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THE SKIN

AND

ITS APPENDAGES
Histology lecture by
Doc. MUDr.
MUDr. Kraj
Kraj
Dimitrolos
Dimitrolos,, CSc
Department of
Histology & Embryology
Faculty of Medicine
Palacky University, Olomouc, CZ

10/2009

CHAPTER OUTLINE

A]
B]
C]
D]
E]

THE EPIDERMIS
THE DERMIS
GLANDS OF THE SKIN
THE HAIR
THE NAIL

[w]

SKIN - introduction
The heaviest single organ of the body (16% of the total body wt.)
It covers 1.2 - 2.3 m2 surface exposed to the external environment
----------------FUNCTIONS of the skin:
a) Protection against the external ENVIRONMENT.
b) Prevention of extreme WATER LOSSES by evaporation.
c) Protection against MECHANICAL INJURY (friction
(friction).
).
d) THERMOPROTECTION , UV - rays protection.
e) RECEPTOR ORGAN.
f) EXCRETION of various substances, metabolites.
g) Formation of VITAMIN D3.
[?]

Origin of layers in the skin

Skin has 2 basic components :


EPIDERMIS - epithelial layer of
of
ectodermal origin
DERMIS (CORIUM ) connective
tissue of mesodermal origin,
and ------------+ HYPODERMIS
(SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE) located
beneath the dermis, it is a loose
connective tissue and adipose
cells (PANNICULUS ADIPOSUS)

[W]

EPIDERMIS
This layer consists of the STRATIFIED
SQUAMOUS KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM

with cells arranged in subsub-layers


called:
[1] STRATUM BASALE (GERMINATIVUM)
[2] STRATUM SPINOSUM
[3] STRATUM GRANULOSUM
[4] STRATUM LUCIDUM
[5] STRATUM CORNEUM
[7]

EPIDERMIS
Horny cells

Langerhans
cell

Flattened keratinocyte

Keratinocyte

Melanin
granules

Spinous keratinocyte

Melanocyte

Dermis

Basal keratinocyte

EPIDERMIS
STRATUM CORNEUM

This layer consists of the STRATIFIED


SQUAMOUS KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM

with cells arranged in 5 subsub-layers


called:
[1] STRATUM BASALE (GERMINATIVUM)
[2] STRATUM SPINOSUM
[3] STRATUM GRANULOSUM
[4] STRATUM LUCIDUM
[5] STRATUM CORNEUM

Thick skin, H&E, LM x 132

[8]

EPIDERMIS
This layer consists of the STRATIFIED
SQUAMOUS KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM

with cells arranged in 5 subsub-layers


called:
[1] STRATUM BASALE (GERMINATIVUM)
[2] STRATUM SPINOSUM
[3] STRATUM GRANULOSUM
[4] STRATUM LUCIDUM
[5] STRATUM CORNEUM

[10]

EPIDERMIS
[1] STRATUM BASALE :
(GERMINATIVUM)

Features :
Basophilic columnar cells adhere
to basal lamina.
Hemidesmosomes at basal lamina
(dermal <
<> epidermal junction).
Some cytokeratin filaments.
Frequent mitoses - cell turnover
is approx. 15 - 30 days.
BASAL KERATINOCYTE
[10]

EPIDERMIS
[1] STRATUM BASALE :
(GERMINATIVUM)

Features :
Basophilic columnar cells adhere
to basal lamina.
Hemidesmosomes at basal lamina
(dermal <
<> epidermal junction).
Some cytokeratin filaments.
Frequent mitoses - cell turnover
is approx. 15 - 30 days.
[3]

EPIDERMIS

BASAL KERATINOCYTES

Thick skin, monkey, H&E, LM x 540

[8]

EPIDERMIS
[2] STRATUM SPINOSUM :
Features::
Features
Cuboidal (polyhedral) cells.
Tonofibrils are abundant in their
cytoplasm.
Numerous desmosomes join the
cells together (giving these cells
spiny appearance).
SPINOUS KERATINOCYTE
[10]

