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KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2011) 15(1):131-144

DOI 10.1007/s12205-011-0729-4

Structural Engineering

www.springer.com/12205

Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure


Srinivasan Chandrasekaran*, Luciano Nunziante**, Giorgio Serino***, and Federico Carannante****
Received October 12, 2008/Accepted March 16, 2010

Abstract
Correct estimate of curvature ductility of reinforced concrete members has always been an attractive subject of study as it
engenders a reliable estimate of capacity of buildings under seismic loads. The majority of the building stock needs structural
assessment to certify their safety under revised seismic loads by new codes. Structural assessment of existing buildings, by
employing nonlinear analyses tools like pushover, needs an accurate input of moment-curvature relationship for reliable results. In
the present study, nonlinear characteristics of constitutive materials are mathematically modelled according to Eurocode, currently in
prevalence and analytical predictions of curvature ductility of reinforced concrete sections are presented. Relationships, in explicit
form, to estimate the moment-curvature response are proposed, leading to closed form solutions after their verification with those
obtained from numerical procedures. The purpose is to estimate curvature ductility under service loads in a simpler closed form
manner. The influence of longitudinal tensile and compression steel reinforcement ratios on curvature ductility is also examined and
discussed. The spread sheet program used to estimate the moment-curvature relationship, after simplifying the complexities involved
in such estimate, predicts in good agreement with the proposed analytical expressions. Avoiding somewhat tedious hand calculations
and approximations required in conventional iterative design procedures, the proposed estimate of curvature ductility avoids errors
and potentially unsafe design.
Keywords: analytical solutions, concrete, curvature ductility, elasto plastic, reinforced concrete, seismic, structures, yield

1. Introduction
The focus of earthquake resistant design of Reinforced Concrete
(RC) framed structures is on the displacement ductility of the
buildings rather than on the materials like reinforcing steel.
Critical points of interest are the strain levels in concrete and
steel, indicating whether the failure is tensile or compressive at
the instant of reaching plastic hinge formation (Pisanty and
Regan, 1998). Studies show that the estimate of ductility demand
is of particular interest to structural designers to ensure effective
redistribution of moments in ultra-elastic response, allowing for
the development of energy dissipative zones until collapse (see,
for example, Pisanty and Regan, 1993). In areas subjected to
earthquakes, a very important design consideration is the ductility
of the structure because modern seismic design philosophy is
based on energy absorption and dissipation by post-elastic deformation for survival in major earthquakes (Paulay and Priestley,
1992). Many old buildings show their structure unfit to support
seismic loads demanded by the structural assessment requests of
the revised international codes (see, for example, Chandrasekaran
and Roy, 2006; Chao Hsun Huang et al., 2006). Further, Sinan

and Metin (2007) showed that the deformation demand predictions by improved Demand Capacity Method are sensitive to
ductility as higher ductility results in conservative predictions.
Estimate of moment-curvature relationship of RC sections has
been a point of research interest since many years (Pfrang et al.,
1964; Carrreira and Chu, 1986; Mo, 1992); historically, momentcurvature relationships with softening branch were first introduced by Wood (1968). Load-deformation characteristics of RC
structural members, bending in particular, are mainly dependent
on moment-curvature characteristics of the sections as most of
these deformations arise from strains associated with flexure
(Park and Paulay, 1975). As seen from the literature, in welldesigned and detailed RC structures, the gap between the actual
and design lateral forces narrows down by ensuring ductility in
the structure (see, for example, Luciano and Raffaele, 1988;
Pankaj and Manish, 2006). With regard to RC building frames
with side-sway, their response assessment is complicated not
because of the influence of second order deformations, but also
due to the fact that considerable re-distribution of moments may
occur due to plastic behaviour of sections. Plastic curvature is
therefore a complex issue mainly because of interaction of various

*Associate Professor, Dept. of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India (Corresponding Aughor, E-mail:
drsekaran@iitm.ac.in)
**Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 21 via Claudio, 80125, Naples, Italy (E-mail: nunsci@unina.it)
***Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 21 via Claudio, 80125, Naples, Italy (E-mail: serino@unina.it)
****Visiting Researcher, Dept. of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 21 via Claudio, 80125, Naples, Italy (E-mail: fedcarran@libero.it)
131

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Luciano Nunziante, Giorgio Serino, and Federico Carannante

parameters namely: i) constitutive materials response; ii) member geometry; as well as iii) loading conditions. Observations
made by Challamel and Hjiaj (2005) on plastic softening beams
show that the correct estimate of yield moment, a non-local
material parameter, is important to ensure proper continuity
between elastic and plastic regions during the loading process.
Experimental evidences on moment-curvature relationship of
RC sections already faced limited loading cases and support
conditions (see, for example, Ko et al., 2001). While Mo (1992)
suggested classical approach to reproduce moment-curvature
relationship with the softening branch carried out elastic-plastic
buckling analysis using finite element method, an alternative
approach proposed by Jirasek and Bazant (2002) uses a simplified model where this complex nonlinear geometric effect is
embedded in the nonlinear material behaviour of the cross
section. Experimental investigations also impose limitations in
estimating the plastic rotation capacity. For instance, studies
show that experimental results obtained from rotation-deflection
behaviour show good agreement with the analysis in elastic
regime; but for phase of yielding of reinforcing steel, theoretical
results do not agree with the experimental inferences (see, for
example, Lopes and Bernardo, 2003).
Studies reviewed above show that there exists no simplified
procedure to estimate curvature ductility of RC sections. While response of RC building frames under ground shaking generally
results in nonlinear behaviour, increased implementation of displacement-based design approach lead to the use of nonlinear static
procedures for estimating their seismic demands (ATC, 2005;
BSSC, 2003). An estimate of moment-curvature relationship becomes essential for performing non-linear analyses. Therefore, in
this study, an estimate of curvature ductility of RC sections, using
detailed analytical procedure is attempted. Calculations of momentcurvature relationship are based on their nonlinear characteristics
in full depth of the cross section, for different ratios of longitudinal
tensile and compression reinforcements. They account for the variation on depth of neutral axis passing through different domains,
classified on the basis of strain levels reached in the constitutive
materials, namely concrete and steel. Obtained results, by employing the numerical procedure on example RC sections, are verified
with expressions derived from detailed analytical modelling.

