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You are on page 1of 19

Semester 2, 2008

Name:

Student ID:

Group Number:

Date performed experiment:

Lab supervisor:

OBJECTIVE

1. To determine the reaction force produced by the impact of jet of water on to

variety type of target vanes.

2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at a datum level

while it is subjected to the impact of water jet.

3. The experimentally measured force is compare with the theoretical calculated

force

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Weight Carrier

Pointer

Brass Weights

Weight Platform

Interchangeable

Target Vane

Interchangeable

Nozzle

Water Supply

Connection

2.0

SUMMARY OF THEORY

2.1 General Analysis

When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface,

the water is deflected to flow along the surface. Unlike the impact of solid

bodies, there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly turbulent, there

will be no splashing. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid

and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the

magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged, the pressure exerted by the

water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface.

Newtons second law of motion states that a mass that is accelerated

required a force that is equal to the product of the mass and acceleration.

In fluid mechanics, whenever fluid are forced to go through a restriction or

change direction. The analogy to Newtons second law in fluid mechanics

is known as the momentum equation.

FX

Vi

Vi

Impact Velocity, Vi

Vi cos

Vi

Height, h

Vi sin

Vi

Exit Velocity, Vn

Consider a jet of water which impacts on to a target surface causing the

direction of the jet to be changed through and angle as shown in Figure 3

above. In the absence of friction, the magnitude of the velocity across the

surface is equal to the incident velocity Vi. The impulse force exerted on

the target will be equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water to

impart the change in direction.

But M

Force

Mass Acceleration

Mass Flow Rate Change in Velocity

- FX

M V

M (VX,out - VX,in )

- FX

M Vi cos - Vi

FX

M Vi 1 - cos

= Q

therefore

Q V i (1 cos )

.

i

4

F

.

Q Vi

1 cos

In each case it is assumed that there is no splashing or rebound of the

water from the surface so that the exit angle is parallel to the exit angle of

the target.

a)

Effect of Height

The jet velocity can be calculated from the measured flow rate and

the nozzle exit area.

.

Q

Vn

A

However, as the nozzle is below the target, the impact velocity will

be less than the nozzle velocity due to interchanges between

potential energy and kinetic energy.

Pn Vn2

Pi Vi 2

Z n 2 g Z i

2g

Pn

P

i 0

And

Z n Zi h

Therefore,

Vi 2 Vn2 2 gh

b)

For the normal plane target is 90. Therefore cos = 0

F

1 cos 1

.

Q Vi

c)

The cone semi-angle is 120. Therefore cos = 0.5

F

1 cos 0.5

.

Q Vi

d)

The target exit angle is 180. Therefore cos = - 1

F

1 cos 2

.

Q Vi

By using the above equation, we can compare the theoretical and

experimental of force value of target with different angle.

Theoretically,

F mg

Experimentally,

.

F Q Vi 1 - cos

3.0

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

3.1 General Start-up Procedures

The Impact of Jet (Model: FM 31) is supplied ready for use and only

requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM 110) as follows:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

3.2

top of the

Hydraulic Bench with the left hand support feed of the Impact of Jets

Apparatus located on the two left hand locating pegs of the Hydraulic

Bench so that the apparatus straddles the weir channel.

A spirit level is about to attached to baseboard

and level the unit on top of the bench by adjusting the feet.

The feed tube is connected from the Hydraulic

Bench to the base of the Impact of Jets Apparatus by using a hose.

Water is filled into the volumetric tank of the

hydraulic bench until approximately 90% full.

Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1

then switch on the pump.

Open V1 gradually and allow the piping to fill

with water until all air has been expelled from the system.

The actual flow of water can be measured using

the volumetric tank with a stopwatch.

Objective:

1. To determine the reaction force produced by the impact of a jet of

water on to various target vanes.

2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at a

datum level while it is subjected to the impact of a water jet.

3. To compare the experimentally measured force with the theoretically

calculated force

Procedures:

1. The weight carrier is positioned on the weight platform. The spring

tension adjuster is adjusted to a distance of 20 mm between the nozzle

and the target, then record this value as h. The pointer is to be moved

so that it is aligned to the weight platform that is floating in mid

position.

2. The pump is started and the water flow is established by steadily

opening the bench regulating valve until it is fully open.

3. The vane will now be deflected by the impact of the jet. Weights are

added onto the weight carrier until the weight platform is again

floating in mid position.