EPIDERMIS
[2] STRATUM SPINOSUM :
Features::
Features
Cuboidal (polyhedral) cells.
Tonofibrils are abundant in their
cytoplasm.
Numerous desmosomes join the
cells together (giving these cells
spiny appearance).
SPINOUS KERATINOCYTE
[7]

EPIDERMIS
[2] STRATUM SPINOSUM :
Features::
Features
Cuboidal (polyhedral) cells.
Tonofibrils are abundant in their
cytoplasm.
Numerous desmosomes join the
cells together (giving these cells
spiny appearance).
SPINOUS KERATINOCYTE
[7]

N2

N1

Stratum spinosum cells, human skin, EM x 3000

[dk]

N2

N1

Stratum spinosum cells, human skin, EM x 3000

[dk]

Stratum spinosum cells, DESMOSOMES, EM x 45 000

[7]

EPIDERMIS
[3] STRATUM GRANULOSUM :
Features::
Features

GRANULAR KERATINOCYTE

Flattened polygonal cells.


Contain numerous keratohyalin
granules.
Also contain lamellar granules
= secretion of an intercellular
cement substance
(phospholipids).
[10]

EPIDERMIS
[3] STRATUM GRANULOSUM :
Features::
Features

GRANULAR KERATINOCYTE

Flattened polygonal cells.


Contain numerous keratohyalin
granules.
Also contain lamellar granules
= secretion of an intercellular
cement substance
(phospholipids).
Thick skin ,monkey, LM x 540

[8]

EPIDERMIS
[3] STRATUM GRANULOSUM :
Features::
Features

Flattened polygonal cells.


Contain numerous keratohyalin
granules.
Also contain lamellar granules
= secretion of an intercellular
cement substance
(phospholipids).
[10]

EPIDERMIS
[4] STRATUM LUCIDUM :

Features::
Features
Flattened pale eosinophilic cell.
No organelles and nuclei.

Numerous filaments in their


electron dense matrix.
This layer is more apparent in
thick skin .
[10]

EPIDERMIS
[4] STRATUM LUCIDUM :

SCor

Features::
Features
Flattened pale eosinophilic cell.
No organelles and nuclei.

Numerous filaments in their


electron dense matrix.

SSp

This layer is more apparent in


thick skin .
[8]

EPIDERMIS
[5] STRATUM CORNEUM :
HORNY CELLS

Features:
Features:
15 - 20 layers of flattened
non--nucleated and fully
non
keratinized cells.

KERATIN is a polypeptide with


a large molecule
(40 70 kDa).
No ultrastructural features of
organelles can be detected
(dead cells).
[10]

EPIDERMIS
[5] STRATUM CORNEUM :
HORNY CELLS

Features:
Features:
15 - 20 layers of flattened
non--nucleated and fully
non
keratinized cells.

KERATIN is a polypeptide with


a large molecule
(40 70 kDa).
No ultrastructural features of
organelles can be detected
(dead cells).
Thick skin, H&E, LM x 132

[8]

Keratinocytes in strat.
corneum, EM x 6000

[1]

EXPRESSION
OF KERATINS
IN ASCENDENT
LAYERS OF
THE EPIDERMIS

[?]

The stratified squamous


epithelium also contains
various kinds of
specialized cells :

keratinocytes

IMMIGRANT CELLS IN THE EPIDERMIS

2]

1] MELANOCYTES

2] LANGERHANS
CELLS

Langerhans
cell

1]

3]

3] MERKELS
CELLS
[1]

1]
Melanocytes

Melanocytes
[1]

1]
MELANOCYTES
Are specialized cells
of the epidermis
producing pigments
EUMELANIN
(brown pigment) or
PHEOMELANIN
(red--brown pigment).
(red
Cell bodies are found
between the cells of
stratum basale.

