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Worked Examples Design of Pile Foundations

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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked examples

d i

design

off pile

il

foundations

Dr. Trevor Orr

Trinity College Dublin

Convenor SC7/EG3

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example 1

design of pile foundations from load tests

DESIGN SITUATION

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

l

13 14 June,

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D bli

load test results

building :

Gk = 6.0 MN

Qk = 3.2 MN

It has been decided to use bored piles 1.2m in diameter and 15m

long

required

i d

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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

l

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D bli

Pile settlements

0

performed on site on four p

p

piles

of the same diameter and

same length

top equal to10% of the pile

base diameter as the "failure"

criterion (7

(7.6.1.1(3))

6 1 1(3))

1,5

2,5

20

40

Pile 1

60

Pile 2

Pile 3

80

Pile 4

Mean

100

120

140

160

Settleem ent, m m

Th

The results

lt off load-settlements

l d

ttl

t

curves are plotted in Figure 1

0,5

L d MN

Load,

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example 1

design of pile foundations from load tests

SOLUTION

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

l

13 14 June,

13-14

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Dublin

D bli

Adopting the pile load at a settlement of the top of the piles equal

to 10% of the pile diameter as the ultimate resistance means

using the measured resistances at a settlement of:

12.0 x (10/100) x 103 = 120mm

Pile

Pile

Pile

Pile

1

2

3

4

Rm

Rm

Rm

Rm

=

=

=

=

2.14

1

1.96

96

1.73

2.33

MN

MN

MN

MN

Rm, mean = 2.04 MN

Rm, min = 1.73

1 73 MN

2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved.

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13 14 June,

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D bli

Characteristic resistance

and minimum measured p

pile resistances by

y the correlation factors

1 and 2 and choosing the minimum value:

(R )

(R )

R c; k = Min c;m mean ; c; m min

1

2

1 = 1.1

2 = 1.0

2 .04 1 .73

R c;k = Min

;

= Min {1 .85 ;1 .73 } = 1 .73

1 .1 1 .0

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13 14 June,

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D bli

DA1.C1

DA1.C2

A1

A2

A1 + M1 + R1

A2 + M1 or M2 + R4

G = 1.35

1 35

G = 1.0

Q = 1.5

15

Q = 1.3

M1 and M2 not relevant

R1

R4

t = 1.5

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13 14 June,

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D bli

Design equation

DA1.C1

DA1.C1

Fc,d Rc,d

Fc,d = 1.0 Gk+1.3 Qk

= 1.0x6.0+1.3x3.2

DA1.C1

DA1.C2

= 12.9 MN

= 10.2 MN

Rc,d = Rc,k /t = 1.73 / 1.5 = 1.15 MN

Hence

DA1.C1

n Fc,d /Rc,d = 12.9/1.5 = 8.6

DA1.C2

n Fc,d /Rc,d = 10.2/1.15 = 8.9

Therefore DA1.C2 controls and no. piles required: n = 9

9

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13 14 June,

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D bli

DA2

A1

A1 + M1 + R2

G = 1.35

M1 not relevant

R2

10

Q = 1.5

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13 14 June,

13-14

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Dublin

D bli

Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

For a single pile

Rc,d = Rc,k /t = 1.73 / 1.1 = 1.57 MN

Assuming no pile group effect, for n piles, resistance = n x Rc,d

Hence

Fc,d n Rc,d

Therefore

h

f

no. piles

l required:

d n = Fc,d / Rc,d = 12.9 / 1.57 = 9 piles

il

11

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13 14 June,

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D bli

DA3

A1 + M1 + R3

R3

1 0 no safety margin on the resistance is provided if DA3 is used

1.0,

to calculated the design pile resistance from pile load test results

Hence piles should not be designed from load test results using

Design Approach 3 and the recommended partial resistance factor

12

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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

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13 14 June,

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Dublin

D bli

The same design number of piles, 9 is obtained for both DA1 and

DA2

Since the recommended partial resistance factors are 1.0 for DA3,

this Design Approach should not be used for the design of piles

from pile load test results unless the partial resistance factors are

increased

13

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Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example 2

design of pile foundations from test profiles

DESIGN SITUATION

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13 14 June,

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D bli

CPT test profile

The piles for a building are each required to support the following

loads:

