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(MATB 113)

CHAPTER 12

VECTORS & THE GEOMETRY OF SPACES

.:SYLLABUS CONTENTS:.

12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems

12.2 Vectors

12.3 The Dot Product

12.4 The Cross Product

12.5 Lines and Planes in Space

12.6 Cylinders and Quadric Surfaces

12.1

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this topic students should;

be acquainted with three-dimensional coordinate systems.

be able to interpret equations and inequalities geometrically.

be able to find distance and spheres in space.

be able to find center and radius of a sphere.

The coordinate axes, taken in pairs, determine three

coordinate planes: the xy-plane, the xz-plane and the

yz-plane.

assign a triple of real numbers by passing three

P(a, b, c).

Geometrically

equations and inequalities with the set of points they

define in space.

(a) 0 x 1

2

(b) z y , x 1

(c) z 0, x 0, y 0

2

2

(d) x y 1, z 3

The formula for the distance between two points in the

xy-plane extends to points in space.

P1 P2 ( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2 ( z 2 z1 ) 2

spheres in space.

Center ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 )

( x x0 )2 ( y y0 )2 ( z z0 )2 a 2

___________________________________________

Example 12.1.1 .:

x 2 y 2 z 2 4 x 6 y 3 0 is a sphere, and find

12.2

Vectors

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this topic students should;

be acquainted with the definition of vector and the associated notation

and terminology.

be able to represent vectors geometrically as directed line segments or

algebraically as ordered pairs or triples of numbers.

be able to determine the length of a vector.

be able to apply the vector addition and scalar multiplication.

understand the definitions of unit vectors and be able to apply the

definition in terms of finding a vectors direction.

Component Form

velocity is called a vector and is represented by

a directed line segment.

The arrow points in the direction of the action

and its length gives the magnitude of the action

in terms of a suitably chosen unit.

direction in which the force acts while its length

is a measure of the forces strength.

Definition:(Vector, Initial and Terminal Point, Length)

direction.

.B

terminal point

A.

Initial point

AB

boldface letters( u, v and w).

In handwritten form, it is customary to draw

small arrows above the letters

( u , v ).

Definition:(Component Form)

If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the

vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point

(v1, v2), then the component form of v is

v v1 ,v2

the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal

point (v1, v2, v3), then the component form of v is

v v1 , v2 , v3

Norm of a Vector

The distance between the initial and terminal points

of a vector v is called the length, the norm, or the

magnitude of v and is denoted by v or v .

translated, so purposes of calculating the norm we

can assume that the vector is positioned with its

initial point at the origin.

two-dimensional space is,

v

v12 v22

v v12 v22 v32

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

2

Example 12.2.1:

Given a vector with initial point P(-3, 4, 1) and

terminal point Q(-5, 2, 2).Find,

a) the component form of the vector,

b) the length of the vector.

10

Two principal operations involving vectors are

vector addition and scalar multiplication.

A scalar is simply a real number, and is called

such when we want to draw attention to its

difference from vectors. Scalar can be positive,

negative or zero.

Let u u1 , u2 , u3 and v v1 , v2 , v3 be vectors with

k a scalar.

Addition

: u v u1 v1 , u2 v2 , u3 v3

geometrically for planar vectors like in the

11

placed at the terminal point of the other.

figure below, where the sum, called the

resultant vector, is the diagonal of the

parallelogram.

12

Example 12.2.2:

Let u 3, 2 and v 2,5 . Find the component

form and the magnitude of the vector

a) 2 v

b) 2u 3v

13

Example 12.2.3:

Copy vectors u, v and w head to tail as needed to

sketch the indicated vector.

w

v

a) u v

b) u v w

c) u v

d) u w

Let u,v,w be vectors and a, b are scalars

1. u + v = v + u

2. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w)

3. u + 0 = u

4. u + (-u) = 0

5. 0u = 0

6. 1u = u

7. a (b u) = (ab) u

8. a (u + v) = a u + a v

9. (a + b) u = a u + b u

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

14

Unit Vectors

A unit vector is a vector of magnitude 1.