[7]

They have long irregular


extensions (arms) penetrating between keratinocytes in 1st and 2nd layers

MELANOCYTES

EM:
[1]

Well developed GER and GA and various stages of melanin granules

formation and maturation are visible:


1 - PREMELANOSOME , 2 - MELANOSOME, 3 - MELANIN GRANULE
( larger 0.5 x 1 mm, ellipsoid, very dense, no striation is visible)
CYTOSECRETION - an injection of melanin granules into the epith. cells
Melanin degradation takes place within the keratinocytes
Average quantity of melanocytes: 1000 - 2000 per 1 mm2

2]

LANGERHANS CELLS

Are starstar-shaped cells


found mostly in
the stratum spinosum.
They have indented
nucleus and clear
cytoplasm (pale cells).
They do not contain
tonofilaments nor
desmosomes on their
membrane.
[1]

LANGERHANS CELL

[dk]

EM : Characteristic are rodrod-like (rocket(rocket-shaped) Birbecks granules in their cytoplasm


derived from the plasma membrane ( special type of endocytosis of surface antigens)

BIRBECKS GRANULES

EM x 18 000
Function:: - These cells are responsible for processing and presenting of
Function
antigens within the epithelium to lymphoid cells
- they arise from the bone marrow precursor cells (mononuclear
phagocyte system)

[dk]

FUNCTION OF
LANGERHANS CELLS
[1]

3]

MERKELS CELLS

Characteristic feature is the presence of small, round and electronelectron-dense granules


located on the opposite side of the nucleus to the Golgi apparatus.
They are associated with terminal neurites to function as a touch receptors.

Hairless skin

Sensory transduction.
[1]

Merkels cell with small neurosecretory granules, EM x14 450

[10]

STRUCTURE OF DERMIS
It consists of :
CONNECTIVE TISSUE with
GLANDS, HAIR FOLLICLES,
BLOOD VESSELS, and
SENSORY NERVE
ENDINGS.
LAYERS OF THE DERMIS:
1] PAPILLARY LAYER :
(the outermost) forms
DERMAL PAPILLAE
2] RETICULAR LAYER : (The inner thicker layer)

Papillary
layer
Reticular
layer

[W]

1] PAPILLARY LAYER OF DERMIS


This outermost layer forms
DERMAL PAPILLAE with
dermo - epidermal junctions =

Papillary layer

+ BASAL LAMINA
+ RETICULAR LAMINA
+ ANCHORING FIBRILS.

It contains: Loose connective tissue


(fibroblasts, macrophages, and
Reticular layer
mast cells).
Capillary network and AA-V anastomoses

Meissners sensory nerve endings


for fine sensitivity.

Thin skin, human,LM x 132

[8]

1] PAPILLARY LAYER OF DERMIS


This outermost layer forms
DERMAL PAPILLAE with
dermo - epidermal junctions =
+ BASAL LAMINA
+ RETICULAR LAMINA
+ ANCHORING FIBRILS.

It contains: Loose connective tissue


(fibroblasts, macrophages, and
mast cells).
Capillary network and AA-V anastomoses

Meissners sensory nerve endings


for fine sensitivity.

Thin skin, human,LM x 270

[8]

1] PAPILLARY LAYER OF DERMIS


This outermost layer forms
DERMAL PAPILLAE with
dermo - epidermal junctions =
+ BASAL LAMINA
+ RETICULAR LAMINA
+ ANCHORING FIBRILS.

It contains: Loose connective tissue


(fibroblasts, macrophages, and
mast cells).
Capillary network and AA-V anastomoses

Meissners sensory nerve endings


for fine sensitivity.

