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Impact of Traning and Development on Employee Motivation in Textile

Industry of Pakistan

A Thesis Submitted to the


Miss Khansa Irem
Superior University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelors in business adminstration
By
Nasir Ali- 10128
2013

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Declaration of Originality

I hereby declare that this project is entirely my own work and that any additional sources of
information have been duly cited.
I hereby declare that any Internet sources published or unpublished works from which I have
quoted or draw references fully in the text and in the content list. I understand that failure to do
this will result in failure of this project due to plagiarism.
I understand I may be called for viva and if so must attend. I acknowledge that this is my
responsibility to check whether I am required to attend and that I will be available during the
viva periods.

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Acknowledgement
First and foremost, all praise is due to ALLAH for bestowing me with health, knowledge and
patience to complete this work. The Almighty, Who alone made this success possible. I seek His
mercy, good deed and sympathy.
I am grateful to my mother for her continues extreme moral support, encouragement and
patience during all my live as well as throughout my academic career. No own progress can ever
take place without the appropriate supervision of parents. Acknowledgements are due to
Superior university of Lahore for the support in carrying out this research. Special appreciation
goes to my supervisor, Sir Maam Khansa, for her supervision, for the continuous support of my
BBA study and research, for her patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His
guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis. I could not have
imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my research study.

Signed

Date.

Name of Supervisor

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Abstract
My research study looks at the role of impact of training and development on employee
motivation in textile sector of Pakistan. For this study, I have collected data from 150 employees
from different textile organizations working in Pakistan, I have asked different question
regarding my all variables. When the surveys were completed and returned, the data was entered
into SPSS for analysis. Several tests were run on the data, and significant findings were present.
I found that the training and development of employees programs will increase the employee
motivation. I have also found, if there is a significant increase in the training and development
programs arranged by the organization. The results and data are discussed in depth within this
report. There are also several limitations as well as future research implications at the end of this
research study.
Keywords: Training and development, Knowledge Skills abilities, employee motivation.

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List of Contents
Declaration of Originality .............................................................................................................................. 2
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ 3
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Chapter 1....................................................................................................................................................... 9
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 9
1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 9
1.2 Purpose Statement ....................................................................................................................... 13
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................. 14
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE ................................................................................................................................ 14
1.5 Research Question and Hypothesis .............................................................................................. 15
1.6 Term Definition ............................................................................................................................. 17
1.7 Conceptual Model ......................................................................................................................... 18
CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................................................. 19
LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 19
CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................................................................. 32
DATA/METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................................ 32
3.1 RESEARCH PARADIGMS................................................................................................................. 32
3.2 RESEARCH APPROACHES ............................................................................................................... 33
3.3POPULATION AND SAMPLING ....................................................................................................... 35
3.4 MEASURES..................................................................................................................................... 37
Training and Development .................................................................................................................... 37
Employee Motivation ............................................................................................................................. 37
Knowledge, Skills and Abilities .............................................................................................................. 37
3.5 Method of Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 38
3.6 Methodology:................................................................................................................................ 39
CHAPTER # 4................................................................................................................................................ 42
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS .............................................................................................................................. 42
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS: ............................................................................................................................ 50
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REGRESSION ................................................................................................................................................ 58
Simple Regression: .................................................................................................................................. 58
Chapter 5..................................................................................................................................................... 65
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................. 66
5.1 Discussion...................................................................................................................................... 66
5.2 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................. 70
5.3 IMPLICATION ................................................................................................................................. 70
5.4 LIMITATIONS ................................................................................................................................. 70
5.6 Future Research ............................................................................................................................ 70

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List of Tables
Table 1: Age................................................................................................................................................ 44
Table 2: Frequency Gender ......................................................................................................................... 45
Table 3: descriptive Statistics ..................................................................................................................... 46
Table 4: Correlation .................................................................................................................................... 53
Table 5: Correlation .................................................................................................................................... 55
Table 6: Correlation KSA employee motivation ........................................................................................ 57
Table 7: Regression Model Summary ......................................................................................................... 60
Table 8: ANOVA ........................................................................................................................................ 61
Table 9: Coefficients ................................................................................................................................... 61
Table 10: ANOVA ...................................................................................................................................... 64
Table 11: Regression Coefficient................................................................................................................ 65

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List of Figures
Reliability analysis: Table 1: Reliability test ................................................................................... 42
Figure 2: Histogram .................................................................................................................................... 48
Figure 3: Histogram KSA ........................................................................................................................... 48
Figure 4: Histogram Employee motivation ................................................................................................. 49
Figure 5: Histogram KSA Training and development ................................................................................ 51
Figure 6: Scatter plot KSA.......................................................................................................................... 52
Figure 7: TND, EMPLOYEE Motivation ................................................................................................... 54
Figure 8: Scatter plot employee motivation ................................................................................................ 54
Figure 9: KSA Employee Motivation ......................................................................................................... 56
Figure 10: scatter plot employee motivation............................................................................................... 56
Figure 11: KSA & Employee Motivation ................................................................................................... 59
Figure 12: Scatter plot TND........................................................................................................................ 60
Figure 13: TND & Employee Motivation ................................................................................................... 62
Figure 14: Scatter plot TND........................................................................................................................ 63
Table 15: Model Summary Regression ....................................................................................................... 64

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CAPTER NO 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
The textile industry plays a pivotal role in Pakistan's economy. The contribution of the textile
industry in total exports is around 54 percent of the total export earnings of the country. It is a
labor intensive industry and offers entry-level jobs for unskilled labor. Job creation, especially in
the clothing sector, has been particularly strong for women, who previously had limited income
opportunities outside the household or the informal sector. The textile and clothing industry
accounts for 46 percent of the total manufacturing and provides employment to 38 percent of the
manufacturing labor force. The availability of basic raw material for the textile industry i.e.
cotton, has played a significant role in the growth of the industry because of which Pakistan has
been able to prove its strength in the world by sustaining its position and growth. According to
the survey report 25% contribution in Pakistans economy is of industries in which 57.5%
contribution is of textile industry. Major production is of cotton, it represents growth of 3.7% in
the GDP of the country. Pakistans textile participate sin 2% of the world trade and it is also a
source of employment of labor in the country as well. As this sector is the most important sector
in the country and needs for improvement always exist. This sector includes oldest and
traditional types of businesses, so there lays a chance of applying modern techniques and
methods through study, research and development. As this being the major source of
employment and labor force hirer this sector is also under study of human resource management
research. (Scott and clothier) has defined human resource management as a study of those
operational functions which are related to management and people concerns. It has many
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functions including staffing, selection, recruitment, training and development and compensation
etc. function focused in the study is primarily training and development. Topic of the study is to
investigate the impact of training and development on employee motivation. Training and
development as independent variable, employee motivation as a dependent variable, along with
intervening variables of knowledge, skills and abilities in the study. Berkson, Martin, Smith, &
Worley, (2012) Employee Motivation and its Most Influential Factors. The finding of this article
was competitive wages are a strong motivational factor, especially for the lower-income
demographic of the company. Mak & Sockel,(2001) A confrmatory factor analysis of IS
employee Motivation and retention. The finding of this article was to investigate the
relationship between motivation and retention and how these two factors effect on the job
satisfaction. Dysvik & Kuvaas,( 2008) perceived training opportunities, work motivation and
employee outcomes. The finding of this article was that intrinsic motivation is effecting the
training opportunitties and employee outcomes which plays an important role in the
organizational growth and employees turnover rate. Purpose of the study is to explore the impact
of training and development on employee motivation in textile industry sector. This study will
help managers and policy makers to make policies. It will prove a credible research opportunity
for future reseacrhers and add value in the context of knowledge. And it will help to uncover new
dimensions of study and outcomes in developing countries.
Scaduto & Lindsay, (2008) Leader inuences on training effectiveness motivation and outcome
expectation processes. The finding of this article was that the training and development plays
very important role for leader or every member of the organization to motivate them towards the
goal of the organization.