The vectors i, j and k are unit vectors.

The standard unit vectors are

i 1,0,0 ,

j 0,1,0 ,

and k 0,0,1

same direction as v is

v

u

v

Example 12.2.4:

Find the unit vector u that has same direction as the

vector 3i-4j.

15

Same Direction

It is a common problem in many applications that

a direction in 2-space or 3-space is determined by

some known unit vector u, and it is of interest to

find the components of a vector v that has the

same direction as u and some specified length v .

This can be done by expressing v as

v vu

v is equal to its length times a unit vector in the same direction

Example 12.2.5:

a) Find the vector with the same direction and onehalf the magnitude of 4i-6j.

16

to -3i+4j.

Write your answer in the component form.

17

the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segments

are found by averaging.

P1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) and P2 ( x2 , y2 , z 2 ) is the point,

x1 x 2 y1 y 2 z1 z 2

,

,

2

2

2

Example 12.2.6:

Find the midpoint of the line segment from (2,-3,6) to

(3,4,-2).

18

12.3

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this topic students should;

understand and be able to use the definitions of the dot product to

measure the length of a vector and the angle between two vectors.

understand and be able to apply properties of the dot product.

understand that two vectors are orthogonal /perpendicular if their dot

product is zero.

understand be able to determine the projection of a vector a onto a

vector b.

be able to use vectors and the dot product in many applications.

The dot product is also known as a scalar product or

inner product because it is a product of vectors that

gives a scalar (that is, real number) as a result.

Definition:(The Dot Product)

The dot product u v of a vectors u u1 , u2 , u3 and

v v1 , v2 , v3 is

u v u1v1 u2 v2 u3v3

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

19

Example 12.3.1

Find the dot product of u 3i 2 j k and

v 4i j 2k .

Example 12.3.2

If v 4,1,3 and w 1,2,5 , find the dot

product, v w .

and physical problems, we need to know how it

behaves algebraically.

A number of important general properties of the dot

product are listed in the following table.

20

3

If u, v and w are vectors in and c is a scalar, then

Magnitude of a vector

vv v

Zero Product

0 v 0

Commutativity

vw w v

Distributivity

u ( v w) u v u w

When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so

their initial points coincide, they form and angle

of a measure 0 as shown in figure.

21

The angle between two nonzero vectors

u u1 , u2 , u3 and v v1 , v2 , v3 is given by

uv

cos

u

v

(a) is an acute angle if and only if u v 0 .

(b) is an obtuse angle if and only if u v 0

0

(c) 90 is a right angle if an only if u v 0

Example 12.3.3:

a) Find the angle between u 3i 2 j k and v i k .

22

B(3, 4, 5) and C(5, 3, 1). Find the acute angle BA C .

1 4

cos

.

c) The angle between vector u and v is

21

u 6i 3j 2k and v 2i tj 4k

Perpendicular/Orthogonal Vectors

Definition:(Perpendicular Vectors)

Two vectors u and v are said to be orthogonal

(perpendicular) to each other if and only if

i)

so that u v 0 .

In other words, the vector u is orthogonal to v

iff u v 0

23

Example 12.3.4:

Determine the value of so that u 2i j k and

v 4i 2 j 2k are orthogonal.

Vector Projection

Wooden block

w1

w2

Smooth slope

Fig.12.1

= w1 w 2

24

Let u and v be a non-null vectors. If u w1 w 2 with w1

parallel to v , and w 2 orthogonal to v , then

i) w1 is the projection of u onto v or vector component u

along v , and is labeled as w1 projvu .

ii) w 2 u w1 is the vector component of u

perpendicular to v .

Acute Angle

25

Obtuse Angle

Fig.12.2: The Vector Projection of u onto v

Let u and v be a non-null vectors and w1 , w 2 be the

component of u parallel and perpendicular to v , then

uv

w1 projv u 2 v

v

1.

