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**MATH MADE A BIT EASIER WORKBOOK
**

Practice Exercises, Self-Tests, and Review

LARRY ZAFRAN

Self-published by author via CreateSpace Available for purchase exclusively on Amazon.com

MATH MADE A BIT EASIER WORKBOOK: Practice Exercises, Self-Tests, and Review Copyright © 2009 by Larry Zafran Self published by author via CreateSpace Available for purchase exclusively on Amazon.com All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Book design by Larry Zafran Printed in the United States of America First Edition printing December 2009 ISBN-10: 1-4495-9287-2 ISBN-13: 978-1-44-959287-5 Please visit the companion website below for additional information, to ask questions about the material, to leave feedback, or to contact the author for any purpose. www.MathWithLarry.com

CONTENTS

CHAPTER ZERO .................................................... 7 Introduction CHAPTER ONE .................................................... 15 Is Math Hard, and If So, Why? Goal-Setting & Assessment Self-Test ................ 23 CHAPTER TWO ................................................... 29 The Foundation of Math: Basic Skills in Arithmetic CHAPTER THREE ................................................ 39 Basic Math Topics and Operations CHAPTER FOUR .................................................. 47 Working with Negative Numbers CHAPTER FIVE ................................................... 53 Basic Operations with Fractions (+, –, ×, ÷) CHAPTER SIX ...................................................... 57 More About Fractions

CHAPTER SEVEN ............................................... 65 Other Topics in Fractions CHAPTER EIGHT ................................................ 71 The Metric System, Unit Conversion, Proportions, Rates, Ratios, Scale CHAPTER NINE .................................................. 79 Working with Decimals CHAPTER NINE AND FIVE-TENTHS .............. 83 More Topics in Decimals CHAPTER TEN .................................................... 89 Working with Percents CHAPTER ELEVEN ............................................. 99 Basic Probability and Statistics CHAPTER TWELVE........................................... 105 How to Study and Learn Math, and Improve Scores on Exams End-of-Book Self-Test ....................................... 111 Answers to Exercises and Self-Tests ................ 119 About the Author & Companion Website ....... 143

CHAPTER ZERO

INTRODUCTION

ABOUT THE MATH MADE A BIT EASIER SERIES This is the second book in the self-published Math Made a Bit Easier series which will be comprised of at least nine books. The goal of the series is to explain math "in plain English" as noted in the subtitle of the first book. The series also attempts to explain the truth about why students struggle with math, and what can be done to remedy the situation. To write with such candidness is only really possible as a totally independent author. Unlike many commercial math books, this series does not imply that learning math is fast, fun, or easy. It requires time and effort on the part of the student. It also requires that the student be able to remain humble as s/he uncovers and fills in all of his/her math gaps. THE PURPOSE OF THIS BOOK The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with the means to review, practice, and quiz him/herself on 7

MATH MADE A BIT EASIER W ORKBOOK: P R A C T I C E E XE R C I S E S , S E L F - T E S T S , A N D R E V I E W

what s/he has learned in the first book of the series (Math Made a Bit Easier: Basic Math Explained in Plain English, ISBN 1449565107, available exclusively on Amazon.com). The book includes two comprehensive self-tests for the reader to assess his/her mastery of the math concepts. It also includes tips for getting oneself into the optimal mindset to effectively study math and take exams. HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED This book is directly aligned with the first book in the series. Following this introduction, the book offers some exercises for practicing and implementing the ideas that were presented in Chapter One of the first book entitled, "Is Math Hard, and If So, Why?" Before the start of the actual math content, the book presents a self-assessment test which the reader can use as a means of goal-setting for working through the rest of the book. This may be a frustrating and humbling experience, but it is a necessary step on the path toward math being easier for you. Chapters Two through Eleven correspond directly to the chapters of the same names in the first book. Each chapter includes practice exercises and a review of concepts that should be memorized. Some of the ques8

INTRODUCTION

tions are meant to be answered by way of a definition or short explanation. For these questions it is not essential that your answer exactly match the one in the answer key. It is only important for you to demonstrate that you fully understand the concept being practiced. At the end of the math content chapters there is an endof-book exam that the reader can take for additional practice. Aside from the changing of numbers and the order of the questions, it is almost the same as the pretest. The goal, of course, is for problems which proved difficult on the pre-test to be easier on the post-test. Chapter Twelve focuses on how to study and learn math, and improve scores on exams. Some mental exercises are offered which the reader can use to practice the concepts from the corresponding chapter in the first book. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK FOR SELF-STUDY This book was designed to be used in conjunction with the first book in the series which can be viewed in its entirety for free on Google Books if you are unable or choose not to purchase it. I decided that it would be most effective to write the first book in a conversational tone as opposed to turning it into a textbook or commercialized workbook. 9

MATH MADE A BIT EASIER W ORKBOOK: P R A C T I C E E XE R C I S E S , S E L F - T E S T S , A N D R E V I E W

As mentioned in the first book, the best way to study is to make up your own examples modeled after the sample ones provided. Just constantly ask yourself questions such as, "What if that number had been that instead?" or "What if that positive had been a negative?" Go out of your way to "trip yourself up" instead of waiting for that to happen on an exam. With that said, many students are just not inclined to make up their own examples, or are concerned that their examples are not representative of what they may face on an exam. This book attempts to address that concern. As you solve each problem in this book, it is essential that you constantly think about what you are doing. Don't take any "stabs in the dark" followed by checking the answer key to see how your attempt turned out. Your goal is to learn and master the concepts. Remember, the book is yours, and no one is grading you or looking over your shoulder. Progress through the material as slowly as you need to, and go back and review to the extent that is necessary. It is essential that you avoid grading yourself on the exercises or exams and say, "I got 65, good, I passed." That mindset is the root of the entire reason why stu-

10

INTRODUCTION

dents struggle with math. Not only should you aim to answer every question in the book correctly, but your goal should be to do so with confidence. You should get to the point where you can clearly explain to someone else why your correct answers are correct, and why your wrong answers were wrong. That is what it means to truly know the material and face exams with confidence. To get the most benefit from this book, do not work on the problems in any section which you have recently reviewed in the main book. Allow at least a day or two to pass so that you can assess whether you are truly retaining the concepts, and whether you have internalized them. Don't get into the pattern of mindlessly solving problems by rote, or by "spitting back," information that you just saw a moment ago. Try your best to solve each problem in this book without resorting to any type of hints, whether by referring to the main book, or by working backwards after having seen the answer, or by asking someone for help. It is essential to understand that even the slightest hint is robbing you of being able to practice thinking about the material. Try to simulate typical exam conditions as much as you can. As you work through this book, remember that you can e-mail me if you have questions or comments. Take 11

MATH MADE A BIT EASIER W ORKBOOK: P R A C T I C E E XE R C I S E S , S E L F - T E S T S , A N D R E V I E W

advantage of this opportunity, and don't move past any concept that is not fully clear to you. A huge component of why students struggle with math is the mindset of, "I'll just move on and get back to this later." Math simply doesn't work that way. It must be learned step by step. A NOTE ABOUT ERRORS / TYPOS IN MATH BOOKS Virtually all books go to print with some undiscovered errors or typos. Math books are especially prone to this. Unfortunately, many commercial publishers rush to get their books on the shelf before their competitors, resulting in an even greater number of errors. When studying from any math book, don't assume that the book is flawless. This is especially important when checking your answers in an answer key. While it's possible that you made a careless error, or misunderstood a question, or got tricked by a "trick" question, it's also possible that the editor typed "C" instead of "B," or misinterpreted a handwritten negative sign or decimal point. If you're finding yourself in doubt about a question, try to speak with someone before giving up in frustration. You can also contact me for this purpose. Many publishers are confident enough to include an errata section on their website where they list errors in 12

INTRODUCTION

their books that weren't caught before publication. If a publisher doesn't do that, there is no harm in e-mailing the company with your question or concern. In the case of this book and all other books in the series, any errors discovered after publication will be noted and explained on my website. I also offer free copies of my books to anyone who catches and informs me of a major error. THE BOOK’S POSITION ON CALCULATOR USE As described in the first book, this book takes a realistic and modern position on calculator use. Unless an exercise in this book specifically states to not use a calculator, you should feel free to use one unless you are studying for an exam which does not allow their use. All of your effort should be to master the concepts being taught. If you do not fully understand a concept, not only will the use of a calculator not help you, it will almost certainly hinder you. THE BOOK’S POSITION ON WORD PROBLEMS As described in the first book, it is inefficient to prepare for word problems on an exam by repeatedly reading and solving a handful of sample word problems in a book. The word problems you face on an exam will

13

almost certainly be different, and changing even one word can drastically alter an entire problem. The only way to prepare for word problems is to make sure that you have fully mastered all of the topics that you will be tested on. Of course it is essential that you become a skilled and careful reader, but that is something that cannot be learned from a book. That is something which simply has to develop over time. It is also important to develop good test-taking skills in general which is discussed in Chapter Twelve. HOW TO GET MORE HELP ON A TOPIC I maintain a free math website with extensive content including the means for students to e-mail their math questions. That will continue with the publication of this series, although I'm working to redesign the website to better align it with the series. The old content will still be available, and new content will be added as students ask questions or make comments about the books. My goal is for the website to serve as an interactive companion to the series so that students’ questions can be addressed. The website and my question-answering service will continue to be free for all. The address is www.MathWithLarry.com. 14

CHAPTER ONE

**Is Math Hard, and If So, Why?
**

TAKING INVENTORY OF YOUR MATH HISTORY If you are reading this book, you are probably of the opinion that "math is hard." If you want math to start being a bit easier, you will need to go through the therapeutic exercise of taking inventory of your math history. This has the potential to be a very painful experience, and may bring up sensitive matters that you have either repressed, or have never given much thought to. This is a very personal exercise, and is no one's business but your own unless you'd like to e-mail me and share anything that is on your mind. Try to recall your very earliest memories, and think about how you felt about math at that time. Did you watch children's learning programs on TV and have fun counting along with the furry characters on the screen? Do you remember arranging blocks or counters in 15

various patterns?

Did you have any strong feelings

about numbers or math at that time? Everyone will have a different answer to these questions. Just think about them and see what comes up for you. Continue sifting through your memories to kindergarten and the lower grades. What was math like at that time? It is rare for a kindergartener to proclaim that "math is hard." If anything, most say that "numbers are fun," but that may not have been your experience. See if you can get a clear picture of when exactly the trouble started. When did you start scratching your head in confusion, or first use the phrase, "I hate math!" or "I don't get it?" When did you start getting lower grades than you were hoping for? For many students the trouble sets in at roughly the third grade, but everyone is different. Just see what you come up with. Some readers will know right away what the root of the problem is. Perhaps you had an awful math teacher in elementary school who either didn't know the material him/herself, or didn't know how to convey it, or was condescending to you. Perhaps you were the victim of gender-based discrimination. Perhaps your family presented math in a bad light because of their own 16

I S M A T H H A R D , A N D I F S O , W HY ?

experiences with the subject. Perhaps none of those things applied at all, or perhaps you're just not certain, and all of your memories on the matter or a blur or locked away in a place that you aren't willing to go to just now. Just keep thinking about it as best as you can. Doing this exercise will not magically make math any easier for you. What it will do, though, is give you a starting point from which to move forward. It is said that you can't know where you are going if you don't know where you have been. Once you have a better idea of your personal history with math, it will be easier to make goals for yourself since you will understand precisely what struggles you are up against. ASSESSING AND ACCEPTING YOUR CURRENT MATH ABILITY LEVEL Another aspect of overcoming the struggle with math is the ability to assess and accept your current math ability level. For most students this will come as a huge blow to their ego. It is possible that you will take the assessment pre-test in this book, and realize that you can barely answer one question, let alone with complete confidence. This will especially not sit well if you earned passing or even high math grades throughout elementary and

17

middle school, and cannot make sense of why you're having so much trouble now. What is important is to bring yourself to the point where you can honestly assess and accept your current knowledge and ability level. There is no need to assign a grade or a grade level to the matter. What is important is to determine the appropriate starting point. For most students, the appropriate starting point is at the beginning. That is not at all to say that you must return to the first grade and sit through twelve years of schooling. It just means that by starting your review of math at the beginning, you can fill in all of the gaps in material which were never addressed. As you do this, math will slowly become easier and easier. IS THE TIMETABLE FOR YOUR GOALS REALISTIC? The most common e-mail that I get from prospective tutoring clients is to the effect of, "I'm scheduled to take my GED exam in two weeks, and I absolutely have to pass it but I really suck at math. Can you fit me in for one or two sessions before my exam?" As you may guess, I do not take on such clients regardless of my availability or how much money they are willing to pay me.

18

I S M A T H H A R D , A N D I F S O , W HY ?

In order to end the pattern of struggling with math, it is important to have a very realistic timetable for your goals. Since every student is different, it is impossible to offer any specific or personalized timetables on the matter. However, a few points are worth mentioning. First of all, if you are willing to study effectively and diligently, it won't take you "years and years" to achieve your math goals no matter how far behind you are or think you are. There is very little material covered in a typical school math lesson, and much of the material is repeated and reviewed year after year. For most students there is not an insurmountable material to learn. With that said, if you are struggling with math, it is preposterous to think that taking one or two last-minute sessions with a tutor will somehow make any difference. If anything, those sessions will only serve to confuse and fluster you, because you will quickly realize the extent to which you are unprepared for your exam. Based on my experience, a typical secondary school or adult student requires about six to twelve months of dedicated study to "catch up" in math to the point where they feel prepared for whatever exams or coursework they are facing. If such a student wishes to work with a 19

private tutor, the student must plan on taking at least two sessions per week, with those sessions being used for systemically progressing through a well-planned roadmap of the material. As mentioned, everyone is different. The point is that if you do not have a realistic time table for your goals, you will just end up wasting your time and money on whatever help you may seek out, and you will become very frustrated in the process. Most people want to achieve their goals in a manner that is fast, fun, and easy, but math just doesn't work like that. At some level you probably accept that, otherwise you would not still be reading this book. Try to come up with a realistic timetable for your goals either on your own or with the guidance of a tutor. It is unlikely that your life is going to change that much if you postpone an exam for a relatively short amount of time to ensure that you get the help that you need to succeed on it. DO YOU HAVE A REALISTIC STUDY PLAN? To end the pattern of struggling with math, you will need to have a realistic study plan, and you will need to stick to it. One of the main reasons why I wrote this

20

I S M A T H H A R D , A N D I F S O , W HY ?

series of books is so that students will have an organized and well-planned roadmap that they can follow on the path to success with math. By systematically working through the books, you will avoid the trap of studying in a haphazard manner without filling in your gaps. The concern, then, is making sure that you have the time, energy, and environment necessary for effective study. If you come home after a long, hard day of work to a noisy and chaotic home with chores waiting for you, don't fool yourself into thinking that you will be able to do extensive work on your math. It just will not happen. Also don't fool yourself into thinking that it will make a huge difference if you sit for two or three minutes each day flipping through the pages of this or any other book. Everyone's life circumstances are different, but the last thing you need is to allow math to frustrate you more than it probably already does. Don't even attempt to study unless you have a quiet environment, and some minimal quality time and energy to devote to it.

