Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode

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Curvature Ductility of RC Sections Based on Eurocode

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DOI 10.1007/s12205-011-0729-4

Structural Engineering

www.springer.com/12205

Srinivasan Chandrasekaran*, Luciano Nunziante**, Giorgio Serino***, and Federico Carannante****

Received October 12, 2008/Accepted March 16, 2010

Abstract

Correct estimate of curvature ductility of reinforced concrete members has always been an attractive subject of study as it

engenders a reliable estimate of capacity of buildings under seismic loads. The majority of the building stock needs structural

assessment to certify their safety under revised seismic loads by new codes. Structural assessment of existing buildings, by

employing nonlinear analyses tools like pushover, needs an accurate input of moment-curvature relationship for reliable results. In

the present study, nonlinear characteristics of constitutive materials are mathematically modelled according to Eurocode, currently in

prevalence and analytical predictions of curvature ductility of reinforced concrete sections are presented. Relationships, in explicit

form, to estimate the moment-curvature response are proposed, leading to closed form solutions after their verification with those

obtained from numerical procedures. The purpose is to estimate curvature ductility under service loads in a simpler closed form

manner. The influence of longitudinal tensile and compression steel reinforcement ratios on curvature ductility is also examined and

discussed. The spread sheet program used to estimate the moment-curvature relationship, after simplifying the complexities involved

in such estimate, predicts in good agreement with the proposed analytical expressions. Avoiding somewhat tedious hand calculations

and approximations required in conventional iterative design procedures, the proposed estimate of curvature ductility avoids errors

and potentially unsafe design.

Keywords: analytical solutions, concrete, curvature ductility, elasto plastic, reinforced concrete, seismic, structures, yield

1. Introduction

The focus of earthquake resistant design of Reinforced Concrete

(RC) framed structures is on the displacement ductility of the

buildings rather than on the materials like reinforcing steel.

Critical points of interest are the strain levels in concrete and

steel, indicating whether the failure is tensile or compressive at

the instant of reaching plastic hinge formation (Pisanty and

Regan, 1998). Studies show that the estimate of ductility demand

is of particular interest to structural designers to ensure effective

redistribution of moments in ultra-elastic response, allowing for

the development of energy dissipative zones until collapse (see,

for example, Pisanty and Regan, 1993). In areas subjected to

earthquakes, a very important design consideration is the ductility

of the structure because modern seismic design philosophy is

based on energy absorption and dissipation by post-elastic deformation for survival in major earthquakes (Paulay and Priestley,

1992). Many old buildings show their structure unfit to support

seismic loads demanded by the structural assessment requests of

the revised international codes (see, for example, Chandrasekaran

and Roy, 2006; Chao Hsun Huang et al., 2006). Further, Sinan

and Metin (2007) showed that the deformation demand predictions by improved Demand Capacity Method are sensitive to

ductility as higher ductility results in conservative predictions.

Estimate of moment-curvature relationship of RC sections has

been a point of research interest since many years (Pfrang et al.,

1964; Carrreira and Chu, 1986; Mo, 1992); historically, momentcurvature relationships with softening branch were first introduced by Wood (1968). Load-deformation characteristics of RC

structural members, bending in particular, are mainly dependent

on moment-curvature characteristics of the sections as most of

these deformations arise from strains associated with flexure

(Park and Paulay, 1975). As seen from the literature, in welldesigned and detailed RC structures, the gap between the actual

and design lateral forces narrows down by ensuring ductility in

the structure (see, for example, Luciano and Raffaele, 1988;

Pankaj and Manish, 2006). With regard to RC building frames

with side-sway, their response assessment is complicated not

because of the influence of second order deformations, but also

due to the fact that considerable re-distribution of moments may

occur due to plastic behaviour of sections. Plastic curvature is

therefore a complex issue mainly because of interaction of various

*Associate Professor, Dept. of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India (Corresponding Aughor, E-mail:

drsekaran@iitm.ac.in)

**Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 21 via Claudio, 80125, Naples, Italy (E-mail: nunsci@unina.it)

***Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 21 via Claudio, 80125, Naples, Italy (E-mail: serino@unina.it)

****Visiting Researcher, Dept. of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 21 via Claudio, 80125, Naples, Italy (E-mail: fedcarran@libero.it)

131

parameters namely: i) constitutive materials response; ii) member geometry; as well as iii) loading conditions. Observations

made by Challamel and Hjiaj (2005) on plastic softening beams

show that the correct estimate of yield moment, a non-local

material parameter, is important to ensure proper continuity

between elastic and plastic regions during the loading process.

Experimental evidences on moment-curvature relationship of

RC sections already faced limited loading cases and support

conditions (see, for example, Ko et al., 2001). While Mo (1992)

suggested classical approach to reproduce moment-curvature

relationship with the softening branch carried out elastic-plastic

buckling analysis using finite element method, an alternative

approach proposed by Jirasek and Bazant (2002) uses a simplified model where this complex nonlinear geometric effect is

embedded in the nonlinear material behaviour of the cross

section. Experimental investigations also impose limitations in

estimating the plastic rotation capacity. For instance, studies

show that experimental results obtained from rotation-deflection

behaviour show good agreement with the analysis in elastic

regime; but for phase of yielding of reinforcing steel, theoretical

results do not agree with the experimental inferences (see, for

example, Lopes and Bernardo, 2003).

Studies reviewed above show that there exists no simplified

procedure to estimate curvature ductility of RC sections. While response of RC building frames under ground shaking generally

results in nonlinear behaviour, increased implementation of displacement-based design approach lead to the use of nonlinear static

procedures for estimating their seismic demands (ATC, 2005;

BSSC, 2003). An estimate of moment-curvature relationship becomes essential for performing non-linear analyses. Therefore, in

this study, an estimate of curvature ductility of RC sections, using

detailed analytical procedure is attempted. Calculations of momentcurvature relationship are based on their nonlinear characteristics

in full depth of the cross section, for different ratios of longitudinal

tensile and compression reinforcements. They account for the variation on depth of neutral axis passing through different domains,

classified on the basis of strain levels reached in the constitutive

materials, namely concrete and steel. Obtained results, by employing the numerical procedure on example RC sections, are verified

with expressions derived from detailed analytical modelling.

2. Mathematical Development

Significant nonlinearity exhibited by concrete, under multiaxial stress state, can be successively represented by nonlinear

characteristics of constitutive models capable of interpreting

inelastic deformations (see, for example, Chen 1994a, 1994b).

