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Optimization of the Preliminary Design

and Cost Evaluation of Fishing Vessels


Elas Kariambas, National Technical University of Athens1

Apostolos Papanikolaou,
1. Introduction

Our compllter-aided system for preliminary design and cost evalllation of medim-size fishing vessels (Papanikolaou et
1989,1991) compared the finally selected vessel (a "feasible",
not necessarily optimal ] with a "statistically mean vessel" (based available data
databases). We compared costs, assming the two vessels were otherwise of eqllal
technical design characteristics (owner's reqirements, design criteria and constraints). Now,
an additional formal optimization enables the preliminary design and cost evalllation
of optimized medim-size fishery vessels (LOA : 10m -;-28m).

~. Optimization

Procedure

The independent variables, parameters, constraints, and criteria have to be defined first.
.interactive PC program allows llser-specified starting vallles and bonds differing from defallt
(Table 1). However, violation of the given limits for the design variables to a certain
degree can lead to significant errors.
Table : Design variables and constraints with standard bonds
Design Variable
Overalllength (m)
Overalllength/width
width/depth
prismatic coefficient

Lower
Bond
10
3
1.75
0.55

Upper

30
4.5
2.15
0.75

Constraint
FHV aclieved/reqired
Freeboard achieved/reqired
GM achieved/reqired
width/ draft

Lower

1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0

Upper
Bond
1.3
1.2
1.2
4.5

The parameters of the problem are divided into two categories:


Technical
Type (trawler, seiner, mixed)
Construction material (steel, wood, GRP)
Fishhold (FHV) (m3)
Speed free rn condition (kn)
Towing speed (kn)
Range days
Range sm (free rn)
Range sm (towing condition)
Crew accommodated
Type of main engine (medilm, high speed)
mber of main engines
Weight of nets (kp)
Weight of fishing eqipment (tons)
Refrigeration type

Economical
cost (detailed approx.)
cost
Inflation rate
Nmber of trips per year
Ftel cost
Crew salaries
verage lltilization of fishllOld capacity
verage fish price
Duration of economicallife of the vessel
Vallle of vessel at end of its economicallife
Bank interest
Sllbsidy vallle
Loan vallle
Way of acqittance of the loan
Loan interest

Parameters can be llser-specified or defallts from set databases (e.g. the standard main
engine is assmed to be ofhigh-speed type, the standard economicallife of the vessel is 25 years).
lDept. of &, Heroon Polytecl1l1ion, Zografon, GR-15773 Atllens, Greece

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- -'-

--'--

...: : : : :-:.,
:
~

ACcOMODAnor-::

~ '\

- - '-

.__
: : :

/.
.

f,.
ICHIN
LOC

f1SII 1I0LrJ

.~

. __
-

. __
-

._'_'

__

'-,

_.",(w.~HNy
"';

..;.

':-:

:~

~.~

'-

Fig. 1: Typical stern trawler arrangement for design algorithm

FISINP

DATA FILB ----

-ECONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS-.Calcu!ation method of the construction cost :


1
GENERAL DATA
- ...Manhour cost
[thous.Drs Ih]:
3.000
: AGIOS_NIKOLAOS
...Inflation coefficient from 1991 to now : 1.300
...Name of ship
...Number of trips per year
: 13.
...Fuel price
[DrsIton] : 80000.
--TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS --_Type of essel (trawler)
:1
...Sa!aries
[Drsfmonth] : 140000.
...Construction material (steel)
:1
...Mean fishhold ful1ness
: 0.600
...Mean fish price
[DrsIKg~ 1200
...Fishhold Volume
[m3] 45.00
...Speed (free run)
[]
9.00
....Duration of economical!ife of esse! [years~
25
...Scrap alue of essel
[thous.Drs]:
0.00
...Towing Speed
[]
3.00
...Bank interest
[%]
16.00
...Range (days)
13.0
...Range (free run)
[sm]
0.0
...Subsidy
0.00
...Range (towing condition)
[sm]
0.0
...Loan
80.00
...Crew
9
...Way of acquitance of loan
3
...Total duration of loan
[years]:
15.
...Type of main engine
1
...Weight of nets
[Kg] : 1000.0 ...Loan interest
[%]
0.00
...Way of acquitance of loan two parts
3
...Ref rigera tion ty pe
1
...Weight of fishing equipment
[tons]: 1.800
...Percentage of loan that corresponds to
the short term part
[%] : 50.00
...Duration of 1st part
[years] :
5
...Interest of 1st part
[%]
22.00
...Interest of 2nd part
[%]
14.00
...Grace period
[years]: 3

