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Swinburne University of Technology

School of Engineering (Sarawak Campus)

HES 2340 Fluid Mechanics 1


Semester 2, 2008

Lab Sheet: IMPACT OF JET

Name:
Student ID:
Group Number:
Date performed experiment:
Lab supervisor:

OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the reaction force produced by the impact of jet of water on to
variety type of target vanes.
2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at a datum level
while it is subjected to the impact of water jet.
3. The experimentally measured force is compare with the theoretical calculated
force
APPARATUS REQUIRED

Impact of jet apparatus with hydraulic bench

1.1 Parts Identification

Weight Carrier
Pointer

Brass Weights

Weight Platform
Interchangeable
Target Vane
Interchangeable
Nozzle

Drain holes in base


Water Supply
Connection

Figure 1: Impact of Jets Apparatus

Figure 2: Interchangeable Target Vanes

2.0

SUMMARY OF THEORY
2.1 General Analysis
When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface,
the water is deflected to flow along the surface. Unlike the impact of solid
bodies, there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly turbulent, there
will be no splashing. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid
and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the
magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged, the pressure exerted by the
water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface.
Newtons second law of motion states that a mass that is accelerated
required a force that is equal to the product of the mass and acceleration.
In fluid mechanics, whenever fluid are forced to go through a restriction or
change direction. The analogy to Newtons second law in fluid mechanics
is known as the momentum equation.
FX

Vi

Vi

Impact Velocity, Vi

Vi cos
Vi

Height, h

Vi sin

Vi

Exit Velocity, Vn

Figure 3: Impact of a Jet


Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the
direction of the jet to be changed through and angle as shown in Figure 3
above. In the absence of friction, the magnitude of the velocity across the
surface is equal to the incident velocity Vi. The impulse force exerted on
the target will be equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water to
impart the change in direction.

Applying Newtons Second law in the direction of the incident jet

But M

Force

Mass Acceleration
Mass Flow Rate Change in Velocity

- FX

M V

M (VX,out - VX,in )

- FX

M Vi cos - Vi

FX

M Vi 1 - cos

= Q

therefore

Q V i (1 cos )
.

And dividing trough by Q V which is the incident momentum


i
4

F
.

Q Vi

1 cos

2.2 Application to Impact of Jet Apparatus


In each case it is assumed that there is no splashing or rebound of the
water from the surface so that the exit angle is parallel to the exit angle of
the target.
a)

Effect of Height
The jet velocity can be calculated from the measured flow rate and
the nozzle exit area.
.

Q
Vn
A
However, as the nozzle is below the target, the impact velocity will
be less than the nozzle velocity due to interchanges between
potential energy and kinetic energy.

Applying the Bernoulli equation between nozzle and plate:


Pn Vn2
Pi Vi 2


Z n 2 g Z i
2g

Since the jet is open to the atmosphere,


Pn

P
i 0

And

Z n Zi h
Therefore,
Vi 2 Vn2 2 gh

Where h is the height of target above the nozzle exit.


b)

Impact on Normal Plane Target


For the normal plane target is 90. Therefore cos = 0
F
1 cos 1
.
Q Vi

c)

Impact on Conical and 30 Plate Target


The cone semi-angle is 120. Therefore cos = 0.5
F
1 cos 0.5
.
Q Vi

d)

Impact on Semi-Spherical Target


The target exit angle is 180. Therefore cos = - 1
F
1 cos 2
.
Q Vi
By using the above equation, we can compare the theoretical and
experimental of force value of target with different angle.
Theoretically,
F mg

Experimentally,
.

F Q Vi 1 - cos

3.0

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
3.1 General Start-up Procedures

Figure 4: Impact of a Jet Apparatus with Hydraulic Bench


The Impact of Jet (Model: FM 31) is supplied ready for use and only
requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM 110) as follows:
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

3.2

The apparatus is located on


top of the
Hydraulic Bench with the left hand support feed of the Impact of Jets
Apparatus located on the two left hand locating pegs of the Hydraulic
Bench so that the apparatus straddles the weir channel.
A spirit level is about to attached to baseboard
and level the unit on top of the bench by adjusting the feet.
The feed tube is connected from the Hydraulic
Bench to the base of the Impact of Jets Apparatus by using a hose.
Water is filled into the volumetric tank of the
hydraulic bench until approximately 90% full.
Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1
then switch on the pump.
Open V1 gradually and allow the piping to fill
with water until all air has been expelled from the system.
The actual flow of water can be measured using
the volumetric tank with a stopwatch.

