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# Eurocodes:

## Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

## 13-14 June 2013, Dublin

Worked examples
d i
design
off pile
il
foundations
Dr. Trevor Orr
Trinity College Dublin
Convenor SC7/EG3

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example 1
design of pile foundations from load tests

DESIGN SITUATION

## 13-14 June 2013, Dublin

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## Pile foundations are required to support the following loads from a

building :

Gk = 6.0 MN

Qk = 3.2 MN

It has been decided to use bored piles 1.2m in diameter and 15m
long

## The pile foundation design is to determine how many piles are

required
i d

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Pile settlements
0

performed on site on four p
p
piles
of the same diameter and
same length

## Adopt settlement of the pile

top equal to10% of the pile
base diameter as the "failure"
criterion (7
(7.6.1.1(3))
6 1 1(3))

1,5

2,5

20
40
Pile 1
60

Pile 2
Pile 3

80

Pile 4
Mean

100
120
140
160

Settleem ent, m m

Th
The results
l d
ttl
t
curves are plotted in Figure 1

0,5

L d MN

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Background & Applications
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Worked example 1
design of pile foundations from load tests

SOLUTION

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## Measured pile resistances

Adopting the pile load at a settlement of the top of the piles equal
to 10% of the pile diameter as the ultimate resistance means
using the measured resistances at a settlement of:
12.0 x (10/100) x 103 = 120mm

Pile
Pile
Pile
Pile

1
2
3
4

Rm
Rm
Rm
Rm

=
=
=
=

2.14
1
1.96
96
1.73
2.33

MN
MN
MN
MN

## Hence the mean and minimum measured pile resistances are :

Rm, mean = 2.04 MN
Rm, min = 1.73
1 73 MN

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Characteristic resistance

## The characteristic pile resistance is obtained by dividing the mean

and minimum measured p
pile resistances by
y the correlation factors
1 and 2 and choosing the minimum value:

(R )
(R )
R c; k = Min c;m mean ; c; m min
1
2

1 = 1.1
2 = 1.0

## Hence the characteristic pile resistance:

2 .04 1 .73
R c;k = Min
;
= Min {1 .85 ;1 .73 } = 1 .73
1 .1 1 .0

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DA1.C1
DA1.C2

## Partial actions factors

A1
A2

A1 + M1 + R1
A2 + M1 or M2 + R4
G = 1.35
1 35
G = 1.0

Q = 1.5
15
Q = 1.3

## Partial material factors

M1 and M2 not relevant

R1

## t = 1.15 (Total/combined compression)

R4

t = 1.5

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Design equation
DA1.C1
DA1.C1

Fc,d Rc,d

## Fc,d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35x6.0+1.5x3.2

Fc,d = 1.0 Gk+1.3 Qk
= 1.0x6.0+1.3x3.2

DA1.C1
DA1.C2

= 12.9 MN
= 10.2 MN

## Rc,d = Rc,k /t = 1.73 / 1.15 = 1.50 MN

Rc,d = Rc,k /t = 1.73 / 1.5 = 1.15 MN

## Assuming no pile group effect, for n piles, resistance = n x Rc,d

Hence
DA1.C1
n Fc,d /Rc,d = 12.9/1.5 = 8.6
DA1.C2
n Fc,d /Rc,d = 10.2/1.15 = 8.9
Therefore DA1.C2 controls and no. piles required: n = 9
9

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DA2

A1

A1 + M1 + R2

G = 1.35

M1 not relevant

R2

10

Q = 1.5

## t = 1.1 (Total/combined compression)

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Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

## Fc,d = 1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk = 1.35x 6.0 + 1.5x 3.2 = 12.9 MN

For a single pile
Rc,d = Rc,k /t = 1.73 / 1.1 = 1.57 MN
Assuming no pile group effect, for n piles, resistance = n x Rc,d
Hence

Fc,d n Rc,d

Therefore
h
f
no. piles
l required:
d n = Fc,d / Rc,d = 12.9 / 1.57 = 9 piles
il

11

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DA3

A1 + M1 + R3

R3

## Since the R3 recommended partial resistance factor is equal to

1 0 no safety margin on the resistance is provided if DA3 is used
1.0,
to calculated the design pile resistance from pile load test results

Hence piles should not be designed from load test results using
Design Approach 3 and the recommended partial resistance factor

12

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## Conclusions from pile worked example 1