21

**Goal-Setting & Assessment Self-Test
**

Take this self-test after you have read the first book, but not immediately after. Use it to determine how much of the material you are retaining, and what concepts you haven't yet fully internalized. Don't be concerned about how many questions you get right or wrong. Just make sure that you understand why the right answers are right and why the wrong answers are wrong. After completing this test and checking your answers, proceed with the exercises in this book with an emphasis on the topics that you either forgot or had trouble with. Refer back to the first book for review as needed. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Which basic operations are not commutative? Find the product of 4 and 6 Find the sum of 7 and 8 List the first 10 multiples of 7 Compute 71 ÷ 9 in mixed number format Is the number 791,350 even or odd? What is the result of multiplying an even times an odd number? (Even or Odd) 23

8) 9)

Insert "<" or ">": 73,001 72,999 Evaluate 6 × [10 ÷ (4 + 1)]

10) Is 2 a composite number? Why? 11) Write "Nine billion, five hundred three million, forty thousand seventeen" as a number 12) Round 27,815 to the nearest hundred 13) Round 139,501 to the nearest thousand 14) Evaluate: 121. Include both roots. 15) Write "Two hundred three and fifty-nine hundredths" as a number 16) Insert "<" or ">": 5.99999 6.18 17) Insert "<" or ">": 0.29 0.2876 18) Convert to a fraction: 0.021 19) Convert 2/7 to a decimal (round to the nearest hundredth) 20) Convert to a decimal by hand: 3/25 21) Convert to a decimal: 1/3 22) True/False: 0.7 = .7 = 0.70 23) True/False: 0.9 is a repeating decimal. 24) Insert "<" or ">" (no calculator): 6/25 26) Multiply (no calculator): 7.23 × 1000 27) Divide (no calculator): 12.3 ÷ 10,000 28) Round 12.3456 to the nearest hundredth 29) Round 79.9912 to the nearest tenth 30) Express 1,234,000,000 in scientific notation 24 251/500 541/803 25) Insert "<" or ">" (use calculator): 425/639

GOAL-SETTING & ASSESSMENT SELF -TEST

31) Express 7.89 × 10−5 in standard notation 32) Convert 14% to a reduced fraction 33) Convert 107% to a decimal 34) Convert 0.567 to a percent 35) Convert 11/17 to a percent (round to nearest tenth) 36) Convert 3/50 to a percent (don't use calculator) 37) Convert 0.07% to a decimal 38) Compute the percent of change from 23 to 37 (round to the nearest tenth of a percent) 39) How much money will you save on a $29.95 item during a "30% Off" sale? 40) What will a person's monthly rent be after a 2.7% increase if it is currently $817? 41) What is the cost including tax on a $195 item if the tax rate is 8.25%? 42) What percent of 87 is 35? Round to the nearest tenth. 43) What is the reciprocal of 7/11? 44) Convert 7 ¼ to an improper fraction. 45) How is a millimeter related to a meter? 46) Apples are being sold at the rate of 34 apples for $19. How much does one apple cost at that rate? 47) Convert 102 inches to feet 48) Solve for the unknown value: 49) Simplify to a single fraction: ( tenth): 27, 94, 85, 0, 62 25

3 12 = ? 7 3 )/8 7

50) Find the mean of this list (rounded to the nearest

51) Find the median of this list: 36, 7, 7, 12, 12 52) Find the median of this list: 108, 92, 86, 84, 72, 61 53) Find the mode of this list: 17, 12, 38, 45, 12, 91, 38 54) Find the mode of this list: 1, 2, 7, 4, 5 55) Find the range of this list: 78, 50, 32, 19, 42 56) Find the probability of rolling a 5 or 6 on a single roll of one standard die 57) Find the probability of rolling a 7 on a single roll of one standard die 58) What are the chances that a flipped fair coin will land on heads or tails? 59) If there is a 3/20 chance that it will rain tomorrow, what is the chance that it will not rain? 60) In an experiment comprised of a coin toss followed by a roll of a single die, what is the probability of flipping heads and rolling a 3? 61) An urn has 3 red marbles and 5 blue marbles. Find the probability of drawing a red marble followed by a blue marble, with replacement. 62) An urn has 4 red marbles and 6 blue marbles. Find the probability of drawing a blue marble followed by a blue marble, without replacement. 63) A man has three shirts, four pairs of pants, and five ties. How many different outfits comprised of a shirt, a pair of pants, and a tie can he create? 64) Convert 17 to an equivalent fraction. 26

GOAL-SETTING & ASSESSMENT SELF -TEST

65) What is the GCF of 4 and 6? 66) What is the LCM of 20 and 30? 67) Reduce 3/17 to lowest terms 68) Multiply: 4 × 69) Add:

1 2 2 9

85) Compute: 4 + (-7) 86) Compute: (-8) + (-6) 87) Compute: 3 – 10

+3

14 21 11 12 −2 −7 −3 5

1 30 45 13 14 2 7 3 −5

**70) True/False: 71) True/False: 72) True/False: 73) True/False: 74) Add:
**

5 13

= = = =

88) Compute: (-4) – 2 89) Compute: (-5) – (-1) 90) Compute: (-9) × 6 91) Compute (-5) × (-8) 92) Compute: 20 ÷ (-5) 93) Compute: (-8) ÷ (-2) 94) Evaluate: (−4)2 95) Evaluate: −4

+

7 13 2 7

**75) Multiply: 76) Divide:
**

4 5

×

5

3 5

96) Evaluate: 34 97) Evaluate: |8| 98) Evaluate: |(-3) – 4| 99) List the factors of 46 100) List the factors of 23 101) Is 27 prime? Why? 102) Compute: 0 ÷ 23 103) Compute: 2 ÷ 0 104) What is 3 squared? 105) What is 71% of 539? (round to the nearest whole number) 27

÷4

524 839

77) Multiply:

×

839 524

78) Compute 37 + 89 79) Compute 81 - 25 80) Define: Integer. 81) Evaluate 91 82) Evaluate 64 83) Evaluate 3 + 4 × 2 84) Evaluate 8 – 5 + 1

CHAPTER TWO

**The Foundation of Math: Basic Skills in Arithmetic
**

ADDING SINGLE-DIGIT NUMBERS 1) When we add numbers, what do we call the result? 2) Is addition commutative? Support with an example. 3) What happens when we add 0 to a number? Practice adding single-digit numbers together until you can do so easily. The best way to do this is by using either store-bought or homemade flashcards. Here are some exercises to quiz yourself. 4) 8 + 7 5) 6 + 6 6) 3 + 8 7) 5 + 0 8) 4 + 5 9) 2 + 8 10) 7 + 4 11) 1 + 9 12) 8 + 8

A "TRICK" FOR ADDING 9 TO A NUMBER In the main book we learned that we can rearrange addition problems by regrouping the items to be added. For example, instead of computing 9 + 7, we can move 29

one of the items from the second group into the first group, thereby making the problem into 10 + 6 which is equivalent and easier. Try using that technique for the following addition problems. 13) 9 + 7 14) 6 + 9 15) 3 + 9 16) 9 + 0 17) 4 + 9 18) 2 + 9 19) 1 + 9 20) 9 + 9 21) 8 + 9

SUBTRACTING SINGLE-DIGIT NUMBERS 22) What is the answer called in a subtraction problem? 23) Is subtraction commutative? Support with an example. 24) What happens when we subtract 0 from a number? 25) Does the above trick about adding 9 to a number also apply to subtraction? Why or why not? As with addition, use homemade or store-bought flashcards to practice basic subtraction facts. For now we'll stick to problems in which we don't subtract a larger number from a smaller one. Here are some exercises to practice and quiz yourself. 26) 9 – 7 27) 8 – 8 28) 7 – 5 29) 0 – 0 30) 6 – 5 31) 8 – 4 32) 8 – 7 33) 7 – 4 34) 9 – 0

30

THE FOUNDATION OF MA TH: BASIC SKILLS IN ARITHMETI C

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION ARE OPPOSITES Remember: Addition and subtraction are inverse operations. This means is that they “undo” each other. When computing a subtraction problem, it is sometimes best to look at the problem in reverse, and ask yourself what number you must add to the second number in order to get back to the first number. For example, instead of computing 8 – 5, you could ask yourself what number you must add to 5 in order to get back to 8. For practice, redo the previous exercises but compute the related addition problem for each one as described. MULTIPLYING SINGLE-DIGIT NUMBERS 35) What is the answer called in a multiplication problem? 36) Is multiplication commutative? Support with an example. 37) What is multiplication a shortcut for? 38) What do we get when we multiply a number times 0? 39) What do we get when we multiply a number times 1? 40) How do we compute the positive multiples of a number? For practice, list the first 12 multiples of each number in the following exercises. If you need help with the larger numbers and larger multiples, see the section on twodigit addition later in this chapter. 31

Multiples of 1: ____________________________________ Multiples of 2: ____________________________________ Multiples of 3: ____________________________________ Multiples of 4: ____________________________________ Multiples of 5: ____________________________________ Multiples of 6: ____________________________________ Multiples of 7: ____________________________________ Multiples of 8: ____________________________________ Multiples of 9: ____________________________________ Multiples of 10: ____________________________________ Multiples of 11: ____________________________________ Multiples of 12: ____________________________________ Recall from the main book that the rows and columns of the multiplication table contain the multiples of the numbers that are in the row and column headers. For practice, fill in the blank multiplication table on the next page which should be quick and easy since you just finished listing all of the required multiples. After you have done that, try quizzing yourself by finding the following products from memory. Of course be sure to memorize the whole multiplication table. 41) 8 × 7 42) 9 × 4 43) 8 × 8 44) 5 × 11 45) 3 × 12 46) 7 × 9 32 47) 9 × 6 48) 6 × 7 49) 3 × 0

THE FOUNDATION OF MA TH: BASIC SKILLS IN ARITHMETI C

DIVISION IS THE INVERSE OF MULTIPLICATION 50) What is the answer called in a division problem? 51) Is division commutative? Support with an example. Remember: Division is the inverse of multiplication, just like subtraction is the inverse of addition. For example, if we want to compute 24 ÷ 3, we can determine what number must be multiplied by 3 to get back to 24. For practice, perform these division exercises using the method described above. 52) 49 ÷ 7 53) 24 ÷ 4 54) 8 ÷ 8 55) 99 ÷ 11 56) 56 ÷ 7 57) 72 ÷ 9 33 58) 40 ÷ 5 59) 12 ÷ 1 60) 21 ÷ 3

DIVISION WITH A REMAINDER Remember: Quantities don’t always divide evenly. For example, think about the problem 27 ÷ 4. Using the technique of looking at the problem in reverse, ask yourself, “What number can I multiply 4 by so that I can get as close to 27 as possible, but without actually going over it?” The answer is 6. That gets us back to 24, but we have 3 left over. For now, we can say that the answer to the problem is “6 remainder 3,” (6 R 3). In Chapter Five we’ll practice converting that remainder into a fraction. Use the above method to find the quotients with remainders in the practice exercises below. 61) 57 ÷ 8 62) 29 ÷ 6 63) 11 ÷ 7 64) 94 ÷ 11 65) 58 ÷ 7 66) 88 ÷ 10 67) 71 ÷ 5 68) 26 ÷ 4 69) 38 ÷ 3

TWO-DIGIT ADDITION WITH CARRYING 70) What are the first four place values called as we look at a whole (non-decimal) number from right to left? 71) How must we line up numbers if we're adding numbers that don't have the same quantity of digits? 72) When adding, do we make our way from leftmost column to rightmost, or vice-versa?

34

THE FOUNDATION OF MA TH: BASIC SKILLS IN ARITHMETI C

Remember: If the sum of the ones place is more than 10, the result must be broken up into ones and tens. The tens must be "carried" into the tens column to be added in when we get to that column. The procedure is the same when adding other columns such as the tens place. We always carry into the column on the left of our current column, and we add our columns from right to left. For practice, compute these addition problems: 73) 42 + 79 74) 99 + 99 75) 32 + 85 76) 86 + 45 77) 27 + 85 78) 15 + 55 79) 62 + 88 80) 94 + 59 81) 83 + 17

TWO-DIGIT SUBTRACTION WITH BORROWING Remember: When subtracting, line up the numbers by place value just like when adding. Subtract the columns working from right to left, just like with addition. Remember: If a column requires you to subtract a larger number from a smaller number such as 3 – 5, it is totally wrong to just reverse the digits into 5 – 3. Instead, we must "borrow" from the column on the left. In the example at left, we borrowed 10 from the top number, turning the 7 into a 6. We then "returned" the 10 in the form of 10 ones, making the 2 into 12. 35

For practice, compute these subtraction problems. 82) 87 – 19 83) 56 – 47 84) 99 – 59 85) 71 – 28 86) 64 – 38 87) 52 – 7 88) 83 – 26 89) 35 – 15 90) 40 – 19

TWO-DIGIT BY ONE-DIGIT MULTIPLICATION Review the main book for details about multiplying a two-digit number by a one-digit number. Remember: We perform our multiplication in stages, essentially "distributing" the second number over the columns of the first. In the example at left, the 8 multiplies the 9 giving us 72 which is 2 ones and 7 tens. The 2 goes in the ones place of the answer, and the 7 gets carried into the tens place to remind us that we must later add 7 tens (or 70) to our answer. Remember: Even though the next step in the example is for the 8 to multiply the 3 in the first number, the 3 is really worth 30 because of its place. We get 240, which equals 24 tens. We must add in the 7 tens that we carried, giving us 31 tens which is really 1 ten and 3 hundreds. We can write 1 in the tens place of our answer, and we can just write the 3 hundred next to it in the answer. 36

THE FOUNDATION OF MA TH: BASIC SKILLS IN ARITHMETI C

For practice, compute these multiplication problems. 91) 99 × 9 92) 85 × 6 93) 49 × 7 SO NOW WHAT? Please refer to the main book for an explanation of why computations like multi-digit multiplication and long division have been omitted from the series. In the unlikely case that you are taking an exam which requires you to do such computations by hand, please contact me and I'll guide you to sources of free help on the matter. Before progressing to the next chapter, it is essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. Take time to review the material. See the last page of the book for the companion website that you can use to contact me for additional information or help. 94) 53 × 8 95) 87 × 6 96) 76 × 2 97) 50 × 8 98) 46 × 9 99) 96 × 0

37

CHAPTER THREE

**Basic Math Topics and Operations
**

WHAT IS AN INTEGER? 1) What is an integer? 2) List some integers which support the definition. 3) List two examples of values that are not integers. EVEN AND ODD NUMBERS 4) How do we know if a number is even? 5) How do we know if a number is odd? Use small, simple numbers such as 1 or 2 to determine whether the following computations will result in an even or odd answer. 6) Even + Even 7) Even + Odd 8) Odd + Odd 9) Even × Even 10) Even × Odd 11) Odd × Odd

39

GREATER THAN AND LESS THAN Insert the appropriate symbol (<) or (>) in each of these comparisons: 12) 635 97 13) 205 1,999 14) 799 913

INTRODUCING EXPONENTS (POWERS) 15) What is the significance of an exponent (or power)? For practice, evaluate these bases which have been raised to various powers. Use a calculator if you need to since the most important thing is to understand the concept, but don't use the exponent key if your calculator has one. 16) 34 17) 45 18) 16 19) 010 20) 28 21) 97

SQUARE, CUBE, AND OTHER SPECIAL POWERS 22) How do we usually read an exponent of 2? 23) What does an exponent of 2 mean? 24) How do we usually read an exponent of 3? 25) What does an exponent of 3 mean? 26) What does an exponent of 1 mean? 27) What is any number (other than 0) to the power of 0?