Studies conducted by researchers (Sankarasubramanian and

Rajasekaran, 1996; Fan and Wang, 2002; Nunziante et al., 2007)

describe different failure criteria in stress space by a number of

independent control parameters while the non-linear elastic

response of concrete is characterized by parabolic stress-strain

relationship in the current study, as shown in Fig. 1. Elastic limit

strain and strain at cracking are limited to 0.2% and 0.35%

respectively, as prescribed by the code, currently in prevalence

(DM 9, 1996; UNI ENV, 1991a, 1991b; Ordinanza, 2003, 2005;

Norme tecniche, 2005). Tensile stresses in concrete are ignored

in the study. Design ultimate stress in concrete in compression is

given by:

( 0.83 ) ( 0.85 )R

cK

c0 = ------------------------------------c

(1)

where, c and Rck are the partial safety factor and compressive cube

strength of concrete, respectively. The stress-strain relationship for

concrete under compressive stresses is given by:

0 c c0

c ( c ) = a 2c + b c + c

c ( c ) = c0

c ( c ) = 0

c0 c cu

c 0

(2)

imposing the following conditions:

c ( c = 0 ) = 0

c ( c = c0 ) = c0

d c

-------d c

c = c0

c=0

a 2c0 + b c0 = c0

(3)

2a c0 + b = 0

=0

By solving, we get:

2 c0

c0

-, b = ---------, c = 0

a = -----2

c0

c0

(4a)

132

c0 2 2 c0

- c + ---------- c

c = -----c0

2c0

(4b)

Stress-strain relationship for steel, an isotropic and homogeneous material, is shown in Fig. 1. While the ultimate limit strain in

tension and that of compression are taken as 1% and 0.35%

respectively, elastic strain in steel in tension and compression are

considered the same in absolute values (see, for example, DM9,

1996). The design ultimate stress in steel is given by:

s0 = -----y

s

(5)

reinforcing steel, respectively. Stress-strain relationship for steel

is given by:

s ( s ) = Es s 0 s s0

s ( s ) = s0 s0 s su, tensile

( su, tensile = su )

s ( s ) = s0 su, compressive s s0

(6)

the cross section, both for elastic and for elastic-plastic responses

of the beam under bending moment combined with axial force,

will be assumed. The interaction behaviour becomes critical when

one the following conditions apply namely: i) strain in reinforcing steel in tension reaches ultimate limit; ii) strain in concrete in

extreme compression fibre reaches ultimate limit; as well as iii)

maximum strain in concrete in compression reaches elastic limit

under only axial compression. In the following section, only rectangular RC sections under axial force, P and bending moment,

M will be considered.

2.1 Moment-curvature in Elastic Range

It is well known that the bending curvature is the derivative of

bending rotation, varying along the member length and at any

cross section, it is given by the slope of the strain profile. It depends

on the fluctuations of the neutral axis depth and continuously

varying strains. The moment-curvature relationship, in elastic

range, depends on both the magnitude and nature of the axial force

as well. Fig. 2 shows the variation of curvature with respect to

strain variation in constitutive materials. Magnitude of axial force

is assumed to vary in the range:

(Asc + Ast) s0 < P < {bDc0 + (Asc + Ast) s0}

(7a)

Nature of axial force shall vary as: i) tensile axial force (considered as negative in this study); ii) zero axial force; as well as

iii) compressive axial force (considered positive). Stress and

strain in concrete and steel, in elastic range are given by:

c = e ( xc y ) ; sc = e ( xc d ); st = e ( D xc d ) ;

st = Es e ( D xe d )

Tensile axial force results in reduced curvature for which axial

force and bending moment, in explicit form, are given by:

Pe = st Ast + scAsc = b ( d D )

[ d ( pc pt ) + Dpt ( pc + pt )xc ]Es

(8)

D

1

Me = ( st Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d = --- b ( D 2d ) ( D d )

2 2

[ ( pc pt )xc + Dpt d ( pc + pt ) ]Es

(9)

by:

Ast = pt b ( D d ) ; Asc = pc b ( D d )

(10)

relationship:

Pe + b ( d D ) [ d ( pc pt ) + Dpt ]Es

xc = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------b ( d D )( pc + pt )Es

(11)

By substituting the Eq. (11) in Eq. (9), moment-curvature relationship is given by:

D 2d

2

2

Me = --------------------- [Pe ( pc pt ) + 2b(D + d 3dD)Es pc pt ]

2 ( pc + pt )

[ 0 ,0 ]

(12)

where, 0 is the limit curvature for xc = 0; by imposing this condition in Eq. (11), we get:

P

b ( d D )Es [ Dpt + d ( pc pt ) ]

e

0 = ----------------------------------------------------------------

(13)

Eq. (8) and solving with respect to pt, for a specified range of:

( xc y ) [ 2 c0 ( xc y ) c0 e ]

- ; sc = Es e ( xc d );

c = --------------------------------------------------------------2c0

Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

(7b)

pt < ( Pe + bdEs pc s0 ) ( b ( d D ) s0 )

(14)

Eq. (12) is defined in the total range [0, E], where E is the

133

For further increase in curvature more than 0, concrete also

contributes to the compression resultant and the expressions for

axial force and bending moment take the form, as given below:

xc

0

2

(15)

xc

D

D

Me = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( st Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d ,

2

2

0

Me = B0 ( e ) + B1 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe ) + B2 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe )

3

r

+ B3 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe ) + B4 ( e )xc3 ( e, Pe ) [ 0, E ]

2

The moment-curvature relationship is given by Eq. (20) for the

complete of [0, E].

