INTRODUCTION: In the preceding Book Carlyle has been talking of the twelfth century i.e. the Past.

In this Book he talks of the Present and its most outstanding fact, namely the Modern Worker or the rise of Labour. CHAPTER # 1: PHENOMENA THEME: England is rushing towards destruction because of the worship of Mammonism and Dilettantism. True religion is gone; true Christianity is dead and universal heroism lies in grave, but the Roman Catholic Church keeps up the remembrance of that which once was. CHAPTER # 2: GOSPEL OF MAMMONISM THEME: Modern society is held together by only one bond – cash payment. CHAPTER # 3: GOSPEL OF DILETTANTISM THEME: The gospel of Dilettantism is more hopeless than that of Mammonism. Insincere, lazy and canting aristocrats have no earnestness about them at all. They are like the dwellers of the Dead Sea. CHAPTER # 4: HAPPY THEME: Men are wrong in claiming to be happy, that is not their destiny; they can only claim the blessedness of work. CHAPTER # 5: THE ENGLISH THEME: Of all the nations, the English are the stupidest in speech, the wisest in action. In their unconsciousness lies their strength. CHAPTER # 6: TWO CENTURIES THEME: The one voice of GOD heard in the two atheistic centuries is the practical labour and it must become a seeing rational giant.

CHAPTER # 7: OVER-PRODUCTION THEME: The over-production is the result of over-work by the labourers. Wealth is accumulated in few hands. The whole benefit goes to the parasitic Landowners who do not produce anything. CHAPTER # 8: UNWORKING ARISTOCRACY THEME: The Unworking aristocracy, parasitic and pampered race, must find its duties and do them; otherwise it will have to be abolished. These noblemen not only do not help but they actually make mischief. CHAPTER # 9: WORKING ARISTOCRACY THEME: The working Aristocrats of England is in a bad position now, mainly because it is given to Mammon worship. It must take its stand upon honest work. CHAPTER # 10: PLUGSON OF UNDERSHOT THEME: Cash payment can not be the supreme bond between one man and another. There is a higher Gospel than cash Gospel which must be followed. CHAPTER # 11: LABOUR THEME: There is a perennial nobleness and even sacredness in work. The old Gospels of “know thyself” are exploded, now the latest Gospel is “know thy work and do it”. Man’s true blessedness is in work. CHAPTER # 12: REWARD THEME: Work is worship. The worker’s true wages can be paid only in Heaven. Money wages can not compensate work. The worker should have the consolation that he is doing worship and let him silently do his work. CHAPTER # 13: DEMOCRACY THEME: Democracy is really something equivalent to Atheism, for it despairs of finding Heroes. It is only liberty to die by starvation.

CHAPTER # 14: SIR JABESH WINDBAG THEME: A true governor is that whose priority is to do service of public rather than getting fame. CHAPTER # 15: MORRISON AGAIN THEME: England has become atheistic and irreligious. Religion is no Morrison’s Pill to be gulped down. Rituals and liturgies do not make religion. Religion in its true sense is a belief in unseen powers.

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