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Yin Chow, Chang, & Burgess, (2005) Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading
Abilities in HongKong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second
Language. The finding of this article was the results showed that phonological awareness still
explained significant variance in Chinese word reading even when visual skills were controlled.
Thus,phonological awareness is not only important for Learning alphabetical languages but also
for Chinese reading acquisition.Weitz, Sharish, & Sujan,( oct 1986) Knowledge, Motivation
and Adaptive Behavior its a framework for improving selling effectiveness this study shows
that knowledge sharing and giving direction to the employees is the advance motivation factor in
an Organiation on the basis of these proposition suggestion are made for selecting Training
managing and compensative sales people that how they can motivated through these factors. In
this article training and development, Knowledge and managing variables are used for the
motivation of employees,for the devolment of the employees their should be a experts system tha
examine the contnent of knowledge rather then individual refrences.on the basis of a survey of
industrial and organiational the researcher use the simple random sampling method to evaluate
these factors. In the recent research they conluded that the sales pepole must adjust to the
specific customers by using these factors.Bhattacharya, Gibson, & Doty,( 1989)The Effects of
Flexibility in Employee Skills, Employee Behavior and HR Practices on Firm Performance
Current Strategic Humman resource Management theory suggest that employee skills, employee
behavior and good HR practices are the dominent variables for employee motivation and they are
directly related to firm Performance. Skill flexibility can be generated in two different ways first
one is by taking good approch by field enviornment or by taking the good output from your
organizations.Employee skill flexibilty factor is directly related to firm financial enhancemnet
and positive motivation of employees. the firm included in this study were choosen from the

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industrial machinary the food and grossry industry the equuipment industry . 629 pepole were
survey through this study thet concluded that employee skill flexibility employee behavior and
good HR practices were the dominent factors of motivation in an organization.
Mclough & Rogelberg, (March 2003)Selection in Teams: an axploration of the teamwork
knowledge, Skills, and Ability Test. In 1994 Stevens and campion intoduce the temwork
knowledge skills and ability test. In this article teamwork knowledge skills and ability variables
are discussed these variables are the foundation factors of employee motivation. They examine
that through the relationship of these variables individual and team members can attian
organizational effectiveness through these variables self effecicincy and individual behavior
within the organization can be test. Through these variables they have come to know how
employees in an organization were moderate and fully motivated.they examine these test with
the relationship of knowledge skills and ability and assigned these variables to the team leaders
and experiment this data on 57 ad hoc student team and they concluded that such factors were
dominent in these teams.Smith & Collins,( 2006) Knowledge Exhange and combination the role
of human resource practices in the performance of high technology firms. In this study they
discuss the Knowledge exchange work enviornmnet social climate of trust cooperation variables
a field study of 136 technology companies showed that comitment that these variables are
interrealted to each other to gain organization success on the other hand exchange of knowledge,
work enviornmnet and work relationship are the predicted variable of motivation.they gathered
the data from 1360 epmloyee of telecommunication technology consultant and pharmaceuticals
companies after interviewing these pepole they concluded that throgh employee relationship
through knowledge sharing and increased in particpation the motivation level could be increased.

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Naquin & Holton,( 2002) The Effects of Personality Effectivity Work cimitment on Motivation
to improve through learning and abilities this study examine the four factors of motivation and
work comitment they are effectivity learning work envoirnment and abilities. Data were obtain
from anon randon sample of 239 private sector employees who were participant of in-house
training programs. This study also shows that training, learning and abilities transfer motivation
to the employees.through learning employees are willing to transfer the knowledge acquired to
improve work processess. Specificay 57% of the variance in motivation to improve work through
learning, abilities, positive effevtivity and work comitment.
In recent years very less study is published regarding the impact of Training & Development on
employee motivation. My study is specially focusing on the developing countries like Pakistan.
That how can the Training & Development increase employee motivation in all multinational
and local textile industries in Pakistan.
Very rare research has been carried out in this perspective and these variables have not been
under research in developing countries previously. There remains a gap of cultural and
environmental factors of developing countries and developed countries. Although great research
has been carried out in the developed countries reagrding employee motivation but they lack to
explore the factors existing in the developing countries.
1.2 Purpose Statement
The purpose of this study will be to test the theory of the impact of training & Development on
employee motivation it will also help the trained and developed employees of both local and
multinational organizations working in Pakistan can help in many ways like increasing the
productivity and decrease the production cost and help employees to increase their motivation

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and level of commitment. The independent variable training & development is defined as
training is directly related to the performance of official duties to any training that improves
individual and organizational performance and assists an agency in achieving its mission and
performance goals. The dependent variable employee motivation is generally specified as the
commitment towards the work and towards the organizational goals. The mediating variables are
Knowledge skills and abilities generally specified that how effectively and efficiently they do
work and achieve the goals.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This study primarily aims to study the impact of training and development on employee
motivation in textile sector of developing country Pakistan. Following are the objectives of the
study:
To examine the impact of training & development on employee motivation
To examine the impact of Knowledge on employee motivation
To examine the impact of skills on employee motivation
To examine the impact of abilities on motivation
To examine the impact of training and development on knowledge
To examine the impact of training and development on skills
To examine the impact of training and development on abilities.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE
The present study will be significant in number of ways. It will contribute to the body of
knowledge by:

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Firstly, since the present area is highly under research in Pakistan. No study has been
found to explore the HR perceptions in employees motivation in textile sector of
Pakistan. Therefore, the present study assumes that the findings of the present study will
help the managers in companies of Pakistan in particular and those in developing
countries in general to answer the long standing question of how to enhance employees
motivation.
Furthermore, the unique findings of the study may also help to understand the difference
between organizational culture in developed countries and those in under- developed
countries. It will also strengthen the argument that since majority of the research on the
topic is conducted in developed countries and their findings cannot be exactly applied in
developing countries.
Therefore, the present study will contribute in the literature of HRM and Performance
area through building largely on qualitative aspects to explore cross contextual factors in
teachers performance. . Hence, will depict the situation of developing country like
Pakistan especially the private sector.
1.5 Research Question and Hypothesis
1.5.1 Research Question
The extensive nature of this study will necessitate the adoption of research questions which will
provide a guide towards a broad and all inclusive analysis of the impact of recruitment and
selection on the performance of employees. The following are the questions that will be adopted:

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Q1=Is there a relationship between training and development and employee motivation?
Q2=Is there a relationship between training and development and knowledge,?
Q3Is there relationship between training and devlopment and skills?
Q4Is there relationship between training and development and abilities?
Q5Is there relationship between knowledge and employee motivation?
Q6Is there relationship between skills and employee motivation?
Q7Ithere relationship between abilities and employee motivation?

1.5.2 Research hypothesis


H1A : there is a relationship between trainang and development and employee motivation.
H1B : there is relationship between employee motivation and knowledge skills abilities
H1C:there is relationship between training and devlopment and skills.
H1D:there is relationship between training and development and abilities.
H1E:there is relationship between knowledge and employee motivation.
H1F:there is relationship between skills and employee motivation.
H1G:there is relationship between abilities and employee motivation.

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1.6 Term Definition


Training & Development
Training and development can be defined as any activity designed to help individuals become
more effective in performing the tasks and job. It enhances the expectation of development from
staff. Training and development provides a framework for better decision making and
developing competitive advantage.
Employee motivation
Motivation is something what desires a person to act. And motivation means to provide with that
motive. So motivation is a process of providing motive to a person to act or perform. Employee
motivation is a process in which organization provides a motive to employees to perform well
whether monetary or non monetary. According to new Webster dictionary
Knowledge is defined as the cognitive domain which relates to mental skills. Psychomotor
domain which works manual and physical skills is defined as skill. Ability is defined as inherited
characteristics. (Jonathan and Emma)

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1.7 Conceptual Model

Knowledge
Training and
Developmen
t

Skills

Employee
Motivation

Abilities

This conceptual model shows the variables of that are studies in this research thesis. Variables
are training and development, knowledge, skill and ability and employee motivation. Motivation
is something what desires a person to act. And motivation means to provide with that motive. So
motivation is a process of providing motive to a person to act or perform. Employee motivation
is a process in which organization provides a motive to employees to perform well whether
monetary or non monetary. Knowledge is defined as the cognitive domain which relates to
mental skills. Psychomotor domain which works manual and physical skills is defined as skill.
Ability is defined as inherited characteristics. Training and development can be defined as any
activity designed to help individuals become more effective in performing the tasks and job. It
enhances the expectation of development from staff. Training and development provides a
framework for better decision making and developing competitive advantage.