2.1.3 Compressive Axial Force

Expressions for axial force and bending moment are given by:

D

2

(20)

(21)

a function of curvature are given by:

D

D

D

Me = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( st Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d

2

2

0

A0 ( e ) = b ( d D ) [ Dpt + d ( pc pt ) ]Es e ;

A1 ( e ) = b ( D d ) ( pc + pt )Es e ;

b c0 e

b c0 e

- ; A3 ( e ) = --------------;

A2 ( e ) = -------------2

c0

3 c0

1

2

2

B0 ( e ) = --- b ( 2d 3dD + D ) [ Dpt d ( pc + pt ) ]Es e ;

2

bD c0 e

1

2

2

-;

B1 ( e ) = --- b ( 2d 3dD + D ) ( pc pt )Es e ; B2 ( e ) = ------------------2

2 c0

2

b c0 e ( 2 c0 + D e )

b c0 e

- ; B4 ( e ) = --------------B3 ( e ) = ------------------------------------------2

2

12 c0

6 c0

(22)

= F0 + F1 xe

(17)

where, the coefficients Ei= 0,1,2 and Fi=0,1 are given by:

D c0 ( 3 c0 + D )

1

2

E0 = --- b 3d ( d D )Es pc 3 ( d D ) Es pt ---------------------------------------,

3

2c0

2

b [ dEs ( pc + pt ) c0 + D ( Es ( pc + pt ) c0 + c0 ( 2 c0 + D ) ) ]

-,

E1 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

2

c0

bD c0

-,

E2 = ------------------2

2

c0

the variable are obtained as:

b

2

F0 = ------ [6d ( D 2d ) ( D d )Es pc + 6 ( d D ) ( 2d D )Es pt

12

3

D c0 ( 2 c0 + D )

---------------------------------------,

2

1

xc1 ( Pe, e ) = ------------------ [ ( 2A2 ( e ) )

6A3 ( e )

2.5198 ( A2 ( e ) 3A1 ( e )A3 ( e ) )

+ --------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 1.5874C1 ( e, Pe )

C 1 ( e, P e )

1

xc2 ( Pe, e ) = --------------------12A3 ( e )

c0

(18)

b [ 3 ( D + 2d 3dD ) ( pc pt )Es c0 D c0 ]

F1 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

6 c0

2

4A2 ( e ) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C 1 ( e, P e )

( 1.5874 2.7495i )C1 ( e, Pe )

E1 + E1 4E2 ( E0 Pe )

xc = --------------------------------------------------------2E0

1

xc3 ( Pe, e ) = --------------------12A3 ( e )

(24)

Me = F0 ( , Pe ) + F1 ( , Pe )xc

4A2 ( e ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C 1 ( e, P e )

( 1.5874 + 2.7495i )C1 ( e, Pe )

2

[ 0 , 0 ]

(25)

where,

2

3b c0 ( D d )Es ( Dpc + d ( pt pc ) ) + D c0

0 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

2bD c0

where,

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

2bD c0

2

2

2

3

2

2

3

3

(23)

as:

2

2

C 1 ( e, P e ) =

13

(26)

(19)

Out of the above, only one root, namely xc3, closely matches

with the numerical solution obtained and hence by substituting

the root xc3 in Eq. (18), moment-curvature relationship in elastic

range is obtained as:

0 is determined as given above. Further increase in the curvature

changes the equilibrium conditions due to the contributions to

resultant compressive force by concrete. For curvature more than

0, moment-curvature relationship is given by Eq. (20).

134

The limit elastic curvature, depending on the magnitude of

axial force and percentage of reinforcing steel in tension and

compression, results in four possible cases namely: i) strain in

tension steel reaches yield limit and stress in concrete vanishes;

ii) strain in tension steel reaches yield limit but stress in concrete

is present; iii) strain in compression steel reaches elastic limit; as

well as iiv) strain in extreme compression fibre in concrete

reaches elastic limit value.

where,

and Stress in Concrete Vanishes

This case is verified when pt < ( Pe + bdEs pc s0 ) (b ( d D )

s0 ) . By imposing st = s0 and recalling the Eq. (8), depth of

neutral axis can be obtained as given below:

Eq. (35) are given by:

(i )

s0

xc = D d -----

x c < 0

(27)

can be determined as:

PE + b ( D d ) ( pc + pt ) s0

E = -------------------------------------------------------2

2

bEs pc ( D + 2d 3dD )

(28)

obtained as:

D 2d

(i)

ME = --------------- [ PE + 2b ( D d )pt s0 ]

2

( ii )

xc [ 0, D d ]

(30)

( ii )

2 13

(34)

( ii )

(35)

s0 ( 4 c0 + s0 ) c0 (ii) ( D 2d ) s0 ( 3 c0 + s0 ) c0

( ii )

-, M2 = -----------------------------------------------------------,

M1 = -------------------------------------6

3

3

( ii )

M3 = ( D d ) s0 [ ( D 2 d )Es ( pt pc ) c0 d ( 2 c0 + s0 ) c0 ],

2

( D d ) [ 3 ( D 2d ) Es pc c0 + ( D d ) ( 2d + D ) ( 2 c0 + s0 ) c0 ] ,

( ii )

M4 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

2

( d D ) ( D + d ) c0

( ii )

M5 = -----------------------------------------6

3

(36)

2.2.3 Case (iii): Strain in Compression Steel Reaches Elastic Limit Value

Depth of neutral axis is given by:

( iii)

xc

s0

= d + -----

(37)

curvature is obtained as:

H0 + H1 E + H2 E + H3 E = 0

2

(38)

b s0 ( 3 c0 + s0 ) c0

-,

H0 = ----------------------------------------2

3 c0

2

PE c0 + b s0 [ ( D d )Es ( pc + pt ) c0 + d c0 ( 2 c0 s0 ) ]

H1 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,

2

2

(31)

c0

d c0 ( c0 s0 )

2

2

- ,

H2 = b ( 3dD D 2d )Es pt + --------------------------------2

2

b ( 3 c0 + s0 ) c0

-,

L0 = ----------------------------------------2

3c0

2

s0

c0

bd c0

H3 = -------------2

3 c0

3

PE c0 + b ( D d ) s0 [ ( 2 c0 + s0 ) c0 + Es ( pc + pt ) c0 ]

L1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

2

c0

( 2.5198 + 4.3645i ) ( H 3H H )

b ( d D ) c0

L3 = ---------------------------2

3 c0

2

1 3

(Eiii) = ------------ [4H2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------

12H3

(32)

only one real root (third root) gives the limit elastic curvature:

( 1.5874 2.7495i ) ]

(40)

where,

1

= ----------- [4L2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------

12L3

( 1.5874 + 2.7495i ) ]

(39)

By solving Eq. (38), only one real root (the second one) gives

the limit elastic curvature as:

b ( D d ) [ ( 2d D )E p + ( d D ) ( c0 + s0 ) c0 ]

L2 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

s c c0

2

c0

b M1 M2

( ii)

( ii)

( ii) ( ii )

( ii ) ( ii)2

- + --------ME = --------2- --------+ M3 + M4 E + M5 E

( ii )2

( ii )

2 c0 E

E

(Eii)

By substituting Eq. (33) in Eq. (16), limit elastic bending moment is obtained as:

curvature can be obtained as:

L 0 + L1 E + L2 E + L3 E = 0

(29)

and Stress in Concrete Not Equal Zero

Depth of neutral axis is given by:

s0

xc = D d -----

2

2 13

(33)

135

(41)

By substituting Eq. (40) in Eq. (16), limit elastic bending moment can be obtained as follows:

( iii )

( iii)

M2

b M1

( iii )

- + ---------- + M(3iii ) + M(4iii) (Eiii ) + M(5iii) (Eiii)2

ME = --------2- ---------( iii )2

(Eiii)

2 c0 E

(42)

the integral in Eq. (15) will be from (0, D), which shall also result

in compression failure and hence not discussed. Expressions for

limit elastic moments are summarised as below:

( ii )

ME

ME = ( iii)

ME

where,

( iii )

M1

s0 ( s0 4 c0 ) c0 (iii) ( D 2d ) ( 3 c0 s0 ) s0 c0

= -------------------------------------, M2 = ----------------------------------------------------------,

6

3

3

( iii )

M4

M

( iii )

5

pt < pt, el

if

pt < pt, el

(50)

where pt,el , for tow cases namely: i) axial force neglected; and ii)

axial force considered are given by the following equations:

M3 = ( d D )s0 [ ( D 2d )Es ( pt pc ) c0 d ( 2 c0 s0 ) c0 ],

iii

if

D [ D ( 3 c0 s0 ) 6d c0 ] c0

pt, el = pe + ---------------------------------------------------------------2

2

6 ( D d ) ( D 2d ) Es c0

2

d ( 3D 2d ) ( c0 s0 ) c0

2

2

-,

= ( D d ) ( D 2d ) Es pt c0 + -------------------------------------------------------3

2

d ( d 2D )

= -------------------------------c06

(43)

(44)

curvature is obtained as:

R0 + R1 E + R2 E = 0

2

(45)

Percentage of reinforcement in tension and compression for

balanced failure are obtained by considering both the conditions

namely: i) maximum compressive strain in concrete reaches

ultimate limit strain; and ii) strain in tensile reinforcement

reaches ultimate limit. Balanced reinforcement for two cases is

considered namely: i) for beams where axial force vanishes; and

ii) for beam/columns where P-M interaction is predominantly

present. For sections with vanishing axial force, depth of neutral

axis is given by:

cu

- (D d)

xc = --------------- cu + su

2b c0 c0

-, R1 = Pe + b ( D d )Es c0 ( pc + pt ),

R0 = ------------------3

R2 = b ( D d )Es [ Dpt d ( pt pe ) ]

(46)

By solving Eq. (45), the only real root (in this case, first root)

gives the limit elastic curvature as:

2

1

R + R 4R R

2R 2

1

0 2

(Eiv) = --------------------------------------

( iv )

2

( iv )

E

M

M

( iv )

( iv )

( iv ) ( iv )

ME = ---------- + ---------- + M3 + M4 E

percentage of reinforcement is given by:

xc

(47)

(54)

(48)

b ( d D ) [ c0 c0 3 cu c0 3 ( pc pt ) ( cu + su ) s0 ] = 0

(49)

exceeding the maximum limit of 4%, as specified in many codes

(see for example Indian code (IS 456, 2000), case (iv) shall never

(55)

as:

( 3 cu c0 ) c0

pt, bal = pc + ------------------------------3 ( cu + su ) s0

where,

bD c0 c0

( iv )

M1 = -------------------3

1 2

( iv )

M2 = --- b c0 c0

4

1

( iv )

2

2

M3 = --- b ( D + 2d 3dD )Es ( pc pt ) c0

2

1

( iv )

2

2

M4 = --- b ( D + 2d 3dD )Es [ Dpt d ( pc + pt ) ]

2

(53)

moment, ME, can be obtained as follows:

( iv )

1

( iv )2

E

(52)

Concrete Reaches Elastic Limit Value

Now, the depth of neutral axis is given by:

( iv)

c0

xc = -----

6 ( D 2d ) c0 [ PE +b ( d D)Es pc s0 ] + bD s0 [ 6d c0 +D ( s0 3 c0 ) ] c0

pt, el = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

2

6b (D d ) ( D 2d ) Es c0 s0

2 2

(51)

(56)

For a known cross section with fixed percentage of compression reinforcement, Eq. (56) gives the percentage of steel for a

balanced section. It may be easily seen that for the assumed

condition of strain in compression steel greater than elastic limit,

Eq. (56) shall yield percentage of tension reinforcement for

balanced sections, whose overall depth exceeds 240 mm, which

is a practical case of cross section dimension of RC beams used

in multi-storey building frames. For sections where axial force is

predominantly present, percentage of balanced reinforcement

depends on the magnitude of axial force. By assuming the same

hypothesis presented above, depth of neutral axis is given by Eq.

(53); but Eq. (55) becomes as given below:

136

b ( d D ) [ c0 c0 3 cu c0 3 ( pe pt ) ( cu + su ) s0 ] = P0

(57)

as:

P0

( 3 cu c0 ) c0

- -------------------------pt, bal = pc + ------------------------------3 ( cu su ) s0 b ( D d ) s0

(58)

known cross section with fixed percentage of compression

reinforcement, Eq. (58) gives the percentage of steel for balanced

section. In the similar manner, percentage of compression reinforcement for a balanced section, by fixing pt, can be obtained by

inverting the relationship given in Eqs. (56) and (58) for respective axial force conditions.

su

xc = D d -----

x c < 0

(59)

Pu = s0 Ast + sc Asc = b ( d D ) [ pt s0 + Es pc ( d x c ) u ]

(60)

(61)

curvature, as reported below:

Pu + b ( D d ) [ s0 pt + Es pc su ]

u = ------------------------------------------------------------------2

2

bEs pc ( D + 2d 3dD )

(62)

(63)

Under this condition at collapse, four different cases of tension

failure of RC sections are possible, namely:

c, max < cu

(64)

(a d)

su

= D d -----

(65)

collapse, for case (a) are given by:

xc

(66)

xc

D

D

Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( s0 Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d

2

2

0

(67)

J0 + J1 u + J2 u + J3 u = 0

2

(68)

b su ( 3 c0 + su ) c0

J0 = ----------------------------------------2

3 c0

2

Pu c0 + b ( d D ) [ ( Es pc c0 + c0( 2 c0 + su ) ) su + pt s0 c0 ]

