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(MATB 113)

CHAPTER 12
VECTORS & THE GEOMETRY OF SPACES
.:SYLLABUS CONTENTS:.
12.1 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Systems
12.2 Vectors
12.3 The Dot Product
12.4 The Cross Product
12.5 Lines and Planes in Space

12.1

Three Dimensional Coordinate Systems

Learning Objectives:
At the end of this topic students should;
be acquainted with three-dimensional coordinate systems.
be able to interpret equations and inequalities geometrically.
be able to find distance and spheres in space.
be able to find center and radius of a sphere.

Rectangular Coordinate Systems

The coordinate axes, taken in pairs, determine three
coordinate planes: the xy-plane, the xz-plane and the
yz-plane.

To each point P in three dimensional space, we can

assign a triple of real numbers by passing three

P(a, b, c).

Geometrically

In the following examples, we match coordinate

equations and inequalities with the set of points they
define in space.
(a) 0 x 1
2
(b) z y , x 1

(c) z 0, x 0, y 0
2
2
(d) x y 1, z 3

Distance and Spheres in Space

The formula for the distance between two points in the
xy-plane extends to points in space.

The Distance Between P1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) and P2 ( x2 , y2 , z 2 ) is

P1 P2 ( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2 ( z 2 z1 ) 2

We can use the distance formula to write equations for

spheres in space.

The Standard Equation for the Sphere of Radius a and

Center ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 )
( x x0 )2 ( y y0 )2 ( z z0 )2 a 2

___________________________________________
Example 12.1.1 .:

b) Show that the graph of the equation

x 2 y 2 z 2 4 x 6 y 3 0 is a sphere, and find

Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

12.2

Vectors

Learning Objectives:
At the end of this topic students should;
be acquainted with the definition of vector and the associated notation
and terminology.
be able to represent vectors geometrically as directed line segments or
algebraically as ordered pairs or triples of numbers.
be able to determine the length of a vector.
be able to apply the vector addition and scalar multiplication.
understand the definitions of unit vectors and be able to apply the
definition in terms of finding a vectors direction.

Component Form

A quantity such as force, displacement or

velocity is called a vector and is represented by
a directed line segment.
The arrow points in the direction of the action
and its length gives the magnitude of the action
in terms of a suitably chosen unit.

For example, a force vector points in the

direction in which the force acts while its length
is a measure of the forces strength.
Definition:(Vector, Initial and Terminal Point, Length)

direction.

.B
terminal point

A.
Initial point

AB

Vectors are usually written in lowercase and

boldface letters( u, v and w).
In handwritten form, it is customary to draw
small arrows above the letters

( u , v ).

Definition:(Component Form)
If v is a two-dimensional vector in the plane equal to the
vector with initial point at the origin and terminal point
(v1, v2), then the component form of v is
v v1 ,v2

If v is a three-dimensional vector in the plane equal to

the vector with initial point at the origin and terminal
point (v1, v2, v3), then the component form of v is
v v1 , v2 , v3

Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Norm of a Vector
The distance between the initial and terminal points
of a vector v is called the length, the norm, or the
magnitude of v and is denoted by v or v .

The distance does not change if the vector is

translated, so purposes of calculating the norm we
can assume that the vector is positioned with its
initial point at the origin.

The magnitude or length of the vector v v1 ,v2 in

two-dimensional space is,
v

v12 v22

while, for the vector v v1 , v2 , v3 in threedimensional space, the magnitude is,

v v12 v22 v32

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1
2

Example 12.2.1:
Given a vector with initial point P(-3, 4, 1) and
terminal point Q(-5, 2, 2).Find,
a) the component form of the vector,
b) the length of the vector.

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Vector Algebra Operations

Two principal operations involving vectors are
A scalar is simply a real number, and is called
such when we want to draw attention to its
difference from vectors. Scalar can be positive,
negative or zero.

Let u u1 , u2 , u3 and v v1 , v2 , v3 be vectors with
k a scalar.