2. w 2 u w1 u projv u

(Vector component of u orthogonal to v )

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

26

3.

projv u u cos

uv

v

u

v

v

Example 12.3.5:

Given the points A(2, 2, 3), B(-1, 5, 4) and C(3, -5, 1).

Example 12.3.6:

Given u 2i 2 j k and v 2i 10 j 11k . Find the scalar

component of u in the direction of v .

27

W = (force x displacement)

Fd

of the particle, then the definition of work done is

28

Example 12.3.7:

A person pulls a wagon along level ground by exerting a

force of 20 pounds on a handle that makes an angle of

30 0 with the horizontal. Find the work done in pulling

orthogonal to v

u = projvu + (u projvu)

u.v

u.v

v u

v

v 2

= v 2

29

12.4

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this topic students should;

understand and be able to use the definitions of the cross product to find

vectors that orthogonal to each other.

understand that two vectors are parallel if and only if their cross product

is zero.

understand and be able to apply properties of the cross product.

be able to use vectors and the cross product in many applications.

We start with two nonzero vectors u and v in space.

If u and v are not parallel, they determine a plane.

We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane

by the right-hand rule.

30

vector that points the way your right thumb points

when your finger curl through the angle from u

to v.

Unlike the dot product, the cross product is a

vector.

For this reason its also called the vector product

of u and v.

The vector u v is orthogonal to both of u and v

because it is a scalar multiple of n.

u v u v sin n

u v 0.

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

31

If u u1i u2 j u3k and v v1i v2 j v3k , then

j

i

u v u1 u2

v1 v2

u2

v2

k

u3

v3

u1 u3

u3

u u

j 1 2 k

i

v1 v3

v3

v1 v2

Example 12.4.1:

a) If a i 2 j k and b 2i j k , calculate a b .

a i j 4k and b 2i j 2k .

32

3

If u, v and w are vectors in and r, s are scalar, then

(ru) ( sv) rs (u v)

u ( v w) (u v) (u w)

v u (u v)

( v w) u ( v u) (w u)

0u 0

u ( v w) (u w) v (u v)w

33

u v u v sin n

u v sin

and v.

u be the base of the parallelogram and v sin is the

height.

i)

OA OB a b .

1

1

OA

OB

ab .

ii) the area of the triangle OAB is 2

2

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

34

Example 12.4.2:

a) Find the area of parallelogram bounded by the

vectors a 4i j k and b 2i 3j k .

P(4, -3, 1), Q(6, -4, 7)and R(1, 2, 2).

35

The product (u v) w is called the triple scalar

product of u, v and w.

The results of the process is a scalar.

Geometrically, this product is the volume of the

parallelepiped determined by three vectors given.

the base planes of the parallelepiped determined by

u, v and w, we see that

(u v) w ( v w) u (w u) v

36

(u v) w u ( v w) .

Determinant

The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a

determinant:

w1

(u v) w u1

v1

w2

u2

v2

w3

u3

v3

Example 12.4.3:

a) Find the volume of the box(parallelepiped)

determined by u i 2 j k , v 2i k and

w 7 j 4k .

37

Q(2, 4, 5)and R(-3, -2, 2).

P(2, 0, 1), Q(3, 2, 0), R(1, -1, 2). and S(5, 4, -2) are

coplanar.

(Coplanar = points that lie within the same plane)

38

Torque

the bolt according to the right-hand rule (clockwise from

tip of the vector)

Magnitude of torque vector = r F sin r F

the torque, then

Torque vector = r F sin n

u v 0 when u and v are parallel

39

12.5

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this topic students should;

understand and be able to describe lines and planes by using the vector

concepts of parallel and orthogonal, respectively.

be able to find an equation of straight line and plane in space.

be able to calculate angle between two intersecting lines.

be able to find the shortest distance from a point to a line.

be able to calculate the angle between two planes.

be able to find the shortest distance of a point from a plane.

be able to find the line of intersection of two planes.