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CHAPTER NO 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
Dysvik & Kuvaas,( 2008) examined the relationship between perceived training opportunities,
work motivation and employee outcomes. The purpose of this study was to discover the potential
relationship between training opportunitties and employee outcome, the employee motivation act
as mediating between training opportunitties and employee outcome. Worked on three variables
which were training opportunitties, intrinsic motivation and employee outcome. The data was
collected from 343 employees which were randomly choosed. To test the hypothesis they used
SPSS and the software of structural equation modeling(SEM). To fully test the measurement
model including all variables therefore they used SEM software. The finding of this article was
that intrinsic motivation is effecting the training opportunitties and employee outcomes which
plays an important role in the organizational growth and employees turnover rate.
Scaduto & Lindsay, (2008) explored the Leader inuences on training effectiveness motivation
and outcome expectation processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness
of trainning on employee motivation. Worked on two variables training motivation & outcome
expectancy. The data was collected from 495 employees which was randomly choosed. To test
the hypothesis they used Regression, Mean, Standard Deviation and correllation method. The
finding of this article was that the training and development plays very important role for leader
or every member of the organization to motivate them towards the goal of the organization.
Mak & Sockel,(2001) exlplored the A confrmatory factor analysis of IS employee Motivation
and retention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the Under lying dimensions of the
motivation and retention.They worked on the following variables Retention Motivation,
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Turnover intent, Loyalty, Burnout, Job satisfaction, Perception of management, Career


development. They distributed questionnaire to 300 sample size out of 300, 130 questionnaire
was retreived from the sample size. They analysed the data through the use of chi-square. The
finding of this article was to investigate the relationship between motivation and retention and
how these two factors effect on the job satisfaction.
Berkson, Martin, Smith, & Worley, (2012) examined the Employee Motivation and its Most
Influential Factors The purpose of this study was to examined current satisfaction of
motivational factors and incentives in the company, they worked on three variables employee
motivation, satisfaction and incentives. The data was collected through the use of questionnaire
from 60 employees of different organizations. The data was analyzed with the help of pearson
correlation test. The finding of this article was competitive wages are a strong motivational
factor, especially for the lower-income demographic of the company.
Yin Chow, Chang, & Burgess, (2005) explored the Phonological Processing Skills and Early
Reading Abilities in HongKong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second
Language. The purpose of this study was the associations of three phonological processing
skills to both Chinese and English word recognition.On the basis of previous research on
phonological transfer. They worked on three variables skills, reading abilities and learning. The
data was collected from 45 respondents through qualitative data collection. The data was
analyzed through mean and standard deviation. The finding of this article was the results
showed that phonological awareness still explained significant variance in Chinese word reading
even when visual skills were controlled. Thus,phonological awareness is not only important for
Learning alphabetical languages but also for Chinese reading acquisition.

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Weitz, Sharish, & Sujan,( oct 1986) Knowledge, Motivation and Adaptive Behavior its a
framework for improving selling effectiveness this study shows that knowledge sharing and
giving direction to the employees is the advance motivation factor in an Organiation on the basis
of these proposition suggestion are made for selecting Training managing and compensative
sales people that how they can motivated through these factors. In this article training and
development, Knowledge and managing variables are used for the motivation of employees,for
the devolment of the employees their should be a experts system tha examine the contnent of
knowledge rather then individual refrences.on the basis of a survey of industrial and
organiational the researcher use the simple random sampling method to evaluate these factors. In
the recent research they conluded that the sales pepole must adjust to the specific customers by
using these factors.
Bhattacharya, Gibson, & Doty,( 1989)The Effects of Flexibility in Employee Skills, Employee
Behavior and HR Practices on Firm Performance Current Strategic Humman resource
Management theory suggest that employee skills, employee behavior and good HR practices are
the dominent variables for employee motivation and they are directly related to firm
Performance. Skill flexibility can be generated in two different ways first one is by taking good
approch by field enviornment or by taking the good output from your organizations.Employee
skill flexibilty factor is directly related to firm financial enhancemnet and positive motivation of
employees. the firm included in this study were choosen from the industrial machinary the food
and grossry industry the equuipment industry . 629 pepole were survey through this study thet
concluded that employee skill flexibility employee behavior and good HR practices were the
dominent factors of motivation in an organization.

Superior University Lahore

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Mclough & Rogelberg, (March 2003)Selection in Teams: an axploration of the teamwork


knowledge, Skills, and Ability Test. In 1994 Stevens and campion intoduce the temwork
knowledge skills and ability test. In this article teamwork knowledge skills and ability variables
are discussed these variables are the foundation factors of employee motivation. They examine
that through the relationship of these variables individual and team members can attian
organizational effectiveness through these variables self effecicincy and individual behavior
within the organization can be test. Through these variables they have come to know how
employees in an organization were moderate and fully motivated.they examine these test with
the relationship of knowledge skills and ability and assigned these variables to the team leaders
and experiment this data on 57 ad hoc student team and they concluded that such factors were
dominent in these teams.
Michel Kristen, & Frances Jorgensen (2010) the important factors of business persons or
employee motivation. They make a model that what was the factor that increase or Effects
employees motivation and they make a questionnaire and distributed this questionnaire in
Aarhus school of business to 152 respondents and also distributed the questionnaire in Gdansk
university of Poland in marketing and research department. Both universities students were
agreed that there are four major variables that Effects employee motivation. 1st variable is
motivation through type of work means interesting work that employee love to do. 2 ndvariable is
by giving employees good wages. 3rd variable is motivation thorough promotion& job security.
kohan & alfie, (october 1993). Incentive in industry employee motivation. They make a model
that incentive and reward programs were the major factors that Effects the motivation of the
employees. Through questionnaire they have come to know that people of us from sample

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respondents of 157 the 147 people agreed to this statement that incentives and reward programs
can increases the motivational level of employees.
Hackman & oldham, (1976). Motivation through design or type of work. They make a model
that proposed that employees will perform better if they were internally motivated and this can
be done through the variables that are 1st variable is giving them a good positive environment to
work, 2nd give employees the psychological state of mind of employees that can be done by good
behavior and attitude. The model was tested on 658 employees in 62 different in 62 different
jobs and 7 different organizations and the result was same and they respond according to this
model.
Deci,( 1972). The effects of contingent and non-contingent rewards and controls on intrinsic
motivation. He make a model that employees can be motivated through two types of variables
intrinsic, & extrinsic and extrinsic means money and some tangible rewards on the other and
intrinsic means the behavior and attitude within the organization. Through survey of sample
questionnaire the results were in the favor of this model that people of employees can be
motivated through intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
Smith & Collins,( 2006) Knowledge Exhange and combination the role of human resource
practices in the performance of high technology firms. In this study they discuss the Knowledge
exchange work enviornmnet social climate of trust cooperation variables a field study of 136
technology companies showed that comitment that these variables are interrealted to each other
to gain organization success on the other hand exchange of knowledge, work enviornmnet and
work relationship are the predicted variable of motivation.they gathered the data from 1360
epmloyee of telecommunication technology consultant and pharmaceuticals companies after

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interviewing these pepole they concluded that throgh employee relationship through knowledge
sharing and increased in particpation the motivation level could be increased.
Naquin & Holton,( 2002) The Effects of Personality Effectivity Work cimitment on Motivation
to improve through learning and abilities this study examine the four factors of motivation and
work comitment they are effectivity learning work envoirnment and abilities. Data were obtain
from anon randon sample of 239 private sector employees who were participant of in-house
training programs. This study also shows that training, learning and abilities transfer motivation
to the employees.through learning employees are willing to transfer the knowledge acquired to
improve work processess. Specificay 57% of the variance in motivation to improve work through
learning, abilities, positive effevtivity and work comitment.
Wright, Sherman, & Mcmahan, (1997)The role of Human resource practices in petro-chamical
refinary performance this study examine that human resource practices ( training &
development , Selection , Compenastion and performance apraisal) and skills of the employees
were the significant motivational variable this survey indicated that skills training &
development compensation were marginary related to work force motvation. In addition these
practices were stongly postively related to financial and frim performance only under good
participative systems. In survey they studied the relationship between two variable first one was
HR practices including all the variables discuss variables and second one is measurment of the
corporation usin the same level and type of HR practicies. They have taken the sample of 190
pepole. In petro-chemical refinary pepole are more motivated through HR practicies variable.
Burke & Hutchins,( 2007)Training Transfer this study discuss the various training factors that
are integrated to get employee motivation and give certain influencial working envoirnment for