4. The flow rate is measured and the result is recorded on the test sheet,

together with the corresponding value of weight on the tray. The form

of the deflected jet is observed and its shape is noted.

5. The weight on the weight carrier is reduced in steps and balance of

weight platform is maintained by regulating the flow rate in about

eight or ten even steps, each time recording the value of flow rate and

weight on the weight carrier.

6. The control valve is closed and the pump is switched off.

7. The experiment is repeated with different target vanes and nozzles.

Results and analysis:

1. The results are recorded on the result sheets.

2. The flow rate and the nozzle exit velocity are calculated. The nozzle

velocity for the height of the target is corrected above the nozzle to

obtain the impact velocity.

3. The experimental force and the theoretical force are calculated, then to

compare.

Discussion:

placement of the nozzle head is at the centre under the vane. The

displacement of it causing a loss in water velocity due to splashing by

the rebound water. If the vane and the nozzle shaft are placed in series

and centered, there will be no water rebound as jet water exerted will

be deflected to flow along the surface to the surrounding shield when it

hits the target vane. Due to this displacement also, it will cause an

uneven force impact on the target vane hence decreasing the reaction

force produced on the vane.

2. Higher water jet velocity will produce a higher force exerted onto the

target vane. The amount of weight can be supported indicate the force

exerted by the jet.

Table for 120 Conical Target

Weight

(g)

100

150

200

Flow Rate

(LPM)

12.8

14.8

18.3

Flow Rate,

Q (m /s)

2.13 x10 4

2.47 x10 4

3.05 x 10 4

Flow Rate,

Q (m /s)

Exit

Velocity,

Vn (m/s)

h,

(mm)

Impact

Velocity, Vi

(m/s)

Experimental

Force, F(N)

Theoretical

Force,

Fn(N)

Error

(%)

2.13 x10 4

2.47 x10 4

3.05 x 10 4

10.85

12.58

15.53

25

25

25

10.83

12.56

15.51

1.15

0.98

1.47

1.96

17.23

5.44

20.92

1.55

2.37

Average Time, t (s) = 60s

Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t

= ( 12.8l x 0.001 m/l ) / 60s

= 2.13 x 10 4 m/s

Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m

Area, A = D / 4

= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 5 m

Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A

= ( 2.13 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m

= 10.85 m/s

Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

10.83m / s

10

QVi (1 cos )

1000 x 2.13 x10 4 x10.83 x (0.5)

1.15 N

= 0.98 N

Error (%)

x100%

Theoretica l

0.92 1.15

x100%

0.98

= 17.23%

11

Weight

150

200

250

Flow

Rate,

(m3/s)

1.833

10-4

2.167

10-4

2.333

10-4

1.833 x 10-4

2.167 x 10-4

2.333 x 10-4

11

13

14

Exit

H (mm)

Q Velocity, Vn

(m/s)

x 9.343

25

Impact

Velocity Vi

Experimental

Force, F (N)

9.333

1.71

Theoretical ERROR

Force, Fn (%)

(N)

1.472

16.2

x 11.036

25

11.025

2.39

1.962

21.8

x 11.88

25

11.87

2.73

2.45

11.6

12

Average Time, t (s) = 60s

Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t

= ( 13 x 0.001 m/l ) / 60s

= 2.167 x 10 4 m/s

Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m

Area, A = D / 4

= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 5 m

Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A

= ( 2.167 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m

= 11.036 m/s

Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

(11.036) 2 ( 2 x9.81x0.025)

11.025m / s

QVi (1 cos )

1000 x 2.167 x10 4 x11 .025 x (1)

2.39 N

= 1.962 N

Error (%)

x100%

Theoretica l

1.962 2.39

x100%

1.962

= 21.8%

13

Weight

150

250

300

Flow

Rate, Q

(m3/s)

1.4 x 10-4

1.717

x

-4

10

1.867

x

-4

10

1.4 x 10-4

1.717 x 10-4

1.867 x 10-4

8.4

10.3

11.2

Exit

H (mm)

Velocity, Vn

(m/s)

7.13

25

8.75

25

Impact

Velocity Vi

Experimental

Force, F (N)

7.11

8.74

9.51

9.50

25

14

ERROR

(%)

1.71

2.39

Theoretical

Force, Fn

(N)