Gk = 300 kN

Qk = 150 kN

The ground consists of dense sand beneath loose sand with soft

clay and peat to 16.5m as shown in figure on next slide

piles

l

15

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13 14 June,

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1 CPT was carried out

Soil has upper 11m layer of

loose sand, soft clay and some

peat over 5.5m of clay with peat

seams

qc

Loose sand,

soft clay

and some

peat

Clay with

peat seams

St

Stronger

onge layer

l e of medium

medi m to

dense sand starts at depth of

16.5m

Cautious average qc = 12.5 MPa

16.5m

Medium to

dense sand

provides

id no shaft

h ft resistance

i t

16

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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

l

The base and shaft pile resistances

are calculated using Tables D.3

and D.4

D 4 of EN 1997

1997-2

2 relating a

single cautious average qc value in

stronger soil to the unit base and

shaft resistances,

resistances pb and ps

Assume the ULS settlement of the

pile head, sg so that the

normalised settlement is 0.1

Interpret linearly between relevant

qc values to obtain pb and ps from

these tables:

pb = 2.5 MPa

ps = 0.1

0 1 MPa

17

13 14 June,

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Table D.3

Unit base resistance pb of cast in-situ piles in coarse soil

with little or no fines

at average cone penetration resistance

qc (CPT) in MPa

qc = 15

qc = 20

qc = 25

qc = 10

0 02

0,02

0 70

0,70

1 05

1,05

1 40

1,40

1 75

1,75

0,03

0,90

1,35

1,80

2,25

2,00

3,00

3,50

4,00

0,10 (= sg)

NOTE

Intermediate values may be interpolated linearly.

In the case of cast in-situ piles with pile base enlargement, the values

shall be multiplied by 0

0,75.

75

s is the normalised pile head settlement

Ds is the diameter of the pile shaft

Db is the diameter of the pile base

sg is the ultimate settlement of pile head

Normalised

settlement s/Ds;

s/Db

Table D.4

Unit shaft resistance ps of cast in-situ piles in coarse soil

with little or no fines

Average cone penetration

resistance qc (CPT)

(C )

MPa

MPa

0

0

5

0,040

10

0,080

> 15

0 120

0,120

NOTE

Intermediate values may be interpolated linearly

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example 2

design of pile foundations from test profiles

SOLUTION

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

l

13 14 June,

13-14

J

Dublin

D bli

Pile diameter

D = 0.45m

Pile base cross sectional area

Ab = x 0.452 / 4 = 0.159 m2

Pile shaft area per metre length

As = x 0.45

0 45 = 1.414

1 414 m2 /m

Length of pile in stronger layer providing shaft resistance = Ls

Calculated compressive pile resistance for the one profile of test results:

Rc;cal = Rb;cal + Rs;cal

= Ab x pb + As x Ls x ps

= (0.159 x 2.5 + 1.414 x Ls x 0.10) x 103 kN

Hence, applying the recommended correlation factors 3 and 4, which are both

the same and equal to 1.4 for one profile of test results because the mean and

minimum

i i

calculated

l l t d resistances

i t

are th

the same so that

th t 3 and

d 4 = = 1.4

1 4 and

d

the characteristic base and shaft compressive pile resistances are:

19

= 284 kN

= 101 Ls

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Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

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13 14 June,

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Dublin

D bli

DA1.C1

DA1.C2

A1

A2

A1 + M1 + R1

A2 + M1 or M2 + R4

G = 1.35

1 35

G = 1.0

Q = 1.5

15

Q = 1.3

M1 and M2 not relevant

20

( = 1.0)

R1

b = 1.25

s = 1.0

R4

b = 1.6

s = 1.3

Eurocodes:

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13 14 June,

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D bli

Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

Design

D

i

actions

ti

DA1.C1 Fc,d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35x300+1.5x150

DA1.C1 Fc,d = 1.0 Gk+1.3 Qk

= 1.0x300+1.3x150

= 630 kN

= 495 MN

Design resistances

DA1.C1 Rc,d = Rb,k /b + Rs,k /s = 284/1.25 + 101 x Ls/ 1.0

DA1 C2 Rc,d = Rb,k /b + Rs,k /s = 284/1.6

DA1.C2

284/1 6 + 101 x Ls/ 1.3

13

Equating actions and resistances

DA1.C1 630 = 284/1.25 + 101 x Ls/ 1.0

DA1.C2 495 = 284/1.6 + 101 x Ls/ 1.3

Ls = 3.99 m

Ls = 4.08 m

g p

pile length

g L = 16.5 + Ls = 21m

Hence DA1.C2 controls and DA1 design

21

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13 14 June,

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Partial action factors same as for Example 1

Partial resistance factors:

R2

b = 1.1

Design equation

s = 1.1

Fc,d Rc,d

Design action

Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35x300+1.5x150

= 630 kN

Design resistance

Rc;d = Rb;k /b + Rs;k /s = 284/1.1 + 101 x Ls/ 1.1

E

Equating

i

actions

i

and

d resistances

i

630 = 284/1.1 + 101 x Ls/ 1.1

Ls = 4.05 m

16 5 + Ls = 21m

22

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Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

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13 14 June,

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Dublin

D bli

DA3

A1 + M1 + R3

R3

b = s = 1.0

equal to 1.0, no safety margin is provided if these factors are

used in DA3 to calculated the design pile resistance from a CPT

test profile

partial resistance factors applied to the characteristic pile

resistance obtained from a CPT test profile

23

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Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

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13 14 June,

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Dublin

D bli

The same design pile length, 21m is required for both DA1 and

DA2

Since the recommended partial resistance factors are 1.0 for DA3,

this Design Approach should not be used for the design of piles

from profiles of ground test results unless the partial resistance

factors are increased

24

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example 3

design of pile foundations from soil parameters

DESIGN SITUATION

25

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

l

13 14 June,

13-14

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D bli

parameters

The piles for a proposed building in Dublin are each required to support

the following loads:

Gk = 600 kN

Qk = 300 kN

The ground consists of about 3m Brown Dublin Boulder Clay over Black

Dublin Clay to great depth

The pile foundation design involves determining the length of the piles

26

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D bli

Characteristic undrained

shear strength

Brown DBC

obtained plotted against depth

Black DBC

Clay is ignored

Average N value

l

in Black

l k Dublin

bl Boulder

ld

Clay = 57

Average N = 57

Cautious average N value = 45

PI of the Dublin Boulder Clay = 14%

From Stroud and Butler plot of f1 vs. N

Ad t f1 = 6

Adopt

Hence characteristic undrained shear

strength cu;k = f1 x N = 6 x 45 = 270 kPa

27

cu = f1 x N

Eurocodes:

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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

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13 14 June,

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Dublin

D bli

Pile resistances

Pile diameter

D = 0.45m

Ab = x 0.452 / 4 = 0.159 m2

As = x 0.45 = 1.414 m2 /m

The characteristic unit pile base and shaft resistances, qb;k and qs;k are

obtained as follows:

qb;k = Nq x cu

= 9 cu

qs;k = x cu

= 0.4 x cu

Rb;k = Ab x qb;k = 0

0.159

159 x 9 x 270

= 386 kN

Rs;k = As x Ls x qs;k = 1.414 x Ls x 0.4 x 270

28

= 153 Ls

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13 14 June,

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D bli

DA1.C1

DA1.C2

A1

A2

A1 + M1 + R1

A2 + M1 or M2 + R4

G = 1.35

1 35

G = 1.0

Q = 1.5

15

Q = 1.3

M1 and M2 not relevant (resistances factored not soil parameters)

R1

R4

29

b = 1.0

b = 1.3

s = 1.0

s = 1.3

Model factors:

R;d = 1.75 (In Irish NA and applied to b, s and t)

2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved.