40

BASIC MATH TOPICS AND OPERATIONS

For practice, evaluate these bases which have been raised to powers of either 0, 1, 2, or 3. 28) 72 29) 130 30) 91 31) 152 32) 33 33) 53 34) 10 35) 23 36) 122

WHAT IS A PERFECT SQUARE? 37) Explain the concept of "perfect square." It’s very important to memorize the perfect squares between 1 and at least 144 since they come up so often in math. When you see a number in that range, you should be able to instantly recognize if it is a perfect square, and if so, what number it is the square of. For practice, fill in the perfect squares in the chart below, ideally without using a calculator, and without referring to the chart in the main book. 12 = 22 = 32 = 42 = 52 = 62 = 72 = 82 = 92 = 102 = 112 = 122 = 132 = 142 = 152 = 202 = 252 = 302 = 402 = 502 =

41

THE SQUARE ROOT OF A NUMBER 38) Explain the concept of "square root." 39) What symbol is used for the square root operation? 40) What is the relationship between squaring and "square rooting?" 41) When we evaluate a typical square root, do we sometimes use the squaring or square root notation in the answer? For practice, fill in the square roots in the chart below without using a calculator or referring to any charts: 1= 4= 9= 16 = 25 = 36 = 49 = 64 = 81 = 100 = 121 = 144 = 169 = 196 = 225 = 400 = 625 = 900 = 1600 = 2500 =

ORDER OF OPERATIONS (PEMDAS) 42) What do the letters of PEMDAS stand for? 43) How do we handle the case of nested parentheses or brackets in a PEMDAS problem? 44) What do we do if a problem has more than one pair of parentheses which aren't nested? 42

BASIC MATH TOPICS AND OPERATIONS

45) Do we always handle multiplication before division since M comes before D? Why? 46) Do we always handle addition before subtraction because A comes before S? Why? 47) Do we always handle multiplication before addition even if addition appears first in an expression? Why? For practice, use PEMDAS to evaluate the expressions below. Use a separate sheet of paper to carefully simplify each expression one step at a time. 48) 10 – 2 + 1 49) 6 × (4 + 3) 50) 3 + 52 × 2 51) 1 + 2 × 1000 52) 50 ÷ 5 × 2 53) 10 + [7×(3+1)] 54) 100 + 0 × 7 55) 12 + 3 × 4 ÷ 6 56) 14 – 49 + 7

WHAT IS A FACTOR? 57) How do we find the factors of a number? 58) What number has only one factor? 59) What numbers are guaranteed factors of any number? For practice, list the factors of these numbers. Make sure that this is a task you can do quickly and easily. 60) 36 61) 100 62) 2 63) 48 64) 41 65) 27

43

PRIME AND COMPOSITE NUMBERS 66) What does "prime" mean? 67) What does "composite" mean? 68) Are there any even prime numbers? Elaborate. 69) Is 1 a prime or a composite number? Why? For practice, state if these numbers are prime or composite: 70) 23 71) 41 72) One Million 73) 2 74) 1 75) 791,354 76) 13 77) 27 78) Ninety-Nine

THE PLACE VALUE CHART UP TO BILLIONS 79) What are the first ten place values called as we look at a whole (non-decimal) number from right to left? 80) Where is the "zillions" place? 81) How are commas used when writing large numbers? READING LARGE NUMBERS WRITTEN IN WORDS Review the main book for instruction on reading and writing large numbers with words. For practice, convert these written numbers to their numeric form: 82) Three hundred four thousand: 83) One hundred one: 84) Twenty-seven million, thirty: 85) Two billion, forty-eight thousand : 44

BASIC MATH TOPICS AND OPERATIONS

ROUNDING NUMBERS TO VARIOUS PLACES 86) List some times when we round a number. 87) If we are asked to round a number to a given place, what place will we actually examine? 88) What digits in that place tell us to round up? 89) What digits in that place tell us to round down? For practice, round these numbers to the specified places. Refer to the main book for a detailed instructions. 90) 23,552 to the nearest hundred: 91) 4,567,890 to the nearest ten thousand: 92) 6,357,498,765 to the nearest million: 93) 9,700,000,000 to the nearest billion: SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. Take time to review the material. See the last page of the book for the companion website that you can use to contact me for additional information or help.

45

CHAPTER FOUR

**Working with Negative Numbers
**

WHAT IS A NEGATIVE NUMBER? 1) Using money as an analogy, how should we think about positive and negative numbers (according to the main book)? ADDING SIGNED NUMBERS 2) When we add a positive plus a positive, what sign is the answer? How should we think about this using money as an analogy (according to the main book)? 3) When we add a positive plus a negative (or viceversa), how can we determine the sign of the answer? How do we determine the numeric portion of the answer? How should we think about this using money as an analogy (according to the main book)?

47

4) When we add a negative plus a negative, what sign is the answer? How do we determine the numeric portion of the answer? How should we think about this using money as an analogy (according to the main book)? For practice, compute these addition problems involving adding signed numbers: 5) 7 + (-4) 6) (-9) + (-5) 7) (-8) + 3 8) (-5) + 6 9) (-17) + (-2) 10) 10 + (-10) 11) (-7) + (-8) 12) (-3) + (-3) 13) (-6) + 6

SUBTRACTING SIGNED NUMBERS (AN OVERVIEW) 14) (True/False): The problem 2 – 5 cannot be done. 15) (True/False): The problem 2 – 5 should be converted to 5 – 2 to get an answer of 3. 16) Use a number line and your knowledge of how subtraction works to compute 2 – 5. Remember: The main book asserted that it is best to convert signed number subtraction problems into equivalent addition problems. Once that is done, we can follow the addition procedures that you just practiced.

48

W ORKING W ITH NEGATIVE NUMBE RS

HOW TO SUBTRACT TWO SIGNED NUMBERS Remember: The main book presented a four-step procedure for signed number subtraction problems. It's best to use this procedure even for "double-negative" problems such as (4) – (-3) which are associated with a "shortcut." Step 1 of 4: Leave the first number alone. Don’t touch it. Step 2 of 4: Change the subtraction (minus) sign to an addition (plus) sign. This does not involve changing the sign of either number. It involves changing the actual operation of the problem from subtraction to addition. Step 3 of 4: Change the sign of the second number to its opposite. If it was negative, make it positive. If it was positive, make it negative. Step 4 of 4: You have converted the subtraction problem into an equivalent addition problem which you can solve as previously described and practiced. For practice, compute these signed number subtraction problems by following the four-step procedure above: 17) (-4) – (-5) 18) (-6) – 6 19) 5 – 7 20) (-4) – 3 21) (-5) – 7 22) 10 – (-10) 49 23) (-10) – (-6) 24) 7 – (-9) 25) 0 – 3

MULTIPLYING SIGNED NUMBERS 26) What is the sign of a positive times a positive? 27) What is the sign of a positive times a negative? 28) What is the sign of a negative times a positive? 29) What is the sign of a negative times a negative? 30) Does anything else affect the sign of the answer? 31) According the main book, what analogy can you use to help remember these rules? For practice, compute these signed number multiplication problems by following the above rules: 32) 7 × -8 33) -6 × -7 34) -9 × -10 35) -2 × -15 36) -7 × 0 37) -3 × -1 38) 1 × -1 39) 9 × -8 40) -2 × -2

DIVIDING SIGNED NUMBERS 41) What is the sign of a positive divided by a positive? 42) What is the sign of a positive divided by a negative? 43) What is the sign of a negative divided by a positive? 44) What is the sign of a negative divided by a negative? 45) Does anything else affect the sign of the answer? 46) What operation follows these exact same rules? For practice, compute these signed number division problems by following the above rules:

50

W ORKING W ITH NEGATIVE NUMBE RS

47) -24 ÷ 6 48) 21 ÷ -7

49) -10 ÷ -2 50) 50 ÷ -5

51) 18 ÷ -9 52) -32 ÷ -32

THE SQUARE OF A NEGATIVE NUMBER Remember: When we square a negative number in parentheses, we get a positive answer since we really have a negative times a negative which is positive. When we square a number that is not in parentheses but has a negative sign to the left of it, we must apply the squaring operation first, and then make the answer negative.

(−8)2 = −8 × (−8) = 64 −82 = −(82 ) = −64

THE SQUARE ROOT OF A NEGATIVE NUMBER 53) What is the square root of a negative number? Why? POSITIVE NUMBERS HAVE TWO SQUARE ROOTS 54) What are two valid ways to evaluate 16? Why? 55) How do we typically write and say such an answer? 56) How do we answer a square root problem "by default," and what do we call such an answer? ABSOLUTE VALUE 57) What is the significance of absolute value? What is always the sign of the answer in such problems?

51

58) What symbol(s) do we use to represent the absolute value operation? For practice, evaluate these expressions and single terms which involve the absolute value operation. 59) |18| = 60) |-27| = SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is absolutely essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. If you do not fully master how to perform the four basic arithmetic operations with signed numbers, you will run into endless difficulty with all of the math that you will study from this point forward. None of this is “busy” or “baby” work. It is the foundation of math. Take as much time as you need to review the material in this chapter, and return to it as often as necessary until all of it becomes second nature to you, and you are no longer confused or intimidated by the sight of a negative number. See the last page of the book for the companion website that you can use to contact me for additional information or help. 61) |(-3) – 2| = 62) |-56 ÷ -7| = 63) |(-9) – (-9)| = 64) |2 – 5| =

52

CHAPTER FIVE

Basic Operations with Fractions (+, –, ×, ÷)

WHAT IS A FRACTION? 1) Define or explain what a fraction is. 2) (True/False): Sometimes a basic fraction problem can become a matter of, “What if my pizza pie was bigger than yours in the first place.” 3) (True/False): Sometimes a basic fraction problem can become a matter of “What if the pie wasn’t cut evenly, and my slice was bigger than yours.” 4) What do we call the top part of a fraction? 5) Define or explain its significance. 6) What do we call the bottom part of a fraction? 7) Define or explain its significance. 8) (True/False): a/b is another way of representing 𝑏 . 𝑎 53

THE EFFECT OF INCREASING / DECREASING THE NUMERATOR / DENOMINATOR OF A FRACTION 9) As the numerator of a fraction increases, what happens to the the value of the fraction? 10) As the numerator of a fraction decreases, what happens to the value of the fraction? 11) As the denominator of a fraction increases, what happens to the value of the fraction? 12) As the denominator of a fraction decreases, what happens to the value of the fraction? Review the main book for a detailed explanation of why this is the case, and be sure that it makes sense to you. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS WITH LIKE (MATCHING) DENOMINATORS 13) Describe how we add and subtract fractions with like (matching) denominators. For practice, add/subtract these fractions with like denominators. For now, don't worry about reducing the answers to lowest terms which we'll practice later. 14) 15)

2 15 7 51

+ 15 − 51

2

7

16) 17)

17 21 8 9

− 21

8

9

18) 19)

1 3

+3+3 + 39

28

1

1

−9 54

10 39

BASIC OPERATIONS WITH FRACTIONS (+, –, ×, ÷)

MULTIPLYING A FRACTION TIMES A FRACTION 20) Describe how we multiply fractions. Does it matter whether or not the denominators match? For practice, multiply these fractions. For now, don't worry about any "cross cancelling" or reducing the answers to lowest terms which we'll practice later.

1 2 5 7

21) 22)

×

1 3 2

23) 24)

3 8

×8 ×2

1

3

25) 26)

4 5

×4 ×7

6

5

×9

6 15

10 10

WHAT IS A RECIPROCAL? 27) Define or explain what a reciprocal is. 28) When will a fraction and its reciprocal be equal? For practice, write the reciprocal of each fraction: 29) 7/2 30) -5/6 31) 17/17

DIVIDING A FRACTION BY A FRACTION Remember: We have a four-step procedure to follow for dividing a fraction by a fraction.

55

Step 1 of 4: Leave the first fraction alone Step 2 of 4: Change the division to multiplication Step 3 of 4: “Flip” the second fraction to its reciprocal Step 4 of 4: Multiply as previously described For practice, compute these fraction division problems. For now, don't worry about reducing the answers to lowest terms which we'll practice later.

1 2 7 8

32) 33)

÷

1 3 8

34) 35)

5 6

÷6 ÷7

2

5

36) 37)

1 3 2 5

÷

1 2 3

÷7

3 17

÷4

SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. The next chapter introduces more advanced fraction topics. If you don’t fully understand this chapter, the next one will probably be confusing and difficult. Be sure to also study the multiplication table from Chapter Two since that will play a large role in the upcoming material. See the last page of the book for the companion website that you can use to contact me for additional information or help.

