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MECE

2334 (Fall 2014): Equation sheet of final exam



Thermodynamics laws for a closed system

1st Law
!

2nd Law

! = !!! !!!
!

! ! = !"#$%,!!! + !"#,!!! =

Conservation relations for an open system

Mass conservation
!"
=
!"

!"


Energy conservation (1st Law)

!"
!
= +
!" +
+

2
!"

+ !"#,!!!

!"#
!"#

!"

!"# +
!"#

!
+
2

denotes velocity in this formula.

Entropy balance (2nd Law)



!"

=
+

Constitutive relations

Model
Solid
Incompressible liquid
Ideal gas

Model
Solid
Incompressible liquid
Ideal gas

( )!"
!"

( )!"# + !"#
!"#

Internal energy
(Constant mass and specific heat)
! ! = (! ! )
! ! = (! ! )
! ! = ! (! ! )
Specific enthalpy ( = + )
(Constant specific heat)
NA
1
! ! = ! ! + (! ! )

! ! = ! ! !
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!"#



Model
Solid

Entropy

!
! ! = ( )
!
!
! ! = ( )
!
!
!
! ! = !
+ ln( )
!
!
!
!
! ! = !
ln( )
!
!
!
!
! ! = !
+ ! ln( )
!
!

Incompressible liquid
Ideal gas






(For variable specific heat)

! ! = ! ! ! !



For an ideal gas, ! = ! +
For an ideal gas: =
For a spring: =
!
Elastic potential energy of a spring: ! ! = ! (!! !! )
Mass flow rate: = (note that V is velocity in this formula)

For an isentropic process of an ideal gas with variable specific heat

!!
!
!
!
= !!! ; !! = !!!
!
!


Isentropic efficiency relations
For a turbine

!!

! =

! !

! !!

! =

!! !

! !


For a compressor/pump

For a nozzle

! =

!

!!

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!!

!

!

Work of a system

Work of a system in general: = .

!
Work of a quasi-equilibrium expansion (closed system) : ! =

Work of an internally-reversible process (open control volume) : ! =



Two-phase relations
= 1 ! + !

= 1 ! + !

= 1 ! + !

= 1 ! + !

Performance of a cycle
Efficiency of a heat engine: =

!!"#
!!

; if reversible = 1 ! !
!

Internal combustion engine



!"!#$
!
= ; =

!
! !
Gas power cycle
!
!
!
Compression ratio = !! ; Expansion ratio= ! ! ; Back work ratio= !!
!

Where o denotes outlet, i denotes inlet, c denotes the compressor and t


denotes the turbine.

Heat transfer

Mode
Heat flux [Wm-2]

Conduction
! =

Convection
= ( ! )
Radiation
= ( ! ! ! )

Fluid statics
Hydrostatic pressure in a column of fluid:
! = ( ! )
where h is the fluid height.

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