J1 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

2

c0

( d D ) ( c0 + su ) c0

2

2

J2 = b ( D + 2d 3dD )Es pc + ----------------------------------------------2

2

b ( d D ) c0

J3 = ---------------------------2

3 c0

3

(69)

By solving Eq. (68), the real root (in this case, the third root)

gives the ultimate curvature as:

2

( 2.5198 4.3645i ) ( J 3J J )

2

1 3

- ( 1.5874 + 2.7495i )

(ua) = ---------- 4J2 --------------------------------------------------------------------

12J3

(70)

where,

3

2 13

(71)

by:

is similar to one given by Eq. (29) for elastic range.

xc

can be determined as:

D 2d

Mu = --------------- [ Pu + 2b ( D d )pt s0 ]

2

c, max < c0

c0

D

Mu = ( s0 Ast + sc Asc ) ---- d

2

b ( D 2d )

= ----------------------- ( D d ) [ pt s0 + Es pc ( xc d ) u ]

2

failure), in all the four cases mentioned above, equation for

computing the depth of neutral axis, as function of ultimate

curvature, will remain unchanged and is given by:

Study in this section is limited to RC sections imposed with

tension failure as the compression and balanced failures do not

have any practical significance in the displacement-based design

approach, in particular. Let us consider two possible cases: i)

neutral axis position assumes negative values; and ii) neutral axis

position assumes positive values.

2.4.1 Neutral Axis Position Assuming Negative Values

By imposing the conditions: xc = 0 & = su ( D d ) and solving Eq. (8) respect to pt , for a specified range of tension steel percentage, pt < ( Pu + bdEs su ) ( b ( d D ) s0 ) , depth of neutral axis is

given by:

(a)

( a)

b M1 M2

(a)

- + -------- + M(3a) + M(4a) (ua) + M(5a) (ua)2

Mu = --------2- -------( a )2

2 c0 u

(ua)

(72)

where the super-script (a) stands for the case (a); the constants of

Eq. (72) are given by:

137

su ( 4 c0 + su ) c0 (a) ( 2d D ) su ( 3 c0 + su ) c0

(a)

-, M2 = ----------------------------------------------------------- ,

M1 = -------------------------------------6

3

3

(a)

M3 = ( D d ) [ ( 2d D )Es pc su c0 d su

W0 + W1 u + W2 u + W3 u = 0

( 2 c0 + su ) c0 + ( D 2d )p s0 ] ,

2

t c0

(83)

( D d ) [ 3 ( D 2d ) E p + ( d D ) ( 2d + D ) ( c0 + su ) c0 ]

(a)

-,

M4 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

Pu c0 + b ( d D ) [ ( 2 c0 + su ) c0 su + ( pt pc ) s0 c0 ]

W1 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

( d D ) ( D + d ) c0

(a)

M5 = -----------------------------------------6

b ( d D ) c0 ( c0 + su )

- , W 0 = J 0, W 3 = J 3

W2 = -------------------------------------------------2

2

s c c0

c0

(73)

for case (b) are given by:

xc

(74)

(84)

c0

By solving Eq. (83), the real root (in this case, it is the third

root) gives the ultimate curvature as:

1

12W3

(uc) = -------------

c

qb

D

D

Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( Ast s0 + Asc sc ) ---- d + ------------c0- ( D q )

2

2

2

- ( 1.5874 + 2.7495i )

4W2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

(85)

(75)

where,

Q0 + Q1 u + Q2 u = 0

2

(76)

Q2 = bEs Pc ( D + 2d 3dD )

( c)

(b)

2

(b)

u

M

b M

(b)

(b)

(b) (b )

Mu = --- --------- + --------- + M3 + M4 u

2

(86)

(c)

(87)

( c)

M3 = d ( d D ) su c0 ( 2 c0 + su ) + ( D + 2d 3dD ) ( pc + pt ) s0 c0 ,

2

( d D ) ( 2d + D ) ( c0 + su ) c0

( c)

M4 = -------------------------------------------------------------------3

2

(78)

(b)

1

( b )2

u

2 13

where,

Q + Q 4Q Q

2Q2

b M1 M2

( c)

- -------- + -------- + M(3c) + M(4c) (uc) + M(5c) (uc)2

Mu = -------2

( c )2

2 c0 u

(uc)

(77)

the ultimate curvature is given as:

1

1

0 2

(ub) = --------------------------------------------

b c0 ( c0 + 3 su )

Q0 = ----------------------------------3

Q1 = b ( D d ) ( c0 Es pc su + s0 pt ) pu ,

2

(79)

( c)

(a)

( c)

( a)

(c)

(88)

(a)

M1 = M1 , M2 = M2 , M5 = M5

collapse, for case (d), are given by:

xc

where,

(89)

xc

qb

D

D

Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( A st + Asc ) s0 ---- d + ------------c0- ( D q )

2

2

2

( c0 + 4 c0 su + 6 su ) c0

(b)

,

M1 = ----------------------------------------------------6

( D 2d ) ( c0 + 3 su ) c0

(b)

M2 = ---------------------------------------------------3

2

(90)

By substituting the Eq. (65) in Eq. (89) and solving, the ultimate curvature is obtained as:

(b)

M3 = ( D d ) [ d ( 2Es pc su + c0 2pt s0 ) + D ( pt s0 Es pc su ) ]

(b)

M4 = ( D d ) ( D 2d ) Es pc

(80)

collapse, for case (c) are given by:

xc

(81)

bc0 ( c0 + 3 su )

(ud) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 [ b ( D d ) ( c0 + s0 ( pc pt ) Pu ) ]

is obtained as:

xc

D

D

Mu = b c [ c ( y ) ] ---- y dy + ( Ast + Asc ) s0 ---- d

2

2

0

(91)

(82)

b c0

s0

( d)

- 6 ( D d ) d + ( D 2d ) ( pc + pt ) -----Mu = --------

12

c0

2 ( D 2d ) ( c0 + 3 su ) c0 + 4 c0 su + 6ssu

- ---------------------------------------+ ----------------------------------------------( IV )

( IV )2

2

138

(92)

moment, derived above takes the following form:

(a)

Mu

Mu = M(ub)

(d)

Mu

( 1)

if

pt < pt

if

pt < pt < pt

if

(2)

( 1)

(93)

( 2)

t

p < pt

where,

3 ( c0 + su ) [ Pu + bEs pc ( d ( 2 c0 + su ) D c0 ) ] + 2b ( d D ) c0 c0

( 1)

pt = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,

3b ( d D ) ( c0 + su ) s0

( 2)

pt =

3 ( c0 + su ) [ Pu +b ( d D )Es pc s0 ] + bc0 [ D ( c0 3s0 )+d ( 3 s0 2 c0 3 su ) ]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3b ( d D) ( s0 + su ) s0

(94)

Percentage of tension reinforcements are determined by imposing the conditions: i) pt(1) is determined by imposing st = su,

c,max = c0 and solving Eq. (67) with respect to pt ; as well as ii)

pt(2) is determined by imposing the st = su, sc = s0 and solving

Eq. (75) with respect to pt .