: u v u1 v1 , u2 v2 , u3 v3

The definition of a vector addition is illustrated

geometrically for planar vectors like in the

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figure below, where the initial of one vector is

placed at the terminal point of the other.

Another interpretation is shown like in the

figure below, where the sum, called the
resultant vector, is the diagonal of the
parallelogram.

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.2.2:
Let u 3, 2 and v 2,5 . Find the component
form and the magnitude of the vector
a) 2 v

b) 2u 3v

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.2.3:
Copy vectors u, v and w head to tail as needed to
sketch the indicated vector.

w
v

a) u v

b) u v w

c) u v

d) u w

Properties of vector Operations

Let u,v,w be vectors and a, b are scalars
1. u + v = v + u

2. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w)

3. u + 0 = u

4. u + (-u) = 0

5. 0u = 0

6. 1u = u

7. a (b u) = (ab) u

8. a (u + v) = a u + a v

9. (a + b) u = a u + b u
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Unit Vectors
A unit vector is a vector of magnitude 1.
The vectors i, j and k are unit vectors.
The standard unit vectors are
i 1,0,0 ,

j 0,1,0 ,

and k 0,0,1

Whenever v 0 , then the unit vector u that has the

same direction as v is
v
u
v

Note : If u u1 , u2 , u3 , then u u1i u2 j u3k

Example 12.2.4:
Find the unit vector u that has same direction as the
vector 3i-4j.

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Vectors Determined by Length and a Vector in the

Same Direction
It is a common problem in many applications that
a direction in 2-space or 3-space is determined by
some known unit vector u, and it is of interest to
find the components of a vector v that has the
same direction as u and some specified length v .
This can be done by expressing v as
v vu
v is equal to its length times a unit vector in the same direction

and reading off the components of v u .

Example 12.2.5:
a) Find the vector with the same direction and onehalf the magnitude of 4i-6j.

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to -3i+4j.

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Vectors are often useful in geometry. For example,

the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segments
are found by averaging.

The midpoint M of the line segment joining points

P1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) and P2 ( x2 , y2 , z 2 ) is the point,
x1 x 2 y1 y 2 z1 z 2
,
,

2
2
2

Example 12.2.6:
Find the midpoint of the line segment from (2,-3,6) to
(3,4,-2).

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12.3

The Dot Product

Learning Objectives:
At the end of this topic students should;
understand and be able to use the definitions of the dot product to
measure the length of a vector and the angle between two vectors.
understand and be able to apply properties of the dot product.
understand that two vectors are orthogonal /perpendicular if their dot
product is zero.
understand be able to determine the projection of a vector a onto a
vector b.
be able to use vectors and the dot product in many applications.

The Dot Product

The dot product is also known as a scalar product or
inner product because it is a product of vectors that
gives a scalar (that is, real number) as a result.
Definition:(The Dot Product)
The dot product u v of a vectors u u1 , u2 , u3 and
v v1 , v2 , v3 is
u v u1v1 u2 v2 u3v3
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.3.1
Find the dot product of u 3i 2 j k and
v 4i j 2k .

Example 12.3.2
If v 4,1,3 and w 1,2,5 , find the dot
product, v w .

Before we can apply the dot product to geometric

and physical problems, we need to know how it
behaves algebraically.
A number of important general properties of the dot
product are listed in the following table.

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Properties of the dot product.

3
If u, v and w are vectors in and c is a scalar, then

Magnitude of a vector

vv v

Zero Product

0 v 0

Commutativity

vw w v

Distributivity

u ( v w) u v u w

Angle Between Vectors

When two nonzero vectors u and v are placed so
their initial points coincide, they form and angle
of a measure 0 as shown in figure.

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Definition:(Angle Between Vectors)

The angle between two nonzero vectors
u u1 , u2 , u3 and v v1 , v2 , v3 is given by
uv
cos

u
v

If is the angle two nonzero vectors u and v , then

(a) is an acute angle if and only if u v 0 .
(b) is an obtuse angle if and only if u v 0
0
(c) 90 is a right angle if an only if u v 0

Example 12.3.3:
a) Find the angle between u 3i 2 j k and v i k .