Fig. 2: Typical input fle

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47

Fig. 2 shows a typical set of input parameters. Constraints stem from statutory regulations
(minimlun freeboard and minimum metacentric height), and owner's requirements concerning
the vessel size (fishhold volume). Their bounds are also nser-specified or default valnes, Table
. The criteria leading to the objective fnction are economical: constrnction/ acquisition cost
or Net Present Valne Index () or a weighted combination of both. The nser defmes
the weight-coefficients (wl resp. W2) for the cost and the
The valnes of
the independent variables, constraints, and objective function must be the same order of
magnitnde forthe correct application of this multiple-objective optimization method. The
weight coefficients , mnst be of snch magnitnde that the resulting valne of the objective
flmction is the same order of magnitnde as for the other attribntes, namely of the order one.
Thus, the resulting values of the objective fnction will depend the ratio Wl/W2 of these
coefficients. For Wl/W2 ~ 1 the vessel is optimized with respect to the constrnction cost only;
for small Wl/W2 ~ 1 the vessel optimized with respect to the only.

For the optimization we n,sed the Generalized Rednced Gradient (GRG) method (Lsdon
nd Wren 1986), an originally linear optimization method. Thongh uses linear or linearized
constraints, allows also nonlinear objective fnctions and nonlinear constraints, as given here.
The standard problem solved by the GRG method is :
Minimize:
Subject to:

f(x)
h.,(x)

L<x<U
J J

"

i=1,
,m
j = 1, ,n

where Lj and Uj the lower and upper bonds for the design variables. The method considers .
only constraints of equality type. However, inequality constraints (g.,( ) ~ )can be included by
snbtracting non-negative slack variables from the ineqllality constraints: hi () = gi( ) - v'f =
and permitting the bonds of the v/s to move between -00 ~ Vi ~ +00. (The v/s are added
to the set of n variables). Two sets of variables are distngshed the GRG algorithm:
independent and dependent variables. The dependent variables are implicitly determined by
the independent variables. So, the objective fnction is finally a function of the independent
variables only.
3. Design Algorithm
The developed design algorithm considers a typical standardized general arrangement of a
specific fishing vessel, here a stern trawler, Fig. 1. The engine room placed forwards, directly
below the superstructre. The crew accommodation located below the main deck level for
vessels with overall length mder 15m, and above the main deck for vessels over 15m. Other
arrangements can be easily incorporated into the developed code according to the nser's needs.
The fishing gear also standardized for every vessel type, whereas the electronic-navigational
eqment can be selected among three available and rated eqment categories proposed by
the program. The design algorithm consists of:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Data input
Estimation of main dimensions
Estimation of powering (resistance and propulsion)
Calcllation of volumes
Calculation of weights
Calculation of stability
Calcllation of costs and object function
Control of resllts
Data ontput

Steps 2 to 8 form the optimization l. The main dimensions of the vessel (LOA, , ,
and ) and the prismatic coefficient C follow directly from the set of independent variables of
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RBSULTS OF PROGRAM FlSH.FOR

-- DIMENSIONS --...Oerall Length


[m] : 19.46
...Waterline Length
[m] : 16.63
...Length between Perpendiculars
[m]: 16.22
...Maximum Breadth
[m] : 5.25
...Depth
[] : 2.66
_Draft
[m] : 1.83
...Freeboard
[m] : 0.58
-----FORM COEFFICIENTS -...CB
: 0.490
...CP
: 0.622
...CWL
: 0.757
--POWERING
--...Propeller Diameter
[m] : 1.20
...Expanded surface ratio /
: 0.65
...Number of blades
: 3
...Shaft's draft
[m] : 1.20
...Number of propellers
: 1
.Shaft's effectie coefficient
: 0.98
... P/D of propeller
: 0.84
...SHP
(free run)
[PS] : 134.
...RPM of propeller (free run)
: 370.
...% propeller caitation (free run)
: 0.0
...Pull force
[] : 1508.
...SHP (towing condition)
[PS] : 108.
...RPM of propeller (towing condition)
: 297.
.% caitation of propeller (towing cond.)
: 3.7
...Speed (free run)
[] : 9.00
...Speed (towing condition)
[] : 3.00
...
[PS] : 137.
.Power of electric motors
[PS] : 13.7
------VOLUMES & AREAS
--...Accommodation (required)
[mA2} 28.8
...Machinery room (required)
[m'Z} 7.0
...Fuel
(required)
[mA3]: 7.7
...Fresh Water
(required)
[mA3} 5.6
...Fishhold Volume
[mA3~ 46.8
WEIGHTS
...Fish & Ice
[] 15.12
...Fuel & Lub. oil
[] 6.58
...Fresh Water
[] 5.62
...Proisions
[] 0.42
...Steel construction
[] 31.49
...Outfit
[] 4.42
.Machinery
[]; 4.23
...Light Ship
[tons]: 40.14
...Nets
[] 1.0
...Fishing Equipment
[] 1.80
...Crew
[tons]: 0.81
...Displacement (qeometric)
[] 81.01
...Displacement (weights)
[] 81.01
-----STABILITY
-----...Condition "1" (10% consumables & 100% fish)
...Centre of Buoyancy
[m] : 1.12
...Metacentric radius