[4]

1] PAPILLARY LAYER OF DERMIS

Thin skin, human, LM x 270

[8]

Ridges and grooves in dermis, SEM x 80

[2]

2] RETICULAR LAYER OF DERMIS


This inner thicker layer of dermis is
composed of:
Irregular dense connective tissue
(collagen type I )
Contains less of c.t. cells
Contains network of elastic fibers
Encapsulated sensory organs
(Pacinian corpuscles)
Glands of the skin
(sweat gl., and sebaceous gl. )
Hair follicles and arrector pili muscle
(small bundle of smooth muscle cells)

Reticular layer

Thin skin, human,LM x 132

[8]

2] RETICULAR LAYER OF DERMIS


This inner thicker layer of dermis is
composed of:
Irregular dense connective tissue
(collagen type I )
Contains less of c.t. cells
Contains network of elastic fibers
Encapsulated sensory organs
(Pacinian corpuscles)
Glands of the skin
(sweat gl., and sebaceous gl. )
Hair follicles and arrector pili muscle
(small bundle of smooth muscle cells)

Thin skin, elastic stain, LM x 250

[7]

GLANDS OF THE SKIN

[A] ECCRINE
SWEAT GLANDS
[B] APOCRINE
SWEAT GLANDS

[C] SEBACEOUS
GLANDS
[w]

[A] (MEROCRINE) SWEAT GLANDS


They are
simple coiled tubular glands
composed of 2 parts :
1) SECRETORY PORTION - coiled tubulus lined
by secretory cells.

2)

2) DUCT PORTION - two


two--layered cuboidal
epithelial cells of dense appearance form
a straight tubulus transversing the papillary
layer of the dermis.
1)
[7]

[A] (MEROCRINE) SWEAT GLANDS


1) SECRETORY PORTION has:
DARK CELLS ( mucoid ) with
numerous secretory granules that
contain glycoproteins, they are
located on the luminal side of
the tubule, no basal lamina.
CLEAR CELLS with abundant
glycogen particles in their
cytoplasm, they secrete water and
electrolytes, perform reabsorption
of salts and fluids, have no secretory
granules, numerous invaginations
of the basal membrane

Skin, sweat gl., H&E stain, LM x 250

[7]

[A] (MEROCRINE) SWEAT GLANDS


1) SECRETORY PORTION : (cont.)
MYOEPITHELIAL CELLS are
flattened cells with contractile
functions.
Surrounding structures:
+ extensive blood capillary loops
around the secretory tubuli.
+ the secretory cells are innervated
by the cholinergic fibers.
Skin, sweat gl., H&E stain, LM x 250

[7]

SECRETORY PORTION OF SWEAT GLAND (Schem.)

[1]

[A] (MEROCRINE) SWEAT GLANDS


1) SECRETORY PORTION : (cont.)
MYOEPITHELIAL CELLS are
flattened cells with contractile
functions
Surrounding structures:
+ extensive blood capillary loops
around the secretory tubuli
+ the secretory cells are innervated
by the cholinergic fibers
Sweat gl., EM x 2500

[2]

[A] (MEROCRINE) SWEAT GLANDS


Acrosyringium

2) DUCT PORTION :
Two
Two--layered cuboidal epithelial cells
of dense appearance form a straight
tubulus transversing the papillary
layer of the dermis.
Lumen
Lumen--bordering cells have
prominent (eosinophilic) terminal web
(reabsorption of Na).
There is no duct within the epidermis,
the sweat penetrates through a system
of spiralspiral-shaped channels called
ACROSYRINGIUM and opens up
on the surface the stratum corneum.

[7]

[A] (MEROCRINE) SWEAT GLANDS


2) DUCT PORTION :
Two
Two--layered cuboidal epithelial cells
of dense appearance form a straight
tubulus transversing the papillary
layer of the dermis.
Lumen
Lumen--bordering cells have
prominent (eosinophilic) terminal web
(reabsorption of Na).
There is no duct within the epidermis,
the sweat penetrates through a system
of spiralspiral-shaped channels called
ACROSYRINGIUM and opens up
on the surface the stratum corneum.

Skin, sweat gl., H&E stain, LM x 250

[13]

[A] (MEROCRINE) SWEAT GLANDS


2) DUCT PORTION : (cont.)
The fluid secreted is not viscous, contains a little protein only ( the main
components are: H2O, NaCl, urea, ammonia, uric acid ).