2. Mathematical Development
Significant nonlinearity exhibited by concrete, under multiaxial stress state, can be successively represented by nonlinear
characteristics of constitutive models capable of interpreting
inelastic deformations (see, for example, Chen 1994a, 1994b).
Studies conducted by researchers (Sankarasubramanian and
Rajasekaran, 1996; Fan and Wang, 2002; Nunziante et al., 2007)
describe different failure criteria in stress space by a number of
independent control parameters while the non-linear elastic
response of concrete is characterized by parabolic stress-strain
relationship in the current study, as shown in Fig. 1. Elastic limit
strain and strain at cracking are limited to 0.2% and 0.35%
respectively, as prescribed by the code, currently in prevalence
(DM 9, 1996; UNI ENV, 1991a, 1991b; Ordinanza, 2003, 2005;
Norme tecniche, 2005). Tensile stresses in concrete are ignored
in the study. Design ultimate stress in concrete in compression is
given by:
( 0.83 ) ( 0.85 )R

cK
c0 = ------------------------------------c

(1)

where, c and Rck are the partial safety factor and compressive cube
strength of concrete, respectively. The stress-strain relationship for
concrete under compressive stresses is given by:
0 c c0

c ( c ) = a 2c + b c + c
c ( c ) = c0
c ( c ) = 0

c0 c cu
c 0

(2)

where, parameters a, b and c in Eq. (2), are determined by


imposing the following conditions:

c ( c = 0 ) = 0
c ( c = c0 ) = c0
d c
-------d c

c = c0

c=0
a 2c0 + b c0 = c0

(3)

2a c0 + b = 0

=0

By solving, we get:
2 c0
c0
-, b = ---------, c = 0
a = -----2

c0

c0

(4a)

Fig. 1. Stress-strain Relationships: (a) Concrete, (b) Steel


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KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure

Stress-strain relationship for concrete is given by:

c0 2 2 c0
- c + ---------- c
c = -----c0
2c0

(4b)

Stress-strain relationship for steel, an isotropic and homogeneous material, is shown in Fig. 1. While the ultimate limit strain in
tension and that of compression are taken as 1% and 0.35%
respectively, elastic strain in steel in tension and compression are
considered the same in absolute values (see, for example, DM9,
1996). The design ultimate stress in steel is given by:

s0 = -----y
s

(5)

where s and y are partial safety factor and yield strength of


reinforcing steel, respectively. Stress-strain relationship for steel
is given by:

s ( s ) = Es s 0 s s0
s ( s ) = s0 s0 s su, tensile
( su, tensile = su )
s ( s ) = s0 su, compressive s s0

(6)

The fundamental Bernoullis hypothesis of linear strain over


the cross section, both for elastic and for elastic-plastic responses
of the beam under bending moment combined with axial force,
will be assumed. The interaction behaviour becomes critical when
one the following conditions apply namely: i) strain in reinforcing steel in tension reaches ultimate limit; ii) strain in concrete in
extreme compression fibre reaches ultimate limit; as well as iii)
maximum strain in concrete in compression reaches elastic limit
under only axial compression. In the following section, only rectangular RC sections under axial force, P and bending moment,
M will be considered.
2.1 Moment-curvature in Elastic Range
It is well known that the bending curvature is the derivative of
bending rotation, varying along the member length and at any
cross section, it is given by the slope of the strain profile. It depends
on the fluctuations of the neutral axis depth and continuously
varying strains. The moment-curvature relationship, in elastic
range, depends on both the magnitude and nature of the axial force
as well. Fig. 2 shows the variation of curvature with respect to
strain variation in constitutive materials. Magnitude of axial force
is assumed to vary in the range:
(Asc + Ast) s0 < P < {bDc0 + (Asc + Ast) s0}

(7a)

Nature of axial force shall vary as: i) tensile axial force (considered as negative in this study); ii) zero axial force; as well as
iii) compressive axial force (considered positive). Stress and
strain in concrete and steel, in elastic range are given by:

c = e ( xc y ) ; sc = e ( xc d ); st = e ( D xc d ) ;

Fig. 2. Curvature Profile for Strain Variation in Concrete and Steel

st = Es e ( D xe d )

2.1.1 Tensile Axial Force


Tensile axial force results in reduced curvature for which axial
force and bending moment, in explicit form, are given by:
Pe = st Ast + scAsc = b ( d D )
[ d ( pc pt ) + Dpt ( pc + pt )xc ]Es

(8)

D
1
Me = ( st Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d = --- b ( D 2d ) ( D d )
2 2
[ ( pc pt )xc + Dpt d ( pc + pt ) ]Es

(9)

Percentage of steel, in tension and compression zones, is given


by:
Ast = pt b ( D d ) ; Asc = pc b ( D d )

(10)

By solving the Eq. (8) respect to xc, we obtain the following


relationship:
Pe + b ( d D ) [ d ( pc pt ) + Dpt ]Es
xc = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------b ( d D )( pc + pt )Es

(11)

By substituting the Eq. (11) in Eq. (9), moment-curvature relationship is given by:
D 2d
2
2
Me = --------------------- [Pe ( pc pt ) + 2b(D + d 3dD)Es pc pt ]
2 ( pc + pt )
[ 0 ,0 ]

(12)

where, 0 is the limit curvature for xc = 0; by imposing this condition in Eq. (11), we get:
P
b ( d D )Es [ Dpt + d ( pc pt ) ]

e
0 = ----------------------------------------------------------------

(13)

As curvature is influenced by percentage of tension reinforcement, by imposing the conditions: xc = 0 & = s0 ( D d ) in


Eq. (8) and solving with respect to pt, for a specified range of:

( xc y ) [ 2 c0 ( xc y ) c0 e ]
- ; sc = Es e ( xc d );
c = --------------------------------------------------------------2c0
Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

(7b)

pt < ( Pe + bdEs pc s0 ) ( b ( d D ) s0 )

(14)

Eq. (12) is defined in the total range [0, E], where E is the
133

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Luciano Nunziante, Giorgio Serino, and Federico Carannante

limit elastic curvature and is derived in following section.


For further increase in curvature more than 0, concrete also
contributes to the compression resultant and the expressions for
axial force and bending moment take the form, as given below:
xc

Pe = b c [ c ( y ) ]dy st ( Ast + sc Asc )


0

= A0 ( e ) + A1 ( e )xc + A2 ( e )xc + A3 ( e )xc


2

(15)

xc

D
D
Me = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( st Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d ,

2
2
0

Me = B0 ( e ) + B1 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe ) + B2 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe )
3
r
+ B3 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe ) + B4 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe ) [ 0, E ]
2

2.1.2 Axial Force Equal to Zero


The moment-curvature relationship is given by Eq. (20) for the
complete of [0, E].
2.1.3 Compressive Axial Force
Expressions for axial force and bending moment are given by:
D

Pe = b c [ c ( y ) ]dy st Ast + sc Asc = E0 + E1 xc + E2 xc

Me = B0 ( e ) + B1 ( e )xc + B2 ( e )xc + B3 ( e )xc + B4 ( e )xc (16)


2

(20)

(21)

where, the coefficients Ai (for i = 0 to 3) and Bi (for i = 0 to 4), as


a function of curvature are given by:

D
D
D
Me = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( st Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d
2
2
0

A0 ( e ) = b ( d D ) [ Dpt + d ( pc pt ) ]Es e ;
A1 ( e ) = b ( D d ) ( pc + pt )Es e ;

b c0 e
b c0 e
- ; A3 ( e ) = --------------;
A2 ( e ) = -------------2
c0
3 c0
1
2
2
B0 ( e ) = --- b ( 2d 3dD + D ) [ Dpt d ( pc + pt ) ]Es e ;
2
bD c0 e
1
2
2
-;
B1 ( e ) = --- b ( 2d 3dD + D ) ( pc pt )Es e ; B2 ( e ) = ------------------2
2 c0
2
b c0 e ( 2 c0 + D e )
b c0 e
- ; B4 ( e ) = --------------B3 ( e ) = ------------------------------------------2
2
12 c0
6 c0

(22)

