die in the early 1800s. The last colonists who had seen
Lenape living in traditional ways also are dying. This is the period of Quaker missionaries working among the
Seneca.
1830: The publication of Quaker missionary reports describing Seneca lifeways ca. 1800 leads to confusion
as to how the Lenape had lived. Historians ignorant of the fish-oriented Lenape foraging lifestyle describe
generic Indians as being village dwelling, maize planting horticulturalists, such as the Five Nations Iroquois.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 9

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 1

SIX POPULAR MYTHS ABOUT THE LENAPE: A PROGRESS REPORT CONT.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This paper covers a small part of my research on the Lenape as they were during the period 1600 to 1750 that has been
carried out over the past 40 years. These data were included in the symposium Time, Space, and Society in the Eastern
Woodlands organized by Bernard K. Means for 2009 MAAC meetings in Ocean City, MD. My sincere thanks are due to
Prof. Means for his invitation to join this session and for his encouragement to get this information into print.
The kind efforts of many people have contributed to this research over the years. The listing of their names would considerable, but all have contributed to this effort. Special thanks are due Dr. Charles A. Bellow and Dr. Ellen Kintz. Thanks are
also due Mr. and Mrs. Henry Secondine, who were my hosts during my stay in Oklahoma, and to Mrs. Nora Thompson
Dean for her many insightful observations on her people and the people who came to Oklahoma in an attempt to glean
information from her and from others. The important information and guidance of Dr, Sue Roark-Calnek prior to my trip to
Oklahoma was crucial to the success of that trip. The support and encouragement of these people were essential to my
understanding of Lenape culture history. Thanks also are due to Josephine Tay, whose revelations put into perspective the
task faced by scholars in revealing truths that no one wants to hear.
The initial support for this research was provided by a generous grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
That grant produced an enormous amount of information, distilled into a
paper presented (Becker 1983), but never published. My apologies are
due the NEH and all the people involved in this research for my long
delay in putting these data together. My thanks also are due the Congress of the United States of America for the encouragement provided
by the tax laws that support research. Thanks also are due to Denise B.
and Ernest Tyler, and to F. P. and M. E. Gillon for their generous support
of this research`. The ideas presented here, as well as any errors of interpretation or presentation, are entirely the
In memory of:
responsibility of the
Ed
Nizalowski
author.
Jim Northrup
A full list of references
is available from the
Author!

Elynor W. Depue

Beryl Cleary

S R AC M E M B E R S H I P D R I V E C O N T E S T !
From today until our next annual membership meeting at our Drumbeats Through
Time event on October 10, 2009, we are having a membership drive contest. SRAC
members can win huge prizes for referring new members to SRAC!
There will be three top winners in two categories: Most new members referred
and most membership dollars made.
How can YOU win?
1.) You need to be a member.
2.) In order for a referral to count for you in this contest, the new member must write
in that they were referred by you on their membership form.
3.) Download the form at http://www.sracenter.org/Join/MembershipForm.pdf, put
your name on them as the referrer and give them to your friends to join the contest
today!
4.) We will keep track of the new members and referrers in our database. We'll
announce the leaders at different intervals throughout the contest. The top three
winners for both categories will win prizes and will be announced at the annual
event in October!
Stay tuned for more information!
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 1

Archaeology in the News


A New Explanation for the Demise of the Mammoths
The earliest people known to be in North America are
referred to as the Paleo-Indian or Clovis culture, named
after a site in New Mexico where this style of spear point
was first identified. The clovis points are rarely found in our
area and at last count, 7 were known to be found in
Bradford County PA. The Clovis culture lived as hunters
and gatherers, not having an understanding of agriculture
yet. Even more interesting is that their points have been
found in skeletal remains of woolly mammoths and other
huge creatures that died out around 12,900 years ago. It
was until recently presumed that this Clovis culture was the
cause of these huge creatures extinction...but now some
scientists claim that man as well as the huge beasts all
were met with the same horrific event.
In January of 2009, a very interesting yet brief paper was
published that offers a new insight: "Last year a 26-member
team from 16 institutions proposed that a cosmic impact
event, possibly by multiple airbursts of comets, set off a
1,300-year-long cold spell known as the Younger Dryas,
fragmented the prehistoric Clovis culture and led to the
extinction of a large range of animals, including mammoths,
across North America. The team's paper was published in
the Oct. 9, 2007, issue of the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences.
Now, reporting in the Jan. 2 issue of the journal Science, a
team led by the University of Oregon's Douglas J. Kennett,
a member of the original research team, report finding
billions of nanometer-sized diamonds concentrated in