[1]

[B] APOCRINE SWEAT GLANDS


Special features:
features:
They are localized only in certain
regions of the skin
(axillary, areolar, perianal).
They are larger than eccrine glands
with wider lumen in their secretory
portions.
Their ducts open into hair follicles.
Their secretion is more viscous and
acquires distinctive odor.
These glands are innervated by
adrenergic nerve endings.

Apocrine gl.,secretory cells, LM x 450

[6]

[C] SEBACEOUS GLANDS


Features:
They are located in the hairy skin
(with some exceptions of nonnon-hairy
skin like: labia minora, glans penis
and clitoridis).
They have higher concentrations on
the face, forehead and scalp.
They are compound acinar glands
with short duct.
The duct is lined by strat. squamous
nonkeratinized epithelium and opens
into the upper part of the hair follicle.
[w]

[C] SEBACEOUS GLANDS


Features:
They are located in the hairy skin
(with some exceptions of nonnon-hairy
skin like: labia minora, glans penis
and clitoridis).
They have higher concentrations on
the face, forehead and scalp.
They are compound acinar glands
with short duct.
The duct is lined by strat. squamous
nonkeratinized epithelium and opens
into the upper part of the hair follicle.
[8]

[C] SEBACEOUS GLANDS


The acini consist of several layers
of epithelial cells :
1 - Basal layer of flattened stem cells
(with basal lamina).
2 - Intermediate layers of
proliferating cells
(producing lipid droplets).
3 - Most luminal layer of dissolved
cells ( forming SEBUM ) by a
holocrine type of secretion;
secretion;
the sebum is a mixture of lipids
to prevent water losses and
to perform an antibacterial effect.

[1]

[C] SEBACEOUS GLANDS


The acini consist of several layers
of epithelial cells :
1 - Basal layer of flattened stem cells
(with basal lamina).
2 - Intermediate layers of
proliferating cells
(producing lipid droplets).
3 - Most luminal layer of dissolved
cells ( forming SEBUM ) by a
holocrine type of secretion;
secretion;
the sebum is a mixture of lipids
to prevent water losses and
to perform an antibacterial effect.

Basal cells

LM x 450

[7]

Sweat gland

[8]

Sebaceous gland

COMPARING GLANDS IN THE SKIN

[8]

TYPES OF THE SKIN


(as referred to the epidermal thickness)
[1] THICK SKIN

[2] THIN SKIN

[?]

[1] THICK SKIN (glabrous, unhairy),


palms + soles (~ 400400-600 mm thick)

[3]

[2] THIN SKIN ( hairy )


elsewhere on the body (~ 7575-150 mm thick)

Thin skin, pigmented, LM x 250

[13]

ypodermis

Skin of the scalp, HF hair follicles, LM x 80

[6]

STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR


It is an elongated keratinized
structure derived from
epidermal epithelium.
The hair is composed of
two regions:
1 - HAIR SHAFT
2 - HAIR FOLLICLE
( incl. HAIR ROOT )

[6]

STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR


It is an elongated keratinized
structure derived from
epidermal epithelium
The hair is composed of
two regions:
1 - HAIR SHAFT
2 - HAIR FOLLICLE
( incl. HAIR ROOT )

[6]

[1] STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR SHAFT

The most internal vacuolated layer


is the MEDULLA OF THE HAIR.
HAIR.
The middle layer is formed by
the HAIR CORTEX (hard keratin).
The most superficial cells of
the hair - HAIR CUTICLE are very flat and all overlapping in
the direction toward the hair apex
(shingel
shingel--like appearance).
[6]

[1] STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR SHAFT

The most internal vacuolated layer


is the MEDULLA OF THE HAIR.
HAIR.
The middle layer is formed by
the HAIR CORTEX (hard keratin).
The most superficial cells of
the hair - HAIR CUTICLE are very flat and all overlapping in
the direction toward the hair apex
(shingel
shingel--like appearance).
Hair shaft, SEM x1100

[8]

[2] STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR FOLLICLE


This is epidermal invagination
with dilation - HAIR BULB.
BULB.
At the base of the hair bulb
there is a DERMAL PAPILLA,
formed of the connective tissue
invagination,, it contains also
invagination
a capillary network.
The HAIR ROOT is formed by
undifferentiated epidermal cells
( MATRIX ), covering the papilla
This is a zone of intense mitosis
(elongation of the hair) and its
pigmentation (melanocytes
(melanocytes).
).