Experiment: Reaction force Determination

Objective:
1. To determine the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet of
water on to various target vanes.
2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at a
datum level while it is subjected to the impact of a water jet.
3. To compare the experimentally measured force with the theoretically
calculated force
Procedures:
1. The weight carrier is positioned on the weight platform. The spring
tension adjuster is adjusted to a distance of 20 mm between the nozzle
and the target, then record this value as h. The pointer is to be moved
so that it is aligned to the weight platform that is floating in mid
position.
2. The pump is started and the water flow is established by steadily
opening the bench regulating valve until it is fully open.
3. The vane will now be deflected by the impact of the jet. Weights are
added onto the weight carrier until the weight platform is again
floating in mid position.
4. The flow rate is measured and the result is recorded on the test sheet,
together with the corresponding value of weight on the tray. The form
of the deflected jet is observed and its shape is noted.
5. The weight on the weight carrier is reduced in steps and balance of
weight platform is maintained by regulating the flow rate in about
eight or ten even steps, each time recording the value of flow rate and
weight on the weight carrier.
6. The control valve is closed and the pump is switched off.
7. The experiment is repeated with different target vanes and nozzles.
Results and analysis:
1. The results are recorded on the result sheets.
2. The flow rate and the nozzle exit velocity are calculated. The nozzle
velocity for the height of the target is corrected above the nozzle to
obtain the impact velocity.
3. The experimental force and the theoretical force are calculated, then to
compare.
Discussion:

1. In the installation of this apparatus, its crucial to make sure the


placement of the nozzle head is at the centre under the vane. The
displacement of it causing a loss in water velocity due to splashing by
the rebound water. If the vane and the nozzle shaft are placed in series
and centered, there will be no water rebound as jet water exerted will
be deflected to flow along the surface to the surrounding shield when it
hits the target vane. Due to this displacement also, it will cause an
uneven force impact on the target vane hence decreasing the reaction
force produced on the vane.
2. Higher water jet velocity will produce a higher force exerted onto the
target vane. The amount of weight can be supported indicate the force
exerted by the jet.
Table for 120 Conical Target
Weight
(g)
100
150
200

Flow Rate
(LPM)
12.8
14.8
18.3

Flow Rate,
Q (m /s)
2.13 x10 4
2.47 x10 4
3.05 x 10 4

Flow Rate,
Q (m /s)

Exit
Velocity,
Vn (m/s)

h,
(mm)

Impact
Velocity, Vi
(m/s)

Experimental
Force, F(N)

Theoretical
Force,
Fn(N)

Error
(%)

2.13 x10 4
2.47 x10 4
3.05 x 10 4

10.85
12.58
15.53

25
25
25

10.83
12.56
15.51

1.15

0.98
1.47
1.96

17.23
5.44
20.92

Graph for 120 Conical Target

1.55
2.37

Calculation for 120 Conical Target


Average Time, t (s) = 60s
Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t
= ( 12.8l x 0.001 m/l ) / 60s
= 2.13 x 10 4 m/s
Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m
Area, A = D / 4
= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4
=1.9635 x 10 5 m
Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A
= ( 2.13 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m
= 10.85 m/s
Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

(10.85) 2 ( 2 x9.81x 0.025)

10.83m / s

Experimental Force, F(N)

10

QVi (1 cos )
1000 x 2.13 x10 4 x10.83 x (0.5)
1.15 N

Theoretical Force, Fn(N) = mg

= (100g 1kg/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s


= 0.98 N
Error (%)

Theoretica l exp erimenta


x100%
Theoretica l

0.92 1.15
x100%
0.98

= 17.23%

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Table for Flat Surface Target


Weight
150
200
250
Flow
Rate,
(m3/s)
1.833
10-4
2.167
10-4
2.333
10-4

Flow Rate Q (m3/s)


1.833 x 10-4
2.167 x 10-4
2.333 x 10-4

Flow Rate (LPM)


11
13
14
Exit
H (mm)
Q Velocity, Vn
(m/s)
x 9.343
25

Impact
Velocity Vi

Experimental
Force, F (N)

9.333

1.71

Theoretical ERROR
Force, Fn (%)
(N)
1.472
16.2

x 11.036

25

11.025

2.39

1.962

21.8

x 11.88

25

11.87

2.73

2.45

11.6

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Calculations for Flat Target surface


Average Time, t (s) = 60s
Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t
= ( 13 x 0.001 m/l ) / 60s
= 2.167 x 10 4 m/s
Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m
Area, A = D / 4
= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4
=1.9635 x 10 5 m
Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A
= ( 2.167 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m
= 11.036 m/s
Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

(11.036) 2 ( 2 x9.81x0.025)

11.025m / s

Experimental Force, F(N)


QVi (1 cos )
1000 x 2.167 x10 4 x11 .025 x (1)
2.39 N

Theoretical Force, Fn(N) = mg

= (200g 1kg/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s


= 1.962 N
Error (%)

Theoretica l exp erimenta


x100%
Theoretica l

1.962 2.39
x100%
1.962

= 21.8%

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Table for Hemisphere Target


Weight
150
250
300
Flow
Rate, Q
(m3/s)
1.4 x 10-4
1.717
x
-4
10
1.867
x
-4
10

Flow Rate Q (m3/s)


1.4 x 10-4
1.717 x 10-4
1.867 x 10-4

Flow Rate (LPM)


8.4
10.3
11.2
Exit
H (mm)
Velocity, Vn
(m/s)
7.13
25
8.75
25

Impact
Velocity Vi

Experimental
Force, F (N)

7.11
8.74

9.51

9.50

25

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ERROR
(%)