Walter Newton and Ted Keir with 10 foot woolly mammoth tusk
uncovered at Spring Lake, near Wyalusing, PA

sediments -- weighing from about 10 to 2,700 parts per


billion -- in the six locations during digs funded by the
National Science Foundation.
"The nanodiamonds that we found at all six locations exist
only in sediments associated with the Younger Dryas
Boundary layers, not above it or below it," said Kennett, a
UO archaeologist. "These discoveries provide strong
evidence for a cosmic impact event at approximately 12,900
years ago that would have had enormous environmental
consequences for plants, animals and humans across North
America." (Source: ScienceDaily.com)

When Was Corn Domesticated?


Corn (maize) was domesticated from a wild grass called
teosinte that is found in Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua.
This wild grass has been proven to be the origin of
domesticated corn, but the period of when this domestication Students Grinding Corn
occurred has remained elusive.
at an SRAC Event Early
man, the domestica-

By analyzing starch residue in ancient grinding tools and tion of corn and the
charred remains in cooking pots, researchers now claim that
transition from
they have found evidence that corn was being domesticated "hunter/gatherer" to
as much as 8,700 years ago. Even more impressive is that an agricultural society
they have located a rock shelter in Mexico's Central Balsas has been a hot topic in
River Valley that actually yielded evidence of domesticated archaeology for a very
corn and squash.(Anthony Ranere, Dolores Piperno et al. The
long time.
Cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize
and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley,
Mexico. PNAS, March 24, 2009)
But wait a minute....ROCK SHELTER...AGRICULTURAL
SOCIETY? These two terms are not commonly used together!
The people that used rock shelters are commonly referred to as the PaleoIndian/Early Archaic and agriculture is not
thought to have been part of their lifestyle. How this relates to the PaleoIndian/Early Archaic people who lived in our
region will also be an interesting thing to watch for. If anyone has any info on the use of starch analysis in the Northeast,
please send it to SRAC so that we can share it with our readers!
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

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Volume 5, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Archaeology in the News


Cahokia Copper Axe Stolen!
In March 2009, the following news announcement was released by William R.
Iseminger, Asst. Site Manager/Public Relations, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site:
"We recently discovered that a copper celt (axe) had been stolen from one of our
exhibit cases. The thieves apparently were able to compromise the security of the
case at the "Fiber" display. It was solid copper, 5 inches long, 2 inches wide, and 7/8
inch thick. One side had fabric impressions on the surface caused by the copper
oxidizing and incorporating the pattern of the cloth or bag in which it originally had
been wrapped. There was a catalog number on it, 19 x 862. Please keep an eye out
for this axe and if you see it or something similar for sale, please contact us.
This comes at a time when we are understaffed due to budget cuts but we are taking
special steps to make sure all the cases are more secure. Other than some minor
vandalism, this is the first artifact theft at the Interpretive Center in the 20 years since
it opened."

SRAC Gift Shop Volunteers ~ THANK YOU!


SRACs Gift shop has grown immensely but could not be possible without the
wonderful volunteers that have donated hundreds of hours to allow us to be
open Tuesdays through Fridays from 1-5pm and Saturdays from 11-4pm.
Special thanks to:

Mary Ann Taylor


Pat Miran
Mary Keene
Bev Murphy
Nellie Brewster

Ben Borko
Ann Carrigan
Marilyn Weber
Beryl Cleary
Janet Andrus

Would you like tp be a volunteer in our


gift shop? Volunteers who work at
least 7 hours a month get to attend all
of the events each month for free! Call
the Center at (607)565-7960 during
hours of operation for more
information.