HAIR BULB

DERMAL PAPILLA

[6]
[?]

[2] STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR FOLLICLE


This is epidermal invagination
with dilation - HAIR BULB.
BULB.
At the base of the hair bulb
there is a DERMAL PAPILLA,
formed of the connective tissue
invagination,, it contains also
invagination
a capillary network.
The HAIR ROOT is formed by
undifferentiated epidermal cells
( MATRIX ), covering the papilla
This is a zone of intense mitosis
(elongation of the hair) and its
pigmentation (melanocytes
(melanocytes).
).

HAIR BULB

[7]
[?]

[2] STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR FOLLICLE


The most external layer of
epithelial cells forming the
follicle is called EXTERNAL
( EPITHELIAL ) ROOT SHEATH

and it is continuous with


epidermal cells of the skin.
It is separated from the
underlying connective tissue by
the GLASSY MEMBRANE , like
a thicker basal membrane.

HAIR BULB

DERMAL PAPILLA

[6]
[?]

[2] STRUCTURE OF THE


HAIR FOLLICLE

The most external layer of


epithelial cells forming the
follicle is called EXTERNAL
( EPITHELIAL ) ROOT SHEATH

and it is continuous with


epidermal cells of the skin.
It is separated from the
underlying connective tissue by
the GLASSY MEMBRANE , like
a thicker basal membrane.
[7]
[?]

Skin, hair follicle l.s., LM x 132

[8]

[2] STRUCTURE OF THE


HAIR FOLLICLE

The internal layer of epithelial


cells within the follicle (close
to the surface of the hair)
is the INTERNAL
( EPITHELIAL ) ROOT SHEATH

which disappeares above the


level of the duct of sebaceous
gland.
The most external envelope of
the follicle is the CONNECTIVE
TISSUE SHEATH which is
continuous with the papillary
layer of the skin.

[7]
[?]

[2] STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR FOLLICLE

ARRECTOR PILI MUSCLE


(a smooth muscle bundle)
connects to the follicle with the
dermis of the skin delimiting
a triangular space in which the
sebaceous gland is located.

[13]

[6]

Skin, hair follicles, t.s. LM x 132

H
APM

[8]

STRUCTURE OF THE NAIL


The nail is a keratinized plate, slightly curved, covering the dorsal surface
of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes.
The transparent NAIL PLATE rests on the NAIL BED formed by
epithelial cells of the Malpigian layer of the underlying skin.

[1]

STRUCTURE OF THE NAIL


The proximal part of the nail is a NAIL ROOT,
ROOT, it is hidden in the a fold of
the skin - NAIL GROOVE.
GROOVE.
The cells of the nail bed under the root constitute the MATRIX
MATRIX,, these cells
divide, migrate toward the root and differentiate to produce hard keratin.

[1]

STRUCTURE OF THE NAIL


Addition of new cells accounts for elongation of the nail plate; as it grows it
slides over the nail bed.
the crescentcrescent-shaped light area near the root of the nail is a LUNULA ,
caused by partially keratinized cells in this region.

[1]

STRUCTURE OF THE NAIL


The fold covering the root is called EPONYCHIUM (or CUTICLE
CUTICLE).
).
The epidermal thickening which joins the free edge of the nail plate on its
undersurface is called HYPONYCHIUM
HYPONYCHIUM..

[1]

Fingernail, l.s., LM x 14

[8]

Sensory receptors in the skin

[1]

Meissners corpuscle
corpuscle,, LM x 540

[8]

Pacinian corpuscle, LM x 132

[8]

MAMMARY GLAND
It is a compound
tubulo-alveolar gland
consisting of 15 - 25
lobes located in a
connective and
adipose tissues of the breast.