1.71
2.39

Theoretical
Force, Fn
(N)
1.4715
2.45

2.73

3.55

20.63

35.29
22.5

Calculations for Flat Target surface


Average Time, t (s) = 60s
Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t
= ( 13 x 0.001 m/l ) / 60s
= 2.167 x 10 4 m/s
Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m
Area, A = D / 4
= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4
=1.9635 x 10 5 m
Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A
= ( 1.717 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m
= 8.75 m/s
Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

(8.75) 2 ( 2 x9.81x 0.025)

8.74m / s

Experimental Force, F(N)


QVi (1 cos )
1000 x1.717 x10 4 x8.74 x ( 2)
3.001N

Theoretical Force, Fn(N) = mg

= (250g 1kg/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s


= 2.45 N
Error (%)

Theoretica l exp erimenta


x100%
Theoretica l

2.45 3.001
x100%
2.45

= 22.5%
Table for 30 Plate Target

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Weight
(g)
100
150
200

Volume
(L)
12.5
13.0
16.1

Time (s)
T2
60
60
60

T1
60
60
60

T3
60
60
60

Average
Time (s )
60
60
60

Flow Rate,
Q (m /s)

Exit
Velocity,
Vn (m/s)

h,
(mm)

Impact
Velocity, Vi
(m/s)

Experimental
Force, F(N)

Theoretical
Force,
Fn(N)

2.0830 x10 4
2.1667 x 10 4
2.6830 x10 4

10.6090
11.0347
13.6670

25
25
25

10.5870
11.0125
13.6490

1.10263

0.981
1.4715
1.9620

Graph for 30 Plate Target

Calculation for 30 Plate Target


Average Time,t (s) = ( T1 + T2 + T3 ) / 3
16

1.19304
1.83101

Error
(%)
12.40
18.92
6.68

= ( 60 + 60 + 60 ) / 3
= 60 s
Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t
= ( 12.5l x 0.001 m/l ) / 23s
= 2.083 x 10 4 m/s
Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m
Area, A = D / 4
= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4
=1.9635 x 10 5 m
Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A
= ( 2.083 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m
= 10.609 m/s
Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

(10.609) 2 ( 2 x9.81x 0.025)

10.587 m / s

Experimental Force, F(N)


QVi (1 cos )
1000 x 2.083 x10 4 x10.587 x (1 cos 60)
1.10263 N

Theoretical Force, Fn(N) = mg

= (100g/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s


= 0.981 N
Error (%)

Theoretica l exp erimental


x100%
Theoretica l

0.981 1.10263
x100%
0.981

= 12.40%
4.0
O BSERVATIONS

AND

D ISCUSSION

When the graphs of Theoretical Force vs Experimental Force were plotted all the
vanes except the hemispherical one gave a gradient very close to 1. The
hemisphere gave a gradient of 1.92

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Gradient of graph = Theoretical Force/ Experimental Force


Therefore we can see most of the experimental results were very close to the
theoretical results.

This can be further analyzed by using the percentage errors calculated.


Type of Vane used

Maximum experimental error


%
20.92
21.8
35.29
18.92

120 Conical
Flat Plate
Hemisphere
30 Plate

5.0

Most of the experimental errors above are below 25% which although are not
within the usually range of about 10-15 percent are not totally unacceptable.

It was also observed that the experimental force was at all instances higher than
the theoretically required force.

Possible Sources of Error


1. The height between the nozzle and the target of the spring tension should
be a constant value - This value can fluctuate due to parallax errors and
also inaccuracy of measuring instruments
2. The height between the nozzle and the vane can also change due to the
change of vanes as all vanes do not have equal heights.
3. At all instances the nozzle and the vane have to be concentric In practice
this does not always happen as there is a slight play between the weight
platform and the cylinder that holds it and it can move around slightly due
to the action of the force of the water.
4. There could also be a frictional force between the weight platform and
where it is fixed This could be one reason why a higher force than the
calculated was required to support the vane.
5. The reason the hemispherical vane gives a higher discrepancy than the
others could be because once the water hits its center the only way it can
travel is downwards and hence come in the way of the water coming from
the jet
6. Bubbles present in the water can be a reason to get inaccurate readings as
well.
7. The water which hits the Vane could flow downwards and hit the jet again
which will give a momentum in the opposite direction and hence give
false values.
C ONCLUSION

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For orifices having a sharp edge, A, has been found to be approximately 62% of
the orifice area (pg 117, Kundu) Therefore the area used for the calculations can
be one reason for the discrepancies.

Although assumed as uniform throughout the jet during calculation, the velocity
of the water in the jet is not. To account for this a Momentum-Flux correlation
factor(Beta) has to be used where

(pg 155, White)

The elasticity of spring acted on the weight platform is one of the main cause to
the errors occurred in the experiment when weight is been added. To obtain a
theoretical force, a suitable formulae is:
f = mg kx
where k is the constant of elasticity and x is the length of the spring.

The experimental results and the theoretically calculated values are similar within
experimental error and proves the law of conservation of momentum.
R EFERENCES

Fluid Mechanics,2nd Edition,2002, Kundu and Cohen

Fluid Mechanics,4th Edition,Frank M White

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