Janiak Collection Added to SRAC Exhibits


Recently Valerie Sinsabaugh contacted the Susquehanna
River Archaeological Center (SRAC.) Her parents, Stan
and Barbara Janiak, past residents of the Valley now living
in Myrtle Beach, SC heard about SRAC and wanted to
return their artifact collection to the area. The collection
included 4 cases of arrow and spear points and 2 cases
with hard to find glass trade beads, some from as early as
the 17th century.

To learn more about SRAC visit www.SRACenter.org, call


(607)565-7960 or email info@SRACenter.org.

SRACs Executive Director, Deb Twigg stated, The Janiak


collection is a wonderful addition to the SRAC and it is the
tenth local collection that we have received since our inception. While we have received much larger collections in
the past, this collection is special specifically because of
the glass trade beads that are very hard to find these
days. I want to thank the Janiak family again for donating
these wonderful artifacts because many people would
have sold them for a lot of money instead of considering
their worth as it relates to our history.
The SRAC/Janiak Collection is already on display in the
SRAC Exhibit Hall, which is located at 345 Broad St.,
Waverly, NY and is open from 1-5 pm Tuesday through
Friday and 11am 4pm on Saturday.

Barbara Janiak Displays the SRAC/Janiak Collection

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 12

Volume 5, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

RECENT EVENTS

AT

S R AC

The start of 2009 has been wonderful for SRAC and its membership! We continue to provide the community with many
fun learning opportunities, and the crowds at our events keep growing. The pictures on these two pages are just some
of the special moments weve captured.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 13

Volume 5, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

RECENT EVENTS

AT

S R AC

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 1

S RAC IS HEADLINE R OF THE WINTER 2009 NYSA A


NEWSLETTER

Contact Us!

Our Headquarters
Mail:
SRAC
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840
Phone:
607607-727727-3111
Email:
info@SRACenter.org

SRAC was honored to be the lead story in the New York State Archaeology (NYSAA)
Winter 2009 Newsletter. The article can be read online by visiting the NYSAA website at
nysaaweb.bfn.org/publications.shtml.

Our Center
Location:
345 Broad St.
Waverly, NY

The NYSAA is a non-profit organization composed of people interested in various phases


of archaeology in New York State. Founded in 1916 and chartered in 1927 by the Board of
Regents of the State of New York, NYSAA is a nonprofit organization composed of 15
chapters and a world-wide membership-at-large. All who are devoted to historic and prehistoric archaeology are invited to join.

Phone:
607607-565565-7960
Website:
SRACenter.org
Online Giftshop:
SRACenter.org/store
Online Membership:
SRACenter.org/join
SRAC Blog:
SRACenter.blogspot.com
Online Donations:
SRACenter.org/donations
Mobile Website:
SRACenter.org/mobile

Several of our members are members of the Tri-Cities Chapter of the NYSAA as well.
NYSAA functions are:
to vigorously promote research into the lifestyles of the early inhabitants of New York
State with an emphasis toward cultural preservation, to participate in excavations when
necessary to preserve threatened historic and pre-historic habitats, to interpret
excavated cultures in a shared environment by lecture or publication in one of many
scholarly journals, and to promote that environment by hosting an annual conference in
one of the 15 communities within which NYSAA chapters are located and by publishing
"The Bulletin" which is the annual journal of NYSAA.

S R AC S P O N S O R S H I P B OA R D
Be on the lookout for a new addition to the exterior of
the SRAC building at 345 Broad Street in Waverly,
NY. SRAC has decided to offer a sponsorship board
to organization sponsors in our banner program that
will honor them by placing their organization banner
on our sponsor board for different lengths of time
based on their level of sponsorship.
The SRAC Sponsorship board area will be on the
upper space of the Center at 345 Broad Street,
Waverly, NY that faces eastward.Please contact
SRAC executive director, Deb Twigg at (607)7273111 for more information.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 15

Volume 5, Issue 1

THE SRAC JOURNAL

SHS SENIOR VOLUNTEER ARTIST


Sayre High School senior and active volunteer at SRAC, Daran
Carlin Weber, has received many awards for his artwork over the
years, and even has full length animated movies online. He has also
put in many hours as a volunteer at SRAC, from manning the gift
shop to using his art skills. As an artist, Daran has created caricatures at several SRAC events and his latest endeavor is to create a
huge mural from approximately 20 smaller maps. This mural is located in the SRAC Exhibit Hall and shows many of the known Native
American sites in the region that SRAC is involved with preserving
evidence from. SRAC would like to thank Daran for all of the hard
work he has done for SRAC, and wishes him well in his endeavors at
college in the coming years. We will miss you!
Daran With One of His Caricature Customers

Daran Working on the Mural Map


Large Mural Map Located in SRAC Exhibit Hall

Special thanks to
John Margetanski
for taking event
photos for SRAC!