The same design number of piles, 9 is obtained for both DA1 and
DA2

Since the recommended partial resistance factors are 1.0 for DA3,
this Design Approach should not be used for the design of piles
from pile load test results unless the partial resistance factors are
increased

13

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Worked example 2
design of pile foundations from test profiles

DESIGN SITUATION

## 13-14 June 2013, Dublin

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## Design situation for a pile designed from a

CPT test profile

The piles for a building are each required to support the following

Gk = 300 kN

Qk = 150 kN

The ground consists of dense sand beneath loose sand with soft
clay and peat to 16.5m as shown in figure on next slide

## It has been decided to use 0.45m diameter bored piles

piles
l

15

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## Bhole log/CPT profile

1 CPT was carried out
Soil has upper 11m layer of
loose sand, soft clay and some
peat over 5.5m of clay with peat
seams

qc
Loose sand,
soft clay
and some
peat

Clay with
peat seams

## Cautious average qc = 2.5 MPa

St
Stronger
onge layer
l e of medium
medi m to
dense sand starts at depth of
16.5m
Cautious average qc = 12.5 MPa

16.5m

Medium to
dense sand

## Assume the soil above 16.5m

provides
id no shaft
h ft resistance
i t
16

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## Unit pile resistances

The base and shaft pile resistances
are calculated using Tables D.3
and D.4
D 4 of EN 1997
1997-2
2 relating a
single cautious average qc value in
stronger soil to the unit base and
shaft resistances,
resistances pb and ps
Assume the ULS settlement of the
pile head, sg so that the
normalised settlement is 0.1
Interpret linearly between relevant
qc values to obtain pb and ps from
these tables:
pb = 2.5 MPa
ps = 0.1
0 1 MPa
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Table D.3
Unit base resistance pb of cast in-situ piles in coarse soil
with little or no fines

## Unit base resistance pb, in MPa,

at average cone penetration resistance
qc (CPT) in MPa
qc = 15
qc = 20
qc = 25
qc = 10
0 02
0,02
0 70
0,70
1 05
1,05
1 40
1,40
1 75
1,75
0,03
0,90
1,35
1,80
2,25
2,00
3,00
3,50
4,00
0,10 (= sg)
NOTE
Intermediate values may be interpolated linearly.
In the case of cast in-situ piles with pile base enlargement, the values
shall be multiplied by 0
0,75.
75
s is the normalised pile head settlement
Ds is the diameter of the pile shaft
Db is the diameter of the pile base
sg is the ultimate settlement of pile head
Normalised
settlement s/Ds;
s/Db

Table D.4
Unit shaft resistance ps of cast in-situ piles in coarse soil
with little or no fines

## Unit shaft resistance ps

Average cone penetration
resistance qc (CPT)
(C )
MPa
MPa
0
0
5
0,040
10
0,080
> 15
0 120
0,120
NOTE
Intermediate values may be interpolated linearly

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example 2
design of pile foundations from test profiles

SOLUTION

## 13-14 June 2013, Dublin

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## Characteristic pile resistance

Pile diameter
D = 0.45m
Pile base cross sectional area
Ab = x 0.452 / 4 = 0.159 m2
Pile shaft area per metre length
As = x 0.45
0 45 = 1.414
1 414 m2 /m
Length of pile in stronger layer providing shaft resistance = Ls
Calculated compressive pile resistance for the one profile of test results:
Rc;cal = Rb;cal + Rs;cal

= Ab x pb + As x Ls x ps
= (0.159 x 2.5 + 1.414 x Ls x 0.10) x 103 kN

## Rc;cal = 398 + 141 x Ls kN

Hence, applying the recommended correlation factors 3 and 4, which are both
the same and equal to 1.4 for one profile of test results because the mean and
minimum
i i
calculated
l l t d resistances
i t
are th
the same so that
th t 3 and
d 4 = = 1.4
1 4 and
d
the characteristic base and shaft compressive pile resistances are:

19

= 284 kN

## Rs;k = Rs;cal / = 141 x Ls /1.4

= 101 Ls

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DA1.C1
DA1.C2

## Partial actions factors:

A1
A2

A1 + M1 + R1
A2 + M1 or M2 + R4
G = 1.35
1 35
G = 1.0

Q = 1.5
15
Q = 1.3

## Partial material factors:

M1 and M2 not relevant

20

( = 1.0)

## Partial resistance factors:

R1

b = 1.25

s = 1.0

R4

b = 1.6

s = 1.3

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## Design Approach 1 - pile design

Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

Design
D
i
actions
ti
DA1.C1 Fc,d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35x300+1.5x150
DA1.C1 Fc,d = 1.0 Gk+1.3 Qk
= 1.0x300+1.3x150

= 630 kN
= 495 MN

Design resistances
DA1.C1 Rc,d = Rb,k /b + Rs,k /s = 284/1.25 + 101 x Ls/ 1.0
DA1 C2 Rc,d = Rb,k /b + Rs,k /s = 284/1.6
DA1.C2
284/1 6 + 101 x Ls/ 1.3
13
Equating actions and resistances
DA1.C1 630 = 284/1.25 + 101 x Ls/ 1.0
DA1.C2 495 = 284/1.6 + 101 x Ls/ 1.3

Ls = 3.99 m
Ls = 4.08 m

g p
pile length
g L = 16.5 + Ls = 21m
Hence DA1.C2 controls and DA1 design
21

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## Design Approach 2 - pile design

Partial action factors same as for Example 1
Partial resistance factors:
R2
b = 1.1
Design equation

s = 1.1

Fc,d Rc,d

Design action
Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35x300+1.5x150

= 630 kN

Design resistance
Rc;d = Rb;k /b + Rs;k /s = 284/1.1 + 101 x Ls/ 1.1
E
Equating
i
actions
i
and
d resistances
i
630 = 284/1.1 + 101 x Ls/ 1.1

Ls = 4.05 m

## Hence the DA2 design pile length L = 16.5

16 5 + Ls = 21m
22

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DA3
A1 + M1 + R3

R3
b = s = 1.0

## Since the R3 recommended partial resistance factors are both

equal to 1.0, no safety margin is provided if these factors are
used in DA3 to calculated the design pile resistance from a CPT
test profile

## Hence piles should not be designed using the DA3 recommended

partial resistance factors applied to the characteristic pile
resistance obtained from a CPT test profile

23

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## Conclusions from pile worked example 2

The same design pile length, 21m is required for both DA1 and
DA2

Since the recommended partial resistance factors are 1.0 for DA3,
this Design Approach should not be used for the design of piles
from profiles of ground test results unless the partial resistance
factors are increased

24

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## 13-14 June 2013, Dublin

Worked example 3
design of pile foundations from soil parameters

DESIGN SITUATION

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## Design situation for a pile designed from soil

parameters

The piles for a proposed building in Dublin are each required to support

Gk = 600 kN

Qk = 300 kN

The ground consists of about 3m Brown Dublin Boulder Clay over Black
Dublin Clay to great depth

## It has been decided to use 0.45m diameter driven piles

26

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Characteristic undrained
shear strength

Brown DBC

## Figure shows plot of SPT N values

obtained plotted against depth

Black DBC

## Shaft resistance in Brown Dublin Boulder

Clay is ignored
Average N value
l
in Black
l k Dublin
bl Boulder
ld
Clay = 57

Average N = 57
Cautious average N value = 45

## A cautious average N value = 45

PI of the Dublin Boulder Clay = 14%
From Stroud and Butler plot of f1 vs. N
Hence characteristic undrained shear
strength cu;k = f1 x N = 6 x 45 = 270 kPa
27

cu = f1 x N

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Pile resistances
Pile diameter

D = 0.45m

## Pile base cross sectional area

Ab = x 0.452 / 4 = 0.159 m2

## Pile shaft area per metre length

As = x 0.45 = 1.414 m2 /m

## Length of pile in Black Dublin Clay providing shaft resistance = Ls

The characteristic unit pile base and shaft resistances, qb;k and qs;k are
obtained as follows:
qb;k = Nq x cu

= 9 cu

qs;k = x cu

= 0.4 x cu

## Characteristic base resistance

Rb;k = Ab x qb;k = 0
0.159
159 x 9 x 270

= 386 kN

## Characteristic shaft resistance

Rs;k = As x Ls x qs;k = 1.414 x Ls x 0.4 x 270
28

= 153 Ls

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DA1.C1
DA1.C2

## Partial actions factors:

A1
A2

A1 + M1 + R1
A2 + M1 or M2 + R4
G = 1.35
1 35
G = 1.0

Q = 1.5
15
Q = 1.3

## Partial material factors:

M1 and M2 not relevant (resistances factored not soil parameters)

## Partial resistance factors:

R1
R4

29

b = 1.0
b = 1.3

s = 1.0
s = 1.3

Model factors:
R;d = 1.75 (In Irish NA and applied to b, s and t)

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## Design Approach 1 - pile design to Irish NA

Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

Design actions
DA1.C1 Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300
DA1.C1 Fc;d = 1.0 Gk+1.3 Qk = 1.0 x 600+1.3 x 300

= 1260 kN
= 990 kN

g resistances
Design
DA1.C1 Rc;d = Rb;k /(b x R;d) + Rs;k /(s x R;d)
DA1.C2

Rc;d

## = 386/(1.0x1.75)+ 153 x Ls /(1.0x1.75) = 221 + 87.4 Ls kN

= Rb;k /(b x R;d) + Rs,k
s k /(b x R;d)
= 386/(1.3x1.75) + 153 x Ls /(1.3x1.75) = 170 + 67.3 Ls kN

## Equating actions and resistances

DA1 C1 1260 = 221 + 87.4
DA1.C1
87 4 Ls
DA1.C2
990 = 170 + 67.3 Ls

Ls = 11.9
11 9 m
Ls = 12.2 m

Hence DA1.C2
DA1 C2 controls and the DA1 design pile length L = 3.0
3 0 + Ls = 15.5m
15 5m
30

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DA2
A1 + M1 + R2

A1

31

G = 1.35

Q = 1.5

M1 not relevant

( = 1.0)

## Partial resistance factor

R2
b = 1.1

s = 1.1

Model
M
d l factors:
f t
R;d = 1.75 (In Irish NA and applied to b, s and t)
R;d = 1.27 (In German NA giving b = 1.1x1.27 = 1.4, s = 1.1x1.27 = 1.4

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## Design Approach 2 - pile design to Irish NA

Design equation

Fc;d Rc;d

Design action
Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300

1260 kN

D i
Design
resistance
i
Rc;d = Rb;k /(b x R;d) + Rs;k /(s x R;d)
= 386/(1.1 x 1.75)+ 153 x Ls /(1.1 x 1.75) = 201 + 79.5 Ls kN
Equating design action and resistance
1260 = 201 + 79.5 Ls

Ls = 13.3 m

## Hence the DA2 design pile length L = 3.0 + Ls = 16.5m

32

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## Design Approach 2 - pile design to German NA

Design equation

Fc;d Rc;d

D i
Design
action
ti
Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300

= 1260 kN

Design resistance
Rc;d = Rb,k /b + Rs,k /s
Note: R1 partial factors of 1.1 have been increased to 1.4, i.e. a model
factor of 1
1.4/1.1
4/1 1 = 1
1.27
27 has been applied
= 386 /1.4 + 153 x Ls /1.4 = 276 + 109 Ls kN
Equating design action and resistance
1260 = 276 + 109 Ls

Ls = 9.0 m

## Hence DA2 design pile length L = 3.0

3 0 + Ls = 12.0m
12 0m
33

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DA3

A1
A2

34

Q = 1.5
Q = 1.3

cu = 1.4
14

R3

G = 1.35
G = 1.0

## Partial material factor:

M2

A1* or A2 + M2 + R3

Model factor:

b = 1.0

s = 1.0

## R;d = 1.75 (applied to b, s and t)

on structural actions

on geotechnical actions

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## Design Approach 3 - pile design

Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

Design
g action
Fc,d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300

= 1260 kN

Design resistance
Rc,d = Rb,d + Rs,d
= Ab x qb;d + As x Ls x qs;d
= (AbxNqxcu;k/cu)/(R;dxb) + (AsxLsxxcu;k/cu)/(R;dxs)
= (0.159x9x270/1.4)/(1.75x1.0) + (1.414xLsx0.4x270/1.4)/(1.75x1.0)
= 158 + 62.3 Ls
Equating design action and resistance
1260 = 158 + 62.3 Ls

Ls = 17.7 m

## Hence the DA3 design pile length L = 3.0 + Ls = 21 m

35

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## Conclusions from pile worked example 3

The design pile lengths obtained from ground strength parameters using
the alternative procedure and the model factor in the Irish and German
National Annexes are:
DA1 (Irish NA)

L = 15.5 m

L = 16.5 m

L = 21
21.0
0m

## DA2 (German NA)

L = 12.0 m

Application of the model factor of 1.75 as well as the material factor of 1.4
to obtain the design resistance when using DA3, results in DA3 providing
a longer design pile length and hence the least economical Design
Approach in Ireland

The longer design pile length of 16.5 m when using the Irish NA with DA2
compared to 12.0 m when using the German NA is because of the model
factor of 1.75 in the Irish NA and 1.27 in the German NA

36