For the other condition, namely D > ( d( 2 c0 s0 + cu ) ) c0 s0 ,

ultimate moment now takes a different form as give below:

(a)

Mu

Mu = M(uc)

(d)

Mu

( 3)

if

pt < pt

if

pt < pt < pt

if

(4)

(3)

(95)

( 4)

t

p < pt

where,

3Pu ( c0 + su ) + 2b ( d D ) c0 c0

(3)

pt = pc + -----------------------------------------------------------------------3b ( d D ) ( c0 + su ) s0

Pu

(4)

Pt = Pc + -------------------------b ( d D ) s0

[ D s0 + d ( su s0 ) ] [ D ( c0 3 s0 ) + d ( 6 c0 s0 + su ) ] c0

+ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

2

3 c0 ( s0 + su ) ( D 2d ) ( d D ) s0

2

(96)

curvature ductility. Concrete with compressive cube strength of

30 N/mm2 and steel with yield strength of 415 N/mm2 are considered. Fig. 3 shows the variation of elastic moment with tension

reinforcement for a constant compression reinforcement consisting 422. It is seen from the figure that the limit elastic

moment increases linearly for the case of strain in tensile steel

reaches yield limit while strain in concrete is within elastic limit

(see the curve governed by Eqs. (29 & 35)). For other cases

namely: i) strain in compression steel reaches elastic limit (see

the curve governed by Eq. (42); as well as ii) crushing failure

where strain in extreme fibre in concrete reaches elastic limit

(see the curve governed by Eq. 48), the influence of percentage

of tension reinforcement on the limit elastic moment is marginal;

though there is a sharp rise for lower percentage of reinforcements, this increase becomes marginal for higher percentage

values. The point of intersection of moment profiles governed by

Eqs. (29) and (35) with that of Eq. (42) give the limit value of percentage of tensile reinforcement (pt,elastic); percentage of tensile

steel reinforcement, lesser than this value results in yielding of

tensile steel while greater values result in yielding of compression steel. The point of intersection of moment profiles governed

by Eqs. (29) and (35) with that of Eq. (48) is not of significant importance as the latter results in crushing failure of concrete. It is

evident that percentage of tensile reinforcement influences limit

elastic moment considerably in case of ductile failure only. It

may be noted that Fig. 3 plots the moment variation based on the

same governing equations used subsequently for estimating moment-curvature relationship. It can be seen from the figure that

limit elastic moment is given by the minimum of the four values

given by the Eqs. (29), (35), (42) and (48), respectively. The trace

of the point along the hatched line gives the minimum limit elastic

moment, thus obtained. Fig. 4 shows the moment-curvature plots

for the RC section reinforced with 422 on tension face, but

varying the compression steel. It can be seen from the figure that

for a fixed percentage of tensile reinforcement, influence of varia-

Percentage of tension reinforcements are determined by imposing the conditions: i) pt(3) is determined by imposing the st

= su, c,max = c0 and solving Eq. (82) with respect to pt ; and ii)

pt(4) is determined by imposing the st = su, sc = s0 and solving

(90) respect to pt.

For the condition:

D = ( d ( 2 c0 s0 + su ) ) c0 s0

(97)

(a)

Mu

Mu = (a)

Mu

if pt < pt

*

t

if P < Pt

(1)

( 2)

(3)

( 4)

pt = pt = pt = pt = pt

(98)

An example RC section of 300 500 is considered for the

study. The section is reinforced on both tension and compression

Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

Steel Reinforcement Relationship

139

marginal. Also, there exist at least one critical value of percentage of both tensile and compression reinforcement, which reduces

the curvature ductility to the minimum. The proposed analytical

expressions are capable of tracing this critical value, so that it can

be avoided for a successful design of the section.

The effect of axial force on moment-curvature is also studied

by subjecting the RC section reinforced with 422, both on

compression and tension sides. The section is subjected to compressive axial force only as the tensile force limits the curvature

and cannot be helpful in predicting the desired behaviour. Fig. 5

shows the moment-curvature for different axial forces considered. For all the four cases shown in the figure, there is a marginal increase in ultimate moment with respect to their corresponding limit elastic moment. It is seen that the variation in the

magnitude of axial force does not influence the ductility ratio in

comparison to their influence on limit elastic and ultimate moments, as well, for the numerical cases examined. However, higher

axial forces tend to reduce the curvature ductility. The critical

value of axial force, beyond which, a reduction is caused in curvature ductility, can also be obtained from the proposed analytical hypothesis. The moment-curvatures seen in the figure, shows

linear response in elastic range and hardening-like response in

elasto-plastic range.

Influence of percentage of reinforcing steel on ductility ratio,

for varying the axial forces, is also studied. Two cases are considered namely: i) by varying steel percentage in tension, with

422 on compression side; as well as ii) by varying the percentage of compression reinforcement, with 422 on tension side.

Figs. 6 and 7 show the influence of tensile and compression reinforcements on curvature ductility, respectively. It is seen from Fig.

6 that plastic softening behaviour is observed in the section under

large curvature amplitudes. This may be attributed to the expected failure pattern (local collapse mechanism) of the structural

members of building frames located in seismic areas. Larger

ductility ratios for reduced tensile reinforcement prompt the design

of members initiating ductile failure, as better ones. However,

tensile reinforcement closer to pt,bal will result in more curvature

ductility as there is a marginal reduction seen due to the kink in

the curve for (lesser) values closer to pt,bal. It can be seen from

Fig. 7 that maximum curvature ductility is obtained for compression reinforcement equals pc,bal , when the section is subjected

to axial compressive force. However, for tensile axial forces,

percentage of compression steel as same as that of tension steel

(pc=pt), gives the maximum curvature ductility. It can be sum-

Steel Reinforcement

140

marized that percentage of tension reinforcement influences curvature ductility to a larger extent and therefore demands good

ductile detailing in the members of building frames located in

seismic areas. Recent development in codes (see, for example,

IS:13920, 2003) also insist the same for a safe distribution of

earthquake forces without complete collapse of the building.