Stanley Vanderlaan

Arnolds Excavating

RECENT CONTRIBUTORS TO SRAC


Special thanks to the following for
their support:

William J. Inman & Lucia A.


Inman Fund
Dandy Mini Marts
Triple Cities NYS Archaeological Association
Janet Andrus
Guthrie Health

Sandy Campbell
Stan Vanderlaan
Ed Nizalowski
Arnolds Excavating
Beryl Cleary
Elynor Depue
Harley Mayo

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 16

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 1

PLEASE CONSIDER SPONSORING THE SRAC JOURNAL WITH YOUR CONTRIBUTUION AT ONE OF
THE LEVELS LISTED BELOW.
Many of you are familiar with our quarterly journal, and the quality and volume of educational information we try to bring to the community throughout the year. In fact our range of readership includes high school students to retired persons as well as professional scientists and local universities. The journal has grown into a well read and respected publication; and we hope that it will continue to grow
and be a resource of educational and entertaining material for years to come. Obviously, with this continued growth not only in content
and pages but distribution, there are added costs associated. For this reason, we have decided to offer sponsorship by local individuals, families, and businesses who want to help us in our efforts. We currently publish and distribute 1,000 copies each quarter ~ that's
currently 4,000 copies each year, with our coverage mainly in Bradford County PA and Tioga and Chemung Counties in NY, but we
have readership that reaches far beyond these boundaries as well.
How Can You Become a Sponsor?
1.) Choose your level of sponsorship and how many issues you would like to sponsor below. If you
would like to sponsor multiple quarterly journals (4 per year) or even a whole year, just multiply the
sponsorship level.
2.) Tell us what you would like us to print
3.) Include your check along with this completed form.
Thank you for being an active supporter of this worthy cause!

THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF SPONSORSHIP LEVELS WITH FORMATS AND APPROXIMATE SIZES.
Platinum $500.00 Our top level of sponsorship! With your donation of $500 you will be facilitating 1,000

copies of one quarterly journal. Your donation will be recognized with a full half-page gray-scale or black and
white ad that can measure up to 7 1/2 wide by 5 tall. (Sorry, but we can accept only one Platinum sponsor
per issue; however, you can reserve for future issues.) Please email artwork and text you wish included to
sfogel@hughes.net.

Gold

$100.00

Silver

$50.00

Sup-

porter
$25.00

Friend

$10.00

The Leadership Company


234 Main Street
Your Town, USA
555555-123123-4321

The Hollowell Family


Jan, Christy
Ryan, Allison, and Tommy

Please circle the level of sponsorship you wish to make; and


indicate what you would like your sponsor recognition to say in
the space below..anything you like!
LINE 1

LINE 2

LINE 3

LINE 4
(Limit lines to 35 characters. Gold level can include logo if space
allows. Please email logos to sfogel@hughes.net.)

The Johnson Family


In loving memory of our dad John

The Lucky Penny Club

Send check along with this form to:


For additional information call Deb
Twigg at 607-727-3111 or email
Info@SRACenter.org

SRAC
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 17

THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 1

Visit Us at SRAC
Gift Shop and Exhibit Hall Open:
Tuesday through Friday 1:00 - 5:00pm
Saturday 11:00 - 4:00pm
Call 607-565-7960 during business
hours for more info.
345 Broad Street, Waverly NY
T H E S R AC B OA R D O F D I R E C T O R S

Deb Twigg

Tom Vallilee

Dick Cowles

Janet Andrus

Ted Keir

Mary Ann Taylor

Susan Fogel

Mark Madill

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org

Page 18

THE SRAC JOURNAL

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies


PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840

Volume 5, Issue 1

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The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org