56

CHAPTER SIX

**More About Fractions
**

A FRACTION IS ACTUALLY A DIVISION PROBLEM 1) Describe how a fraction is really a division problem, and the significance of the horizontal line. CONVERTING AN INTEGER TO A FRACTION 2) How do we convert an integer into a fraction? 3) Why is there no harm in doing such a thing? 4) Under what circumstances might we do that? MULTIPLYING AN INTEGER TIMES A FRACTION 5) When multiplying an integer times a fraction such as

**2 × 3 what is the mistake that is commonly made? 7
**

6) Why is it a mistake? 7) What is the actual procedure for multiplying an integer times a fraction? For practice, compute these problems involving an integer times a fraction. Don't worry about reducing the answers to lowest terms which we'll practice later. 57

8) 3 × 5 = 9) 7 × 7 =

4

2

10) 2 × 10 = 11) 4 × =

4 5

3

12) 1 × = 13) 2 × 18 =

9

2 3

FRACTIONS WITHIN FRACTIONS Remember: A fraction is just a value divided by a value. Sometimes the values in question may be fractions themselves. Since a fraction can be thought of and rewritten as “top divided by bottom,” we can rewrite the "fraction of fractions" in the more conventional form as shown below, and then evaluate it as you learned.

3 4 8 9

=

3 8 3 9 3 × 9 27 ÷ = × = = 4 9 4 8 4 × 8 32

For practice, convert these "fractions of fractions" into fraction division problems like the ones we worked with. Then follow the four-step procedure for converting a fraction division problem into a multiplication problem, and then multiply the fractions as you've learned. Don't worry about reducing the fractions to lowest terms which we'll practice later.

8 9 10 11 2 5 7 9 6 13 1 2

14)

15)

16)

58

MORE ABOUT FRACTIONS

DIVIDING AN INTEGER BY A FRACTION Remember: Sometimes a fraction is comprised of an integer over a fraction, or vice-versa. To simplify such a fraction, rewrite it as a "top divided by bottom" division problem, remembering to put the integer over 1 so that it will be in fraction format. Then proceed as you did with the previous practice problems. Study the sample problems below, and then simplify the ones presented. Don't worry about reducing the fractions to lowest terms which we'll practice later.

2

3 4 2 3

=2÷

3 2 3 2 4 2×4 8 = ÷ = × = = 4 1 4 1 3 1×3 3

5

3 17) 4

5

1 7

=

2 2 5 2 1 2×1 2 ÷5= ÷ = × = = 3 3 1 3 5 3 × 5 15

19)

8 11

18)

6

20) 3

4

5 1

FRACTIONS THAT ARE EQUAL TO 1 21) Under what circumstances is a fraction equal to 1?

59

FINDING THE GREATEST COMMON FACTOR (GCF) 22) Define or explain "greatest common factor (GCF)". 23) When do we often use the GCF? Remember: The main book listed four steps for finding the greatest common factor (GCF) of two numbers: Step 1: List all of the factors of the first number Step 2: List all of the factors of the second number Step 3: Take note of the factors that appear on both lists Step 4: Choose the largest of those common factors For practice, follow the given four steps to compute the GCF for each pair of numbers below: 24) 2, 4 25) 24, 36 26) 1, 100 27) 1, 12 28) 14, 21 29) 20, 100 30) 36, 70 31) 40, 80 32) 17, 23

REDUCING (SIMPLIFYING) FRACTIONS Remember: To reduce (simplify) a fraction to lowest terms, divide both numerator and denominator by their GCF. When we reduce (simplify) a fraction, we do not actually change its value. We just convert the fraction into an equivalent one which does not have any common

60

MORE ABOUT FRACTIONS

factors that can be "pulled out." A common and simple example is reducing 4/8 to the equivalent 1/2. 33) How do we know when a fraction is fully reduced? For practice, reduce these fractions to lowest terms by dividing numerator and denominator by the GCF: 34) 14/21 35) 1/682 36) 32/64 37) 3/17 38) 24/24 39) 33/88 40) 5/24 41) 12/18 42) 80/100

MULTIPLES VERSUS FACTORS 43) How do the positive multiples of a number compare in size to the number (less than, greater than, equal to, etc.)? 44) How do the factors of a number compare in size to the number (less than, greater than, equal to, etc.)? COMPUTING THE LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE / LOWEST COMMON DENOMINATOR (LCM / LCD) 45) Define or explain "least common multiple (LCM)". 46) When do we often use the LCM? 47) What is the relationship between LCM and LCD? Remember: To add or subtract two fractions with unlike (non-matching denominators), we must compute the least common multiple (LCM) of the two unlike denomi61

nators. We then “convert” each fraction so that each one has the LCM as its common denominator, thereby allowing us to add or subtract them as we’ve learned how to do. This is practiced in the next section. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS WITH UNLIKE (NON-MATCHING) DENOMINATORS Remember: We cannot directly add/subtract fractions with unlike denominators such as 2/3 + 1/4. We must "convert" the fractions so they have a common denominator. We compute the least common multiple (LCM) of the two denominators, and use that as our lowest common denominator (LCD). The main book outlined a fourstep procedure for computing the LCM of two numbers: Step 1: List the first few multiples of the first number Step 2: List the first few multiples of the second number Step 3: Note the multiplies that appear on both lists Step 4: Choose the smallest of the common multiples If necessary, extend the lists in Steps 1 and 2 until you find the first common multiple. For practice, find the LCM of these pairs of numbers: 48) 4, 6 49) 1, 7 50) 7, 11 51) 5, 10 52) 2, 23 53) 6, 8 62 54) 3, 21 55) 12, 18 56) 2, 4

MORE ABOUT FRACTIONS

Remember: We use the LCM as the “target” number for each denominator. We must “convert” each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the LCM as its denominator. We do that using this four-step procedure: Step 1 of 4: Multiply the denominator of the first fraction by whatever number is necessary so it becomes the “target” denominator (the LCD). Step 2 of 4: Multiply the numerator of the first fraction by same number that you used to multiply the denominator. Remember that whatever we do to the bottom, we must also do to the top. Step 3 of 4: Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the second fraction. You will multiply top and bottom by a number other than the one used for the first fraction, but you must still end up with the same “target” denominator. Step 4 of 4: You now have two fractions with like (matching) denominators. Add (or subtract) them as you practiced in the previous chapter.

2 3 2 × 𝟕 3 × 𝟓 14 15 29 + = + = + = 5 7 5 × 𝟕 7 × 𝟓 35 35 35

For practice, add/subtract these fractions with unlike denominators, and reduce your answers.

63

57) 58)

1 2 5 6

+ = −4=

1

1 3

59) 60)

2 3 3 4

−

2 21 1

=

61) 62)

2 5 7 8

+8= +6=

5

3

−8=

63) What happens if you choose a common denominator that is larger than the LCM? SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. The next chapter introduces some more advanced fraction topics that are very important. If you don’t fully understand this chapter, the next chapter will probably be very confusing and difficult for you. Take time to review the material. See the last page of the book for the companion website that you can use to contact me for additional information or help.

64

CHAPTER SEVEN

**Other Topics in Fractions
**

MIXED NUMBERS AND IMPROPER FRACTIONS 1) Define or explain what an improper fraction is. 2) Define or explain what a mixed number is. 3) In a mixed number such as 5 ½, what operation is implied between the two values? CONVERTING MIXED NUMBERS TO IMPROPER FRACTIONS Remember: When we have to do mathematical operations involving mixed numbers, it is usually best to convert them into improper fractions. The main book outlined a five-step procedure for doing this which in practice is much simpler than it sounds. Step 1 of 5: Put a plus sign between the integer and fractional components of the mixed number. Step 2 of 5: Convert the integer to a fraction by putting it over a denominator of 1.

65

Step 3 of 5: Note that the LCM of the two denominators involved will be the denominator of the second fraction, since the first fraction has a denominator of 1. Step 4 of 5: Multiply top and bottom of the first fraction by the LCM (i.e., the denominator of the second fraction) so that the fractions will have a common denominator. Step 5 of 5: Add the fractions as previously described

3+

2 3 2 3 × 𝟓 2 15 2 17 = + = + = + = 5 1 5 1 × 𝟓 5 5 5 5

**For practice, convert these mixed numbers to improper fractions: 4) 4 7 = 5) 3 5 =
**

2 1 3 1 8

6) 9 8 = 7) 11 2 =

1

8) 1 8 = 9) 2 9 =

Recall that the main book explained a shortcut formula for this process which is equivalent to the five-step procedure you just practiced. The shortcut tells us to take the denominator of the fraction, and multiply it by the integer. Add the numerator of the fraction to that, and that result becomes the numerator of the improper fraction. That numerator it placed over the denominator of fractional part of the mixed number. 66

OTHER TOPICS IN FRACTIONS

For practice, repeat the previous exercises using the shortcut, and convince yourself that it works. 𝑎

+ 𝑏

(𝑎 × 𝑐) + 𝑏 = 𝑐 𝑐

CONVERTING IMPROPER FRACTIONS INTO MIXED NUMBERS Remember: To convert an improper fraction (or division problem) into a mixed number, we perform the five-step procedure in reverse, but again there is a shortcut. Remember that a fraction is a division problem—top divided by bottom. To convert an improper fraction to a mixed number, perform this division. Note the number of times the denominator "goes into" the numerator. That becomes the integer part of the mixed number. The remainder is placed over the denominator of the original fraction which becomes the fractional part of the mixed number. Review the main book for more details. For practice, convert these improper fractions into mixed numbers. As an example 38/5 = 38 ÷ 5 = 7 ⅗. 10) 11/8 11) 23/7 12) 37/5 13) 79/6 14) 44/3 15) 31/4

67

WORKING WITH EQUIVALENT FRACTIONS 16) How can we use the process of simplifying ("reducing") to determine if two fractions are equivalent? 17) How can we use the concept of "cross products" to determine if two fractions are equivalent? 18) What is the difference, if any, between "cross multiplying" and "multiplying across"? “CROSS CANCELING” BEFORE MULTIPLYING FRACTIONS TO AVOID REDUCING THE PRODUCT Remember: Before multiplying two fractions, we can do what is informally referred to as “cross canceling” in an effort to simplify the arithmetic. We can optionally “pull out” a common factor from the tops and bottoms of the two involved fractions so we won't later have to reduce the answer after multiplying. Two examples from the main book are shown below:

Remember: Do not utilize this shortcut when dividing a fraction by another fraction. Recall that to divide two

68

OTHER TOPICS IN FRACTIONS

fractions, we must do several steps to convert the problem into multiplication. Do not do any type of “cross canceling” prior to that step, no matter how tempting the numbers might make it seem. For practice, compute the products and quotients below using the "cross-canceling" shortcut where appropriate. Reduce your answers to lowest terms. 19) 20)

1 2 5 6

÷

2 7 12

21) 22)

3 8 1 2

×9 ÷4

3

4

23) 24)

4 5

÷4 × 16

15

5

÷ 13

3 10

NEGATIVE FRACTIONS 25) Is the statement below true or false? –3 3 3 = =– 4 –4 4 26) Is the statement below true or false? –3 3 ≠– –4 4 27) Is the statement below true or false? –3 3 = –4 4

69

DIVISION PROBLEMS INVOLVING 0 28) What is 0 divided by any number (except 0)? 29) What is any number divided by 0? SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is absolutely essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. The next chapter introduces some new topics involving fractions. If you don’t fully understand this chapter, the next chapter will probably be confusing and difficult for you. Take time to review the material. See the last page of the book for the companion website that you can use to contact me for additional information or help.

70

CHAPTER EIGHT

**The Metric System, Unit Conversion, Proportions, Rates, Ratios, Scale
**

COMMON UNITS OF MEASURE IN THE CUSTOMARY OR IMPERIAL SYSTEM If an exam or coursework requires you to memorize facts about measurements in the customary/imperial system, quiz yourself on the questions below, reviewing the corresponding chapter in the main book if necessary. 1) How many inches are in a foot? 2) How many feet are in a yard? 3) How many feet are in a mile? 4) How many ounces are in a pound? 5) How many pounds are in a (US) ton? 6) How many fluid ounces are in a cup? 7) How many cups are in a pint? 8) How many pints are in a quart? 9) How many quarts are in a gallon? 71

PROBLEMS INVOLVING TIME SPANS If an exam or coursework requires you to memorize facts about time measurement, quiz yourself on the questions below, reviewing the main book if necessary. What fraction of an hour is represented by each of these durations of time? 10) 11) 12) 13) 5 minutes 10 minutes 12 minutes 15 minutes 14) 15) 16) 17) 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes 36 minutes 18) 19) 20) 21) 45 minutes 50 minutes 60 minutes 30 seconds

COMMON UNITS OF MEASURE IN THE METRIC SYSTEM If an exam or coursework requires you to work with and memorize facts about measurement in the Metric System, quiz yourself on the questions below, reviewing the corresponding chapter in the main book if necessary. 22) What is the basic Metric unit of length? What customary measurement is it roughly equal to? 23) What is the basic Metric unit of volume (capacity)? What customary measurement is it roughly equal to? 24) What is the basic Metric unit of mass (weight)? What fraction of an ounce is that unit roughly equal to? 72

THE METRI C SYSTEM, UNIT CONVERSION, PROPORTIONS, RATES, RATIOS, SCALE

COMMON METRIC SYSTEM PREFIXES 25) What does the prefix "kilo-" mean? 26) What does the prefix "milli-" mean? 27) What does the prefix "centi-" mean? If required for exams or coursework: 28) A kilogram is equal to roughly how many pounds? 29) About how many drops of water fill a milliliter? 30) About how many inches is a centimeter? THREE DIFFERENT WAYS OF WRITING A RATIO 31) Define or explain what a ratio is. 32) What are the three different ways that we can express the ratio of some quantity a to some quantity b? WORKING WITH UNIT RATIOS AND RATES Remember: A rate is basically the same as a ratio, but it involves the comparison of two quantities that have different units. We often “reduce” ratios and rates so that the denominator (or second value) is 1. We use the word “unit” to describe such ratios and rates since they are based on one single unit of whatever is being compared.

73

For practice, convert these ratios and rates into unit ratios and rates so that the denominators or second values are equal to 1: 33) 1768 students to 52 teachers 34) 21:3 35) 30/5

COMPUTING THE COST PER UNIT A common problem on the topic of unit rates is to compute the cost of one unit of something when we are provided with the total cost of many such items. All we do is divide the dollar amount by the number of items. Refer to the main book for a more detailed explanation. In each of the problems below, compute the cost of one item based on the cost of many of each item: 36) 34 apples cost $27. 37) $8 is the cost of 5 apples. 38) Apples are on sale for $5 for 6. CONVERTING MEASUREMENTS WITH UNIT RATIOS Remember: Unit ratios such as 3 ft. / 1 yd. make it easy for us to convert measurements from one unit to another such as feet to inches, or milliliters to liters. The general idea is that we multiply the given value by a unit ratio 74

THE METRI C SYSTEM, UNIT CONVERSION, PROPORTIONS, RATES, RATIOS, SCALE

such that the unit we are converting from will be “canceled out,” and we will be left with the unit to which we want to convert. Study the examples below, and review the main book for details if necessary.