Spread sheet program is used to estimate the moment-curvature by iteration, after simplifying the complexities involved in

such estimate. The values are estimated in two ranges, namely i)

elastic; and ii) elasto-plastic, separately. Tables 1 and 2 show the

values of the points traced along the M- curve, obtained

numerically, for two cases namely: i) no axial force; and ii) axial

force of 200 kN, respectively. The shaded rows show the values

at limit elastic and ultimate states, in order, respectively. Steps

involved in the numerical procedure are now discussed. Firstly,

to predict the moment-curvature relationship in elastic range,

steps followed are namely: i) an arbitrary value is assumed for

the limit elastic curvature; ii) fixing axial force to the desired

value, depth of neutral axis is determined. The strains in concrete, compressive and tensile steel are examined for their elastic

limit values. Value of limit elastic curvature is now changed until

strain in one of the above, reach their elastic limit. For example,

as seen in Table 1, for the limit elastic curvature of 0.005780 rad/

zero axial force, causing a tensile failure in this case. Fixing this

value as the limit elastic curvature and by sub-dividing it equally,

moment-curvature values for the first five rows are now obtained

by repeating the above steps. Secondly, for estimating the values

in elasto-plastic range, following steps are adopted: i) an arbitrary value is now assumed for the limit ultimate curvature; ii)

fixing axial force to the desired value, depth of neutral axis is

now determined. The strains in concrete, compressive and tensile

steel are further examined for their ultimate limits. Curvature

value is changed until strain in one of the above, reach their

ultimate limit. For example, as seen in Table 1, for the ultimate

curvature of 0.025276 rad/m, strain in tensile steel reaches its

ultimate limit (0.01), for zero axial force, causing a tensile

failure. Fixing this value as the ultimate curvature and by subdividing thisvalue equally, moment-curvature values in the elastoplastic range are now obtained by repeating the above steps.

Based on the results obtained, moment-curvature relationship of

the RC section, reinforced with 422, both in tension and compression sides, is now plotted for different axial loads (only

compressive). The curves are compared with those obtained by

using the proposed analytical expressions. Fig. 8 shows the

comparison of the curves obtained by employing both numerical

Table 1. Moment-curvature Relationship of RC Section 300500 for No Axial Force (pt = 1.08%, pc = 1.08%, Rck = 30 N/mm2, fy = 415 N/

mm2)

P

(kN)

(rad/m)

xc

(m)

c,max

sc

st

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

st

q

(m)

M

(kN-m)

0.00

0.000010

0.165

0.00000

0.000001

0.00000

22

284

640

0.00

0.41

0.00

0.001166

0.167

0.00019

0.000159

0.00035

2444

33437

74301

0.00

48.07

0.00

0.002322

0.168

0.00039

0.000320

0.00070

4657

67283

147269

0.00

95.20

0.00

0.003478

0.169

0.00059

0.000485

0.00105

6648

101874

219493

0.00

141.76

0.00

0.004634

0.171

0.00079

0.000654

0.00139

8408

137269

290913

0.00

187.72

0.00

0.005780

0.173

0.00100

0.000825

0.00172

9909

173216

360856

0.00

232.62

0.00

0.007080

0.153

0.00108

0.000872

0.00224

10457

183156

360870

0.00

234.86

0.00

0.008379

0.139

0.00116

0.000911

0.00278

10906

191230

360870

0.00

236.41

0.00

0.009679

0.127

0.00123

0.000943

0.00332

11283

197947

360870

0.00

237.55

0.00

0.010979

0.118

0.00130

0.000970

0.00386

11603

203635

360870

0.00

238.40

0.00

0.012279

0.111

0.00136

0.000993

0.00441

11879

208523

360870

0.00

239.07

0.00

0.013578

0.105

0.00142

0.001013

0.00496

12118

212773

360870

0.00

239.61

0.00

0.014878

0.099

0.00148

0.001031

0.00552

12325

216505

360870

0.00

240.04

0.00

0.016178

0.095

0.00153

0.001047

0.00607

12504

219811

360870

0.00

240.40

0.00

0.017478

0.091

0.00159

0.001061

0.00663

12659

222762

360870

0.00

240.69

0.00

0.018777

0.087

0.00164

0.001073

0.00719

12792

225415

360870

0.00

240.95

0.00

0.020077

0.084

0.00169

0.001085

0.00775

12904

227814

360870

0.00

241.16

0.00

0.021377

0.081

0.00174

0.001095

0.00831

12999

229997

360870

0.00

241.34

0.00

0.022677

0.079

0.00179

0.001105

0.00887

13075

231994

360870

0.00

241.50

0.00

0.023976

0.076

0.00183

0.001113

0.00944

13136

233829

360870

0.00

241.64

0.00

0.025276

0.074

0.00188

0.001122

0.01000

13180

235525

360870

0.00

241.77

141

c,max

sc

Table 2. Moment-curvature Relationship of RC Section 300500 for 200 kN Axial Force (pt = 1.08%, pc = 1.08%, Rck = 30 N/mm2, fy = 415

N/mm2)

P

(kN)

(rad/m)

xc

(m)

c,max

sc

st

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

(kN/sq.m)

st

q

(m)

M

(kN-m)