= F0 + F1 xe

(17)

where, the coefficients Ei= 0,1,2 and Fi=0,1 are given by:
D c0 ( 3 c0 + D )
1
2
E0 = --- b 3d ( d D )Es pc 3 ( d D ) Es pt ---------------------------------------,
3
2c0
2

b [ dEs ( pc + pt ) c0 + D ( Es ( pc + pt ) c0 + c0 ( 2 c0 + D ) ) ]
-,
E1 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2

c0

bD c0
-,
E2 = ------------------2
2

c0

By solving Eq. (15) with respect to variable xc, three roots of


the variable are obtained as:

b
2
F0 = ------ [6d ( D 2d ) ( D d )Es pc + 6 ( d D ) ( 2d D )Es pt
12
3
D c0 ( 2 c0 + D )
---------------------------------------,
2

1
xc1 ( Pe, e ) = ------------------ [ ( 2A2 ( e ) )
6A3 ( e )
2.5198 ( A2 ( e ) 3A1 ( e )A3 ( e ) )
+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 1.5874C1 ( e, Pe )
C 1 ( e, P e )
1
xc2 ( Pe, e ) = --------------------12A3 ( e )

c0

(18)

b [ 3 ( D + 2d 3dD ) ( pc pt )Es c0 D c0 ]
F1 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
6 c0
2

( 2.5198 + 4.3645i ) ( A ( e ) 3A1 ( e )A3 ( e ) )


4A2 ( e ) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C 1 ( e, P e )
( 1.5874 2.7495i )C1 ( e, Pe )

E1 + E1 4E2 ( E0 Pe )
xc = --------------------------------------------------------2E0

1
xc3 ( Pe, e ) = --------------------12A3 ( e )

(24)

By substituting the Eq. (24) in Eq. (22), we get:


Me = F0 ( , Pe ) + F1 ( , Pe )xc

( 2.5198 4.3645 i ) ( A2 ( e ) 3A1 ( e )A3 ( e ) )


4A2 ( e ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C 1 ( e, P e )
( 1.5874 + 2.7495i )C1 ( e, Pe )
2

[ 0 , 0 ]

(25)

where,
2
3b c0 ( D d )Es ( Dpc + d ( pt pc ) ) + D c0
0 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
2bD c0

where,

c0 3b 3b [ ( D d )Es c0 ( ( Dpc + d ( pt pc ) ) + D c0 ) ] 4Pe D c0


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
2bD c0
2

2
2

3
2

2
3

+ 4 ( A 3A1 A3 ) + ( 2A 9A1 A2 A3 + 27A ( A0 Pe ) )


3

(23)

By solving the Eq. (21), position of neutral axis is determined


as:

2
2

C 1 ( e, P e ) =

13

2A2 + 9A1 A2 A3 27A3 ( A0 Pe)

(26)
(19)

Out of the above, only one root, namely xc3, closely matches
with the numerical solution obtained and hence by substituting
the root xc3 in Eq. (18), moment-curvature relationship in elastic
range is obtained as:

By imposing the condition (xc = D) in Eq. (24), limit curvature


0 is determined as given above. Further increase in the curvature
changes the equilibrium conditions due to the contributions to
resultant compressive force by concrete. For curvature more than
0, moment-curvature relationship is given by Eq. (20).

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KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure

2.2 Elastic Limit Bending Moment and Curvature


The limit elastic curvature, depending on the magnitude of
axial force and percentage of reinforcing steel in tension and
compression, results in four possible cases namely: i) strain in
tension steel reaches yield limit and stress in concrete vanishes;
ii) strain in tension steel reaches yield limit but stress in concrete
is present; iii) strain in compression steel reaches elastic limit; as
well as iiv) strain in extreme compression fibre in concrete
reaches elastic limit value.

where,

2.2.1 Case (i): Strain in Tension Steel Reaches Yield Limit


and Stress in Concrete Vanishes
This case is verified when pt < ( Pe + bdEs pc s0 ) (b ( d D )
s0 ) . By imposing st = s0 and recalling the Eq. (8), depth of
neutral axis can be obtained as given below:

where, super script (ii) represents the second case; constants of


Eq. (35) are given by:

(i )

s0
xc = D d -----

x c < 0

(27)

By substituting the Eq. (27) in Eq. (8), elastic limit curvature


can be determined as:
PE + b ( D d ) ( pc + pt ) s0
E = -------------------------------------------------------2
2
bEs pc ( D + 2d 3dD )

(28)

By substituting Eq. (28) in Eq. (9), elastic limit moment is


obtained as:
D 2d
(i)
ME = --------------- [ PE + 2b ( D d )pt s0 ]
2

( ii )

xc [ 0, D d ]

(30)

( ii )

2 13

(34)

( ii )

(35)

s0 ( 4 c0 + s0 ) c0 (ii) ( D 2d ) s0 ( 3 c0 + s0 ) c0
( ii )
-, M2 = -----------------------------------------------------------,
M1 = -------------------------------------6
3
3

( ii )

M3 = ( D d ) s0 [ ( D 2 d )Es ( pt pc ) c0 d ( 2 c0 + s0 ) c0 ],
2

( D d ) [ 3 ( D 2d ) Es pc c0 + ( D d ) ( 2d + D ) ( 2 c0 + s0 ) c0 ] ,
( ii )
M4 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
2

( d D ) ( D + d ) c0
( ii )
M5 = -----------------------------------------6
3

(36)

2.2.3 Case (iii): Strain in Compression Steel Reaches Elastic Limit Value
Depth of neutral axis is given by:
( iii)

xc

s0
= d + -----

(37)

By substituting Eq. (37) in Eq. (15), expression for limit elastic


curvature is obtained as:
H0 + H1 E + H2 E + H3 E = 0
2

(38)

where the constants Hi (for i = 0 to 3) are given by:


b s0 ( 3 c0 + s0 ) c0
-,
H0 = ----------------------------------------2
3 c0
2

PE c0 + b s0 [ ( D d )Es ( pc + pt ) c0 + d c0 ( 2 c0 s0 ) ]
H1 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,
2
2

(31)

c0

d c0 ( c0 s0 )
2
2
- ,
H2 = b ( 3dD D 2d )Es pt + --------------------------------2
2

b ( 3 c0 + s0 ) c0
-,
L0 = ----------------------------------------2
3c0
2
s0

c0

bd c0
H3 = -------------2
3 c0
3

PE c0 + b ( D d ) s0 [ ( 2 c0 + s0 ) c0 + Es ( pc + pt ) c0 ]
L1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2

c0

( 2.5198 + 4.3645i ) ( H 3H H )

b ( d D ) c0
L3 = ---------------------------2
3 c0

2
1 3
(Eiii) = ------------ [4H2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
12H3

(32)

By solving Eq. (31), which is of a third degree polynomial,


only one real root (third root) gives the limit elastic curvature:

( 1.5874 2.7495i ) ]

(40)

where,

( 2.5198 4.3645i ) ( L2 3L1 L3 )


1
= ----------- [4L2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
12L3

( 1.5874 + 2.7495i ) ]

(39)

By solving Eq. (38), only one real root (the second one) gives
the limit elastic curvature as:

b ( D d ) [ ( 2d D )E p + ( d D ) ( c0 + s0 ) c0 ]
L2 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
s c c0
2
c0

Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

b M1 M2
( ii)
( ii)
( ii) ( ii )
( ii ) ( ii)2
- + --------ME = --------2- --------+ M3 + M4 E + M5 E
( ii )2
( ii )
2 c0 E
E

where, the coefficients Li=0,1,2,3 are given by:

(Eii)

By substituting Eq. (33) in Eq. (16), limit elastic bending moment is obtained as:

By substituting Eq. (30) in Eq. (15), expression for limit elastic


curvature can be obtained as:
L 0 + L1 E + L2 E + L3 E = 0

+ 4 ( L2 3L1 L3 ) + ( 2L2 9L1 L2 L3 + 27L3 L0 ) ]

(29)

2.2.2 Case (ii): Strain in Tension Steel Reaches Yield Limit


and Stress in Concrete Not Equal Zero
Depth of neutral axis is given by:
s0
xc = D d -----

= [ 2L32 + 9L1 L2 L3 27L23 L0

= [ 2H32 + 9H1 H2 H3 27H23 H0


2

2 13

+ 4 ( H2 3H1 H3 ) + ( 2H2 9H1 H2 H3 + 27H3 H0 ) ]


(33)
135

(41)

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Luciano Nunziante, Giorgio Serino, and Federico Carannante

By substituting Eq. (40) in Eq. (16), limit elastic bending moment can be obtained as follows:
( iii )

( iii)

M2
b M1
( iii )
- + ---------- + M(3iii ) + M(4iii) (Eiii ) + M(5iii) (Eiii)2
ME = --------2- ---------( iii )2
(Eiii)
2 c0 E

(42)

result in a practical situation. For the case (xc>D), the limits of


the integral in Eq. (15) will be from (0, D), which shall also result
in compression failure and hence not discussed. Expressions for
limit elastic moments are summarised as below:
( ii )

ME
ME = ( iii)
ME

where,
( iii )

M1

s0 ( s0 4 c0 ) c0 (iii) ( D 2d ) ( 3 c0 s0 ) s0 c0
= -------------------------------------, M2 = ----------------------------------------------------------,
6
3
3

( iii )

M4
M

( iii )
5

pt < pt, el

if

pt < pt, el

(50)

where pt,el , for tow cases namely: i) axial force neglected; and ii)
axial force considered are given by the following equations:

M3 = ( d D )s0 [ ( D 2d )Es ( pt pc ) c0 d ( 2 c0 s0 ) c0 ],
iii

if

D [ D ( 3 c0 s0 ) 6d c0 ] c0
pt, el = pe + ---------------------------------------------------------------2
2
6 ( D d ) ( D 2d ) Es c0
2

d ( 3D 2d ) ( c0 s0 ) c0
2
2
-,
= ( D d ) ( D 2d ) Es pt c0 + -------------------------------------------------------3
2

d ( d 2D )
= -------------------------------c06

(43)

(44)

By substituting Eq. (44) in Eq. (15), expression for limit elastic


curvature is obtained as:
R0 + R1 E + R2 E = 0
2

(45)

where the constants Ri (for i = 0 to 2) are given by:

2.3 Percentage of Steel for Balanced Section


Percentage of reinforcement in tension and compression for
balanced failure are obtained by considering both the conditions
namely: i) maximum compressive strain in concrete reaches
ultimate limit strain; and ii) strain in tensile reinforcement
reaches ultimate limit. Balanced reinforcement for two cases is
considered namely: i) for beams where axial force vanishes; and
ii) for beam/columns where P-M interaction is predominantly
present. For sections with vanishing axial force, depth of neutral
axis is given by:
cu
- (D d)
xc = --------------- cu + su

2b c0 c0
-, R1 = Pe + b ( D d )Es c0 ( pc + pt ),
R0 = ------------------3
R2 = b ( D d )Es [ Dpt d ( pt pe ) ]

(46)

By solving Eq. (45), the only real root (in this case, first root)
gives the limit elastic curvature as:
2
1

R + R 4R R
2R 2

1
0 2
(Eiv) = --------------------------------------

( iv )
2
( iv )
E

M
M
( iv )
( iv )
( iv ) ( iv )
ME = ---------- + ---------- + M3 + M4 E

For vanishing axial force, governing equation to determine the


percentage of reinforcement is given by:
xc

P = b c [ c ( y ) ]dy + ( Asc Ast ) s0 + qb c0 = 0

(47)

(54)

(48)

In explicit form, Eq. (53) becomes:


b ( d D ) [ c0 c0 3 cu c0 3 ( pc pt ) ( cu + su ) s0 ] = 0

(49)

It may be easily seen that for percentage of tension steel


exceeding the maximum limit of 4%, as specified in many codes
(see for example Indian code (IS 456, 2000), case (iv) shall never

(55)

By solving, percentage of steel for balanced section is obtained


as:
( 3 cu c0 ) c0
pt, bal = pc + ------------------------------3 ( cu + su ) s0

where,
bD c0 c0
( iv )
M1 = -------------------3
1 2
( iv )
M2 = --- b c0 c0
4
1
( iv )
2
2
M3 = --- b ( D + 2d 3dD )Es ( pc pt ) c0
2
1
( iv )
2
2
M4 = --- b ( D + 2d 3dD )Es [ Dpt d ( pc + pt ) ]
2

(53)

By substituting Eq. (47) in Eq. (16), limit elastic bending


moment, ME, can be obtained as follows:
( iv )
1
( iv )2
E

(52)

2.2.4 Case (iv): Strain in Extreme Compression Fibre in


Concrete Reaches Elastic Limit Value
Now, the depth of neutral axis is given by:
( iv)
c0
xc = -----

6 ( D 2d ) c0 [ PE +b ( d D)Es pc s0 ] + bD s0 [ 6d c0 +D ( s0 3 c0 ) ] c0
pt, el = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2
6b (D d ) ( D 2d ) Es c0 s0
2 2

(51)

(56)

For a known cross section with fixed percentage of compression reinforcement, Eq. (56) gives the percentage of steel for a
balanced section. It may be easily seen that for the assumed
condition of strain in compression steel greater than elastic limit,
Eq. (56) shall yield percentage of tension reinforcement for
balanced sections, whose overall depth exceeds 240 mm, which
is a practical case of cross section dimension of RC beams used
in multi-storey building frames. For sections where axial force is
predominantly present, percentage of balanced reinforcement
depends on the magnitude of axial force. By assuming the same
hypothesis presented above, depth of neutral axis is given by Eq.
(53); but Eq. (55) becomes as given below:

136

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure

b ( d D ) [ c0 c0 3 cu c0 3 ( pe pt ) ( cu + su ) s0 ] = P0

(b) st = su, sc < s0,

(57)

By solving, percentage of steel for balanced section is obtained


as:
P0
( 3 cu c0 ) c0
- -------------------------pt, bal = pc + ------------------------------3 ( cu su ) s0 b ( D d ) s0

(58)

where, P0 is the axial force (P0 > 0 if it is compression). For the


known cross section with fixed percentage of compression
reinforcement, Eq. (58) gives the percentage of steel for balanced
section. In the similar manner, percentage of compression reinforcement for a balanced section, by fixing pt, can be obtained by
inverting the relationship given in Eqs. (56) and (58) for respective axial force conditions.

su
xc = D d -----

x c < 0

(59)

At collapse, the equilibrium equations become:


Pu = s0 Ast + sc Asc = b ( d D ) [ pt s0 + Es pc ( d x c ) u ]

(60)

(61)

By solving Eq. (60) with respect to u, we obtain the ultimate


curvature, as reported below:
Pu + b ( D d ) [ s0 pt + Es pc su ]
u = ------------------------------------------------------------------2
2
bEs pc ( D + 2d 3dD )

(62)

(63)