17 𝑓𝑡. =

17 𝑓𝑡. 1 𝑦𝑑. 17 2 × = 𝑦𝑑𝑠. = 5 3 𝑦𝑑𝑠. 1 3 𝑓𝑡. 3

2500 𝑚𝑔 1 𝑔 2500 × = 𝑔 = 2.5 𝑔 1 1000 𝑚𝑔 1000

2500 𝑚𝑔 =

For practice, multiply each of the measurements below by a unit ratio to convert to the unit indicated: 39) How many inches are in 6 feet? 40) Convert 15 feet to yards. 41) How many centimeters are in 7 meters? 42) Convert 9500 kilometers to meters. INTRODUCTION TO PROPORTIONS Remember: A proportion is a way of showing that two ratios (effectively fractions) are equivalent. Many proportion problems involve solving for an unknown value. Recall from the main book that in a proportion problem such as 1/4 = 5/?, we can get the answer of 20 by noting

75

that the denominator of the first fraction is 4 times the size of the numerator. We can also get the answer by noting that the numerator of the second fraction is 5 times the size of the numerator of the first fraction. For practice, use one of those techniques to solve each of the basic proportion problems below: 43) 44)

2 5 1 6

= =

? 30 7 ?

45) 46)

1 3 7 8

= =

10 ? ? 24

47) 48)

5 100 1 2

=

13 ?

? 20

=

Remember: Some proportion problems come in the form of words or diagrams. Read or examine such problems very carefully, and convert them into a proportion like the ones above. You’ll need to determine what piece of information is missing. Remember: Any comparisons that we do between numbers in a proportion must be done by way of multiplication or division, and not by addition or subtraction. For example, 5/6 ≠ (does not equal) 7/8. Remember: Many proportion problems are not as simple as the ones that we’ve been working with. The numbers may not be such that the problem can be solved using 76

THE METRI C SYSTEM, UNIT CONVERSION, PROPORTIONS, RATES, RATIOS, SCALE

basic computation, and the missing piece of information may end up being a decimal number. Such problems must be solved using basic algebra techniques which you will learn about in later math, and in the next main book in this series on basic algebra and geometry. For now just be sure to understand the general concept. Many exam questions are based on nothing more than that. SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is absolutely essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one and in the previous chapters on fractions. In later math such as algebra you will do much more work with fractions, but the problems will be abstract in nature. This means that you must fully understand all of the concepts at this point while we are still working with simple numbers. The next chapter introduces the concept of decimals which are very much related to fractions. If you don’t fully understand fractions, the next chapter will probably be confusing and difficult for you.

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CHAPTER NINE

**Working with Decimals
**

EXTENDING THE PLACE VALUE CHART TO DECIMAL PLACES 1) Define or explain what a decimal number is. 2) As we move to the right in the place value chart (including the decimal places), what is the value of each place relative to the place on its left? 3) What is the significance of a decimal point? 4) As we move from left to right, what are the names of the first three places to the right of the decimal point? 5) Where is the "oneths" place? 6) What letters do all decimal place names end in? THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DECIMAL VALUES 7) What is the difference between 2.3 and 2.03? Why? 8) What is the difference between 2.3 and 2.30? Why? 9) What is the difference between .5 and 0.5? Why? 10) What is the difference between 2 and 2.0? Why?

79

WRITING AND SAYING DECIMAL NUMBERS Review the main book for details on reading and writing decimal numbers with words. For practice, convert these written numbers to their numeric form: 11) Twelve and three tenths. 12) Seven hundred one and seven hundredths. 13) Two hundred seventeen thousandths. 14) Five hundred sixty-two and one thousandth. COMPARING DECIMAL NUMBERS Review the main book for details on how to compare decimals. For practice, insert a "<" or ">" symbol into each statement below to indicate which value is greater: 15) 0.003 0.0004 16) 4.2 3.99999 17) 0.9876 1.002 18) 12.3 4.9999 19) 0.2349 0.238 20) 0.7391 0.739

CONVERTING DECIMAL NUMBERS TO FRACTIONS Remember: To convert a decimal to a fraction, look to see how far to the right the decimal digits reach, and use that place to represent the fraction's denominator. The decimal digits themselves become the numerator of the fraction. For example, 0.89 = 89/100, and 0.306 = 306/1000.

80

W ORKING W ITH DECIMALS

For practice, convert these decimals into fractions, and reduce the fractions to lowest terms: 21) 0.24 22) 0.007 23) 0.3 24) 0.101 25) 0.004 26) 0.5 27) 0.09 28) 0.06 29) 0.018

CONVERTING FRACTIONS TO DECIMAL NUMBERS Remember: To convert a fraction to a decimal, just compute what a fraction literally means—top divided by bottom. This book assumes you do most of your computations on a calculator. Be careful to enter the numbers in the proper order. The top number must be keyed in first. For practice, convert these fractions into decimals. Round your answers to the nearest hundredth. Refer to the next chapter if you need help with rounding. 30) 7/11 31) 12/13 32) 5/24 33) 1/7 34) 1/2 35) 9/21

ANOTHER METHOD FOR CONVERTING FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS Remember: We can always multiply the top or bottom of a fraction by a chosen number as long we do the same thing to the other part of the fraction. If we can multiply both parts of a fraction so that its denominator is a power 81

of 10 (10, 100, 1000, etc.), it will be very easy to convert it to a fraction without doing any division as described above. Of course it is even easier if the fraction started out with such a denominator. For example, 92/1000 already has a denominator which is a power of 10. We can convert it to a decimal by writing 92 such that it extends to the thousandths place, that is to say 0.092. To convert the fraction 8/25 to a decimal, we could multiply top and bottom by 4 to get the equivalent 32/100, which then becomes 0.32. For practice, convert these fractions into decimals by multiplying top and bottom by the same value such that the denominator is a power of 10 if it isn't already: 36) 7/500 37) 13/1000 SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is absolutely essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. The next chapter introduces some more advanced decimal topics that are very important. If you don’t fully understand this chapter, the next chapter will probably be confusing and difficult for you. 38) 3/250 39) 2/5 40) 11/20 41) 9/50

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CHAPTER NINE AND FIVE-TENTHS

**More Topics in Decimals
**

REPEATING DECIMAL NUMBERS Remember: When we convert a fraction to a decimal by computing top divided by bottom, we sometimes end up with a repeating decimal. 1) What is a common example of a fraction which is equivalent to a repeating decimal? 2) (True/False): Repeating decimal digits stop repeating when the calculator display runs out of room. 3) (True/False): If your calculator computes 2 ÷ 3 as 0.66666667, it means that the 6 doesn't repeat forever. 4) What notation do we usually use to represent a repeating decimal? 5) (True/False): Repeating decimals can sometimes have many digits which repeat. 6) (True/False): 0.101001000100001... is an example of a repeating decimal. 83

For practice, convert these fractions into repeating decimals using the bar notation as appropriate. 7) 2/3 8) 4/7 9) 8/15 10) 5/9 11) 7/11 12) 37/99 13) 123/999 14) 7/33 15) 12/39

TERMINATING DECIMALS Remember: Many decimal numbers just stop. If we were to keep computing more digits using long division, all we would get is more and more zeroes. For example, we’ve seen that 0.7 is the same as 0.70, 0.700, 0.7000, and so on, so we could say that the decimal number terminates at the 7. We say that 0.7 is a terminating decimal. For practice, indicate if each fraction below is equivalent to a repeating or a terminating decimal: 16) 9/13 17) 3/8 18) 7/100 19) 1/6 20) 1234/10000 21) 17/300

NON-REPEATING DECIMALS Remember: A third type of decimal is known as a nonrepeating decimal. Some decimal numbers don't terminate, but they don't have any digits which repeat in a pattern like the examples we’ve seen.

84

MORE TOPICS IN DECI MA LS

COMPARISONS USING REFERENCE FRACTIONS Remember: When comparing two fractions to determine which is larger, we sometimes must convert the fractions into decimals. But, in some cases we can determine which of two fractions is larger by using common reference fractions such as ½ or ¼ as guideposts. Review the main book for a detailed explanation if necessary. For practice, insert the "<" and ">" symbols as appropriate in each comparison below. Do this exercise "visually" based on reference fractions. Avoid doing any computations on a calculator or by hand. 22) 12/26 21/40 23) 2/7 461/899 24) 11/100 6/70 25) 142/199 7/8 26) 20/81 16/60 27) 34/100 9/30

ARRANGING “NON-OBVIOUS” FRACTIONS IN ORDER FROM LEAST TO GREATEST Remember: Some fractions seem so close in value that using reference fractions to compare them doesn’t help. In these cases we must examine their decimal equivalents to accurately compare them. We compare decimal values by starting the comparison in the tenths place and moving to the right as needed in order to “break ties.” For practice, insert the "<" and ">" symbols as appropriate in each comparison below. Do this exercise by using a 85

calculator to convert each fraction into a decimal by computing top divided by bottom. Then compare the decimals as practiced in the last chapter. 28) 4/7 30/52 29) 9/13 55/79 30) 74/99 261/532 31) 31/39 307/987 32) 9/91 29/293 33) 27/68 71/179

SHORTCUT FOR MULTIPLYING BY POWERS OF 10 Remember: To multiply a number times 10, move the decimal point one place to the right, remembering that whole numbers have an “invisible” decimal point on the right. Tack on zeroes as needed to hold places. To multiply by 100, move the decimal point two places to the right. The pattern continues for higher powers of 10. For practice, compute all of the products in the following exercise using the shortcut. 34) 12.34 × 1000 35) 0.0043 × 100 36) 53 × 10,000 37) 27.1234 × 10 38) 1.0001 × 10 39) 0.00009 × 100

SHORTCUT FOR DIVIDING BY POWERS OF 10 Remember: To divide a number times 10, move the decimal point one place to the left, remembering that whole numbers have an “invisible” decimal point on the right. Tack on zeroes as needed to hold places. To multiply by 100, move the decimal point two places to the left. The pattern continues for higher powers of 10. 86

MORE TOPICS IN DECI MA LS

For practice, compute all of the quotients in the following exercise using the shortcut. 40) 495 ÷ 1000 41) 23.45 ÷ 10,000 42) 94 ÷ 10 43) 0.0004 ÷ 100 44) 41.0003 ÷ 10 45) 7 ÷ 100

ROUNDING DECIMAL NUMBERS In Chapter Three we practiced rounding whole numbers to various places. Review that section if you don’t fully remember the procedure. Rounding decimal numbers works in exactly the same way, but review the corresponding section in the main book if you need to. For practice, round these numbers to the specified places, making sure to read the place value name carefully. 46) 123.495 to the nearest hundredth 47) 456.7891 to the nearest thousandth 48) 9876.1234 to the nearest ten 49) 12345.678912 to the nearest ten thousandth 50) 3952.46317 to the nearest tenth SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Remember: Scientific notation format (𝑎 × 10𝑏 ) is used to represent numbers that are either extremely large or extremely small. The “a” portion is a value that is greater than or equal to 1, but less than 10. It contains the signifi-

87

cant (non-zero) digits of the very large or very small number that we are representing. The value of a is multiplied by the 10 raised to a given power, which we’ll denote “b.” The exponent “b” can either be positive or negative. It tells us how many places to move the decimal point in the value a. If b is positive, we move the decimal the given number of spaces to the right, and if it’s negative we move it to the left. As an example, 3,850,000,000 is represented in scientific notation as 3.85 × 109 , and 0.00000006401 can be written in scientific notation as 6.401 × 10−8 . For practice, convert the scientific notation numbers below into standard notation, and convert the standard notation numbers into scientific notation: 51) 67,800,000,000 53) 2.17 × 10−5 52) 4.3 × 107 54) 0.0000023 SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is essential that you fully understand all of the concepts in this one. The next chapter introduces percents which are yet another form that fractions and decimals can take. If you don’t fully understand this chapter, the next chapter will probably be very confusing and difficult for you. 55) 95,340,000 56) 9.843 × 10−6

88

CHAPTER TEN

**Working with Percents
**

WHAT IS A PERCENT? 1) How are percents, decimals, and fractions related? 2) What does the % symbol literally mean? 3) When we do a computation involving a percent, what do we usually first convert the percent into? 4) How do we convert from a percent to a fraction? 5) How do we convert from a percent to a decimal? 6) How do we convert from a decimal to a percent? CONVERTING FROM A PERCENT TO A FRACTION For practice, convert these percents to reduced fractions: 7) 14% 8) 25% 9) 7% 10) 200% 11) 0.4% 12) 0.09%

CONVERTING FROM A PERCENT TO A DECIMAL For practice, convert these percents to decimals: 89

13) 87% 14) 150%

15) 0.5% 16) 0.04%

17) 6% 18) 99.44%

CONVERTING FROM A DECIMAL TO A PERCENT For practice, convert these decimals to percents: 19) 0.27 20) 0.06 21) 0.0034 22) 1.5 23) 0.5 24) 2.0

CONVERTING FROM A FRACTION TO A PERCENT 25) How do we convert from a fraction to a percent if the denominator can easily be "converted" into 100? For practice, convert these fractions to percents in the manner that you described above: 26) 4/25 27) 17/20 28) 13/50 29) 7/200 30) 230/1000 31) 7/10

32) How do we convert from a fraction to a percent if the denominator cannot easily be "converted" into 100? For practice, convert each of these fractions to a percent. Round your answers to the nearest tenth of a percent. You may use a calculator unless your coursework or exam requires otherwise. 33) 35/94 34) 284/107 35) 7/598 36) 92/1234 90 37) 41/99 38) 2/3

WORKING WITH PERCENTS

IS IT A DECIMAL OR A PERCENT? 39) Is 0.5% a decimal or a percent? Why? Elaborate on what that value actually represents. 40) Is there such a thing as 110%? Why or why not? COMPUTING PERCENT OF INCREASE/DECREASE Remember: The main book outlined a three-step procedure for computing the percent of increase/decrease when an item goes up/down in price. Review the main book for a more detailed explanation and examples. Step 1: Compute the change in price. Step 2: Divide it by the original price, regardless of whether the price increased or decreased. Step 3: Convert the resulting decimal into a percent. For practice, compute the percent of increase or decrease for each of the following price changes. Round your answers to the nearest tenth of a percent: 41) $37 $42 42) $205 $317 43) $195 $136 44) $4 $8 45) $7 $21 46) $95 $94

EQUIVALENT PERCENTS / DECIMALS / FRACTIONS There are some percents that occur very frequently. It’s best if you can memorize their decimal and reduced 91

fractional equivalents. For practice, complete the following chart using the techniques you have been practicing: Percent 0% 0.5% 1% 2% 5% 10% 12 ½% 20% Dec. Fract. Percent 25% 33 ⅓% 50% 66 ⅔% 75% 100% 150% 200% Dec. Fract.