[10]

By its structure and function,


it can be:
1. QUIESCENT MAMMARY GL.
3. PROLIFERATING M. GL.
2. PREGNANCY (LACTATING).

4. SENILE INVOLUTING M. GL.

[8]

A] DEVELOPMENT MAMMARY GLAND


A] EARLY DEVELOPMENT :
( in 6 w. old embryo )

A pair of epidermal thickenings


develops on the ventral side of
the fetus = milk lines.
The caudal part undergoes
regression in early development.
In the thoracic region, the
epithelium penetrates the
connective tissue and forms
Cellular cords - future lactiferous
ducts and sinuses.
[15]

A] DEVELOPMENT MAMMARY GLAND


A] EARLY DEVELOPMENT :

12 w.

25 w.

30 w.

[17]

B] DEVELOPMENT MAMMARY GLAND


B] DURING PUBERTY :
The breast increases in size (accumulation of the connective and adipose
tissues) and develop the nipple.
Lactiferous
ducts start
branching.

[17]

C] ADULT MAMMARY GLAND


C] ADULT WOMAN :
More extensive branching of lactiferous ducts.
At the ends of the terminal interlobular ducts develops a lobule
(a cluster of several
intralobular ducts)
embedded in the
connective tissue.
No secretory
portions are
present in
this stage.
[13]

C] PREGNANCY MAMMARY GLAND


D] PREGNANCY :
Intense growth - proliferation of alveoles at the ends of the terminal
intralobular ducts.
Alveolar epithelial cells form simple columnar epithelium with apocrine
type of secretion
(fat droplets +
small bits of
cytopl.+ milk
proteins).
Myoepithelial cells
develop around
each alveolus.
[13]

C] PREGNANCY MAMMARY GLAND


D] PREGNANCY :
During lactation the
milk accumulates in
lumina of the alveoli
and inside the
lactiferous ducts.

[10]

The secretory cells undergo cyclic


changes in their size from columnar
to cuboidal as their products are
released (with small bits of their
cytoplasm).
The first secretion after birth is called
COLLOSTRUM, it contains less fat
COLLOSTRUM
and more protein than regular milk
and is rich in antibodies.

[8]

E] POSTPOST-LACTATIONAL REGRESSION
With cessation of breast-feeding
most alveoli undergo
desquamation and sloughing of
whole cells + autophagic
absorption of cell organelles with
help of macrophages.
Myoepithelial and basal cells
persist as cords of cells.

F] SENILE INVOLUTION
After menopause the involution
encounters a reduction in size
and atrophy of secretory portions
of some ducts and glands
+ reduction of the interlobular
connective tissue.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SKIN


Two origins:
1. ECTODERM EPIDERMIS
2. MESENCHYME DERMIS
Development of EPIDERMIS :
A Ectoderm cells (4 weeks)
B At 7 weeks, a layer of flattened cells is
added periderm (epitrychium).
C At 11 weeks, proliferation of basal cells
forms the third layer of epidermis the
intermediate zone.
D At 16 weeks, the definitive four layers
develop (basal, spinous, granular, horny).
[17]

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SKIN

Development of DERMIS :
It is derived from dermatomes of somites
and lateral plate mesoderm (mesenchyme).
It forms the superficial corium (dermal papillae)
and subcorium (the deeper layers
of the dermis).
At birth the skin is covered by vernix caseosa,
the product of
sebaceous
glands and
degenerated
OF SWEAT
epidermal cells. DEVELOPMENT
GLANDS

[17]

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HAIR


The germinative
layer of the
epidermis extends
into the dermis.
It forms:
1. Hair bud
2. Hair bulb
(germinal matrix)
3. Hair follicle.
Note: Melanoblasts
migrate into dermis
from neural crest
cells.