2.4.2 Neutral Axis Position Assuming Positive Values


Under this condition at collapse, four different cases of tension
failure of RC sections are possible, namely:

Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

c, max < cu

(64)

(a d)

su
= D d -----

(65)

Axial force and bending moment in the cross section at


collapse, for case (a) are given by:
xc

Pu = b c [ c ( y ) ]dy s0 Ast + sc Asc

(66)

xc

D
D
Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( s0 Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d
2
2
0

(67)

By substituting the Eq. (65) in Eq. (66) we get:


J0 + J1 u + J2 u + J3 u = 0
2

(68)

where the constants Ji (for i=0 to 3) are given by:


b su ( 3 c0 + su ) c0
J0 = ----------------------------------------2
3 c0
2

Pu c0 + b ( d D ) [ ( Es pc c0 + c0( 2 c0 + su ) ) su + pt s0 c0 ]
J1 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2

c0

( d D ) ( c0 + su ) c0
2
2
J2 = b ( D + 2d 3dD )Es pc + ----------------------------------------------2
2

b ( d D ) c0
J3 = ---------------------------2
3 c0
3

(69)

By solving Eq. (68), the real root (in this case, the third root)
gives the ultimate curvature as:
2

( 2.5198 4.3645i ) ( J 3J J )

2
1 3
- ( 1.5874 + 2.7495i )
(ua) = ---------- 4J2 --------------------------------------------------------------------
12J3

(70)
where,

= [ 2 J32 + 9J1 J2 J3 27J23 J0


3

2 13

+ 4 ( J2 3J1 J3 ) + ( 2J2 9J1 J2 J3 + 27J3 J0 ) ]

(71)

By substituting Eq. (70) in Eq. (67), ultimate moment is given


by:

It may be noted that the ultimate bending moment in this case


is similar to one given by Eq. (29) for elastic range.

(a) st = su, sc < s0,

(d) st = su, s0 < sc < su,

xc

By substituting Eq. (62) in Eq. (61), ultimate bending moment


can be determined as:
D 2d
Mu = --------------- [ Pu + 2b ( D d )pt s0 ]
2

c, max < c0

c0

D
Mu = ( s0 Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d
2

b ( D 2d )
= ----------------------- ( D d ) [ pt s0 + Es pc ( xc d ) u ]
2

(c) st = su, s0 < sc < su,

As the strain in tensile steel reaches its ultimate value (tensile


failure), in all the four cases mentioned above, equation for
computing the depth of neutral axis, as function of ultimate
curvature, will remain unchanged and is given by:

2.4 Ultimate Bending Moment-curvature Relationship


Study in this section is limited to RC sections imposed with
tension failure as the compression and balanced failures do not
have any practical significance in the displacement-based design
approach, in particular. Let us consider two possible cases: i)
neutral axis position assumes negative values; and ii) neutral axis
position assumes positive values.
2.4.1 Neutral Axis Position Assuming Negative Values
By imposing the conditions: xc = 0 & = su ( D d ) and solving Eq. (8) respect to pt , for a specified range of tension steel percentage, pt < ( Pu + bdEs su ) ( b ( d D ) s0 ) , depth of neutral axis is
given by:

c0 < c, max < cu,

(a)

( a)

b M1 M2
(a)
- + -------- + M(3a) + M(4a) (ua) + M(5a) (ua)2
Mu = --------2- -------( a )2
2 c0 u
(ua)

(72)

where the super-script (a) stands for the case (a); the constants of
Eq. (72) are given by:

c, max < c0,


137

su ( 4 c0 + su ) c0 (a) ( 2d D ) su ( 3 c0 + su ) c0
(a)
-, M2 = ----------------------------------------------------------- ,
M1 = -------------------------------------6
3
3

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Luciano Nunziante, Giorgio Serino, and Federico Carannante


(a)

M3 = ( D d ) [ ( 2d D )Es pc su c0 d su

W0 + W1 u + W2 u + W3 u = 0

( 2 c0 + su ) c0 + ( D 2d )p s0 ] ,
2
t c0

(83)

where, the constants Wi=0,1,2,3 are given by:

( D d ) [ 3 ( D 2d ) E p + ( d D ) ( 2d + D ) ( c0 + su ) c0 ]
(a)
-,
M4 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

Pu c0 + b ( d D ) [ ( 2 c0 + su ) c0 su + ( pt pc ) s0 c0 ]
W1 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

( d D ) ( D + d ) c0
(a)
M5 = -----------------------------------------6

b ( d D ) c0 ( c0 + su )
- , W 0 = J 0, W 3 = J 3
W2 = -------------------------------------------------2

2
s c c0

c0

(73)

Axial force and bending moment in the cross section at collapse,


for case (b) are given by:
xc

Pu = b c [ c ( y ) ]dy Ast s0 + Asc sc + qb c0

(74)

(84)

c0

By solving Eq. (83), the real root (in this case, it is the third
root) gives the ultimate curvature as:
1
12W3

(uc) = -------------

c
qb
D
D
Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( Ast s0 + Asc sc ) ---- d + ------------c0- ( D q )
2
2
2

( 2.5198 4.3645i ) ( W2 3W1 W3 )


- ( 1.5874 + 2.7495i )
4W2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

(85)

(75)
where,

By substituting the Eq. (65) in the (74), we get:


Q0 + Q1 u + Q2 u = 0
2

(76)

= [ 2W32 + 9W1 W2 W3 27W23 W0 +

Q2 = bEs Pc ( D + 2d 3dD )

( c)

(b)
2
(b)
u

M
b M
(b)
(b)
(b) (b )
Mu = --- --------- + --------- + M3 + M4 u
2

(86)

(c)

(87)

( c)

M3 = d ( d D ) su c0 ( 2 c0 + su ) + ( D + 2d 3dD ) ( pc + pt ) s0 c0 ,
2

( d D ) ( 2d + D ) ( c0 + su ) c0
( c)
M4 = -------------------------------------------------------------------3
2

(78)

By substituting Eq. (78) in Eq. (75), ultimate moment is obtained as:


(b)
1
( b )2
u

2 13

where,

Q + Q 4Q Q
2Q2

b M1 M2
( c)
- -------- + -------- + M(3c) + M(4c) (uc) + M(5c) (uc)2
Mu = -------2
( c )2
2 c0 u
(uc)

(77)

By solving Eq. (76), the first root of the quadratic, representing


the ultimate curvature is given as:
1
1
0 2
(ub) = --------------------------------------------

By substituting Eq. (85) in Eq. (81), ultimate moment is obtained as:

b c0 ( c0 + 3 su )
Q0 = ----------------------------------3
Q1 = b ( D d ) ( c0 Es pc su + s0 pt ) pu ,
2

4 ( W2 3W1 W3 ) + ( 2W2 9W1 W2 W3 + 27W3 W0 ) ]

where, the constants Qi=0,1,2 are given by:

(79)

( c)

(a)

( c)

( a)

(c)

(88)

(a)

M1 = M1 , M2 = M2 , M5 = M5

Axial force and bending moment in the cross section at


collapse, for case (d), are given by:
xc

Pu = b c [ c ( y ) ]dy + ( Asc Ast ) s0 + qb c0

where,

(89)

xc
qb
D
D
Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( A st + Asc ) s0 ---- d + ------------c0- ( D q )
2
2
2