PROBLEMS INVOLVING “PERCENT OF” Remember: Many word problems involve computing a “percent of” or a “percent off” a number. These two things are not at all the same, although they look and sound very similar. 47) What operation does the word "of" translate into when it appears in between two values? 48) To review, what should we do with a percent whenever it is involved in a computation? For practice, compute the following problems in which we must calculate a percent of a value. Try to estimate your answers to see if they are reasonable. Round your answers to the nearest hundredth. 92

WORKING WITH PERCENTS

49) 51% of 417 50) 100% of 53

51) 27% of 3093 52) 6.2% of 87

53) 0.01% of 500 54) 0.5% of 200

PROBLEMS INVOLVING “PERCENT OFF” Remember: Problems involving “percent off” usually involve computing a discount or price reduction. It is important to read such problems carefully to determine if you are being asked to compute the amount of the discount, or the price after the discount has been deducted. In problems that involve money, we typically round our answers to the nearest cent (hundredth). 55) If a $599 item is on sale for "38% Off," what percent of the original price will you actually pay? 56) How much money will you save on the above item during the sale? 57) How much will the item actually cost during the sale? For practice, use any method to compute what you will pay for the items below at the specified discounts. 58) A $395 item on sale for 50% off 59) A $27 item on sale for 5% off 60) A $4995 item on sale for 20% off 61) A $6 item on sale for 40% off

93

INCREASING/DECREASING VALUES BY A PERCENT Remember: Sometimes instead of being asked to compute the percent increase or decrease between two values like we practiced earlier, we are instead given an amount and a percent, and are told to increase or decrease the given amount by the given percent. A typical problem might be to compute the results of a rent increase. Remember: First compute the amount of increase, and then add that increase to the original amount to get the new amount including the increase. For example, to increase $1250 by 4.5%, compute the increase as 0.045 × $1250 to get $56.25, then add that to the original amount to get $1306.25. Review the main book for more details. Remember: For problems involving a percent decrease, we subtract the amount of decrease instead of adding it, but we compute the amount of decrease in the same way. For practice, compute the results of the given percent increase/decrease in each problem below. 62) A person's $845 monthly rent has increased by 2.3%. What is the person's new monthly rent? 63) A person's $249 monthly social security benefits have been decreased by 6.93%. What is the person's new monthly benefit? 94

WORKING WITH PERCENTS

64) A person's $307 monthly health care premium has increased by 19%. What is the new premium? Remember: Sometimes a problem will ask us to only compute what the increase/decrease will be based on a given percent change. For such a problem it is wrong to add/subtract the percent change to/from the original amount. Always read problems carefully. Remember: In this section we practiced solving problems in which we were given a value and a percent, and were asked to increase or decrease the amount by that percent. That is different than the problems that we practiced earlier in the chapter in which we were given two values, and were asked to compute the percent of change between them. PROBLEMS INVOLVING SALES TAX Remember: Problems involving sales tax are solved in exactly the same way as any problem involving a percent increase. The inclusion of sales tax is just a percent increase on an amount. Just follow the steps in the previous section. Always read problems carefully to determine if you are being asked to compute an item's price including sales tax, or just the sales tax itself.

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For practice, solve the sales tax problems below 65) What is the tax on a $2000 item if the tax rate is 7.5%? 66) What is the price, including tax, of a $29.95 item taxed at 6.75%? 67) What is the tax on a $795 item if the tax rate is 8.875%? 68) What is the final price of a 99¢ item taxed at 5%? A COMMON MODEL OF WORD PROBLEMS INVOLVING PERCENTS Remember: A typical word problem involving percents is of the form, “61 is what percent of 80?” That problem could also be stated equivalently as, “What percent of 80 is 61?” Instead of being given a particular percent, we are asked to compute one. This problem is effectively asking us to do a comparison of 61 and 80 by division. It wants us to determine what portion of 80 is represented by 61. Remember: To solve problems of this form, we must arrange the given numbers into a fraction. It’s easy to then convert that fraction into a decimal and then into a percent, both of which we practiced. In this problem, we must arrange the given values into 61/80 to do our comparison. Remember that a fraction is really a division problem (top divided by bottom). We must compute 61 ÷ 80 to get 0.76 (rounded). Move the decimal two places to the right to convert that to 76% which is our answer. 96

WORKING WITH PERCENTS

“x is what percent of y?” “What percent of y is x?”

𝑥

𝑦 or

x÷y

For practice, solve the percentage problems below, being very careful in determining the values which correspond to x and y in the chart above. Round your answers to the nearest hundredth of a percent: 69) 17 is what percent of 67? 70) What percent of 421 is 3? 71) 60 is what percent of 30? 72) What percent of 489 is 489? SO NOW WHAT? Before progressing to the next chapter, it is absolutely essential that you fully understand all of the concepts presented up to this point. They form the foundation of all the math that you will study from this point forward. If you don’t fully understand everything that has been presented, your study of later math including algebra will probably be very confusing and difficult for you. The next chapter introduces basic concepts in probability and statistics. Most students find those topics to be fun and interesting, but most standardized exams only include a few token questions on those topics, instead favoring the material presented in the earlier chapters. 97

CHAPTER ELEVEN

**Basic Probability and Statistics
**

COMPUTING THE MEAN (AVERAGE) 1) Define or explain the term "mean." 2) (True/False) When computing the mean of a list of scores, zeroes don't count because they're just 0. 3) What is the actual formula for computing the mean? For practice, compute the average (mean) of each of these lists of values. Round to the nearest tenth. 4) 17, 34, 0, 45, 109, 98 5) 98, 98, 98, 98, 98 COMPUTING THE MEDIAN 8) Define or explain the term "median." 9) (True/False) When computing the median of a list of values, the order of the entries doesn't matter. 10) How does the procedure to find the median change if a list has an even number of values? 99 6) 81, 78, 82, 83, 0 7) 59, 71, 63, 105, 68

For practice, compute the median of these lists of values. Round to the nearest tenth. 11) 103, 46, 53, 64, 77 12) 98, 98, 98, 98, 98 MEAN VERSUS MEDIAN 15) Give an example of when it makes more sense to find the median of a list of values instead of the mean. FINDING THE MODE 16) Define or explain the term "mode." 17) (True/False): A list could have no mode. Why? 18) (True/False): A list could have several modes. Why? 19) (True/False): When computing the mode of a list of values, the order of the entries doesn't matter. For practice, compute the mode of these lists of values: 20) 17, 34, 0, 45, 109, 98 21) 98, 98, 98, 98, 98 22) 54, 74, 36, 54, 46, 63 23) 43, 64, 999, 64, 43 13) 87, 35, 43, 99, 55, 55 14) 0, 30, 20, 40, 50, 999

FINDING THE RANGE OF A LIST OF NUMBERS 24) Define "range" as it applies to a list of values. Then compute the range of these lists: 25) 17, 34, 45, 109, 98 26) 98, 98, 98, 98, 98 100

BASIC PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

BASIC CONCEPTS IN PROBABILITY 27) What is the probability of an "impossible" event? Can your answer be expressed in another way? 28) What is the probability of a "guaranteed" event? Can you answer be expressed in another way? 29) What is the probability of an event that is equally likely to occur as it is to not occur? Can your answer be expressed in another way? 30) Define or explain the general probability formula. For practice, compute the probabilities of these events: 31) Rolling 8 on a single roll of one die. 32) Rolling a prime number on a single roll of one die. 33) Drawing a red or a blue marble from an urn that only contains red and blue marbles. 34) A fair coin landing on heads. THE CHANCE OF SOMETHING NOT HAPPENING Remember: We determine the chance of an event not happening by computing 100% (or 1) minus the chance of it happening. We usually express the chance of an event not happening using the form presented in the problem (fraction, decimal, percent). For practice, compute the probabilities of these events NOT happening:

101

35) There is a 2/5 chance of rain. 36) There is a 72.9% chance of rain. 37) There is a 0.41 chance of rain. 38) There is a 0. 3 chance of rain. TRICK QUESTIONS AND PROBABILITY MYTHS 39) What does it mean if a probability problem includes the word "fair"? 40) (True/False): If a fair coin lands on heads 3 times in a row, the chances of it landing on heads the next time are good because heads are coming up frequently. 41) (True/False): If a fair coin lands on heads 5 times in a row, the chances of it landing on tails the next time are quite good because tails are overdue. THE PROBABILITY OF COMPOUND INDEPENDENT EVENTS 42) What does it mean if two events are independent? 43) What operation do we use when solving the probability of independent events occurring together? For practice, compute the probabilities of these compound independent events: 44) A coin landing on heads, and a single die landing on either 1 or 2. 102

BASIC PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

45) A coin landing on heads, followed by the same coin landing on heads on the next flip. 46) Three flipped coins all landing on tails. 47) A red die landing on an even number, and a blue die landing on 4. PROBABILITY WITH AND WITHOUT REPLACEMENT 48) What does it mean if a probability problem includes the term "with replacement?" 49) What does it mean if a probability problem includes the term "without replacement? 50) An urn has 6 red marbles and 7 blue marbles. What is the probability of drawing a red marble followed by a blue marble, with replacement? 51) An urn has 8 red marbles and 11 blue marbles. What is the probability of drawing a blue marble followed by a blue marble, without replacement? PROBLEMS OF THE FORM “HOW MANY WAYS...?” Remember: If a problem asks you for the number of combinations that can be made by choosing items from different categories, just multiply the numbers involved. Read the problem carefully to ensure that you are not being tricked in any way. For practice, compute the number of combinations for each of these problems:

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52) An ice cream sundae is comprised of a scoop of ice cream, a wet topping, and a dry topping. How many possible sundae combinations can be made if customers can choose from fourteen flavors of ice cream, twelve wet toppings, and twenty dry toppings? 53) A man has 4 shirts, 5 pairs of pants, 6 cats, and 7 ties. How many possible outfits comprised of a shirt, a pair of pants, and a tie can he create? SO NOW WHAT? Be certain to always read probability questions slowly and carefully. Misreading one word can totally change the entire problem, and of course most probability questions are in the form of word problems. By far, your time is best spent ensuring that you are fully comfortable with the material on basic arithmetic, as well as fractions, decimals, and percents. You will work with those topics again and again as you progress to more advanced math such as algebra. If you don’t master those topics now, you will simply have to master them later when you are busy with other work.

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**End-of-Book Self-Test
**

Take this self-test after you've worked through the exercises in this book, but not immediately after. Use it to determine how much of the material you're retaining, and what concepts you haven't fully internalized. Don't be concerned about how many questions you get right or wrong. Just make sure you understand why the right answers are right and the wrong answers are wrong. After completing this test and checking your answers, review the exercises in this book with an emphasis on the topics that you either forgot or had trouble with. If you have questions or need help, contact me via my website. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Multiply: 7 × 27 Add:

2 5 3

8) 9)

Multiply: Divide:

−3 8

×7

7 −3

4

+

3 7 2 3

−3 7

÷

**True/False: True/False: True/False: True/False: Add:
**

−7 11

= 19 = 20 = 32 = −4

9 12 19

10

10) Multiply:

−17 39

× −17

39

101 102 −3 −8 −9 4 5

11) Compute 58 + 99 12) Compute 72 - 35 13) Define: Integer 14) Evaluate (−8)1 15) Evaluate 81 16) Evaluate 7 + 5 × 3 105

+ 11

**17) Evaluate -18 – 5 + 1 18) Compute: 5 + (-2) 19) Compute: (-1) + (-5) 20) Compute: 2 – 11 21) Compute: (-7) – 3 22) Compute: (-9) – (-5) 23) Compute: (-8) × 7 24) Compute (-2) × (-13) 25) Compute: 55 ÷ (-11) 26) Compute: (-8) ÷ (-4) 27) Evaluate: (−7) 28) Evaluate:
**

2

29) Evaluate 45 30) Evaluate: |-13| 31) Evaluate: |(-5) – 9| 32) List the factors of 56 33) List the factors of 29 34) Is 8 prime? Why? 35) Compute: 0 ÷ -1 36) Compute: -1 ÷ 0 37) What is 12 squared? 38) What is 62% of 482? (round to the nearest whole number)

−143

39) Which basic operations are commutative? 40) Find the product of -3 and -7 41) Find the sum of 7 and -8 42) List the first ten multiples of 9 43) Compute 61 ÷ 11 in mixed number format 44) Is the number 682,403 even or odd? 45) What is the result of adding an even plus an odd number? (Even or Odd) 46) Insert "<" or ">": 630,001 99,999 47) Evaluate -7 × [-40 ÷ (-4 + 2)] 48) Is 4 a composite number? Why? 49) Write "Seven million, fifty-five thousand, seventeen" as a number 106

END-OF-BOOK SELF-TEST

50) Round 35,012 to the nearest ten thousand 51) Round 986,749 to the nearest hundred 52) Evaluate: 4. Include both roots 53) Write "Three thousand twenty-four and eighteen hundredths" as a number 54) Insert "<" or ">": 4.09999 4.13 55) Insert "<" or ">": 0.375 0.37499 56) Convert to a fraction: 0.0087 57) Convert 3/11 to a decimal (round to the nearest hundredth): 58) Convert to a decimal (no calculator): 13/50 59) Convert to a decimal: 2/3 60) True/False: 0.8 = .8 = 0.080 61) True/False: 0. 1750 is a repeating decimal 62) Insert "<" or ">" (no calculator): 31/99 64) Multiply (no calculator): 37.194 × 10,000 65) Divide (no calculator): 23.4 ÷ 100,000 66) Round 784.1234 to the nearest ten 67) Round 61.23495 to the nearest ten thousandth 68) Express 7,890,000,000 in scientific notation 69) Express 2.123 × 10−7 in standard notation 70) Convert 22% to a reduced fraction 71) Convert 209% to a decimal 72) Convert 0.1234 to a percent 73) Convert 13/21 to a percent (round to nearest tenth) 107 24/47 349/701 63) Insert "<" or ">" (use calculator): 498/998

74) Convert 9/25 to a percent (no calculator) 75) Convert 0.005% to a decimal 76) Compute the percent of change from 69 to 61 (round to the nearest tenth of a percent) 77) How much money will you save on a $139.95 item during a "25% Off" sale? 78) What will a person's monthly rent be after a 1.95% increase if it is currently $1043? 79) What is the cost including tax on a $275.95 item if the tax rate is 7.5%? 80) What percent of 23 is 8.2? Round to nearest tenth. 81) What is the reciprocal of -5/13? 82) Convert 8 ⅔ to an improper fraction 83) How is a kilogram related to a gram? 84) Apples are being sold at the rate of 72 apples for $39.95. How much does one apple cost at that rate? 85) Convert 275 centimeters to meters 86) Solve for the unknown value: 87) Simplify to a single fraction: integer): 237, 0, 391, 0, 62, 93 89) Find the median of this list: 36, 7, 52, 247, 12 90) Find the median of this list: 2, 8, 3, 6, 7, 1 91) Find the mode of this list: 1, 2, 1, 2, 3, 4 92) Find the mode of this list: 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