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the employees. variables which are discussed in this article were trainig development
performance improvement and developing knowledge. Regarding these promary factors that
were influencing the employees in an organization. They conducted survey from 319 pepole of
different organization in which these variables are identified. They concluded that these variables
have a meaningful direction for the employee motivation in an organization and they identified
the gaps which can be filled with the help of these variables. They also concluded that training
motivation refers to the intensity and persistence of efforts that trainee apply to motivate the
employee of an organization.
Major & Turner,( 2006)Linking Proactive Personality and the big five to motivation to learn
and development activity this study investegated the motivational factors these are personality
learning training and development abilities and skills. The data were collected at two points in
time from 183 employees of financial services firms. Sample item include 7 measuring points for
these variables and the result was predicted. Result showed that these variables had a great
impact on employee motivation in an organization and they lear through these variables.
Hierarchical regression result suggested that training and development, openess, skills and
abilities were the factors that enhance the motivation and give learning to the employees.
Siemsen & Roth,( 2008) How Motivation, Opportunity and ability drive jknowledge sharing
this study explain the knowledge sharing, opportunity and ability variables. They explain that
employee abilities and their behavior are directly rrelated to motivation of employees. these
variables determine the degree of knowledge sharing that occurs.they collect the data from
survey that were obtained from employees in four different countries and they take the data from
140 respondents. Data from these companies was served as a validation sample and used for
model testing.in this article they have concluded that motivational model, ability, knowledge
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sharing and behavior of employees and a great impact on organizational effectiveness. The
deveolped and administered a survey to collect data on employee Knowledge, skills, behavior in
these four companies and established the reliabilty and validity of newely developed measures.
SEIBERT, Silver, & Randolph, (2004) worked on Taking Empowerment To The Next Level: A
Multiple Level Model Of Empowerment, Performance, And Satisfaction. They explored work
unit levelconstruct, empowerment climate, and tested a multiple level model integrating macro
and micro approaches to empowerment. They collected data through interview of 375 employees
of an engineering company. These employees worked on 56 different mechinacal, electrical and
system design projects for new products. The authors found out that psychological empowerment
worked as bridge between empowerment climate, individual performance and job satisfaction.
These out comes should also be associated with the team accountability dimension of
empowerment climate. In view of the findings from these several different research areas, we
expected empowerment climate to be positively related to work unit performance.
CHEN & KLIMOSKI,(2003) studied on The Impact Of Expectations On Newcomer
Performance In Teams As Mediated By Work Characteristics, Social Exchanges, And
Empowerment. They described the Pygmalion and Galatea effects with a group socialization
Model and theories of work motivation and interpersonal leadership. They collected data through
a two month field study of 70 newcomers, 70 teamleaders, and 102 team mates in high tech
project teams supported the model . they found out that leaders and teammates had shared
expectations of newcomers and that most of the theoretical relationships held for civilian project
teams extends the social psychological boundaries and external validity of Pygmalionand
Galatea research. Interestingly, initial team expectations related more strongly to subsequent
newcomer performance than to subsequent interpersonal processes and newcomer motivation.
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Danish, (2010) elobrate Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation:
An Empirical Study from Pakistan. The aim of this study to identified major factors that
motivate employees and it tells what is the relationship among reward, recognition and
motivation while working within an organization. The author collected data through from
employees of diverse type of organizations to gain wide representation of sectoral composition.
In all, 250 self administered questionnaires were distributed among the employees of different
sectors and they returned 220 completed useable questionnaires for response rate of 88%. He
found out a close relationship between several dimensions of work motivation and satisfaction
but recognition along with work itself and operating procedures have shown low mean values
and insignificant relationship. In Pakistani context the employees think that there is a minor
chance of appreciation from the boss on doing a good job. These deficiencies can be worked out
if the superiors motivate their juniors with proper recognition and appreciation even through
minor things like asking their family problems.
Ramlall, (2004) described A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their Implications
for Employee Retention within Organizations. The intent of this research to described employee
motivation theories and offers an explanation of how employee motivation affects employee
retention within organizations. He collected data through different surveys and study of previous
authors and researcher. He found out the most widely used employee retention practices as cited
in the respective literature sources and the causes for employee turnover. Nevertheless, in most
cases these practices are developed and implemented without understanding the theory that
explains the practice and why it may be effective.
Bell & Ford, (2007) studied Reactions to Skill Assessment: The Forgoten Factor in Explaining
Motivation to Learn. The intent of research to examined the effects of trainees reactions to skill
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assessment on their motivation to learn. A model was developed that suggests that two
dimensions of trainees assessment reactions distributive justice and utility influence training
motivation and overall training effectiveness. They collected data through using a sample of
individuals (N = 113) enrolled in a truck driving training program. The authors found out that
there are two dimensons which play important role in employees training and motivation. They
also found that trainees with more positive distributive justice perceptions were more motivated
to learn.
Maurer & Shore,( 2002) Perceived beneficiary of employee development this study describes
the relationship between employee development, employee learning, behvior and employee
decision making. Depending on the personel values Leader,Member, Exchange perceived
organizational support self effeciency for development and credibility of information source. The
survey was conducted from some multinational companies operating in Malaysia the survey
sample was 327. They asked questions about employee motivation factor including decicion
making power of employee, employee engagement in different prceived organizational activities
and employee development programs that enhance the motivational level of employees in an
organization. Through this survey researchers concluded that these factors have a strong
relationship towards employee motivation and through the conclusion model researcher purpose
the employe development progromas and the greater detail that how these development programs
could be processed.
Winterton & StringFellow,( 2005)Typology of Knowledge Skills and Cometences According
to this study of european commission and with the support of cedefop workng group of credit
transfer. They belief that development, Training, Knowledge, Ability, Transferbility, recognition,
of Competency between different countries at different level could be different but the common
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principles on ground would be same because employee motivation is based on these


factors(development, Training, Knowledge, Ability, Transferbility, recognition) the focus of this
study is an assesment of existing classification of pepole having knowledge skills and abilities at
international, national or regional level. Through the european policiy context they emphasinsing
both the need to integrade and also the learning part of knowledge skill and abilities.
Nadeem,(2010) Role of Training in Determining the Employee Corporate Behavior with
Respect to Organizational Productivity.The researcher purposed the model which contain
employee coperate behavior, role of training and organization productivity variables. There is a
relationship between key variables of corporate behavior like employee comitment, employee
motivation and job satisfaction on organizational productivity with the help of training. In 2004
researchers conduct a survey from different firms including respondents were 3026 they variable
data which they ask from employees was job satisfaction, training effectiveness, motivation and
employee comitment, through this survey they concluded that these variables had a great effect
on employee motivation and for the betterment of the structure of organziation.
Luneberg,( 2011) Self-Efficacy in the Workplace:Implications for Motivation and Performance
the researcher describe the relationship between performance of employees and through this
performance self efficeincy also be effected. The other variable is motivation which describe the
employee self effeciency past performance, emotional cues. Through this motivational factor
organizattional should consider employee level of self effeciency choosing among candidates for
trainig and development programs. Self effeciency, employee beleifs, employee comitment,
influences the tasks, employees choose to learn and goals thtey set for themselves.

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Ramlall, (2004) Elaborate the A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their
Implications for Employee Retention within Organizations. He worked on different thories of
motivation which are neccessry to retain cricital emplyees and who is responsible for perofrming
or implimentating and how to impliment those theories within the organizations and also
explanies that how employee motivation affects employee behavior and employee retention
within orgainzation, how this factors help orgaization to increase their profitability. The most
theories he had dicussed are (Need Theories of Motivation, Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory,
McClellands Need Theory, Equity Theory, Vrooms Original Theory, Porter and Lawlers
Extention, Job Design, The Motivator-Hygiene Theory). To bring any kind of change for the
betterment of the orgainzation and as well for employees it is very important frist to motivate
your employees to deal with the changes govern in the orgaization. Theories are implemented
without proper study which can sometimes lead the orgaizations backwards, it is very important
first to understand the basic purpose of the theory and then emplement it.

Arguins, et al., (2009) Describe the benefits of trainig and development for individuals,
organizations and for society. They adopt the multidiciplinary, multilevel and global
perspective to demonstrate that trainig and development activities in work organization can
produce important benefits for each of these stakeholders. They also identified that through these
variables organnzational performance can be maximized by giving training and developmet
programs to employees. They also identify the research gaps fo the organizations so that they can
achieve or cop up with these gaps by giving proper trainig and attain organizational goals.
Barba, et al., (2003) Examine the effects of training in business results. There is genral
importance of traing variable that help the organization to get competitive advantage from other
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organizations. This study shows that if companises invest more in training the employees they
will get better result in the form of firm performance on the other hand now the copanies
thinking about training programs but their activities are still on the lower side. The copanises
also do not have the empirical studies. Their also a lack of academic research. This paper using
the sample of 457 SMES and their results shows that there is strong relationship between
training of employee and firm performance.