( c0 + 4 c0 su + 6 su ) c0
(b)
,
M1 = ----------------------------------------------------6
( D 2d ) ( c0 + 3 su ) c0
(b)
M2 = ---------------------------------------------------3
2

(90)
By substituting the Eq. (65) in Eq. (89) and solving, the ultimate curvature is obtained as:

(b)

M3 = ( D d ) [ d ( 2Es pc su + c0 2pt s0 ) + D ( pt s0 Es pc su ) ]
(b)

M4 = ( D d ) ( D 2d ) Es pc

(80)

Axial force and bending moment in the cross section at


collapse, for case (c) are given by:
xc

Pu = b c [ c ( y ) ]dy + s0 ( Asc Ast )

(81)

bc0 ( c0 + 3 su )
(ud) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 [ b ( D d ) ( c0 + s0 ( pc pt ) Pu ) ]

By substituting Eq. (91) in Eq. (90), ultimate bending moment


is obtained as:

xc

D
D
Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( Ast + Asc ) s0 ---- d

2
2
0

(91)

(82)

b c0
s0
( d)
- 6 ( D d ) d + ( D 2d ) ( pc + pt ) -----Mu = --------
12
c0
2 ( D 2d ) ( c0 + 3 su ) c0 + 4 c0 su + 6ssu
- ---------------------------------------+ ----------------------------------------------( IV )
( IV )2
2

By substituting the Eq. (65) in Eq. (81), we get:


138

(92)

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure

For the condition of ( D < d ( 2 c0 s0 + su ) ) ( c0 s0 ) , ultimate


moment, derived above takes the following form:
(a)

Mu

Mu = M(ub)
(d)
Mu

( 1)

if

pt < pt

if

pt < pt < pt

if

(2)

( 1)

(93)

( 2)
t

p < pt

where,
3 ( c0 + su ) [ Pu + bEs pc ( d ( 2 c0 + su ) D c0 ) ] + 2b ( d D ) c0 c0
( 1)
pt = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,
3b ( d D ) ( c0 + su ) s0
( 2)

pt =
3 ( c0 + su ) [ Pu +b ( d D )Es pc s0 ] + bc0 [ D ( c0 3s0 )+d ( 3 s0 2 c0 3 su ) ]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3b ( d D) ( s0 + su ) s0

(94)
Percentage of tension reinforcements are determined by imposing the conditions: i) pt(1) is determined by imposing st = su,
c,max = c0 and solving Eq. (67) with respect to pt ; as well as ii)
pt(2) is determined by imposing the st = su, sc = s0 and solving
Eq. (75) with respect to pt .
For the other condition, namely D > ( d( 2 c0 s0 + cu ) ) c0 s0 ,
ultimate moment now takes a different form as give below:
(a)

Mu

Mu = M(uc)
(d)
Mu

( 3)

if

pt < pt

if

pt < pt < pt

if

(4)

(3)

(95)

( 4)
t

p < pt

where,
3Pu ( c0 + su ) + 2b ( d D ) c0 c0
(3)
pt = pc + -----------------------------------------------------------------------3b ( d D ) ( c0 + su ) s0
Pu
(4)
Pt = Pc + -------------------------b ( d D ) s0
[ D s0 + d ( su s0 ) ] [ D ( c0 3 s0 ) + d ( 6 c0 s0 + su ) ] c0
+ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2
3 c0 ( s0 + su ) ( D 2d ) ( d D ) s0
2

(96)

zones whose percentage is varied to study their influence on the


curvature ductility. Concrete with compressive cube strength of
30 N/mm2 and steel with yield strength of 415 N/mm2 are considered. Fig. 3 shows the variation of elastic moment with tension
reinforcement for a constant compression reinforcement consisting 422. It is seen from the figure that the limit elastic
moment increases linearly for the case of strain in tensile steel
reaches yield limit while strain in concrete is within elastic limit
(see the curve governed by Eqs. (29 & 35)). For other cases
namely: i) strain in compression steel reaches elastic limit (see
the curve governed by Eq. (42); as well as ii) crushing failure
where strain in extreme fibre in concrete reaches elastic limit
(see the curve governed by Eq. 48), the influence of percentage
of tension reinforcement on the limit elastic moment is marginal;
though there is a sharp rise for lower percentage of reinforcements, this increase becomes marginal for higher percentage
values. The point of intersection of moment profiles governed by
Eqs. (29) and (35) with that of Eq. (42) give the limit value of percentage of tensile reinforcement (pt,elastic); percentage of tensile
steel reinforcement, lesser than this value results in yielding of
tensile steel while greater values result in yielding of compression steel. The point of intersection of moment profiles governed
by Eqs. (29) and (35) with that of Eq. (48) is not of significant importance as the latter results in crushing failure of concrete. It is
evident that percentage of tensile reinforcement influences limit
elastic moment considerably in case of ductile failure only. It
may be noted that Fig. 3 plots the moment variation based on the
same governing equations used subsequently for estimating moment-curvature relationship. It can be seen from the figure that
limit elastic moment is given by the minimum of the four values
given by the Eqs. (29), (35), (42) and (48), respectively. The trace
of the point along the hatched line gives the minimum limit elastic
moment, thus obtained. Fig. 4 shows the moment-curvature plots
for the RC section reinforced with 422 on tension face, but
varying the compression steel. It can be seen from the figure that
for a fixed percentage of tensile reinforcement, influence of varia-

Percentage of tension reinforcements are determined by imposing the conditions: i) pt(3) is determined by imposing the st
= su, c,max = c0 and solving Eq. (82) with respect to pt ; and ii)
pt(4) is determined by imposing the st = su, sc = s0 and solving
(90) respect to pt.
For the condition:
D = ( d ( 2 c0 s0 + su ) ) c0 s0

(97)

ultimate moment is given by:


(a)

Mu
Mu = (a)
Mu

if pt < pt
*
t

if P < Pt

(1)

( 2)

(3)

( 4)

pt = pt = pt = pt = pt

(98)

3. Numerical Studies and Discussions


An example RC section of 300 500 is considered for the
study. The section is reinforced on both tension and compression
Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

Fig. 3. Variation of Elastic Moment with Percentage of Tensile


Steel Reinforcement Relationship

139

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Luciano Nunziante, Giorgio Serino, and Federico Carannante

Fig. 4. Variation of Moment-curvature with Percentage of Compression Reinforcement

tion of compression reinforcement on moment-curvature is only


marginal. Also, there exist at least one critical value of percentage of both tensile and compression reinforcement, which reduces
the curvature ductility to the minimum. The proposed analytical
expressions are capable of tracing this critical value, so that it can
be avoided for a successful design of the section.
The effect of axial force on moment-curvature is also studied
by subjecting the RC section reinforced with 422, both on
compression and tension sides. The section is subjected to compressive axial force only as the tensile force limits the curvature
and cannot be helpful in predicting the desired behaviour. Fig. 5
shows the moment-curvature for different axial forces considered. For all the four cases shown in the figure, there is a marginal increase in ultimate moment with respect to their corresponding limit elastic moment. It is seen that the variation in the
magnitude of axial force does not influence the ductility ratio in
comparison to their influence on limit elastic and ultimate moments, as well, for the numerical cases examined. However, higher
axial forces tend to reduce the curvature ductility. The critical
value of axial force, beyond which, a reduction is caused in curvature ductility, can also be obtained from the proposed analytical hypothesis. The moment-curvatures seen in the figure, shows
linear response in elastic range and hardening-like response in
elasto-plastic range.
Influence of percentage of reinforcing steel on ductility ratio,