200.00

0.000010

7.990

0.00008

0.000080

-0.00008

1036

16715

-15791

0.00

0.71

200.00

0.001286

0.274

0.00035

0.000314

0.00025

4250

65892

52935

0.00

68.08

200.00

0.002562

0.227

0.00058

0.000505

0.00062

6582

106147

130582

0.00

119.98

200.00

0.003838

0.211

0.00081

0.000696

0.00099

8557

146245

208386

0.00

170.62

200.00

0.005114

0.204

0.00104

0.000891

0.00136

10208

187085

285449

0.00

220.32

200.00

0.006380

0.201

0.00128

0.001089

0.00172

11515

228645

360867

0.00

268.70

200.00

0.007708

0.180

0.00139

0.001154

0.00224

11979

242397

360870

0.00

272.23

200.00

0.009036

0.164

0.00148

0.001209

0.00277

12335

253949

360870

0.00

274.77

200.00

0.010364

0.151

0.00157

0.001256

0.00330

12609

263846

360870

0.00

276.67

200.00

0.011692

0.141

0.00165

0.001297

0.00385

12819

272456

360870

0.00

278.14

200.00

0.013020

0.132

0.00172

0.001334

0.00440

12976

280040

360870

0.00

279.31

200.00

0.014348

0.125

0.00180

0.001366

0.00495

13091

286791

360870

0.00

280.25

200.00

0.015676

0.119

0.00186

0.001395

0.00550

13168

292853

360870

0.00

281.03

200.00

0.017004

0.114

0.00193

0.001421

0.00606

13212

298340

360870

0.00

281.67

200.00

0.018332

0.109

0.00199

0.001444

0.00662

13228

303340

360870

0.00

282.21

200.00

0.019660

0.105

0.00206

0.001466

0.00718

13228

307925

360870

0.00

282.67

200.00

0.020988

0.101

0.00212

0.001486

0.00775

13228

312145

360870

0.01

283.07

200.00

0.022316

0.097

0.00217

0.001505

0.00831

13228

316042

360870

0.01

283.41

200.00

0.023644

0.094

0.00223

0.001522

0.00888

13228

319653

360870

0.01

283.71

200.00

0.024972

0.092

0.00229

0.001538

0.00945

13228

323007

360870

0.01

283.97

200.00

0.026300

0.089

0.00234

0.001553

0.01002

13228

326131

360870

0.01

284.21

there is practically no difference between the curves in the elastic

range, whereas there exist a marginal difference in the plastic

range. However, both the procedures estimate the same ultimate

curvature and the ultimate moments as well. Also the curvature

ductility ratio obtained by both the procedures, remains same.

With regards to their close agreement, the proposed closed form

expressions for moment-curvature relationship, accounting for

nonlinear characteristics of constitutive materials according to

Euro code, are thus qualified for using them in seismic design

and structural assessments as well.

It can be inferred from the above discussions that detailed trace

of moment-curvature relationship is inevitable for successful

seismic design of structures. The relationship is however very

complex due to many factors namely: i) constitutive materials

nonlinear response; ii) magnitude of axial load and their nature;

as well as iii) cross sectional properties and percentage of reinforcement (tensile steel, in particular). The numerical studies

conducted lead to useful design guidelines of multi-storey RC

buildings. The upper floor elements (beams, in particular) shall

be designed to have ductile failure, which in turn shall permit

large curvature ductility. This, in fact, helps the formation of

plastic hinges at upper floors (on beams, in particular with a

c,max

sc

effective redistribution of moments, resulting in formation of

plastic hinges at lower floors, subsequently. On the contrary, a

column member, usually subjected to larger axial force, shall be

designed without much increase in compression reinforcement,

142

4. Conclusions

In this paper, a new analytical procedure for estimating curvature ductility of RC sections is proposed. The purpose is to estimate moment-curvature relationship under service loads, in a

simpler closed form manner. Analytical expressions for momentcurvature relationship of RC sections, accounting for nonlinear

characteristics of constitutive materials according to Eurocode,

are proposed in elastic and elasto-plastic ranges as well. Percentage of tension reinforcement influences curvature ductility to a

larger extent. There exist at least one critical value of percentage

of both tensile and compression reinforcements, which reduces

the curvature ductility to the minimum. The proposed analytical

expressions are capable of tracing this critical value, so that it can

be avoided for a successful design of the section. Tensile reinforcement, closer to pt,bal, will result in more curvature ductility

as there is a marginal reduction seen due to the kink in the curve

for (lesser) values closer to pt,bal. Maximum curvature ductility is

obtained for compression reinforcement equals pc,bal, when the

section is subjected to axial compressive forces; for tensile axial

forces, percentage of compression steel as same as that of tension

steel (pc=pt), gives the maximum curvature ductility.

The spread sheet program used to estimate moment-curvature

relationship simplifies the complexities involved in such estimate,

thus encouraging the designers and researchers to use it instantly

and with confidence. With regards to their close agreement with

the analytical procedure, the proposed expressions for momentcurvature estimate are thus qualified for using them in design and

structural assessments as well. Avoiding somewhat tedious hand

calculations and approximations required in conventional iterative

design procedures, the proposed method avoids errors and potentially unsafe design. It is felt that enough experimental evidence

is not available to be more conclusive on the topic, but the proposed closed form solutions of the unknown curvature ductility

ratios is confident of giving reliable and safe estimate of the said

parameter. With due consideration to the increasing necessity of

structural assessment of existing buildings under seismic loads,

the proposed expressions of moment-curvature relationship shall

become an integral input while employing nonlinear static procedures.

Notations

Asc : Area of compression reinforcement (mm2)

Ast : Area of tension reinforcement (mm2)

b : Width of the beam (mm)

D : Overall depth of the beam (mm)

d : Effective cover (mm)

Es : Modulus of elasticity in steel (N/mm2)

M : Bending moment (N-m)

Me : Elastic bending moment (N-m)

ME : Limit elastic bending moment (N-m)

Vol. 15, No. 1 / January 2011

P : Axial load (N)

pc : Percentage of compression reinforcement

Pe : Elastic axial load (N)

PE : Limit elastic axial load (N)

pt : Percentage of tensile reinforcement

Pu : Ultimate axial load (N)

q : Depth of plastic kernel of concrete (mm)

Rck : Compressive cube strength of concrete (30 N/mm2)

xc : Depth of neutral axis measure from extreme compression

fibre (mm)

c : Strain in generic fibre of concrete

c,max : Maximum strain in concrete

c0 : Elastic limit strain in concrete

cu : Ultimate limit strain in concrete

s0 : Elastic limit strain in reinforcement

sc : Strain in compression reinforcement

st : Strain in tensile reinforcement

su : Ultimate limit strain in reinforcement

: Curvature (rad/m)

0 : Curvature for xc = 0 (rad/m)

e : Elastic curvature (rad/m)

E : Limit elastic curvature (rad/m)

u : Ultimate curvature (rad/m)

c : Partial safety factor for concrete

s : Partial safety factor for steel

: Curvature ductility ratio = u/E

c : Stress in generic fibre of concrete (N/mm2)

c,max : Maximum stress in concrete (N/mm2)

c0 : Design ultimate stress in concrete in compression (N/

mm2)

s0 : Design ultimate stress in steel (N/mm2)

sc : Stress in compression reinforcement (N/mm2)

st : Stress in tensile reinforcement (N/mm2)

y : Yield strength of steel (415 N/mm2)

References

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