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CHAPTER NO 3

DATA/METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH PARADIGMS
Paradigm is one that serves as a pattern or model. A set or list of all the inflectional forms of a
word or of one of its grammatical categories the paradigm of an irregular verb. It is a set of
assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitutes a way of viewing reality for the
community that shares them, especially in an intellectual discipline. (Erik Gktrk). By
definition, positivism is described generally as an approach to social research that seeks to apply
the natural science model of research to investigating social phenomena. It is based on the view
that "it is possible to develop knowledge systems which avoided theology, speculation and
metaphysics, and which rely exclusively on what can be observed" (Brown & Baker 2007, p.34).
In other words, positivism is concerned with uncovering truths and facts conceived in terms of
specified correlations and associations among variables (Gephart, 1999; Denscombe, 2002).
The interpretivism theoretical perspective, on the other hand, is a reaction against positivism.
The perspective is based on the philosophical doctrine of idealism which maintains the world
view that what we see around us is the creation of the mind, and that we can only experience the
world through our personal perceptions which are colored by our preconceptions and beliefs. In
other words, interpretivism rejects the methodological monism of positivism and refuses to view
the pattern set by natural sciences as an ideal for a rational understanding of reality.
Many social scientists (methodological purist most especially) regard the two stances as
incompatible with each other and argue that it is impossible to combine them as part of one

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research (Sale et al., 2002). Outside this research purists' school of thought however is another
group of researchers who represent a third methodological movement (Gorard & Taylor, 2004)
referred to in the literature by different terminologies, such as 'multiple research strategies'
(Burgess,1982); 'multi-methods research' and 'integrated research (Creswell, 2003); 'mixedmethods research' (Teddlie and Tashakkori, 2003), 'combined methods research' (Gorard
&Taylor,2004). This latter group of researchers believe that the divide between positivism and
interpretive (and perhaps what many authors erroneously infer as their respective underlying
quantitative and qualitative approaches) is overstated and overdrawn, and that a common ground
can be found.
Paradigm in this study is positivism as approach of the study is quantative in nature. This
paradigm helps to investigate social phenomena. It totally relies on what is being observed and
experienced. It is concerned with uncovering truths and facts of research.
3.2 RESEARCH APPROACHES
Quantitative approach is a good fit for deductive approaches, in which a theory or hypothesis
justifies the variables, the purpose statement, and the direction of the narrowly defined research
questions. The hypothesis being tested and the phrasing of the research questions govern how
data will be collected (i.e., a locally developed survey, commercial instrument, or final course
grades) as well as the method of statistical analysis used to examine the data (Creswell, 2002).
The purpose of quantitative studies is for the researcher to project his or her findings onto the
larger population through an objective process. Data collected, often through surveys
administered to a sample or subset of the entire population, allow the researcher to generalize or
make inferences. Results are interpreted to determine the probability that the conclusions found

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among the sample can be replicated within the larger population. Conclusions are derived from
data collected and measures of statistical analysis (Creswell, 2002; Thorne and Giessen, 2002).
Qualitative research is characterized by the collection and analysis of textual data (surveys,
interviews, focus groups, conversational analysis, observation, ethnographies (Olds et al., 2005)),
and by its emphasis on the context within which the study occurs. The research questions that
can be answered by qualitative studies are questions such as: What is occurring? Why does
something occur? How does one phenomenon affect another? While numbers can be used to
summarize qualitative data, answering these questions generally requires rich, contextual
descriptions of the data, what is often called "thick" description. Several texts provide
descriptions and examples of qualitative research in the social sciences (Creswell, 2007; Denzin
and Lincoln, 2005; Merriam, 2002; Patton, 2002).
Mixed methods has been described as the "third methodological movement" (following
quantitatively and qualitatively oriented approaches) (Teddlie and Tashakkori, 2003). Many
descriptions of mixed methods place it in the context of more established traditions, criticizing
some for being too divisive by artificially emphasizing differences, specifically the
"incompatibility thesis" (Howe, 1988) that quantitative and qualitative paradigms "cannot and
should not be mixed" (Johnson and Onwueghuzie, 2004, p. 14). Instead, they are proponents of
pragmatism, in which "[w]hat is most fundamental is the research question-research methods
should follow research questions in a way that offers the best chance to obtain useful answers"
(Johnson and Onwueghuzie, 2004, pp. 16-17).

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In this study quantitative research approach has been focuses as it provides results based on true
realities without the bias of researcher and participants. It can target larger population and data
can be collected and analyzed rapidly as compared to other approaches.
3.3POPULATION AND SAMPLING
3.3.1Population
In statistics, a population is an entire group about which some information is required to be
ascertained. A population for a research study may comprise groups of people defined in many
different ways. Population of this study is population of employee of textile industry.
3.3.2 Sampling
A sample is any part of the fully defined population. To make accurate inferences, the sample
has to be representative. A representative sample is one in which each and every member of the
population has an equal and mutually exclusive chance of being selected.
Sample size of this study is 150. Respondents to study are
3.3.3 Non random sampling
Non-random samples have certain limitations. The larger group (target population) is difficult to
identify. This may not be a limitation when generalization of results is not intended. The results
would be valid for the sample itself . They can, nevertheless, provide important clues for further
studies based on random samples. Another limitation of non-random samples is that statistical
inferences such as confidence intervals and tests of significance cannot be estimated from nonrandom samples. However, in some situations, the investigator has to make crucial judgments.
One should remember that random samples are the means but representativeness is the goal.

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When non-random samples are representative (compare the socio-demographic characteristics of


the sample subjects with the target population), generalization may be possible.
3.3.4 Random sampling
A sample may be defined as random if every individual in the population being sampled has an
equal likelihood of being included. Random sampling is the basis of all good sampling
techniques and disallows any method of selection based on volunteering or the choice of groups
of people known to be cooperative. A simple method of random sampling is to select a
systematic sample in which every nth person is selected from a list or from other ordering. Thus,
a sample can be drawn without an initial listing of all the subjects. Because of this feasibility, a
systematic sample may have some advantage over a simple random sample.
In this study stratified sampling method has been used to maintain a sample. It is very useful as it
creates a sub sample and covers a larger proportion in one sub sample. And there is no chance of
mistake in this sampling method and accuracy is higher. If a condition is unevenly distributed in
a population with respect to age, gender, or some other variable, it may be careful to choose a
stratified random sampling method. For example, to obtain a stratified random sample according
to age, the study population can be divided into age groups such as 05, 610, 1114, 1520, 21
25, and so on, depending on the requirement. A different proportion of each group can then be
selected as a subsample either by simple random sampling or systematic sampling. If the
condition decreases with advancing age, then to include adequate number in the older age
groups, one may select more numbers in older subsamples.

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3.4 MEASURES
In this case of training and development, employee motivation and knowledge, skills and
abilities are measured. Only respondent filled questionnaire will be used. Participant data was
obtained through in one survey with 5-point likert scale only. Participant will asked a few
questions. The survey contained a total of 18 questions and took approximately 10 to 15 minutes
to complete. Incomplete survey was not included in the survey. There were different measures
for the variables defined and were thought of with many complications. There were at least 5
questions in the survey obtaining data for one variable and some questions were directly
obtaining data with no complications. Measure for each variable is defined below:
Training and Development
Training and development was measure by asking five questions by using the 5-likert rating type
scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree
Employee Motivation
Employee motivation was measure by asking five questions by using the 5-likert rating type
scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree
Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

Knowledge, skills and abilities was measure by asking five questions by using 5-likert scale
ranging from
(1) Strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree

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3.5 Method of Data Collection


Channel and Kahn (1968) defined interview as "a two-person conversation initiated by the
interviewer for the specific purpose of obtaining research-relevant information, and focused by
him on content specified by research objectives of systematic description, prediction, or
explanation" [cited in (2): p.271]. Interview is a controlled conversation that the interviewer
obtains data required for the survey from the respondent by means of asking serious questions
verbally. During the course of interview nonverbal messages are also present and need to be
interpreted. Complex cognitive, affective and social feelings are involved in interviews.
The self-administered questionnaire is presented to the respondents by the researcher or by
someone in an official position such as schools' head teachers. Holroyd and Harlan (9: p. 326)
The purpose of the questionnaire is explained, and then the respondents are left alone to
complete the questionnaire, which may be sent or collected later. This method assures a high
response rate, accurate sampling, and minimum of bias, providing necessary explanations and
giving the benefit of personal contact. A questionnaire is a self-report instrument used for
collecting information needed for the survey. It consists of a number of questions or items on
paper that respondents reads and gives answers in written form.
In this study the method of questionnaire is used to collect data. As questionnaire is less time
consuming and collects data from a larger population and its results can be easily analyzed and
summarized. Purpose of the study and approach is quantitative in nature which also focuses to
collect data from respondents though questionnaire.