[m] : 1.50
...Centre of graity

[m] : 1.52
...Metacentric height

[m] : l.11
...Condition "2" (100% consumables & 100% fish)
...Centre of Buoyancy
[m] : 1.22
...Metacentric radius

[m] : 1.37
...Centre of graity

[m] : 1.51
...Metacentric height GM
[m] : 1.08

-C S S
Steel Structure
--------

(Values thousands DRS) -: Manhours


: 3915.
Labor cost
:11746.
Material cost
: 7384.

-----------------------------Outfit

:Manhours
Labor cost
Material cost

: 503.
: 1508.
:24594.

Machinery

:Manhours
Labor cost
Ma terial cost

: 639.
: 1917.
:19995.

Cost.s per category : Steel construction


---Outfit
Machinery
Fishing Equipment
General expenses

:19130.
:26101.
:21912
: 4700 .
: 3592.

---------_._---------Total construction cost


: 75435.7
---------------------------Annual Operational costs
Fuel
: 4648.
Lubrication l
: 232.
Salaries
:15120.
Maintenance & Repair of Fishing Equipment : 1551.
Maintenance & Repair of Main Engine
: 1315.
Maintenance & Repair of essel
: 1357.
Total Maintenance

& Repair costs

: 4223 .

----_._._------------------Insurance
Unforeseen expenses

: 1509.
: 257.

Total Annual Operation Costs

:25990 .

Annual Costs

: 70762

------------------------------_._ PRESENT VALUE

:149415.

---------------------------Net Present Value Index (before Tax)


: 1.981
Annual Income for zero Net Present Value: 46256 .
Required fish
Present Value
Per Trip:
2. Per Day:
3. Per ear:

weiht (tons) for Net


gien its aerage price (Drs/kg)
2.97
0.23
38.55

Required averase price of fish (Drs/kg) for the


actual fsh weight (tons) per trip and for Net
Present Value for arying fshhold fullness :
Fishhold Ful1ness - verage Price of Fish
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

1568.84
1176.63
941.30
784.42
672.36
588.32
522.95
470.65

Fig. 3: Typical output file

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the optimization procedure( see Table 1). Start values of these variables are taken from a "statistically mean vessel" according to the formulated databases. The remaining characteristics
of the ship (LBP, CB etc.) can be estimated by empirical formulas based existing vessels.
The calm-water resistance is estimated by the Ridgely-Nevitt (1967) method for trawlers and
Doust's method (Traung 1967) or Antoniou's method (Antoniou 1969) for seiners and mixed
fishery vessels. Wageningen-B propeller is then selected by an algorithm of Politis (1991).
The available (achieved) fishhold volume can be estimated considering the totally available
under-deck volume minus the spaces for engine room, accommodation, fuel, water, and ballast
tanks. Later the achieved fishhold volume is compared with the owner's specifications allowing a margin of 20% the upper limit (see Table 1). Weights and centers of gravities are
estimated in separate groups, namely steel , machinery, outfitting, fuel, lubrication
, fresh water, crew, provisions, and finally fish and ice. For the consumables two loading
conditions are considered: 'arrival at port' (design draft, 10% , 100% fish) and
'maximum draft' (100% conslmables, 100% fish). stability analysis gives the metacentric
heights for the two loading conditions. These values are checked against safety regulations.
The output contains the design characteristics and cost data for the optimal vessel, Fig. 3.
additional output set concerns the optimization procedure itself and contains specific data
for the number of iterations performed, the change of values of variables and constraints etc.
Table gives for a trawler described by Fig. 2.
Table : Comparison of acqisition cost for an existing and an optimized trawler
Construction material
Crew [persons]
Overalllength [m]
Length between perpendiclIars [m]
Width [m]
Depth [m]
Draft [m]
Hull coefficient
Prismatic coefficient
Waterline coefficient
Speed free run condition [kn]
Break horsepower []
FiShhOld volume achieved [m3]
Steel construction cost [1000 drs.]
Outfit cost [1000 drs.]
Machinery cost [1000 drs.]
Fishing equipment cost [1000 drs.]
General expenses [1000 drs.]
Total acqisition cost [1000 drs.]