1 ? = 56 7 2 ( )/9 7

88) Find the mean of this list (rounded to the nearest

108

END-OF-BOOK SELF-TEST

93) Find the range of this list: 64, 49, 21, 20, 43, 29 94) Find the probability of rolling a 2 or 5 on a single roll of one standard die 95) Find the probability of rolling an 8 on a single roll of one standard die 96) What is the chance that a fair coin will land on heads after having landed on heads three times in a row? 97) If there is an 82.1% chance that it will rain tomorrow, what is the chance that it will not rain? 98) In an experiment comprised of a coin toss followed by a roll of a single die, what is the probability of flipping tails and rolling either 3 or 6? 99) An urn has 4 red marbles and 7 blue marbles. Find the probability of drawing a red marble followed by a blue marble, with replacement. 100) An urn has 5 red marbles and 8 blue marbles. Find the probability of drawing a blue marble followed by a blue marble, without replacement. 101) A woman has four blouses, five skirts, and six hats. How many different outfits comprised of a blouse, a skirt, and a hat can she create? 102) Convert -29 to a fraction 103) What is the GCF of 12 and 24? 104) What is the LCM of 1 and 7? 105) Reduce 4/21 to lowest terms

109

CHAPTER TWELVE

**How to Study and Learn Math, and Improve Scores on Exams
**

This chapter is intended to review and supplement the material presented in the corresponding chapter in the main book. Be sure to read or review that material first. This chapter offers some practical exercises which will hopefully allow you to study math more efficiently and perform better on exams. PREPARING FOR “WHAT-IF” SCENARIOS There is a fine line between attempting to outguess what will be on an exam, and being outright obsessive. If you have started studying for an exam well in advance, make it a point to do at least some preparation for "what-if" exam scenarios, as long as you are not making yourself nervous in the process. Try to think realistically about what type of problems are likely to be on your exam, and

111

make sure that you know how to solve them. Don't approach your exam with the attitude of, "Well, I just hope that there won't be any negative numbers involved, and if there are, I'll just get those questions wrong and hope to get the others right, and I'll probably still pass." With all of that said, if you have left your studying for the last minute, just utilize your remaining time to remain calm and focused. Any last minute studying or worrying about "what-if" scenarios will almost certainly do more harm than good. AVOIDING A “PASS OR FAIL” MINDSET When preparing for an exam, make it a point to completely remove the words "pass" and "fail" from your vocabulary. If you believe that you will fail, you probably will, even if just to self-fulfill your own prophecy. If your goal is to just barely pass, you will probably either fail by just a few points, or you will pass by the "skin of your teeth," resulting in stress during your exam and while you are waiting for the results. Always aim for a perfect score. The point is not whether you achieve it, or whether it is necessary to do so. Even without studying any additional math, your scores will improve if you maintain a positive attitude, and set 112

HOW TO STUDY AND LEARN MATH, A N D I M P R O V E S C O R E S O N E XA M S

higher goals for yourself. Remember, there is no such thing as over-studying for an exam as long as you are not making yourself anxious in the process. PRACTICING MEDITATION TO CULTIVATE THE OPTIMAL MINDSET FOR TAKING EXAMS Meditation is just the practice of placing your mind on a single object of focus, as opposed to what we usually do which is try to think about countless things all at the same time. In moments of silence we can become aware of the endless chatter that we usually have in our heads. Practicing meditation can help you cultivate a relaxed yet alert mindset that is optimal for taking math exams. It is the complete opposite of being "in a trance," although an onlooker might not be able to make the distinction. Sit in a position that is comfortable but that will not result in slouching or dozing off. Pick something to be the object of your focus, and just practice keeping your focus on that object. The object can be something tangible, or a meaningful phrase, or even what is taking place in your own mind. If you lose focus, just practicing bringing your focus back to the task at hand without analyzing or being concerned about why you lost focus.

113

Over time, this skill will carry over into all facets of your life, including taking exams. Certainly it is important to maintain focus throughout an exam. If you lose focus, you want to be aware of such as quickly as possible, and be able to bring your focus back to the exam without getting flustered. This skill is precisely what is developed during meditation. Any time that you invest in practicing meditation will be returned to you many times over in the form of a more relaxed and alert existence. MORE PRACTICAL TIPS FOR REDUCING ANXIETY Try to avoid interacting with other students before an exam who will only serve to wind you up in various ways. Instead, use that time to get into the state of mind that you've been practicing. Avoid last minute studying which is much more likely to make you nervous and discouraged than help you. By far you are better of using your pre-exam time to breathe deeply and relax. During the exam itself, just place all of your focus on the exam. If you are relaxed and alert you should have no trouble determining when you have lost focus, and it should be easy to bring your focus back. If at any time you are feeling flustered or overwhelmed, look up from your exam, take a slow deep breath, and then refocus

114

HOW TO STUDY AND LEARN MATH, A N D I M P R O V E S C O R E S O N E XA M S

yourself. The few moments that you lose while taking a deep breath will be returned to you in the form of a more relaxed and focused mind for the remainder of your exam time. LEARNING TO FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS Make an agreement with yourself to not lose any points on exams due to a simple lack of following instructions. Remember, some instructions may be applicable to the entire test such as where and how to write your answers, and some may apply to individual problems or sets of problems. Read every word on the page slowly and carefully, and don't make any assumptions about anything. Even if some instructions seem generic, read them carefully anyway. Don’t approach any written words on the page with the attitude of, "Yeah, yeah, whatever." CHECKING ANSWERS FOR REASONABLENESS Plan ahead of time to handle each question by first estimating the answer, and then checking to see if the answer that you get is reasonable. For some problems this will not be practical or applicable so just do the best you can with this tip. Just don't lose points by submitting an answer that couldn't possibly be right.

115

CAN YOU TEACH THE TOPICS TO SOMEONE ELSE? The best way to know if you are prepared for an exam is to see if you can teach the topics to someone else. Ideally this should be done in a study group, but if no one is around you could even try teaching an imaginary person, even if doing so is effectively talking to yourself. The point is that if you can effectively explain a concept to someone else, you should be able to demonstrate mastery of that concept on your exam. That is all exams are actually designed to do. They just check to see the extent to which you have internalized the various concepts that are being tested. BASIC LOGISTICAL ISSUES OF TAKING EXAMS Make a conscious effort to not lose points due to logistical test-taking issues. Make sure that you have extra pens and pencils. Wear a watch so you can keep track of the time. Make sure that your calculator has batteries and that you know how to use it. If you are going to a special testing location that you haven't been to before, plan your trip in advance, and allow extra travel time. Make sure you're not overly hungry or thirsty, but don't nervously eat or drink to the point where you'll have to 116

HOW TO STUDY AND LEARN MATH, A N D I M P R O V E S C O R E S O N E XA M S

worry about using the bathroom. If any ID or special pass is required to take an exam, be sure that you have it. Don't bring any items to your test that are going to be a point of a concern such as a large or unusual bag, or any type of electronic device that could result in you being suspected of cheating. Certainly don't cheat or do anything that appears as though it could involve cheating. This might include making unusual noises or gestures. THE FINAL WORD Just the fact that you even purchased this book proves that you want to achieve your math goals, and that at least at some level, you believe that you can. You probably already read through the first book in the series, and recognized the importance of getting additional practice with the material presented. I truly believe that virtually everyone can succeed in their math goals. You can achieve whatever math goals you have set for yourself, but doing so will certainly take time and effort. Don't let anyone tell you otherwise. Contact me via my website if you have questions about the material, or would like to discuss your academic situation. Study hard and believe in yourself! ☺ 117

**Answers to Exercises and Self-Tests
**

Please read the section in the Introduction on typos and errors. Remember that you can contact me with any questions, and visit my website for help and information. On request, I can provide additional practice exercises for any topic, although you should also try making up your own practice exercises. Make sure that you understand why your right answers are right, and why your wrong answers are wrong. Answers involving words do not need to match these answers exactly as long as you understand the concept. ASSESSMENT SELF-TEST 1) 2) 3) 4) Subtraction, Division 24 15 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 7

8 9

Even Even 73,001 > 72,999 12

119

10) No. It is prime. It has two unique factors: 1 and itself. 11) 9,503,040,017 12) 27,800 13) 140,000 14) ±11 15) 203.59 16) 5.99999 < 6.18 17) 0.29 > 0.2876 18) 21/1000 19) 0.29 20) 0.12 21) 0. 3 22) True 23) False: It terminates. 24) 6/25 < 251/500 25) 425/639 < 541/803 26) 7230 27) 0.00123 28) 12.35 29) 80.0 30) 1.234 × 10 31) 0.0000789 32) 7/50 33) 1.07 120

9

34) 56.7% 35) 64.7% 36) 6% 37) 0.0007 38) 60.9% 39) $8.99 40) $839.06 41) $211.09 42) 40.2% 43) 11/7 44) 29/4 45) It is one-thousandth the size 46) 56¢ or $0.56 47) 8.5 or 8 ½ feet 48) 28 49) 3/56 50) 53.6 51) 12 52) 85 53) 12 54) No mode 55) 59 56) 2/6 or 1/3 57) 0 or 0% 58) 1 or 100%

A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

59) 17/20 60) 1/12 61) 15/64 62) 1/3 63) 60 64) 17/1 65) 2 66) 60 67) 3/17 68) 8/9 69) 5/6 70) True 71) False 72) True 73) True 74) 12/13 75) 6/35 76) 16/25 77) 1 78) 126 79) 56 80) A that 81) 9 whole number is positive,

82) 8 83) 11 84) 4 85) -3 86) -14 87) -7 88) -6 89) -4 90) -54 91) 40 92) -4 93) 4 94) 16 95) Undefined 96) 81 97) 8 98) 7 99) 1, 2, 24, 46 100) 1, 23 101) No. It has factors besides 1 and itself. 102) 0 103) Undefined 104) 9 105) 383

negative, or zero.

121

CHAPTER TWO 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Sum Yes. 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 Nothing. It says the same. 15 12 11 5 9 10 24) Nothing. It says the same. 25) No. We're not combining groups. 26) 2 27) 0 28) 2 29) 0 30) 1 31) 4 32) 1 33) 3 34) 9 35) Product 36) Yes. 8 × 7 = 7 × 8 37) Repeated addition 38) 0 39) The number itself 40) Multiply the number times 1, times 2, times 3, etc. 41) 56 42) 36 43) 64

10) 11 11) 10 12) 16 13) 16 14) 15 15) 12 16) 9 17) 13 18) 11 19) 10 20) 18 21) 17 22) Difference 23) No. 5 – 3 ≠ 3 – 5

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A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

Below is a completed 12 by 12 multiplication table. The exercise of listing the first 12 multiples of each number can be checked by reading across each row.

44) 55 45) 36 46) 63 47) 54 48) 42 49) 0 50) Quotient 51) No. 10 ÷ 1 ≠ 1 ÷ 10 52) 7 53) 6

54) 1 55) 9 56) 8 57) 8 58) 8 59) 12 60) 7 61) 7 R 1 62) 4 R 5 63) 1 R 4

123

64) 8 R 6 65) 8 R 2 66) 8 R 8 67) 7 R 1 68) 6 R 2 69) 12 R 2 70) Ones, Tens, Hundreds, Thousands 71) Each place value must be aligned. 72) Right to left. 73) 121 74) 198 75) 117 76) 131 77) 112 78) 70 79) 150 80) 153 CHAPTER THREE 1) A whole number:

81) 100 82) 68 83) 9 84) 40 85) 43 86) 26 87) 45 88) 57 89) 20 90) 21 91) 891 92) 510 93) 343 94) 424 95) 522 96) 152 97) 400 98) 414 99) 0

4) Its 5) Its

rightmost rightmost

digit digit

Positive, negative, or 0 2) Ex. 17, 0, -3 3) Ex. ½, 0.7

ends with 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 ends with 1,3, 5, 7, or 9

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A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

6) Even 7) Odd 8) Even 9) Even 10) Even 11) Odd 12) > 13) < 14) < 15) The number of times to multiply the base times itself 16) 81 17) 1024 18) 1 19) 0 20) 256 21) 4,782,969

22) Squared 23) Base × Base 24) Cubed 25) Base × Base × Base 26) Just the base itself 27) 1 28) 49 29) 1 30) 9 31) 225 32) 27 33) 125 34) 1 35) 8 36) 144 37) Product of a whole number times itself

Below are the completed charts of squares and square roots. 12 = 1 22 = 4 32 = 9 42 = 16 52 = 25 62 = 36 72 = 49 82 = 64 92 = 81 102 = 100 112 = 121 122 = 144 125 132 = 169 142 = 196 152 = 225 202 = 400 252 = 625 302 = 900 402 = 1600 502 = 2500

1=1 4=2 9=3 16 = 4 25 = 5 38) A

36 = 6 49 = 7 64 = 8 81 = 9 100 = 10 which

121 = 11 144 = 12 169 = 13 196 = 14 225 = 15 48) 9 49) 42 50) 53 51) 2001 52) 20 53) 38 54) 100 55) 14 56) 14

400 = 20 625 = 25 900 = 30 1600 = 40 2500 = 50

number

when squared equals the number under the symbol 39) 40) They're inverse ops. 41) No, e.g., Just plain 4. 42) Parentheses, nents, ×, ÷, +, – 43) Work inner to outer 44) Evaluate the pairs from left to right 45) No. Handle × and ÷ in order from L to R 46) No. Handle + and – in order from L to R 47) Yes. × and ÷ have priority over + and – 126 Expo16 = 4.