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3.6 Methodology:
What are "descriptive" and "inferential" statistics? The methods of descriptive statistics serve the
purpose of describing measurable characteristics of some set of entities (e.g., people, libraries,
circulation figures, periodical prices). Among the characteristics frequently used are the total,
counts and percentages in subsets, the median, the arithmetic and geometric means, the range,
and the standard deviation: e.g., median number of books written by individual authors,
(arithmetic) mean daily number of journals circulated, geometric mean annual increase in the
size of a collection, range of the number of reference inquiries in a day, and standard deviation of
the number of patrons using the card catalog at the same time. The techniques of descriptive
statistics include determining numerical values for such characteristics, summarizing them, and
displaying them in tables, graphs, charts, etc.
The methods of inferential statistics center around the process of examining a sample of data
about some set of entities of interest - such a set is called a "population"- and, through use of the
evidence available in the sample, making an inference about some characteristic of the
population. The goals are to make correct inferences, to avoid incorrect inferences, and to have a
clear idea of just how likely it is that a particular inference is correct. The usual path to this goal
is to make explicit a statement, called a "statistical hypothesis," concerning the population
characteristic and then to apply a statistical technique to the evidence in the sample in order to
reach a decision either to accept or reject the hypothesis.
Reliability is the degree to which measures are free from error and therefore yield consistent
results (i.e. the consistency of a measurement procedure). If a measurement device or procedure
consistently assigns the same score to individuals or objects with equal values, the instrument is
considered reliable. Reliability involves the consistency, or reproducibility, of test scores i.e., the
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degree to which one can expect relatively constant deviation scores of individuals across testing
situations on the same, or parallel, testing instruments.
A Histogram is a vertical bar chart that depicts the distribution of a set of data. Unlike Run
Charts or Control Charts, which are discussed in other modules, a Histogram does not reflect
process performance over time. It's helpful to think of a Histogram as being like a snapshot,
while a Run Chart or Control Chart is more like a movie
A scatter diagram is a tool for analyzing relationships between two variables. One variable is
plotted on the horizontal axis and the other is plotted on the vertical axis. The pattern of their
intersecting points can graphically show relationship patterns. Most often a scatter diagram is
used to prove or disprove cause-and-effect relationships. While the diagram shows relationships,
it does not by itself prove that one variable causes the other. In addition to showing possible
cause and-effect relationships, a scatter diagram can show that two variables are from a common
cause that is unknown or that one variable can be used as a surrogate for the other.
Correlation is a statistical measurement of the relationship between two variables. Possible
correlations range from +1 to 1. A zero correlation indicates that there is no relationship
between the variables. A correlation of 1 indicates a perfect negative correlation, meaning that
as one variable goes up, the other goes down. A correlation of +1 indicates a perfect positive
correlation, meaning that both variables move in the same direction together. (Kendra cherry)
A statistical technique used to find relationships between variables for the purpose of predicting
future values. t is a statistical method for examining how an outcome variable y depends on one
or more explanatory variables x. Linear regression with more than one explanatory variable
makes it possible to Combine many explanatory variables for optimal understanding &/or
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prediction, examine the unique contribution of each explanatory variable, holding the levels of
the other variables constant. Hence, multiple regressions enable us to perform, in a setting of
observational research, a rough approximation to experimental analysis.

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CHAPTER NO 4

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS


To make analysis of data SPSS software is used. Different tests are used to analyze the data. For
check the frequency of the data use descriptive analysis and for check the normality of the data
use histogram and for check the relationship is positive or negative use scatter plot. Histogram is
used to check the variable can support each other or not and at the end use median to see whether
the hypothesis is accepted or rejected.

Reliability analysis: Table 1: Reliability test


SR#

Variable Name

Item

Value of Cranachs Alpha

Training & Development

0.807

Knowledge, Skills, Abilities

0.731

Employee Motivation

0.738

Interpretation:
The above table depicts about the reliability test which is also known as cronbach alphas value.
We can see that the value of cronbach alpha for training and development is 0.807, knowledge
skills abilities have 0.731 and employee motivation has a value of 0.738. As we can see that all
the values are greater than 0.70 hence we can say that the data which we have collected from 150
respondents is reliable and we can continue to perform our other tests.

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DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
In descriptive analysis we describe and understand the data. In descriptive analysis we will:

Summarize the data

Measure of central tendency

Measure of dispersion

Checking data normality

Data file management

Recode and transform variables

Data Analysis:
In data analysis we will first do analysis for the nominal and ordinal variables.

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AGE:
Age is an ordinal variable, in order to conduct analysis for this variable we will create frequency
distribution table and bar chart which shows that in our respondents which age group is taking
major part and which age group is at lowest participation.
Table 1: Age
Age
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Less than 25 Years

26

17.4

17.4

17.4

25-35 Years

59

39.6

39.6

57.0

35-45 Years

52

34.9

34.9

91.9

45 or more

12

8.1

8.1

100.0

149

100.0

100.0

Total

From the above table we can see that there were 149 total questionnaires filled by the
respondents. In the above table we can see that out of 149 there are 59 respondents with highest
participation of age group 25-35 years. The lowest participated age group in questionnaire was
45 or more years of age. There are only 12 respondents of that age group whereas other age
groups have also contributed preferably

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GENDER:
Now we will prepare frequency distribution table for gender variable. It is a nominal variable in
which we will find out that in our respondents who responded us more.
Table 2: Frequency Gender

Gender
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Male

82

55.0

55.0

55.0

Female

67

45.0

45.0

100.0

149

100.0

100.0

Total

From the above frequency distribution table we can see that the majority is of male respondents
who are 82 out of 149 respondents and females are 67 out of 149.

ANALYSIS OF SCALE VARIABLES:


Analysis of scale variables are also a part of descriptive analysis. Now we will analyze the scale
variables in order to check their normality of data and their mean, median and mode.

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Table 3: descriptive Statistics

Statistics
TND
N

Valid

149

Missing

Mean

3.6251

Median

3.7143

Mode

3.71

Std. Deviation

.61792

Minimum

1.43

Maximum

4.86
Statistics

KSA
N

Valid

149

Missing

Mean

3.6295

Median

3.8000

Mode

3.80

Std. Deviation

.61661

Minimum

1.40

Maximum

5.00
Statistics

EM
N

Valid
Missing

148
1

Mean

3.7297

Median

3.8000

Mode

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Std. Deviation

.63967

Minimum

1.60

Maximum

4.60

Interpretation:
The above table is known as five figure summary in which we can see that the value of T&D
variable of mean, median and mode are almost same i.e. close to 3.7. From this we can say that
most of the respondents have checked the neutral and to some extent agree option in the
questionnaire i.e. respondents are agreed on what is asked from them in the T&D section.
From the above table we can see that there are 149 total valid respondents and there is no
missing value. From the above five figure summary we can see that the respondents have
selected mostly 4th option or nearer to forth option which is agree in the questionnaire because
the value of mean, median and mode is closer to 4.00 i.e. 3.8. If we check the upper quartile then
we can see that it is exactly 4.00.
From the above table we can see that the values of mean, median and mode are close to 4 i.e.
most of the respondents have selected 4th option that means respondents agreed on what we have
asked them.

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Training & Development:


Figure 2: Histogram

The above graph is known as histogram. As


we can see that the respondents have select the
option closer to 4th one. Overall we can see
that the data of the variable T&D is normally
distributed because it shows a symmetric
distribution of mean, median and mode and it can also be confirmed through the shape of the
curve as it is bell shaped.
Knowledge, Skills, Abilities:

Figure 3: Histogram KSA

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The above histogram shows that the data is normally distributed among the variable it is because
the shape of the curve in histogram is bell shaped. It also proves that the data is in symmetry
form and the mean, median and mode are almost equal to each other.

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION:
Figure 4: Histogram Employee motivation

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From the above histogram table we can see that the data is normally distributed and in
symmetrical form because the curve is in bell shaped. The symmetrical form of curve shows that
the value of mean, median and mode are close to each other.

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS:
In inferential statistics we conclude our results & analysis in between two or more than two
variables, their relationship and the difference between them. In inferential statistics, we conduct
two types of tests which are:

Non Parametric Test

Parametric Test

The above mentioned tests also include further types of tests.


In this project we are going to apply first non parametric test in which we will conduct Chi
square/Fisher exact, Phi & Cramers V, Kendall tau-b
As in this thesis, there is only one ordinal and one nominal variable therefore we cannot apply
Chi-square, Fisher exact, Phi and Cramers V test. We will now directly conduct correlations.
CORRELATIONS:
Assumptions for Pearson correlation are:

Data should be independent

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Both variables are scale

Data should be normally distributed

Both scales variables have linear relationship.

Outliers can have a big effect on the correlation.