Existing Ship
steel
7
29.95
24.96
6.41
4.22
2.95
0.500
0.621
0.753
11.00
505
148.2
77692
32487
46379
10959
8376
175893

Optimized Ship
steel
7

26.71
22.26
6.95
3.23
2.28
0.475
0.598
0.734
11.00
550
148.1
49485
27534
49720
8872
6 781
142 392

4. Parametric Analysis
systematic parametric approach to the problem allows some insight into the behaviour
of the used objective functions near the optimal solutions. During this procedure the problem
parameters were kept fixed. For every r two of the four selected design variables varied systematically, whereas the other two remained fixed. The objective ftmctions particular sample
runs were normalized acquisition-construction cost (Fig. 4), normalized anna operational cost
(Fig. 5), and Net Present Vale Index (Fig. 6). In all cases, the objective functions had their
optirna. a.long thc boundaries of the graphs, i.e. optirna were set by the design constl"aints_ TnP.

pecliar behaviour of the graphs for LOA = 15m is de to the change of the assnmed stan-

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Acquisition
8
(drs/10 )

(m)

a
0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

Cost

0.18

0.20

F(Loa.L/B)

100
0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30
0.44

0.44

0.42

0.42

0.40

0.40

.........
0.38

0.38

FHV
VFREE
RANGE

45 m3
9
kn
13 days

CP

0.6

....-...

<,
- 0.36

0.36

0.34

0.34

0.32

0.32

'--'

0.30
0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.22

0.20

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30
0.30

Fig.4: Normalized acquisition cost as resllt ofparametric economic analysis for a trawler,
fishhold volume: 453, speed: 9kn, range: 13 days

Operational
8
(drs/10 )

a
0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

Cost

0.18

(m)
0.20

F(Loa.L/B)

100
0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30
0.44

0.44

FHV
VFREE
RANGE

/
0.42

0.42

0.40

0.40

<, 0.38

0.38

CP

45 m3
9
kn
13 days
2
0.6

/".

<,
- 0.36

0.36

0.34

0.34

0.32

0.32

'--'

0.30
0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30
0.30

Fig. 5: Normalized operational cost as resllt ofparametric economic analysis for a stern trawler,
fishhold volume: 45m3' speed: 9kn, range: 13 days

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dardized general arrangement at this particular length (according to the crew accommodation
above or below the main deck level).
La (m)
0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

100
0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30

0.44

0.44

0.42

0.42

0.40

0.40

FHV
VFREE
RANGE
8/D
CP

=
=
=
=

45 m3
9 kn
13 days
2
0.6

'-...0.38

0.38

;---...

<,
-- 0.36

0.36

0.34

0.34

0.32

0.32

'-.../

0.30
0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.22

0.24

0.26

0.28

0.30
0.30

Fig. 6: Net present value index /10 as result ofparametric economic analysis for a stern trawler,
fishhold volume: 45m3, speed: 9kn, range: 13 days
5. Conclusions
Vessels optimized for least construction cost are smaller than comparable vessels practice.
They exhibit usually smaller length, depth, draft, CE, displacement, and required , but
general greater width. Ships optimized for operational cost become longer, whereas the ships
optimized for Net Present Value Index are between those resulting from the other two criteria.
This could be expected because the includes both the acquisition and the operational
cost. Similar work is currently also under way for other ship types like bulk carriers and tankers.
References
ANTONIOU,
Athens

. (1969), tlle design cllaracteristics

of Greek type essels, PIID. ', NTUA,

LASDON, L.S.; WAREN, A.D. (1986), GRG2's nser's gnide, Dept.


Bnsiness Administration,
. of Texas and Anstin, Anstin

of General Bnsiness, Scllool of

PAPANIKOLAOU, .; KARAMBALI, G.j KARIAMBAS, . (1989), Tecllnoecononical design aspects


of fislling essels for neditlln fislleries Greece, Synp. TecllllicS and Tecllnology n Fislling Vessel,
Ancona
PAPANIKOLAOU, .; KARAMBALI, G.; KARIAMBAS, . (1991), Metllodology for tlle conpnteraided prelininary design of fislling essels, Synp. Tecllnics and Tecllnology Fislling Vessel, Ancona
POLITIS, G. (1991), ! criteria and specifications ofnedinn fislleries essels, propnlsion
for fislling essels, Final Report to tlle . of Fislleries, Greek Ministry of Agricnltnre, NTUA
RIDGELY-NEVITT,
SNAME Trans.

C. (1967), ' resistance

of a lligll-displacenent-lengtll

TRAUNG, J.-O. (1967), Fislling Boats of tlle World ],


Farnllan, Snrrey

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ratio trawler

series,

1-3, Fislling News Books Ltd., FAO-UN,

1994 / Ship Technology Research Vol. 41 -

1994