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b) Given the triangle ABC with vertices A(4, 1, 2),

B(3, 4, 5) and C(5, 3, 1). Find the acute angle BA C .
1 4
cos
.
c) The angle between vector u and v is
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Find the scalar t given that,

u 6i 3j 2k and v 2i tj 4k

Perpendicular/Orthogonal Vectors

Definition:(Perpendicular Vectors)
Two vectors u and v are said to be orthogonal
(perpendicular) to each other if and only if
i)

ii) the angle between them is a right angle

so that u v 0 .
In other words, the vector u is orthogonal to v
iff u v 0

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.3.4:
Determine the value of so that u 2i j k and
v 4i 2 j 2k are orthogonal.

Vector Projection
Wooden block

w1

w2

Smooth slope

Fig.12.1

= w1 w 2

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Definition:(Projection and Vector Components)

Let u and v be a non-null vectors. If u w1 w 2 with w1
parallel to v , and w 2 orthogonal to v , then
i) w1 is the projection of u onto v or vector component u
along v , and is labeled as w1 projvu .
ii) w 2 u w1 is the vector component of u
perpendicular to v .

Acute Angle

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Obtuse Angle
Fig.12.2: The Vector Projection of u onto v

Projection Using Dot Product

Let u and v be a non-null vectors and w1 , w 2 be the
component of u parallel and perpendicular to v , then
uv
w1 projv u 2 v
v
1.

(Vector component of u in the direction of v )

2. w 2 u w1 u projv u
(Vector component of u orthogonal to v )
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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3.

projv u u cos

uv
v
u
v
v

(Scalar component of u in the direction of v )

Example 12.3.5:
Given the points A(2, 2, 3), B(-1, 5, 4) and C(3, -5, 1).

Find the projection vector AB in the direction AC .

Example 12.3.6:
Given u 2i 2 j k and v 2i 10 j 11k . Find the scalar
component of u in the direction of v .

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Work done by a Force as a Scalar Product

W = (force x displacement)
Fd

If F makes an angle with the direction of the motion

of the particle, then the definition of work done is

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.3.7:
A person pulls a wagon along level ground by exerting a
force of 20 pounds on a handle that makes an angle of
30 0 with the horizontal. Find the work done in pulling

How to write u as a vector parallel to v plus a vector

orthogonal to v
u = projvu + (u projvu)

u.v
u.v

v u
v
v 2
= v 2

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12.4

The Cross Product

Learning Objectives:
At the end of this topic students should;
understand and be able to use the definitions of the cross product to find
vectors that orthogonal to each other.
understand that two vectors are parallel if and only if their cross product
is zero.
understand and be able to apply properties of the cross product.
be able to use vectors and the cross product in many applications.

The Cross Product

If u and v are not parallel, they determine a plane.
We select a unit vector n perpendicular to the plane
by the right-hand rule.

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This means that we choose n to be the unit (normal)

vector that points the way your right thumb points
when your finger curl through the angle from u
to v.
Unlike the dot product, the cross product is a
vector.
For this reason its also called the vector product
of u and v.
The vector u v is orthogonal to both of u and v
because it is a scalar multiple of n.

u v u v sin n

u v 0.

The vector u v is orthogonal to both u and v

Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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Determinant Formula for u v

If u u1i u2 j u3k and v v1i v2 j v3k , then
j
i
u v u1 u2
v1 v2
u2

v2

k
u3
v3

u1 u3
u3
u u
j 1 2 k
i
v1 v3
v3
v1 v2

(u2v3 u3v2 )i (u1v3 u3v1 ) j (u1v2 u2v1 )k

Example 12.4.1:
a) If a i 2 j k and b 2i j k , calculate a b .

b) Find the unit vector orthogonal to the vectors

a i j 4k and b 2i j 2k .

