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# International Applied Mechanics, Vol. 38, No.

3, 2002

## ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF CHANGED CURVATURE AND LOAD DISTRIBUTION

ON THE DEFORMATION OF A FLEXIBLE LONG CYLINDRICAL SHELL
Ya. M. Grigorenko and Yu. B. Kasyan

UDC 539.3

The effect of changed curvature and load distribution on the deflectionload relationship is studied
based on the exact analytical solutions of the nonlinear problem on the deformation of a flexible long
noncircular cylindrical shell with clamped and hinged edges under a nonuniform normal load. Graphs
show how changes in the curvature and load parameters affect the upper critical load.
In many works, the critical loads for flexible shells under deformation are determined from a linearized theory [1, 3, 4].
Such an approach introduces an error and gives no information on the postcritical behavior of the shell. Therefore, to determine
the critical loads and the behavior of flexible shells over the entire domain of deformation, it is expedient to use a geometrically
nonlinear theory [3, 6, 11]. It is of interest to study the deformation of shells upon changes in the curvature and the load
distribution.
Here we use the exact solutions obtained in a closed form in [5, 9, 10] to analyze, in a geometrically nonlinear
formulation, how changes in the curvature and the nonuniform distribution of a normal load over the cross section affect the
deformation of an infinitely long noncircular cylindrical shell with clamped and hinged longitudinal edges. The problem is
solved over the entire interval of deformation, i.e., in the subcritical and postcritical domains.
Adopting the equations of the MushtariDonnelVlasov theory of shells [2, 7, 8], we have the following resolving
equations for the class of shells under consideration:
DM

d 4w
dy 4
DN

2
dv

1 dw d 2 w

= D N k y w +
+ k y + q,

2
2 dy dy
dy

d 2v
dy 2

d 2 w dw
dw dk y
= D N
+ky
+
wy ,
2
dy
dy

dy dy

(1)

where y is the directrix coordinate ( b y b ), w and v are the normal and tangential displacements, k y ( y ) is the curvature in
Eh
Eh 3
the cross section of the shell, q( y ) is the normal load, D M =
and D N =
are the bending and tangential
2
12(1 v )
12(1 v 2 )
rigidities, h is the shell thickness, E is Youngs modulus, and v is Poissons ratio. Let us consider two alternatives of fixing the
longitudinal edges with the following boundary conditions:
(i) clamping
w( b ) = 0,

dw
dy

= 0,

v ( b ) = 0,

(2)

y= b

(ii) hinging

S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev. Translated from Prikladnaya
Mekhanika, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 8185, March 2002. Original article submitted April 18, 2001.
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## 1063-7095/02/3803-0324\$27.00 2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation

d 2w

w( b ) = 0,

dy 2

= 0,

v ( b ) = 0.

(3)

y= b

One of the conditions for the function v can be replaced by the requirement that the edges do not converge,
b

dv
= v ( b ) v ( b ) = 0.
dy

(4)

## The curvature and load generally vary as quartic polynomials

k y ( y ) = 1 + 1 y 2 + 1 y 4 ,
q y ( y ) = 2 + 2 y 2 + 2 y 4 .

(5)

## Let us introduce the dimensionless quantities

=

y
( 1 1),
b

Q0* =

b2
q0 ,
k0 DM

2 =

* =

b2
N y,
DM
1

k0

b2

w,

K0 =
* =

b2
k0 ,
h
1

k 02 b 3

v,

(6)

where k 0 = 1/ r0 = const is the curvature, r0 is the radius of the circular shell, and q 0 = q( 0) = const is a uniformly distributed
In this case, the curvature and load are expressed as follows:
K = K 0 [1+ P (1 3 2 ) + R (1 5 4 )],
Q * = Q0* [1+ A (1 3 2 ) + B (1 5 4 )],

(7)

where
K=

b2
k y ( y ),
h

Q* =

b2
q( y ).
k0 DM

(8)

After separating out one quadrature, we represent the resolving equations (1) as
*( 4 ) + 2 *( 2 ) = Q0* F 2 G,
2
1
( * ) = [( * ) ] 2 + G *
,
2
12K 02

(9)

where
G ( ) = 1+ P (1 3 2 ) + R (1 5 4 ),
F ( ) = 1+ A (1 3 2 ) + B (1 5 4 ).

(10)

In the dimensionless quantities, the boundary conditions (2) and (3) take the form, respectively,
* ( 1) = 0,

( * ) ( 1) = 0,

* ( 1) = 0,

(11)

* ( 1) = 0,

( * ) ( 1) = 0,

* ( 1) = 0.

(12)
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After integrating the first equation of system (9) under the boundary conditions (11) and (12), we write the exact
solution of the nonlinear boundary-value problem for clamped and hinged longitudinal contours as
6P + 20R 120R Q0*
* = 1+

2
4 2

P R 5R Q0*
+ +

4 2 2 2

## 6A + 20B 120B cos cos 1 2

+

1+

2
2
4 sin

A B 5B
2 2
+ 2 (1 )
4
2

R Q* R
+ 0 (1 2 ) 3 ,
4 2 6

f1 ( , K 0 , Q0* , P , R , A , B ) = 0,

6P + 60R 120R Q0*
* = 1 2P 4R +

2
4 2

cos cos 1 2

+
2 cos
2

(13)

6A + 60B 120B

1 2A 4B +

2
4

P R 5R Q0*
+ +

4 2 2 2

A B 5B
+ 2
4 2

R Q* R
(1 2 ) 3 ,
(1 2 ) 2 ( 5 2 ) 0
6 2 6

f 2 ( , K 0 , Q0* , P , R , A , B ) = 0.