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

l

13 14 June,

13-14

J

Dublin

D bli

Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

Design actions

DA1.C1 Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300

DA1.C1 Fc;d = 1.0 Gk+1.3 Qk = 1.0 x 600+1.3 x 300

= 1260 kN

= 990 kN

g resistances

Design

DA1.C1 Rc;d = Rb;k /(b x R;d) + Rs;k /(s x R;d)

DA1.C2

Rc;d

= Rb;k /(b x R;d) + Rs,k

s k /(b x R;d)

= 386/(1.3x1.75) + 153 x Ls /(1.3x1.75) = 170 + 67.3 Ls kN

DA1 C1 1260 = 221 + 87.4

DA1.C1

87 4 Ls

DA1.C2

990 = 170 + 67.3 Ls

Ls = 11.9

11 9 m

Ls = 12.2 m

Hence DA1.C2

DA1 C2 controls and the DA1 design pile length L = 3.0

3 0 + Ls = 15.5m

15 5m

30

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13 14 June,

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D bli

DA2

A1 + M1 + R2

A1

31

G = 1.35

Q = 1.5

M1 not relevant

( = 1.0)

R2

b = 1.1

s = 1.1

Model

M

d l factors:

f t

R;d = 1.75 (In Irish NA and applied to b, s and t)

R;d = 1.27 (In German NA giving b = 1.1x1.27 = 1.4, s = 1.1x1.27 = 1.4

2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved.

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

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13 14 June,

13-14

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Dublin

D bli

Design equation

Fc;d Rc;d

Design action

Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300

1260 kN

D i

Design

resistance

i

Rc;d = Rb;k /(b x R;d) + Rs;k /(s x R;d)

= 386/(1.1 x 1.75)+ 153 x Ls /(1.1 x 1.75) = 201 + 79.5 Ls kN

Equating design action and resistance

1260 = 201 + 79.5 Ls

Ls = 13.3 m

32

Eurocodes:

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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

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k d examples

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13 14 June,

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D bli

Design equation

Fc;d Rc;d

D i

Design

action

ti

Fc;d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300

= 1260 kN

Design resistance

Rc;d = Rb,k /b + Rs,k /s

Note: R1 partial factors of 1.1 have been increased to 1.4, i.e. a model

factor of 1

1.4/1.1

4/1 1 = 1

1.27

27 has been applied

= 386 /1.4 + 153 x Ls /1.4 = 276 + 109 Ls kN

Equating design action and resistance

1260 = 276 + 109 Ls

Ls = 9.0 m

3 0 + Ls = 12.0m

12 0m

33

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DA3

A1

A2

34

Q = 1.5

Q = 1.3

cu = 1.4

14

R3

G = 1.35

G = 1.0

M2

A1* or A2 + M2 + R3

Model factor:

b = 1.0

s = 1.0

on structural actions

on geotechnical actions

Eurocodes:

Background & Applications

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

ith worked

k d examples

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13 14 June,

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Dublin

D bli

Design equation

Fc,d Rc,d

Design

g action

Fc,d = 1.35 Gk+1.5 Qk = 1.35 x 600+1.5 x 300

= 1260 kN

Design resistance

Rc,d = Rb,d + Rs,d

= Ab x qb;d + As x Ls x qs;d

= (AbxNqxcu;k/cu)/(R;dxb) + (AsxLsxxcu;k/cu)/(R;dxs)

= (0.159x9x270/1.4)/(1.75x1.0) + (1.414xLsx0.4x270/1.4)/(1.75x1.0)

= 158 + 62.3 Ls

Equating design action and resistance

1260 = 158 + 62.3 Ls

Ls = 17.7 m

35

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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with

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13 14 June,

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D bli

The design pile lengths obtained from ground strength parameters using

the alternative procedure and the model factor in the Irish and German

National Annexes are:

DA1 (Irish NA)

L = 15.5 m

L = 16.5 m

L = 21

21.0

0m

L = 12.0 m

Application of the model factor of 1.75 as well as the material factor of 1.4

to obtain the design resistance when using DA3, results in DA3 providing

a longer design pile length and hence the least economical Design

Approach in Ireland

The longer design pile length of 16.5 m when using the Irish NA with DA2

compared to 12.0 m when using the German NA is because of the model

factor of 1.75 in the Irish NA and 1.27 in the German NA

36

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Geotechnical design

with

ith worked

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examples

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