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Properties of the Cross Product

3
If u, v and w are vectors in and r, s are scalar, then

(ru) ( sv) rs (u v)
u ( v w) (u v) (u w)
v u (u v)

( v w) u ( v u) (w u)
0u 0

u ( v w) (u w) v (u v)w

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u v u v sin n
u v sin

This is the area of the parallelogram determined by u

and v.
u be the base of the parallelogram and v sin is the
height.

i)

the area of the parallelogram OACB is

OA OB a b .

1
1
OA

OB

ab .
ii) the area of the triangle OAB is 2
2
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.4.2:
a) Find the area of parallelogram bounded by the
vectors a 4i j k and b 2i 3j k .

b) Find the area of the triangle with vertices

P(4, -3, 1), Q(6, -4, 7)and R(1, 2, 2).

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Triple Scalar Product or Box Product

The product (u v) w is called the triple scalar
product of u, v and w.
The results of the process is a scalar.
Geometrically, this product is the volume of the
parallelepiped determined by three vectors given.

By treating the planes of v and w and of w and u as

the base planes of the parallelepiped determined by
u, v and w, we see that
(u v) w ( v w) u (w u) v

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Since the dot product is commutative, we also have

(u v) w u ( v w) .

Calculating the Triple Scalar Product as a

Determinant
The triple scalar product can be evaluated as a
determinant:
w1
(u v) w u1
v1

w2
u2
v2

w3
u3
v3

(u 2 v3 u3v2 ) w1 (u1v3 u3v1 ) w2 (u1v2 u 2 v1 ) w3

Example 12.4.3:
a) Find the volume of the box(parallelepiped)
determined by u i 2 j k , v 2i k and
w 7 j 4k .

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edges OP , OQ and OR where P(1, 3, -2),

Q(2, 4, 5)and R(-3, -2, 2).

c) Use the triple scalar products to show that the points

P(2, 0, 1), Q(3, 2, 0), R(1, -1, 2). and S(5, 4, -2) are
coplanar.
(Coplanar = points that lie within the same plane)

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Torque

The torque vector points in the direction of the axis of

the bolt according to the right-hand rule (clockwise from
tip of the vector)
Magnitude of torque vector = r F sin r F

Let n be the unit vector along the bolt axisin direction of

the torque, then
Torque vector = r F sin n
u v 0 when u and v are parallel

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12.5

Lines and Planes in Space

Learning Objectives:
At the end of this topic students should;
understand and be able to describe lines and planes by using the vector
concepts of parallel and orthogonal, respectively.
be able to find an equation of straight line and plane in space.
be able to calculate angle between two intersecting lines.
be able to find the shortest distance from a point to a line.
be able to calculate the angle between two planes.
be able to find the shortest distance of a point from a plane.
be able to find the line of intersection of two planes.

Lines in Space
In the plane, a line is determined by a point and a
number giving the slope of the line.
In space, a line is determined by a point and vector
giving the direction of the line.

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Suppose L is a straight line that passes through the

point P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) and is parallel to the vector
v v1i v2 j v3k .

P0 P tv

If r0 OP0 and r OP are the position vectors of

the points P0 and P respectively, then

P0 P r r0
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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Hence,
r r0 tv
r0 tv

We can write the above expression in component

form as
x, y, z x0 , y0 , z0 t v1 , v2 , v3

gives,
x x0 tv1

y y 0 tv 2

z z 0 tv 3

where t is a real number. These are parametric

equations for the line L, with parameter t.
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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The standard parametrization of the line

through P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) parallel to v v1i v2 j v3k
is
x x0 tv1

y y0 tv2

z z0 tv3

Example 12.5.1:
a) Write down the parametric equations for the
straight line passing through point P(2, 3, 5) and
parallel to v i j 2k .

b) Find the parametric equations for the line passing

through the points P(0, 8, 4) and Q(2, 4, 5).