Lines in Space

In the plane, a line is determined by a point and a

number giving the slope of the line.

In space, a line is determined by a point and vector

giving the direction of the line.

40

point P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) and is parallel to the vector

v v1i v2 j v3k .

P0 P tv

the points P0 and P respectively, then

P0 P r r0

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

41

Hence,

r r0 tv

r0 tv

form as

x, y, z x0 , y0 , z0 t v1 , v2 , v3

gives,

x x0 tv1

y y 0 tv 2

z z 0 tv 3

equations for the line L, with parameter t.

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

42

through P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) parallel to v v1i v2 j v3k

is

x x0 tv1

y y0 tv2

z z0 tv3

Example 12.5.1:

a) Write down the parametric equations for the

straight line passing through point P(2, 3, 5) and

parallel to v i j 2k .

through the points P(0, 8, 4) and Q(2, 4, 5).

43

Example 12.5.2:

a) Find the parametric equations for the line L

through P(5, -2, 4) that is parallel to

1

2

a ,2, .

2

3

44

Let P be a point on a line L and let v be a vector

parallel to L.

given by

d PS sin

45

shortest distance of S to line L as

d PS sin

PS v

Example 12.5.3:

a) Find the shortest distance from the point

S(1, 0, -1) to the line,

L:

x 2 3t

y 1 t

z 1 2t

S(5, 2, -1) to the line L : r i t (2i j 3k )

46

Plane in Space

Suppose that M is a plane, where on it lies a point

P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) with its position vectors

r0 x0 , y 0 , z 0 .

vectors r x, y, z .

lies on M.

47

P0 P n 0

x x 0 , y y 0 , z z 0 a, b, c 0

a ( x x 0 ) b( y y 0 ) c ( z z 0 ) 0

n Ai Bj Ck has,

Vector Equation

: n P0 P 0

Component Equation :

A( x x0 ) B( y y0 ) C ( z z0 ) 0

where D Ax0 By0 Cz0

48

Example 12.5.4:

a) Find the equation of a plane that contains the point

P(5, -2, 4) and the normal vector n 1, 2,3 .

points P(-1, 2, 1), Q(0, -3, 2) and R(1, 1, -4).

perpendicular to plane x y z 0 and

2 x y 4 z 0 and passing through the point

(4, 0, -2).

49

Lines of Intersection

When a Plane M1 intersects another Plane M2, we

obtain a line L.

satisfy the equations of both these planes.

To obtain the equation of the line of intersection of

two planes, we need

a) a vector parallel to the line L which is given

by n 1 n 2 .

b) A point ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) on the line L that can be

chosen by solving the equations of the planes.

50

in a parametric form is given by

x x0 at

y y0 bt

z z0 ct

Example 12.5.5:

Find the equation of a line that passes through (-1,2,3)

and is parallel to the line of intersection between the

planes 3x 2 y z 3 and x y 2 z 5 .

51

If P is a point on a plane with normal n, then the

distance from any point S to the plane is the length of

distance from S to the plane is

d PS

n

n

52

53

The angle between two intersecting planes is

defined to be the angle between their normal vectors

.

The angle between plane M1 intersects another plane

M2 is equal to the angle between normal vector n1

and n2. If is the acute angle between the two

planes, then

n1 n 2

cos

n1 n 2

1

54

i)

angle between the normal vectors to the planes.

ii)

for a certain .

iii)

n1 n 2 0 .

Example 12.5.6:

a) Find the angle between the planes x y z 2

and 2 x y 4 z 3 .

6 x 9 y 3z 2 are parallel.

55

12.6

Recall :

56

Cylinders

A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a

straight line along a given planar curve while

holding the line parallel to a given fixed line.

The curve is called a generating curve for the

cylinder.