1.4715

2.45

2.73

3.55

20.63

35.29

22.5

Average Time, t (s) = 60s

Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t

= ( 13 x 0.001 m/l ) / 60s

= 2.167 x 10 4 m/s

Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m

Area, A = D / 4

= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 5 m

Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A

= ( 1.717 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m

= 8.75 m/s

Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

8.74m / s

QVi (1 cos )

1000 x1.717 x10 4 x8.74 x ( 2)

3.001N

= 2.45 N

Error (%)

x100%

Theoretica l

2.45 3.001

x100%

2.45

= 22.5%

Table for 30 Plate Target

15

Weight

(g)

100

150

200

Volume

(L)

12.5

13.0

16.1

Time (s)

T2

60

60

60

T1

60

60

60

T3

60

60

60

Average

Time (s )

60

60

60

Flow Rate,

Q (m /s)

Exit

Velocity,

Vn (m/s)

h,

(mm)

Impact

Velocity, Vi

(m/s)

Experimental

Force, F(N)

Theoretical

Force,

Fn(N)

2.0830 x10 4

2.1667 x 10 4

2.6830 x10 4

10.6090

11.0347

13.6670

25

25

25

10.5870

11.0125

13.6490

1.10263

0.981

1.4715

1.9620

Average Time,t (s) = ( T1 + T2 + T3 ) / 3

16

1.19304

1.83101

Error

(%)

12.40

18.92

6.68

= ( 60 + 60 + 60 ) / 3

= 60 s

Flow Rate, Q (m/s) = V / t

= ( 12.5l x 0.001 m/l ) / 23s

= 2.083 x 10 4 m/s

Nozzle Diameter: 5 x 10 m

Area, A = D / 4

= ( 5 x 10 ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 5 m

Exit Velocity, Vn (m/s) = Q / A

= ( 2.083 x 10 4 m/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 5 m

= 10.609 m/s

Impact Velocity, Vi (m/s)

Vn 2 2 gh

10.587 m / s

QVi (1 cos )

1000 x 2.083 x10 4 x10.587 x (1 cos 60)

1.10263 N

= 0.981 N

Error (%)

x100%

Theoretica l

0.981 1.10263

x100%

0.981

= 12.40%

4.0

O BSERVATIONS

AND

D ISCUSSION

When the graphs of Theoretical Force vs Experimental Force were plotted all the

vanes except the hemispherical one gave a gradient very close to 1. The

hemisphere gave a gradient of 1.92

17

Therefore we can see most of the experimental results were very close to the

theoretical results.

Type of Vane used

%

20.92

21.8

35.29

18.92

120 Conical

Flat Plate

Hemisphere

30 Plate

5.0

Most of the experimental errors above are below 25% which although are not

within the usually range of about 10-15 percent are not totally unacceptable.

It was also observed that the experimental force was at all instances higher than

the theoretically required force.

1. The height between the nozzle and the target of the spring tension should

be a constant value - This value can fluctuate due to parallax errors and

also inaccuracy of measuring instruments

2. The height between the nozzle and the vane can also change due to the

change of vanes as all vanes do not have equal heights.

3. At all instances the nozzle and the vane have to be concentric In practice

this does not always happen as there is a slight play between the weight

platform and the cylinder that holds it and it can move around slightly due

to the action of the force of the water.

4. There could also be a frictional force between the weight platform and

where it is fixed This could be one reason why a higher force than the

calculated was required to support the vane.

5. The reason the hemispherical vane gives a higher discrepancy than the

others could be because once the water hits its center the only way it can

travel is downwards and hence come in the way of the water coming from

the jet

6. Bubbles present in the water can be a reason to get inaccurate readings as

well.

7. The water which hits the Vane could flow downwards and hit the jet again

which will give a momentum in the opposite direction and hence give

false values.

C ONCLUSION

18

For orifices having a sharp edge, A, has been found to be approximately 62% of

the orifice area (pg 117, Kundu) Therefore the area used for the calculations can

be one reason for the discrepancies.

Although assumed as uniform throughout the jet during calculation, the velocity

of the water in the jet is not. To account for this a Momentum-Flux correlation

factor(Beta) has to be used where

The elasticity of spring acted on the weight platform is one of the main cause to

the errors occurred in the experiment when weight is been added. To obtain a

theoretical force, a suitable formulae is:

f = mg kx

where k is the constant of elasticity and x is the length of the spring.

The experimental results and the theoretically calculated values are similar within

experimental error and proves the law of conservation of momentum.

R EFERENCES

19

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