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.5.2:
a) Find the parametric equations for the line L
through P(5, -2, 4) that is parallel to
1
2
a ,2, .
2
3

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The Distance from a Point to a Line in Space

Let P be a point on a line L and let v be a vector
parallel to L.

given by

d PS sin

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Since v PS v PS sin , therefore we have the

shortest distance of S to line L as

d PS sin

PS v

Example 12.5.3:
a) Find the shortest distance from the point
S(1, 0, -1) to the line,
L:

x 2 3t

y 1 t

z 1 2t

b) Find the shortest distance from the point

S(5, 2, -1) to the line L : r i t (2i j 3k )

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Plane in Space
Suppose that M is a plane, where on it lies a point
P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) with its position vectors

r0 x0 , y 0 , z 0 .

Let P( x, y, z) be any point on M with its position

vectors r x, y, z .

lies on M.

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M, then n is orthogonal to P0 P , that is,

P0 P n 0
x x 0 , y y 0 , z z 0 a, b, c 0
a ( x x 0 ) b( y y 0 ) c ( z z 0 ) 0

The plane through P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) normal to

n Ai Bj Ck has,

Vector Equation

: n P0 P 0

Component Equation :
A( x x0 ) B( y y0 ) C ( z z0 ) 0

Component Equation Simplified: Ax By Cz D ,

where D Ax0 By0 Cz0

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.5.4:
a) Find the equation of a plane that contains the point
P(5, -2, 4) and the normal vector n 1, 2,3 .

b) Find the equation of the plane that contains of the

points P(-1, 2, 1), Q(0, -3, 2) and R(1, 1, -4).

c) Find the equation of the plane that is

perpendicular to plane x y z 0 and
2 x y 4 z 0 and passing through the point

(4, 0, -2).

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Lines of Intersection
When a Plane M1 intersects another Plane M2, we
obtain a line L.

The coordinates of every points on the line L will

satisfy the equations of both these planes.
To obtain the equation of the line of intersection of
two planes, we need
a) a vector parallel to the line L which is given
by n 1 n 2 .
b) A point ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) on the line L that can be
chosen by solving the equations of the planes.

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If n1 n 2 a, b, c , then the equation of the line L

in a parametric form is given by

x x0 at

y y0 bt

z z0 ct

Example 12.5.5:
Find the equation of a line that passes through (-1,2,3)
and is parallel to the line of intersection between the
planes 3x 2 y z 3 and x y 2 z 5 .

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The Distance from a Point to a Plane

If P is a point on a plane with normal n, then the
distance from any point S to the plane is the length of

the vector projection of PS onto n. That is, the

distance from S to the plane is

d PS

n
n

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Angle Between Planes

The angle between two intersecting planes is
defined to be the angle between their normal vectors

.
The angle between plane M1 intersects another plane
M2 is equal to the angle between normal vector n1
and n2. If is the acute angle between the two
planes, then
n1 n 2
cos
n1 n 2
1

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i)

the angle between two intersecting planes is the

angle between the normal vectors to the planes.

ii)

for a certain .

iii)

Two planes are orthogonal if and only if

n1 n 2 0 .

Example 12.5.6:
a) Find the angle between the planes x y z 2
and 2 x y 4 z 3 .

b) Show that the planes 2 x 3 y z 5 and

6 x 9 y 3z 2 are parallel.

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12.6

Recall :

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Cylinders
A cylinder is a surface that is generated by moving a
straight line along a given planar curve while
holding the line parallel to a given fixed line.
The curve is called a generating curve for the
cylinder.

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In solid geometry, where cylinder means circular

cylinder, the generating curve are circles, but now
we allow generating curves of any kind.

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

A quadric surface is the graph in space of a seconddegree equation in x, y and z.
The most general form is,
Ax 2 By 2 Cz 2 Dxy Eyz Fxz Gx Hy Jz K 0

The basic quadric surfaces are ellipsoid, paraboloid,

cones and hyperboloids.