Fig. 5. Moment-curvature Relationship for Different Axial Forces

for varying the axial forces, is also studied. Two cases are considered namely: i) by varying steel percentage in tension, with
422 on compression side; as well as ii) by varying the percentage of compression reinforcement, with 422 on tension side.
Figs. 6 and 7 show the influence of tensile and compression reinforcements on curvature ductility, respectively. It is seen from Fig.
6 that plastic softening behaviour is observed in the section under
large curvature amplitudes. This may be attributed to the expected failure pattern (local collapse mechanism) of the structural
members of building frames located in seismic areas. Larger
ductility ratios for reduced tensile reinforcement prompt the design
of members initiating ductile failure, as better ones. However,
tensile reinforcement closer to pt,bal will result in more curvature
ductility as there is a marginal reduction seen due to the kink in
the curve for (lesser) values closer to pt,bal. It can be seen from
Fig. 7 that maximum curvature ductility is obtained for compression reinforcement equals pc,bal , when the section is subjected
to axial compressive force. However, for tensile axial forces,
percentage of compression steel as same as that of tension steel
(pc=pt), gives the maximum curvature ductility. It can be sum-

Fig. 6. Variation of Curvature Ductility with Percentage of Tensile


Steel Reinforcement

Fig. 7. Variation of Curvature Ductility with Percentage of Compression Steel Reinforcement

140

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure

marized that percentage of tension reinforcement influences curvature ductility to a larger extent and therefore demands good
ductile detailing in the members of building frames located in
seismic areas. Recent development in codes (see, for example,
IS:13920, 2003) also insist the same for a safe distribution of
earthquake forces without complete collapse of the building.
Spread sheet program is used to estimate the moment-curvature by iteration, after simplifying the complexities involved in
such estimate. The values are estimated in two ranges, namely i)
elastic; and ii) elasto-plastic, separately. Tables 1 and 2 show the
values of the points traced along the M- curve, obtained
numerically, for two cases namely: i) no axial force; and ii) axial
force of 200 kN, respectively. The shaded rows show the values
at limit elastic and ultimate states, in order, respectively. Steps
involved in the numerical procedure are now discussed. Firstly,
to predict the moment-curvature relationship in elastic range,
steps followed are namely: i) an arbitrary value is assumed for
the limit elastic curvature; ii) fixing axial force to the desired
value, depth of neutral axis is determined. The strains in concrete, compressive and tensile steel are examined for their elastic
limit values. Value of limit elastic curvature is now changed until
strain in one of the above, reach their elastic limit. For example,
as seen in Table 1, for the limit elastic curvature of 0.005780 rad/

m, strain in tensile steel reaches its elastic limit (0.00172), for


zero axial force, causing a tensile failure in this case. Fixing this
value as the limit elastic curvature and by sub-dividing it equally,
moment-curvature values for the first five rows are now obtained
by repeating the above steps. Secondly, for estimating the values
in elasto-plastic range, following steps are adopted: i) an arbitrary value is now assumed for the limit ultimate curvature; ii)
fixing axial force to the desired value, depth of neutral axis is
now determined. The strains in concrete, compressive and tensile
steel are further examined for their ultimate limits. Curvature
value is changed until strain in one of the above, reach their
ultimate limit. For example, as seen in Table 1, for the ultimate
curvature of 0.025276 rad/m, strain in tensile steel reaches its
ultimate limit (0.01), for zero axial force, causing a tensile
failure. Fixing this value as the ultimate curvature and by subdividing thisvalue equally, moment-curvature values in the elastoplastic range are now obtained by repeating the above steps.
Based on the results obtained, moment-curvature relationship of
the RC section, reinforced with 422, both in tension and compression sides, is now plotted for different axial loads (only
compressive). The curves are compared with those obtained by
using the proposed analytical expressions. Fig. 8 shows the
comparison of the curves obtained by employing both numerical

Table 1. Moment-curvature Relationship of RC Section 300500 for No Axial Force (pt = 1.08%, pc = 1.08%, Rck = 30 N/mm2, fy = 415 N/
mm2)
P
(kN)

(rad/m)

xc
(m)

c,max

sc

st

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

st

q
(m)

M
(kN-m)

0.00

0.000010

0.165

0.00000

0.000001

0.00000

22

284

640

0.00

0.41

0.00

0.001166

0.167

0.00019

0.000159

0.00035

2444

33437

74301

0.00

48.07

0.00

0.002322

0.168

0.00039

0.000320

0.00070

4657

67283

147269

0.00

95.20

0.00

0.003478

0.169

0.00059

0.000485

0.00105

6648

101874

219493

0.00

141.76

0.00

0.004634

0.171

0.00079

0.000654

0.00139

8408

137269

290913

0.00

187.72

0.00

0.005780

0.173

0.00100

0.000825

0.00172

9909

173216

360856

0.00

232.62

0.00

0.007080

0.153

0.00108

0.000872

0.00224

10457

183156

360870

0.00

234.86

0.00

0.008379

0.139

0.00116

0.000911

0.00278

10906

191230

360870

0.00

236.41

0.00

0.009679

0.127

0.00123

0.000943

0.00332

11283

197947

360870

0.00

237.55

0.00

0.010979

0.118

0.00130

0.000970

0.00386

11603

203635

360870

0.00

238.40

0.00

0.012279

0.111

0.00136

0.000993

0.00441

11879

208523

360870

0.00

239.07

0.00

0.013578

0.105

0.00142

0.001013

0.00496

12118

212773

360870

0.00

239.61

0.00

0.014878

0.099

0.00148

0.001031

0.00552

12325

216505

360870

0.00

240.04

0.00

0.016178

0.095

0.00153

0.001047

0.00607

12504

219811

360870

0.00

240.40

0.00

0.017478

0.091

0.00159

0.001061

0.00663

12659

222762

360870

0.00

240.69

0.00

0.018777

0.087

0.00164

0.001073

0.00719

12792

225415

360870

0.00

240.95

0.00

0.020077

0.084

0.00169

0.001085

0.00775

12904

227814

360870

0.00

241.16

0.00

0.021377

0.081

0.00174

0.001095

0.00831

12999

229997

360870

0.00

241.34

0.00

0.022677

0.079

0.00179

0.001105

0.00887

13075

231994

360870

0.00

241.50

0.00

0.023976

0.076

0.00183

0.001113

0.00944

13136

233829

360870

0.00

241.64

0.00

0.025276

0.074

0.00188

0.001122

0.01000

13180

235525

360870

0.00

241.77

Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

141

c,max

sc

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Luciano Nunziante, Giorgio Serino, and Federico Carannante

Table 2. Moment-curvature Relationship of RC Section 300500 for 200 kN Axial Force (pt = 1.08%, pc = 1.08%, Rck = 30 N/mm2, fy = 415
N/mm2)
P
(kN)

(rad/m)

xc
(m)

c,max

sc

st

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

st

q
(m)

M
(kN-m)