57

cylinder, the generating curve are circles, but now

we allow generating curves of any kind.

58

59

Quadric Surfaces

A quadric surface is the graph in space of a seconddegree equation in x, y and z.

The most general form is,

Ax 2 By 2 Cz 2 Dxy Eyz Fxz Gx Hy Jz K 0

cones and hyperboloids.

60

Ellipsoid

The equation

x2 y2 z 2

2 2 1

2

a

b

c

61

x2 y2 z 2

Some traces of the ellipsoid a 2 b 2 c 2 1 is shown

in table,

Traces Equation of Trace Graph

xy-trace

x2 y2

2 1

2

a

b

Ellipse

xz-trace

x2 z 2

2 1

2

a

c

Ellipse

yz-trace

y2 z2

2 1

2

b

c

Ellipse

x 2 y 2 z 2 a 2 and it is a sphere of radius a.

62

Example 12.6.1:

Sketch the graphs of each question in three dimensions.

2

a) y x

2

2

b) x z 9

c)

y2 x2 9

Example 12.6.2:

Sketch the surfaces in three dimensional.

2

2

2

a) 9 x y z 9

63

The equation

x2 y2 z 2

2 2 1

2

a

b

c

below,

64

x2 y2 z 2

2 2 1 is shown in table below,

2

a

b

c

Graph

xy-trace

x2 y2

2 1

2

a

b

Ellipse

xz-trace

x2 z 2

2 1

2

a

c

Hyperbola

yz-trace

y2 z2

2 1

2

b

c

Hyperbola

Example 12.6.3:

Sketch the surfaces in three dimensional.

2

2

2

x

z

1

a)

65

The equation

z2

x2

y2

2 2 1

c

a

b

2

shown below :

66

z2

x2

y2

c

a

b

2

Graph

xy-trace

x2 y2

2 2 1

a

b

No graph

xz-trace

x2 z2

2 2 1

a

c

Hyperbola

yz-trace

y2 z2

2 2 1

b

c

Hyperbola

Example 12.6.4:

Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.

2

2

2

a) y 9 x z 9

67

Cone

The equation

x2

y2

z2

2 2

a

b

c

2

x2

y2

z2

or a 2 b2 c2 0

68

x2 y2 z2

Some traces of the cone a 2 b 2 c 2 0 is shown in

table below :

Traces Equation of Trace

Graph

xy-trace

x2 y2

2 0

2

a

b

The origin

xz-trace

x2 z2

2 0

2

a

c

The lines z

c

x

a

yz-trace

y2 z2

2 0

2

b

c

The lines z

c

y

b

plane z z 0 parallel to the xy-plane had the equation

2

x 2 y 2 z0

2 2

2

a

b

c

Example 12.6.5:

Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.

2

2

2

a) x 4 y z

69

The equation

x2 y2 z

2

2

c

a

b

,c0

following figure,

x2 y2 z

Some traces of the paraboloid a 2 b2 c

is shown

in following table :

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

70

Traces

xy-trace

Equation of

Trace

x2 y2

2 1

2

a

b

Graph

Ellipse

xz-trace

c 2

x

2

a

Parabola

yz-trace

c 2

z 2 y

b

Parabola

x 2 y 2 z0

2

2

c

a

b

are ellipses.

The axis of the paraboloid is z-axis and its vertex is

the origin.

If c < 0, then the paraboloid opens downward.

If a = b, then the paraboloid is called circular

paraboloid, and traces in planes parallel to the xyplanes are circles.

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

71

Example 12.6.6:

Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.

2

2

a) x 4 y z

The equation

x2 y2

2 2 cz

a

b

,c0

the following figure :

72

quadric surface to visualize. The trace in the

xy-plane with the equation

b

x2 y2

2 2 0 or y x

a

a

b

The xz-trace is the parabola

x2

cz 2

a

whereas the yz-trace is the parabola

y2

cz 2

b

Example 12.6.7:

Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.

2

2

a) y x z

73

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