The two scale variables which we have selected are Training & Development & KSA.
Firstly we will verify the assumption through histogram that the histogram of T&D & KSA
should give bell shape curve to show that data is normally distributed.

Figure 5: Histogram KSA Training and development

The above histograms confirm that the data is normally distributed because the shape of their
curves is bell shaped which confirms that the data is normally distributed and is symmetrical in
nature. Now we will apply scatter plot test to check the linear relationship between the variables.

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Figure 6: Scatter plot KSA

The scatter plot shows that there is a linear relationship between the variables because the
difference between linear and quadratic lines 0.006 which is less than 0.05 hence we will now
apply Pearson correlation.

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Table 4: Correlation

Correlations

TND
TND

Pearson Correlation

KSA
1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N
Pearson Correlation

.631

**

.000
149

149

**

.631

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

149

149

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

From the above correlations table we can see that the significance value which is known as p
value is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 hence we will accept H1 therefore we can say that there is a
relationship between T&D and KSA. The effect size value given in the table is 0.631 which
shows there is a moderate relationship between the variables according to the Cohens model.
Now we will check the assumptions for T&D and Employee Motivation

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Figure 7: TND, EMPLOYEE Motivation

The above histograms shows that the curves in both of the graphs are bell shaped which confirms
that the data is normally distributed and it also confirms that the data is in symmetrical form.
Now we will conduct scatter plot test to check the linear relationship between the variables.

Figure 8: Scatter plot employee motivation

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The above scatter plot shows that the difference between linear and quadratic line is 0.002 which
is less than 0.05 hence we can say that there is a linear relationship between the variables and we
will now conduct Pearson correlation.
Table 5: Correlation
Correlations

TND
TND

Pearson Correlation

E.Motivation
1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N
E.Motivation

Pearson Correlation

.572

**

.000
149

148

**

.572

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

148

148

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The correlations table shows that the significance value is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 therefore
we will now accept H1 and it confirms that there is a relationship between T&D and Employee
Motivation. The effect size value is 0.572 which shows that there is a moderate relationship
between the variables.
For further,we will conduct the assumptions for KSA and Employee Motivation.

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Figure 9: KSA Employee Motivation

The above histograms shows that the data is normally distributed and it is in symmetrical form as
the curves are in bell shaped. Now we will conduct scatter plot test.
Figure 10: scatter plot employee motivation

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The above scatter plot shows that there is a linear relationship between the variables because the
difference between linear and quadratic lines is 0.011 which is less than 0.05 hence we will
conduct Pearson Correlations.
Table 6: Correlation KSA employee motivation
Correlations

KSA
KSA

Pearson Correlation

E.Motivation
1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N
E.Motivation

Pearson Correlation

.697

**

.000
149

148

**

.697

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

148

148

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The above table shows that the p value is 0.000 which is less than 0.005 therefore we will accept
H1 and therefore there is a relationship between variables and the effect size value is 0.697 which
shows moderate relationship between variables.

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REGRESSION
A statistical measure that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between one
dependent variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of other changing variable(known as
independent variables). There are two types of regression tests which we apply. These are
described below:
Simple Regression
Multiple Regressions

Simple Regression:
In Simple Regression, we check the effect of one independent variable on the one dependent
variable. It includes single variables only. In our research we have conducted four different
simple regression tests which are:
i.

KSA and T&D

ii.

Employee Motivation and T&D

There are some assumptions which should be fulfilled in order to conduct simple regression test.
These assumptions are as follows:

Dependent variable should be scale

The relationship of variables should be linear

Data should be independent

Data should be normally distributed

Now we will discuss one by one our tests of simple regression of our variables.
Firstly, we will discuss the simple regression of KSA and T&D.

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Its first two assumptions are already fulfilled that the data of variables must be independent and
the dependent variable must be scale. Now we will check the histogram to verify the normality
of data of both variables.

Figure 11: KSA & Employee Motivation

From the above graphs we conclude that the data in both of the variables are normally distributed
because the shape of the curves is bell shaped. Now we will conduct scatter plot test to check the
linear relationship.

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Figure 12: Scatter plot TND

From the above scatter plot it is clearly shown that there is a relationship between these two
variables as the difference between linear and quadratic line is 0.003 which is less than 0.05
hence we can now apply simple regression and the scatter plot also shows that the data is
positively skewed.

Table 7: Regression Model Summary


Model Summary

Model
1

R
.631

R Square
a

.398

Adjusted R

Std. Error of the

Square

Estimate
.394

.48090

a. Predictors: (Constant), KSA

The above model summary table depicts that the independent variable KSA has 39.4% effect on
the dependent variable i.e. T&D. This value came by multiplying the value of adjusted R square
with 100.

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Table 8: ANOVA
b

ANOVA
Model
1

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Regression

22.513

22.513

Residual

33.996

147

.231

Total

56.509

148

Sig.

97.347

.000

a. Predictors: (Constant), KSA


b. Dependent Variable: TND

The anova table tells that the significance value is 0.000 which is less than 0.05 hence we can say
that the model is good fit.
Table 9: Coefficients
Coefficients

Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)

KSA

Std. Error
1.329

.236

.633

.064

Coefficients
Beta

.631

Sig.

5.633

.000

9.866

.000

a. Dependent Variable: TND

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Regression equation:
Y=a+bx
Here,
y= dependent variable
a= constant
b= slope coefficient, x= independent variable
T&D=1.329+0.633(KSA)+0.480
Here T&D is our dependent variable which is denoted by Y , the value of constant is 1.329,
the value of slope of coefficient is 0.633 , our independent variable is KSA and 0.480 is
the standard error value which taken from the model summary table it represents the standard
error value which is normally exist in every model, which is ignored up to 5%. The significance
value of constant is 0.000 and the significance value of the KSA is 0.000 which is less than 0.05
so overall our model is good fit.
Now we have Employee Motivation in independent variable and T&D in dependent variable. We
apply the regression after fulfilling the following assumptions. As we already know that the data
of dependent variable is normally distributed therefore we do not check its normality again in
this part.
Figure 13: TND & Employee Motivation

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The above histograms confirms that the


data is normally distributed and the data is
symmetrical in its nature i.e. the values of
mean, median and mode are almost equal to
each other and the bell shaped curve proves
that the data is normally distributed.
Now we will perform scatter plot test in order to check the linear relationship.
Figure 14: Scatter plot TND

The scatter plot depicts that the difference between linear and quadratic line is 0.02 which is less
than 0.05 therefore there is a linear relationship between employee motivation and training&
development. The direction of linear line from right to left also confirms that the data is

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positively skewed. Now as the assumptions of the regression is fulfilled we will apply simple
regression.
Table 15: Model Summary Regression
Model Summary

Model

.572

Adjusted R

Std. Error of the

Square

Estimate

R Square
a

.327

.323

.51022

a. Predictors: (Constant), E.Motivation

The above model summary table describes that independent variable i.e. Employee Motivation
has 32.3% effect on the dependent variable which is Training & Development.
Table 10: ANOVA
b

ANOVA
Model
1

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Regression

18.493

18.493

Residual

38.008

146

.260

Total

56.501

147

F
71.039

Sig.
.000

a. Predictors: (Constant), E.Motivation


b. Dependent Variable: TND

The above anova table shows that the significance value which is denoted as p value is 0.000
which is less than 0.05 hence we can say that our model is good fit.

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Table 11: Regression Coefficient


Coefficients

Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)

E.Motivation

Std. Error
1.556

.249

.554

.066

Coefficients
Beta

.572

Sig.

6.252

.000

8.428

.000

a. Dependent Variable: TND

Regression equation:
Y=a+bx
Here,
y= dependent variable
a= constant
b= slope coefficient, x= independent variable
T&D=1.556+0.554(E.Motivation)+0.510
Here T&D is our dependent variable which is denoted by Y , the value of constant is 1.556,
the value of slope of coefficient is 0.554 , our independent variable is E.Motivation and
0.510 is the standard error value which taken from the model summary table it represents the
standard error value which is normally exist in every model, which is ignored up to 5%. The
significance value of constant is 0.000 and the significance value of the Employee Motivation is
0.000 which is less than 0.05 so overall our model is good fit.