200.00

0.000010

7.990

0.00008

0.000080

-0.00008

1036

16715

-15791

0.00

0.71

200.00

0.001286

0.274

0.00035

0.000314

0.00025

4250

65892

52935

0.00

68.08

200.00

0.002562

0.227

0.00058

0.000505

0.00062

6582

106147

130582

0.00

119.98

200.00

0.003838

0.211

0.00081

0.000696

0.00099

8557

146245

208386

0.00

170.62

200.00

0.005114

0.204

0.00104

0.000891

0.00136

10208

187085

285449

0.00

220.32

200.00

0.006380

0.201

0.00128

0.001089

0.00172

11515

228645

360867

0.00

268.70

200.00

0.007708

0.180

0.00139

0.001154

0.00224

11979

242397

360870

0.00

272.23

200.00

0.009036

0.164

0.00148

0.001209

0.00277

12335

253949

360870

0.00

274.77

200.00

0.010364

0.151

0.00157

0.001256

0.00330

12609

263846

360870

0.00

276.67

200.00

0.011692

0.141

0.00165

0.001297

0.00385

12819

272456

360870

0.00

278.14

200.00

0.013020

0.132

0.00172

0.001334

0.00440

12976

280040

360870

0.00

279.31

200.00

0.014348

0.125

0.00180

0.001366

0.00495

13091

286791

360870

0.00

280.25

200.00

0.015676

0.119

0.00186

0.001395

0.00550

13168

292853

360870

0.00

281.03

200.00

0.017004

0.114

0.00193

0.001421

0.00606

13212

298340

360870

0.00

281.67

200.00

0.018332

0.109

0.00199

0.001444

0.00662

13228

303340

360870

0.00

282.21

200.00

0.019660

0.105

0.00206

0.001466

0.00718

13228

307925

360870

0.00

282.67

200.00

0.020988

0.101

0.00212

0.001486

0.00775

13228

312145

360870

0.01

283.07

200.00

0.022316

0.097

0.00217

0.001505

0.00831

13228

316042

360870

0.01

283.41

200.00

0.023644

0.094

0.00223

0.001522

0.00888

13228

319653

360870

0.01

283.71

200.00

0.024972

0.092

0.00229

0.001538

0.00945

13228

323007

360870

0.01

283.97

200.00

0.026300

0.089

0.00234

0.001553

0.01002

13228

326131

360870

0.01

284.21

and analytical procedures. By comparing, it can be seen that


there is practically no difference between the curves in the elastic
range, whereas there exist a marginal difference in the plastic
range. However, both the procedures estimate the same ultimate
curvature and the ultimate moments as well. Also the curvature
ductility ratio obtained by both the procedures, remains same.
With regards to their close agreement, the proposed closed form
expressions for moment-curvature relationship, accounting for
nonlinear characteristics of constitutive materials according to
Euro code, are thus qualified for using them in seismic design
and structural assessments as well.
It can be inferred from the above discussions that detailed trace
of moment-curvature relationship is inevitable for successful
seismic design of structures. The relationship is however very
complex due to many factors namely: i) constitutive materials
nonlinear response; ii) magnitude of axial load and their nature;
as well as iii) cross sectional properties and percentage of reinforcement (tensile steel, in particular). The numerical studies
conducted lead to useful design guidelines of multi-storey RC
buildings. The upper floor elements (beams, in particular) shall
be designed to have ductile failure, which in turn shall permit
large curvature ductility. This, in fact, helps the formation of
plastic hinges at upper floors (on beams, in particular with a

c,max

sc

Fig. 8. Comparison of Moment-curvature by Analytical and Numerical Procedures

strong column-weak beam design concept) first and enabling


effective redistribution of moments, resulting in formation of
plastic hinges at lower floors, subsequently. On the contrary, a
column member, usually subjected to larger axial force, shall be
designed without much increase in compression reinforcement,

142

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode: Analytical Procedure

as this does not help to improve its curvature ductility.

4. Conclusions
In this paper, a new analytical procedure for estimating curvature ductility of RC sections is proposed. The purpose is to estimate moment-curvature relationship under service loads, in a
simpler closed form manner. Analytical expressions for momentcurvature relationship of RC sections, accounting for nonlinear
characteristics of constitutive materials according to Eurocode,
are proposed in elastic and elasto-plastic ranges as well. Percentage of tension reinforcement influences curvature ductility to a
larger extent. There exist at least one critical value of percentage
of both tensile and compression reinforcements, which reduces
the curvature ductility to the minimum. The proposed analytical
expressions are capable of tracing this critical value, so that it can
be avoided for a successful design of the section. Tensile reinforcement, closer to pt,bal, will result in more curvature ductility
as there is a marginal reduction seen due to the kink in the curve
for (lesser) values closer to pt,bal. Maximum curvature ductility is
obtained for compression reinforcement equals pc,bal, when the
section is subjected to axial compressive forces; for tensile axial
forces, percentage of compression steel as same as that of tension
steel (pc=pt), gives the maximum curvature ductility.
The spread sheet program used to estimate moment-curvature
relationship simplifies the complexities involved in such estimate,
thus encouraging the designers and researchers to use it instantly
and with confidence. With regards to their close agreement with
the analytical procedure, the proposed expressions for momentcurvature estimate are thus qualified for using them in design and
structural assessments as well. Avoiding somewhat tedious hand
calculations and approximations required in conventional iterative
design procedures, the proposed method avoids errors and potentially unsafe design. It is felt that enough experimental evidence
is not available to be more conclusive on the topic, but the proposed closed form solutions of the unknown curvature ductility
ratios is confident of giving reliable and safe estimate of the said
parameter. With due consideration to the increasing necessity of
structural assessment of existing buildings under seismic loads,
the proposed expressions of moment-curvature relationship shall
become an integral input while employing nonlinear static procedures.

Notations
Asc : Area of compression reinforcement (mm2)
Ast : Area of tension reinforcement (mm2)
b : Width of the beam (mm)
D : Overall depth of the beam (mm)
d : Effective cover (mm)
Es : Modulus of elasticity in steel (N/mm2)
M : Bending moment (N-m)
Me : Elastic bending moment (N-m)
ME : Limit elastic bending moment (N-m)
Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

Mu : Ultimate bending moment (N-m)


P : Axial load (N)
pc : Percentage of compression reinforcement
Pe : Elastic axial load (N)
PE : Limit elastic axial load (N)
pt : Percentage of tensile reinforcement
Pu : Ultimate axial load (N)
q : Depth of plastic kernel of concrete (mm)
Rck : Compressive cube strength of concrete (30 N/mm2)
xc : Depth of neutral axis measure from extreme compression
fibre (mm)
c : Strain in generic fibre of concrete
c,max : Maximum strain in concrete
c0 : Elastic limit strain in concrete
cu : Ultimate limit strain in concrete
s0 : Elastic limit strain in reinforcement
sc : Strain in compression reinforcement
st : Strain in tensile reinforcement
su : Ultimate limit strain in reinforcement
: Curvature (rad/m)
0 : Curvature for xc = 0 (rad/m)
e : Elastic curvature (rad/m)
E : Limit elastic curvature (rad/m)
u : Ultimate curvature (rad/m)
c : Partial safety factor for concrete
s : Partial safety factor for steel
: Curvature ductility ratio = u/E
c : Stress in generic fibre of concrete (N/mm2)
c,max : Maximum stress in concrete (N/mm2)
c0 : Design ultimate stress in concrete in compression (N/
mm2)
s0 : Design ultimate stress in steel (N/mm2)
sc : Stress in compression reinforcement (N/mm2)
st : Stress in tensile reinforcement (N/mm2)
y : Yield strength of steel (415 N/mm2)

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