(14)

The nonlinear equations f1 = 0 and f 2 = 0 contain algebraic and trigonometric functions of the specified unknowns and
parameters and allow us, for fixed values of K 0 , P, R, A, and B, to find the dependence of the dimensionless function , which
determines the tangential force N y in the cross section of the shell, on the dimensionless load Q0* . The expressions of the
functions f1 and f 2 are given in [9, 10]. Using the values of and Q0* and the expressions for * and fixing at a certain value,
from solutions (13) and (14) we find the dependence of the dimensionless deflection * on Q0* .
Based on the exact solutions (13) and (14), we will analyze how changes in the curvature and load distribution affect the
deformation of a flexible cylindrical shell. We will consider the deformation of the shell in a section of the greatest interest for
= 0 and various values of the parameters P, R, A, and B.
Let us consider the behavior of the shell with clamped longitudinal edges, when K 0 = 3.75. Figure 1 shows the
dependence of the dimensionless deflection * on the dimensionless load Q0* . The figures near the curves specify the curvature
1) R = 0.4,

B = 0.2,

2) R = 0.3,

B = 0.2,

3) R = 0.4,

B = 0,

4) R = 0.2,

B = 0.2,

5) R = 0.3,

B = 0,

6) R = 0.2,

B =0

( P = A = 0).

(15)

From Fig. 1, it is seen that for identical values of the parameters P, A, and B, curves 1, 2, and 4 show how the curvature
parameter R affects the deformation of the shell under a nonuniform load. In this case, the maximum upper critical load Q0*
decreases 1.16 and 1.37 times, respectively, i.e., a snap occurs under a smaller load. For a uniformly distributed load in ( B = 0),
curves 3, 5, and 6 have a similar tendency, and upon change in the curvature parameter R, the upper critical load Q0* decreases
1.15 and 1.29 times, respectively. Comparing curves 1, 2, and 4 for the nonuniform load ( B 0) and curves 3, 5, and 6 for the
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Q*0

Q*0

6
24

12

2
3
4

3
4

5
6

0.4

0.8

5
6

0.4

Fig. 1

0.8

1.2

Fig. 2

uniform load (B = 0), we see that for identical values of the curvature parameter R, changes in the load parameter B decrease the
upper critical load Q0* 1.28, 1.24, and 1.20 times, respectively.
Also from a comparison of curves 2 and 4 with curve 3, it follows that while for R = 0.3 and B = 0.2 (graph 2) the upper
critical load is higher than that for curve 3 (R = 0.4 and B = 0), already for R = 0.2 and B = 0.2 (curve 4) it becomes lower than the
critical load for curve 3. This is due to the fact that the nature of the load changes together with the curvature parameter.
Let us consider the deformation of the shell with hinged longitudinal edges, when K 0 = 1.5. Figure 2 shows the
dependence of the deflection * on the load Q0* . The figures near the curves specify the curvature and load parameters,
1) P = 0,

R = 0.3,

A = 0,

B = 0.2,

2) P = 0.3,

R = 0,

A = 0.2,

B = 0,

3) P = 0.2,

R = 0,

A = 0.2,

B = 0,

4) P = 0,
5) P = 0.2,
6) P = 0,

R = 0,
R = 0,
R = 0,

A = 0,
A = 0.2,
A = 0.2,

B = 0.2,
B = 0,
B = 0.2.

(16)

From a comparison of curves 2 and 3 in Fig. 2, it follows that for identical values of the parameters R, A, and B, the upper
critical load decreases 1.11 times with decrease in the curvature. When the curvature and load vary as quartic polynomials (curve
1), the upper critical value increases 1.13 times compared with curve 2. Comparing curves 4 and 6 for identical values of the
parameters P, R, and A, we see that the upper critical load Q0* decreases 1.36 times when the degree of load nonuniformity
changes. From a comparison of curves 3 and 5 for identical values of the parameters P, R, and B, it follows that the upper critical
load Q0* decreases 1.19 times upon change in the degree of load nonuniformity.
Note that as the load Q0* increases, the quantity , characterizing the tangential force N y , also increases, reaching its
maximum in the initial postcritical domain between the snap and snap-back. After that, decreases with increase in Q0* .
Therefore, from the graphs * Q0* we can infer the dependence of the tangential force N

## on Q0* . The graphs of this

dependence can be constructed on the basis of the equations f1 = 0 and f 2 = 0 from (13) and (14).

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Thus, from the above analysis, we can infer the effect of changed curvature and load distribution on the upper critical

load Q0* , which should be taken into account in selecting rational parameters for designing and manufacturing flexible elements
of structures and devices.

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