[17]

DEVELOPMENT OF NAILS
At 10 weeks - primordia in epidermis - NAIL FIELDS develop at the tips
of fingers and toes.
Lateral and proximal NAIL FOLDS surround the nil field.
The cells of he proximal nail fold grow over the nail field, become
keratnized and form the NAIL PLATE.
PLATE
The development of fingernails precedes that of toenails by 4 weeks.

10 weeks

32 weeks

[17]

The End

This presentation was compiled for internal use by


medical students only at the Faculty of Medicine,
Palack
Palack
University, CZ
It can not be distributed by any means. DK.

[dk]

REFERENCES

Some of the pictures and schematics,


shown in this presentation, were
scanned from the following textbooks.

10

Reference numbers are added to pictures in their right bottom corner.

REFERENCES

11

12

13

16

17

18

Some of the pictures and schematics,


shown in this presentation, were
scanned from the following textbooks.

14

Reference numbers are added to pictures in their right bottom corner.

15

FULL REFERENCES
(1) Kierszenbaum A.L.: Histology and Cell biology, Mosby, London, 2002
(2) Fawcett D.W., Jensh R.P.: Concise Histology, Chapman&Hill, New York, 1997
(3) Stevens A., Lowe J.: Human Histology, 2nd ed., Mosby, London, 2000
(4) Cormack D.H.: Essential Histology, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1997
(5) Cohen B.D., Wood D.L.: Structure and Function of the Human Body,
7th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2000
(6) Kerr J.B.: Atlas of Functional Histology, Mosby, London, 2000
(7) Junqueira L.C., Carneiro J., Kelly R.O.: Basic Histology, Text and Atlas

Lange McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003


(8) Gartner L.P., Hiatt J.L.: Color Atlas of Histology, 3rded., Wiliams&Wilkins,
Baltimore, 19949)

(9) Krstic R.V.: Illustrated encyclopedia of Human Histology, Springer Verlag,


Berlin. 1984
Reference numbers are added to pictures in their right bottom corner.

[?]

FULL REFERENCES
10) Ross M.H., Kaye G.I., Pawlina W.:Histology, text and atlas, 4th ed., Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2003
11) Krstic R.V.: Human Microscopic Anatomy, Atlas for students of Medicine and
Biology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991
12) Ross M.H., Reith E.J.: Histology, Text and Atlas, Harper& Row, Lippincott
Co., New York, 1985
13) Roroschenko V.P.:Di Fiores Altlas of Histology with Functional correlations,
9th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2000
14) Lamberti A., MarinoT., Sodicoff M: The Histology lab assistant. Interactive
CD-ROM , AGC Educational Media,
15) Sadler T.W.: Langmans Medical Embryology, 8th ed., Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2000
16) Gartner L.P., Hiatt J.L.: Color Textbook of Histology, 2nded., W.B. Saunders
Co., Philadelphia, 2001
17) Moore KL, Persaud TVN: The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented
Embryology, 8th ed., Saunders, Elsevier Philadelphia, 2008.
18) Carlson BM: Human Embryology and Developmental Biology, 3rd ed., Mosby,
Reference numbers are added to pictures in their right bottom corner.
2004

[?]

INTERNET RESOURCES

http://www.visualhistology.com/products/atlas/VHA_Chpt9_Skin.html
https://histo.life.illinois.edu/histo/atlas/showcat.php?cat_to_show=N&w=500
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-KmfEbKmKFw&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ghWq2zjtE2w&feature=channel
http://www.ihcworld.com/video/histology/integument.htm
http://www.search.eb.com/eb/art-18506/Animation-and-microphotography-showing-the-skins-three-layers-theepidermis
http://www.anatomyatlases.org/MicroscopicAnatomy/Section07/Section07.shtml
http://www.path.uiowa.edu/cgi-bin-pub/vs/vl_browse.cgi?cat=h_integument
http://projects.galter.northwestern.edu/rhodin/
http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/intro/skin.htm
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MEdEd/Medicine/dermatology/melton/skinlsn/sknlsn.htm
http://www.histology-world.com/photoalbum/thumbnails.php?album=23