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Homework 12: IDP.

Due Tuesday November 25 at 5:00 PM


Complete problems 5.1, 5.4, 5.7, and 5.10.
Instructions for these problems
1. Please make sure to follow all homework guidelines.
2. Please do not staple problems together, we will once again turn problems in, in four
separate stacks. If more then one page is used on a given problem, please staple these
together.
3. For all problems you must print out at least the sheet with the links separated and do your FBDs on this.
4. For all problems, you may neglect the forces due to gravity.
5. For problems 5.1, 5.4, and 5.7, make sure to follow all instructions stated in the book.
If there are any discrepancies between the book and the PDF posted on Sakai, follow
what the book says.
6. For problem 5.10, please follow the instruction in the PDF posted on Sakai, not
the book. I believe that these instructions are more straight forward and make the
problem easier.

Chapter 5

Machine Dynamics Part I: The


Inverse Dynamics Problem Homework Problems
Problem 5.1
The input to the machine below is 2 . The values of 2 , 2 and 2 are known, i.e. the state of
motion is known. The load torque, T5 , is known. This is a two loop mechanism.
The figure shows appropriate vector loops. There are two vector loop equations,
r2 + r3 + r4 r5 + r1 = 0
r8 r7 r6 r5 + r1 = 0
and three geometric constraints,
8 + 2 = 0
6 + ( ) 4 = 0

and 6 + 7 = 0
2
With
scalar knowns: r1 , 1 = , r2 , r3 , r4 , r5 , r6 , r8 , , .
and
scalar unknowns: 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , r7 , 7 , 8 .
With seven equations in eight unknowns there is 1 degree-of-freedom. Take 2 as Si .
The figure below defines the locations of the mass centers. vectors r9 , r10 , r11 , r12 and angles 2
and 4 are known.
The inertias, m2 , Ig2 , m3 , Ig3 , m4 , Ig4 and m5 , Ig5 are known.
Assume that steps 1-4 in Example ?? are completed. You should complete Steps 5 and 6 here
and derive a system of equations in matrix form which could be solved for the magnitude of the
driving torque, T2 and all the bearing forces. The following figures are for your free body diagrams.
For link 2 sum moments about point A.
For link 3 sum moments about point B.
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F
T5

C
3
E

X
2
T2

A
r1
1

r4

r3

r5

r6
r2

r7

r8

fig501

Figure 5.1: The machine to be analyzed and its vector loop

For link 4 sum moments about point E.


For link 5 sum moments about point F .
For each moment equation specify which unknowns were eliminated by summing moments about
the designated point versus summing moments about the mass center.

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r12

G5

C
r3 G3

r5
r4

r10

B
r2
2

G4

r11

G2
D

r9

A
fig501a

Figure 5.2: Definition of inertia properties

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C
E

G4

F
5

D
C

G3

G5
3
B

E
B

G2

D
fig501b

Figure 5.3: Free body diagrams

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Problem 5.4
The machine below is a scissor jack. It is commonly used to lift an automobile in order to change
is a known weight of the automobile. F is the driving force. This force is usually
a flat tire. W
developed through a screw which is turned by the operator of the jack.
This is a two loop mechanism. The right side shows two appropriate vector loops.

r5

r3

r2

r4

r6

r7

X
r1

fig205d

Figure 5.10: A scissor jack

The mechanisms vector loop equations and geometric constraints are,


r1 + r4 + r3 r2 = 0 and r1 + r7 r6 = 0
2 6 = 0 and 4 7 = 0.
Together these comprise 6 scalar equations with
scalar knowns: 1 , r2 , r3 , r4 , r6 , r7 and
scalar unknowns: r1 , 2 , r3 , 3 , 4 , 6 and 7 .
You may assume that r2 = r4 = R and r6 = r7 = r (realize that this would only be true to a certain
tolerance) in which case unknown 3 = 0 and is constant.
The system has one dof. Suppose that r1 is a given input and that r1 and r1 are known (i.e.
the state of motion is known). The weight being lifted is large and it is being lifted very slowly.
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This means that it is reasonable to neglect inertia eects. Likewise, the weights of the links are
significantly less than weight W and they can also be neglected.
Suppose that steps 1-4 in example ?? have been completed. Complete steps 5 and 6 to derive
all equations necessary in order to compute F and the bearing forces in terms of the prescribed W ,
link lengths and state of motion. Present all systems of equations in matrix form.
The following figure is for your free body diagrams. For your moment equations please sum moments
as stated:
for link 2 sum moments about the point B,
for link 3 sum moments about the point C and
for link 4 sum moments about the point A.
3
C

fig205e

4
2

A
Figure 5.11: Free body diagrams

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Problem 5.7
applied to link 2 is unknown. The
The load P applied to link 4 is known. The driving torque Q
figure shows locations of mass centers. Inertia properties of all links are known.

G4

r7
3
G3

r4

1
3
r5
r1
G2
2
r6
Y

r3

A
X
r2

fig505

Figure 5.17: A machine


The mechanisms vector loops and geometric constraint are,
r2 r3 r4 r1 = 0 , r6 r5 r4 r1 = 0 , 3 5 = 0,
so there are 5 scalar position equations with
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scalar knowns: r1 , 1 , 4 , r6 , 6 , r2 and


scalar unknowns: r4 , r5 , 5 , r3 , 3 and 2 .
and there is one degree of freedom. Suppose the state of motion, 2 , 2 and 2 is known and steps
1-4 in Example ?? are completed. Complete Steps 5 and 6 here and derive a system of equations in
and all the bearing
matrix form which could be solved for the magnitude of the driving torque, Q
forces. For link 2 sum moments about G2 , for link 3 sum moments about C and for link 4 sum
moments about G4
4

G4

C
3

G2

fig505a

Figure 5.18: Free body diagrams

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G3

Problem 5.10
The machine below moves slowly. The load F3 is known and is an order of magnitude larger than
the weight of any link. An appropriate vector loop is shown on the following page. The vector loop
equation, r1 + r2 r3 =
0 has 2 scalar components and
scalar knowns: 1 , 2 , r3 and
scalar unknowns: r1 , r2 and 3 ,
so it has one degree of freedom. Suppose the angular position, velocity and acceleration of link 2
are known and steps 1-4 in example ?? have been completed. Complete steps 5 and 6 in Example
?? and derive and system of equations in matrix form which could be used to compute T2 .
In your free body diagrams, model the force between 1 and 3 as a force with unknown line of
action, like in example ??, where the force between 1 and 4, F14 , has an unknown line of action
determined by the magnitude of r9 .
Do you notice anything odd when you do this? Please discuss.
1

3
F3

r4
2

fig524

+
1

Figure 5.24: A machine

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T2

r2

r3

r1

Y
fig524a

+
X

Figure 5.25: The vector loop

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3
F3
Y
B
+

r4

r1

fig524b

+ A
T2
Figure 5.26: Free body diagrams

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