57) Determine the numbers which divide into evenly 58) 1 59) 1 and itself 60) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36 61) 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100 62) 1, 2 that number

A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

63) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 64) 1, 41 65) 1, 3, 9, 27 66) A number that has two unique factors: 1 and itself 67) A number that has other factors besides 1 and itself 68) Only the number 2. Any other even number has 2 as a factor so it can't be prime 69) Neither. It's a special case because 1 and itself are not unique. 70) Prime 71) Prime 72) Composite 73) Prime 74) Neither 75) Composite 76) Prime 77) Composite 78) Composite 127

79) Ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, hundred thousands, millions, ten millions, hundred millions, billions 80) No such thing 81) We use a comma to the left of every third place starting on the right. 82) 304,000 83) 101 84) 27,000,030 85) 2,000,048,000 86) To estimate, to stop a repeating decimal, when dealing with $. 87) The place on its right 88) 5 to 9 89) 0 to 4 90) 23,600 91) 4,570,000 92) 6,357,000 93) 10,000,000,000

A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

CHAPTER FOUR 1) Think of positives as assets and negatives as debts 2) Positive. You are adding your assets. 3) Do you have more than you owe? Compute the difference between them. 4) Negative. Just add the involved numbers. You're adding your debts. 5) 3 6) -14 7) -5 8) 1 9) -19 10) 0 11) -15 12) -6 13) 0 14) False 15) False 16) -3 17) 1 18) -12 19) -2 20) -7 21) -12 22) 20 23) -4 24) 16 25) -3 26) Positive 27) Negative 28) Negative 29) Positive 30) No 31) Matching is good (positive). Mismatched is bad (negative). 32) -56 33) 42 34) 90 35) 30 36) 0 37) 3

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A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

38) -1 39) -72 40) 4 41) Positive 42) Negative 43) Negative 44) Positive 45) No 46) Multiplication 47) -4 48) -3 49) 5 50) -10 51) -2 52) 1 53) Undefined. We can't square a number and get a negative result. CHAPTER FIVE 1) Part of a whole 2) False 3) False 4) Numerator

54) +4 or -4.

Squaring

either yields 16. 55) ±4. Plus or minus 4. 56) We give the positive version (principal root. 57) It tells us a number's distance from 0 which is always positive. 58) Vertical bars: | | 59) 18 60) 27 61) 5 62) 8 63) 0 64) 3

5) How many parts are of concern 6) Denominator 7) How many parts we have in total

129

8) False (upside-down) 9) Increases 10) Decreases 11) Decreases 12) Increases 13) Just add the numerators and keep the denominator 14) 9/15 15) 5/51 16) 8/21 17) 0 18) 1 19) 38/39 20) Multiply the top straight across and the bottom straight across. It doesn’t matter if the denominators match. CHAPTER SIX 1) The horizontal line means division: top divided by bottom

21) 1/6 22) 10/63 23) 9/64 24) 6/30 25) 20/20 26) 60/70 27) A fraction "flipped" "upside-down" 28) When the numerator and denom. are equal 29) 2/7 30) 6/(-5) 31) 17/17 32) 3/2 33) 49/64 34) 30/30 35) 21/34 36) 2/3 37) 8/15

2) Put it over a denominator of 1 3) Anything divided by 1 equals itself

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A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

4) If an integer is part of a fraction problem 5) Multiplying both top and bottom by the integer 6) The integer is really over 1 7) Place the integer over 1 and multiply. The integer only multiplies the numerator. 8) 6/5 9) 28/7 10) 6/10 11) 16/5 12) 2/3 13) 18/18 14) 88/90 15) 18/35 16) 12/13 17) 15/4 18) 1/42 19) 8/55 20) 4/3 21) When numerator and denom. are equal 131

22) The largest number that divides evenly into the given numbers 23) When fractions 24) 2 25) 12 26) 1 27) 1 28) 7 29) 20 30) 2 31) 40 32) 1 33) When the GCF of top and bottom is 1 34) 2/3 35) 1/682 36) 1/2 37) 3/17 38) 1 39) 3/8 40) 5/24 41) 2/3 42) 4/5 simplifying

43) Greater equal to

than

or

50) 77 51) 10 52) 46 53) 24 54) 21 55) 36 56) 4 57) 5/6 58) 7/12 59) 4/7 60) 5/8 61) 31/40 62) 41/24 63) It will just take some extra steps to reduce your answer

44) Less than or equal to 45) The smallest number that appears in the lists of all the given numbers. 46) When we need to add/subtract tions with denominators 47) For the above, we use the LCM as our LCD 48) 12 49) 7 CHAPTER SEVEN 1) A fraction whose fracunlike

3) Addition 4) 29/7 5) 17/5 6) 75/8 7) 23/2 8) 9/8 9) 26/9

numerator is greater than or equal to its denominator 2) A value comprised of an integer plus a fraction

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A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

10) 1 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

3 8 2 3 7 2 75 1 13 6 2 14 3 3 7 4

"cross multiply" in order to compare cross products 19) 7/4 20) 65/72 21) 1/6 22) 2/3 23) 16/25 24) 9/32 25) True 26) True 27) True

16) See if the reduced fractions are equal 17) See if the cross products are equal 18) "Multiply across" to multiply fractions, and CHAPTER EIGHT 1) 12 2) 3 3) 5280 4) 16 5) 2000 6) 8 7) 2 8) 2 9) 4 10) 1/12

11) 1/6 12) 1/5 13) 1/4 14) 1/3 15) 5/12 16) 1/2 17) 3/5 18) 3/4 19) 5/6 20) 1

133

21) 1/120 22) Meter. Yard. 23) Liter. Quart. 24) Gram. 3/100 oz. 25) 1000 times as big 26) 1/1000 the size 27) 1/100 the size 28) 2.2 29) 20 30) 0.4 31) A comparison of two values using division 32) a:b, a to b, a/b 33) 34 students to 1 teacher CHAPTER NINE 1) A number with a fractional component 2) One-tenth the value 3) It separates the whole and fractional place values 4) Tenths, hundredths, thousandths

34) 7:1 35) 6/1 36) $0.79 37) $1.60 38) $0.83 39) 72 in. 40) 5 yds. 41) 700 cm. 42) 9,500,000 m. 43) 12 44) 42 45) 30 46) 21 47) 1 48) 26

5) There isn't any 6) "-ths" 7) The first number is bigger. The 3 is in the tenths place and not the hundredths.

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A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

8) They're equal. The 0 at the end doesn't change the value. 9) They are equal. Both have no wholes and five tenths. 10) They are equal. Both have 2 wholes and no fractional component. 11) 12.3 12) 701.07 13) 0.217 14) 562.001 15) > 16) > 17) < 18) > 19) < 20) > 21) 6/25

22) 7/1000 23) 3/10 24) 101/1000 25) 1/250 26) 1/2 27) 9/100 28) 3/50 29) 9/500 30) 0.63 31) 0.92 32) 0.21 33) 0.14 34) 0.5 35) 0.43 36) 0.014 37) 0.013 38) 0.012 39) 0.4 40) 0.55 41) 0.18

CHAPTER NINE AND FIVE-TENTHS 1) Ex. ⅓ 2) False 3) False 4) A bar over the

repeating digits 5) True

135

6) False 7) 0. 6 8) 0. 571428 9) 0.53 10) 0. 5 11) 0. 63 12) 0. 37 13) 0. 123 14) 0. 21 15) 0. 307692 16) Repeating 17) Terminating 18) Terminating 19) Repeating 20) Terminating 21) Repeating 22) < 23) < 24) > 25) < 26) < 27) > 28) < 29) < 30) > 31) >

32) < 33) > 34) 12,340 35) 0.43 36) 530,000 37) 271.234 38) 10.001 39) 0.009 40) 0.495 41) 0.002345 42) 9.4 43) 0.000004 44) 4.10003 45) 0.07 46) 123.50 47) 456.789 48) 9880 49) 12345.6789 50) 3952.5 51) 6.78 × 1010 52) 43,000,000 53) 0.0000217 54) 2.3 × 10−6 55) 9.534 × 107 56) 0.000009843

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A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

CHAPTER TEN 1) They're all ways of representing part of a whole 2) Out of 100 3) A decimal 4) Drop the % sign, put the value over 100 5) Drop the % sign and move 6) Move the the decimal decimal two places to the left two places to the right, add a % sign 7) 7/50 8) 1/4 9) 7/100 10) 2/1 or 2 11) 1/250 12) 9/10000 13) 0.87 14) 1.5 15) 0.005 16) 0.0004 17) 0.06 18) 0.9944 137 19) 27% 20) 6% 21) 0.34% 22) 150% 23) 50% 24) 200% 25) Multiply or divide top and bottom by the same value to make the denominator 100. Take the numerator and add a % sign. 26) 16% 27) 85% 28) 26% 29) 3.5% 30) 23% 31) 70% 32) Compute numerator divided by denominator, multiply by 100, add a % sign 33) 37.2% 34) 265.4% 35) 1.2%

36) 7.5% 37) 41.4% 38) 60.7% 39) It is a % because it has a % sign. It is half of 1% or 1/200. 40) It represents greater than a whole, common

in price-increase problems. 41) 13.5% 42) 54.6% 43) 30.3% 44) 100% 45) 200% 46) 1.1%

Below is the chart of equivalent percents, decimals, and fractions Percent 0% 0.5% 1% 2% 5% 10% 12 ½% 20% Dec. 0 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.125 0.2 Fract. 0 1/200 1/100 1/50 1/20 1/10 1/8 1/5 Percent 25% 33 ⅓% 50% 66 ⅔% 75% 100% 150% 200% 54) 1.0 55) 62% 56) $227.62 57) $371.38 58) $197.50 59) $25.65 60) $3996 Dec. 0.25 0.333 0.5 0.666 0.75 1 1.5 2 Fract. 1/4 1/3 1/2 2/3 3/4 1 3/2 2

47) Multiplication 48) Convert to a decimal 49) 212.7 50) 53.0 51) 835.1 52) 5.4 53) 0.05

138

A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

61) $3.60 62) $864.44 63) $231.74 64) $365.33 65) $150 66) $31.97 CHAPTER ELEVEN 1) A value representing the balance point of a list of values 2) False 3) Mean 4) 50.5 5) 98 6) 64.8 7) 73.2 8) The middlemost value in a sorted list 9) False 10) The median is the mean 11) 64 12) 98 139 of the two middlemost values = (Sum of values) ÷ (# of values)

67) $70.56 68) $1.04 69) 25.37% 70) 0.71% 71) 200% 72) 100%

13) 55 14) 35 15) Reporting the income of a town's residents 16) The value that occurs the most frequently in a list of values. 17) True, if no value occurs more frequently than others 18) True, if more than 1 value is tied for most frequently occurring 19) True 20) No mode 21) 98 22) 54 23) 43 and 64

24) The difference between 25) 92 26) 0 27) 0 or 0% 28) 1 or 100% 29) ½ or 50% or 0.5 30) The probability of an event equals the # of favorable outcomes divided by the total # of outcomes 31) 0 or 0% 32) ½ or 50% 33) 1 or 100% 34) ½ or 50% 35) 3/5 36) 27.1% 37) 0.59 END-OF-BOOK SELF-TEST 1) 2) 3) 4) 21/27 29/35 False False 140 the largest and smallest values

38) 0. 6 39) No tricks or biases 40) False 41) False 42) The outcome of one event doesn't affect the other 43) Multiplication 44) 1/6 45) 1/4 46) 1/8 47) 1/12 48) Drawn items are put back after each draw 49) Drawn items are not put back. 50) 42/169 51) 110/342 or 55/171 52) 3360 53) 140

5) 6) 7) 8)

True True -2/11 -3/14

A N S W E R S T O E XE R C I S E S A N D S E L F - T E S T S

9)

9/49

**33) 1, 29 34) No. 35) 0 36) Undefined 37) 144 38) 299 39) Addition, Multiplication 40) 21 41) -1 42) 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90 43) 5
**

6 11

10) 1 11) 157 12) 37 13) A whole number: Positive, or 0 14) -8 15) 9 16) 22 17) -22 18) 3 19) -6 20) -9 21) -10 22) -4 23) -56 24) 26 25) -5 26) 2 27) 49 28) Undefined 29) 1024 30) 13 31) 14 32) 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 14, 28, 56 141 negative,

It has factors

other than 1 & itself.

44) Odd 45) Odd 46) > 47) -140 48) Yes. It has a factor besides 1 & itself. 49) 7,053,017 50) 40,000 51) 986,700 52) ±2 53) 3024.18 54) <

55) > 56) 87/10000 57) 0.2727 58) 0.26 59) 0. 6 60) False 61) True 62) < 63) > 64) 371,940 65) 0.000234 66) 780 67) 61.2350 68) 7.89 × 10 69) 0.0000002123 70) 11/50 71) 2.09 72) 12.34% 73) 61.9% 74) 36% 75) 0.00005 76) 11.6% decrease 77) $34.99 78) $1063.34 79) $296.65 80) 35.7%

9

81) 13/-5 82) 26/3 83) It is 1000 times the mass 84) 55¢ 85) 2.75 m 86) 8 87) 2/63 88) 131 89) 36 90) 4.5 91) 1 and 2 92) 1 93) 44 94) 2/6 or 1/3 95) 0 or 0% 96) ½ 97) 17.9% 98) 1/6 99) 28/121 100) 14/39 101) 120 102) -29/1 103) 12 104) 7 105) 4/21 142

**About the Author
**

Larry Zafran was born and raised in Queens, NY where he tutored and taught math in public and private schools. He has a Bachelors Degree in Computer Science from Queens College where he graduated with highest honors, and has earned most of the credits toward a Masters Degree in Secondary Math Education. He is a dedicated student of the piano, and the leader of a large and active group of board game players which focuses on abstract strategy games from Europe. He presently lives in Cary, NC where he works as an independent math tutor, writer, and webmaster.

**Companion Website for More Help
**

For free support related to this or any of the author's math books, please visit the companion website below.

**www.MathWithLarry.com
**

143

by Larry Zafran

This is the second book in the Math Made a Bit Easier series by independent math tutor Larry Zafran. It is a workbook of practice exercises, self-tests, and review notes to be used in conjunction w...

This is the second book in the Math Made a Bit Easier series by independent math tutor Larry Zafran. It is a workbook of practice exercises, self-tests, and review notes to be used in conjunction with the first book in the series, subtitled Basic Math Explained in Plain English.

The math content in this book is directly aligned with the first book. It covers the topics which comprise the foundation of math. It begins with practice in basic arithmetic, followed by basic operations, negative numbers, fractions, decimals, percents, and basic probability and statistics. If these topics are not completely mastered, later work will prove to be quite difficult. This is especially true of algebra.

An extensive introduction describes how to obtain the greatest benefit from the book. The book also outlines practical techniques for attaining the optimal mindset for studying math and improving scores on exams. An answer key for all exercises and self-tests is included.

The math content in this book is directly aligned with the first book. It covers the topics which comprise the foundation of math. It begins with practice in basic arithmetic, followed by basic operations, negative numbers, fractions, decimals, percents, and basic probability and statistics. If these topics are not completely mastered, later work will prove to be quite difficult. This is especially true of algebra.

An extensive introduction describes how to obtain the greatest benefit from the book. The book also outlines practical techniques for attaining the optimal mindset for studying math and improving scores on exams. An answer key for all exercises and self-tests is included.

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