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Ellipsoid
The equation
x2 y2 z 2
2 2 1
2
a
b
c

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

x2 y2 z 2
Some traces of the ellipsoid a 2 b 2 c 2 1 is shown

in table,
Traces Equation of Trace Graph
xy-trace

x2 y2
2 1
2
a
b

Ellipse

xz-trace

x2 z 2
2 1
2
a
c

Ellipse

yz-trace

y2 z2
2 1
2
b
c

Ellipse

If a = b = c, then the equation reduces to

x 2 y 2 z 2 a 2 and it is a sphere of radius a.

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.6.1:
Sketch the graphs of each question in three dimensions.
2
a) y x

2
2
b) x z 9

c)

y2 x2 9

Example 12.6.2:
Sketch the surfaces in three dimensional.
2
2
2
a) 9 x y z 9

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The equation
x2 y2 z 2
2 2 1
2
a
b
c

below,

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Some traces of the hyperboloid of one sheet

x2 y2 z 2
2 2 1 is shown in table below,
2
a
b
c

Traces Equation of Trace

Graph

xy-trace

x2 y2
2 1
2
a
b

Ellipse

xz-trace

x2 z 2
2 1
2
a
c

Hyperbola

yz-trace

y2 z2
2 1
2
b
c

Hyperbola

Example 12.6.3:
Sketch the surfaces in three dimensional.
2
2
2
x

z
1
a)

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The equation
z2

x2

y2

2 2 1
c
a
b
2

shown below :

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z2

x2

y2

c
a
b
2

Traces Equation of Trace

Graph

xy-trace

x2 y2
2 2 1
a
b

No graph

xz-trace

x2 z2
2 2 1
a
c

Hyperbola

yz-trace

y2 z2
2 2 1
b
c

Hyperbola

Example 12.6.4:
Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.
2
2
2
a) y 9 x z 9

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Cone
The equation
x2

y2

z2

2 2
a
b
c
2

x2

y2

z2

or a 2 b2 c2 0

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

x2 y2 z2
Some traces of the cone a 2 b 2 c 2 0 is shown in

table below :
Traces Equation of Trace

Graph

xy-trace

x2 y2
2 0
2
a
b

The origin

xz-trace

x2 z2
2 0
2
a
c

The lines z

c
x
a

yz-trace

y2 z2
2 0
2
b
c

The lines z

c
y
b

The axis of the cone is the z-axis. The trace in a

plane z z 0 parallel to the xy-plane had the equation
2
x 2 y 2 z0
2 2
2
a
b
c

Example 12.6.5:
Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.
2
2
2
a) x 4 y z

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The equation
x2 y2 z
2
2
c
a
b

,c0

is a paraboloid and its graph is as shown in the

following figure,

x2 y2 z
Some traces of the paraboloid a 2 b2 c

is shown

in following table :
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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Traces
xy-trace

Equation of
Trace
x2 y2
2 1
2
a
b

Graph
Ellipse

xz-trace

c 2
x
2
a

Parabola

yz-trace

c 2
z 2 y
b

Parabola

The traces in planes parallel to the xy-planes

x 2 y 2 z0
2
2
c
a
b

are ellipses.
The axis of the paraboloid is z-axis and its vertex is
the origin.
If c < 0, then the paraboloid opens downward.
If a = b, then the paraboloid is called circular
paraboloid, and traces in planes parallel to the xyplanes are circles.
Vectors & The Geometry of Spaces

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Advanced Calculus & Analytical Geometry ~ MATB 113

Example 12.6.6:
Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.
2
2
a) x 4 y z

The equation
x2 y2
2 2 cz
a
b

,c0

is a hyperbolic paraboloid and its graph is as shown in

the following figure :

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A hyperbolic paraboloid is the most difficult

quadric surface to visualize. The trace in the
xy-plane with the equation
b
x2 y2
2 2 0 or y x
a
a
b

is a pair of intersecting line through the origin.

The xz-trace is the parabola
x2
cz 2
a

which assumes maximum value at the origin,

whereas the yz-trace is the parabola
y2
cz 2
b

which assumes minimum value at the origin.

Example 12.6.7:
Sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensional.
2
2
a) y x z

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