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CHAPTER NO 5

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


5.1 Discussion
The textile and clothing industry accounts for 46 percent of the total manufacturing and provides
employment to 38 percent of the manufacturing labor force. The availability of basic raw
material for the textile industry i.e. cotton, has played a significant role in the growth of the
industry because of which Pakistan has been able to prove its strength in the world by sustaining
its position and growth. According to the survey report 25% contribution in Pakistans economy
is of industries in which 57.5% contribution is of textile industry. Major production is of cotton,
it represents growth of 3.7% in the GDP of the country. Pakistans textile participate sin 2% of
the world trade and it is also a source of employment of labor in the country as well. As this
sector is the most important sector in the country and needs for improvement always exist. This
sector includes oldest and traditional types of businesses, so there lays a chance of applying
modern techniques and methods through study, research and development. As this being the
major source of employment and labor force hirer this sector is also under study of human
resource management research. (Scott and clothier) has defined human resource management as
a study of those operational functions which are related to management and people concerns. It
has many functions including staffing, selection, recruitment, training and development and
compensation etc. function focused in the study is primarily training and development. Topic of
the study is to investigate the impact of training and development on employee motivation.
Training and development as independent variable, employee motivation as a dependent
variable, along with intervening variables of knowledge, skills and abilities in the study. Purpose
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of the study is to explore the impact of training and development on employee motivation in
textile industry sector. This study will help managers and policy makers to make policies. It will
prove a credible research opportunity for future reseacrhers and add value in the context of
knowledge. And it will help to uncover new dimensions of study and outcomes in developing
countries.
Yin Chow, Chang, & Burgess, (2005) Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading
Abilities in HongKong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second
Language. The finding of this article was the results showed that phonological awareness still
explained significant variance in Chinese word reading even when visual skills were controlled.
Thus,phonological awareness is not only important for Learning alphabetical languages but also
for Chinese reading acquisition.Weitz, Sharish, & Sujan,( oct 1986) Knowledge, Motivation
and Adaptive Behavior its a framework for improving selling effectiveness this study shows
that knowledge sharing and giving direction to the employees is the advance motivation factor in
an Organiation on the basis of these proposition suggestion are made for selecting Training
managing and compensative sales people that how they can motivated through these factors. In
this article training and development, Knowledge and managing variables are used for the
motivation of employees,for the devolment of the employees their should be a experts system tha
examine the contnent of knowledge rather then individual refrences.on the basis of a survey of
industrial and organiational the researcher use the simple random sampling method to evaluate
these factors. In the recent research they conluded that the sales pepole must adjust to the
specific customers by using these factors.
Bhattacharya, Gibson, & Doty,( 1989)The Effects of Flexibility in Employee Skills, Employee
Behavior and HR Practices on Firm Performance Current Strategic Humman resource
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Management theory suggest that employee skills, employee behavior and good HR practices are
the dominent variables for employee motivation and they are directly related to firm
Performance. Skill flexibility can be generated in two different ways first one is by taking good
approch by field enviornment or by taking the good output from your organizations.Employee
skill flexibilty factor is directly related to firm financial enhancemnet and positive motivation of
employees. the firm included in this study were choosen from the industrial machinary the food
and grossry industry the equuipment industry . 629 pepole were survey through this study thet
concluded that employee skill flexibility employee behavior and good HR practices were the
dominent factors of motivation in an organization.
Paradigm in this study is positivism as approach of the study is quantative in nature. This
paradigm helps to investigate social phenomena. It totally relies on what is being observed and
experienced. It is concerned with uncovering truths and facts of research. Quantitative research
approach has been focused as it provides results based on true realities without the bias of
researcher and participants. It can target larger population and data can be collected and analyzed
rapidly as compared to other approaches. Population of this study is population of employee of
textile industry. Sample size is 150. Stratified sampling method has been used to maintain a
sample. It is very useful as it creates a sub sample and covers a larger proportion in one sub
sample. And there is no chance of mistake in this sampling method and accuracy is higher.
Training and development, employee motivation and knowledge, skills and abilities are
measured. Only respondent filled questionnaire will be used. Participant data was obtained
through in one survey with 5-point likert scale only. Participant will asked a few questions. The
survey contained a total of 18 questions. The method of questionnaire is used to collect data. As
questionnaire is less time consuming and collects data from a larger population and its results
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can be easily analyzed and summarized. Purpose of the study and approach is quantitative in
nature which also focuses to collect data from respondents though questionnaire. The reliability
test which is also known as Cronbach alphas value, for training and development is 0.807,
knowledge skills abilities have 0.731 and employee motivation has a value of 0.738. From the
frequency distribution table we can see that the majority is of male respondents who are 82 out
of 149 respondents and females are 67 out of 149. The bar chart describes that male respondents
are more than female respondents. Bar chart is the graphical format of frequency distribution
table. Overall we can see that the data of the variables is normally distributed because it shows a
symmetric distribution of mean, median and mode and it can also be confirmed through the
shape of the curve as it is bell shaped. Significance value which is known as p value is 0.000
which is less than 0.05 hence we will accept hypothesis therefore we can say that there is a
relationship between T&D, KSA and Employee motivation. T&D is our dependent variable in
regression which is denoted by Y, the value of constant is 1.329, the value of slope of
coefficient is 0.633, our independent variable isKSA and in second equation T&D is our
dependent variable which is denoted by Y, the value of constant is 1.556, the value of slope
of coefficient is 0.554, our independent variable is Employee motivation. Significant relation
is there between variables.

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5.2 CONCLUSION
This research has resulted in proved hypothesis. There exists a relationship between employee
motivation and training and development as well as employee motivation and employee
knowledge, skills and abilities. Training and development impact positively and enhance
employee motivation to do the work and thus it enhances knowledge, skills and abilities as well.
Conclusion depicts clear direction and focus for organizations to adopt and implement or rather
concentrate on these for improvement.
5.3 IMPLICATION

Study will help in practical implementations and will help managers to develop better strategies
for organizations and employees. And it will help policy makers to develop new and better
policies. It will add aid to economic and financial decision criteria of policies.
5.4 LIMITATIONS

Limitation exist in the study due to limited resources there exists limitation in study. And
questionnaire has no doubt provided data for research but it lacks to describe the behaviors of
respondents related to the study.
5.6 Future Research
It will help future researchers for further research on the relevant topic. It will expand the
horizon of study for future research. It is also an opportunity for researchers in developing
countries as well as most of the previous research is done in developed countries. It will help to
unleash the dimensions of culture and environment.
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References:
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Motivation to Learn. ILR Collection , 18, 33-62.
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PERFORMANCE IN TEAMS AS MEDIATED BY WORK CHARACTERISTICS, SOCIAL
EXCHANGES, AND EMPOWERMENT. Academy of Management Journal , 46, 591-607.
Danish, R. Q. (2010). Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An
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Ramlall, S. (2004). A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their Implications for Employee
Retention within Organizations. The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge , 52-63.
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LEVEL:A MULTIPLE -LEVEL MODEL OF EMPOWERMENT, PERFORMANCE, AND
SATISFACTION. Academy of Management Journal , 47, 332-349.
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Nadeem, M. (2010). Role of Training in Determining the Employee Corporate Behavior with Respect to
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Aguinis, H., & Kraiger, k. Benet sof Training and Development for individuals and teams, organization
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Questionnaire

Impact of Training and Development on Employee Motivation:

Dear participant,
The aim of the following survey is to examine the impact of Training and Development on employee
motivation. I am the student of Superior University and the survey has been conducted by me for my
thesis purpose. It will take only 10min to complete this survey. All the information provided by you will
be kept confidential.
Thanks for your time and
cooperation.

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Name (optional)
1. Age
Less than 25 years
25 35 year
35 45 year
45 plus
2. Gender
Male
Female
3. Nature of your job
Primary job
Part time job
4. Organizational Level
Local
Multinational
5. Department
6. Designation
Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement using the scale given
below. Please mark the appropriate answer.

Strongly Agree

Agree

Scale
Neutral

Disagree

1
2
3

4
5
6
7

Training and Development


I agree with my organization T&D policy 5
My organization regularly accesses the 5
T&D needs of the employees.
My company sponsors the training and 5
development
program
for
every
employee.
My company organize the formal 5
succession planning program,
I think In house training a good of 5
training the employees.
I think T&D can help a employee to 5
increase its productivity.
I feel out-house T&D can be more 5
beneficial for the employee

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Strongly
Disagree
1

4
4

3
3

2
2

1
1

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Knowledge Skills Abilities


1
2
3

4
5

1
2
3

4
5

I find it easy to predict myself in the


position of Others
I am able to make most people feel
comfortable around me
It is easy for me to develop good link
with most people; I understand people
well
I am good at getting others to respond
positively to me
I usually try to find common ground with
others

Employee Motivation
I feel that management play a god role in 5
motivating the employees.
I am satisfied with my company 5
incentive.
I feel that possibility of getting promotion 5
can increase the motivation level of the
employees.
I feel giving credit and recognition to
5
employees also increase the motivation level.
I feel that supervisor supports can also 5
increase the motivation level.

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