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PART .

B
1) Explain the differenr rypes ofioints (APR/MAY 2003)

i) Rigid

.
.
.
.

Joints:

shear and bending moments too.


Relative rotation and relative displacement are impossible.
Generally used for the iunction ofcolumns to footings.
Used forjoining ofindividual members to each other.
Can take tensile, compressive,

Limitationsi

.
ii)

power and hence minirium applications.

Hinge like Ioints:

.
.
.
.
iii)

Requires considerable man

transmit forces passing through hinges itself, and also allow certain motion and
rolalions.
,oints osed in precast members are usually hinge like.
Requires less working time than that ofthe rigid joints.
Execution is simpler.
Can

Shod Joints:

.
.

industrial construction and used for longspan only.


Chiefly used in bridge construction for long span bridges.

Used in

iv) Dry Joints:

.
.

joint accomplished by simple placing oftwo members on each other and then
fastening them is called dry joint.
The structure becomes immediately loose bea ngA

v) Wetloints:

.
.
.

The joint

rcquiring not only a casting cement morlar, but also a subscquent


concreting is called wet joint.
Eg: when a rigid jointis formed, generallythe Iengthening ofsteel bars is byjoining
the members by overlapping [or) welding them wh jle the discontinuity is avoided
by a skilful subsequent concreting is called wet joint.
Adcqualc for the bcaring ofgreater force.
Struchrrc assembled used a wer ioint have a monolithic character.
Wct ioints conlply with cha racl eI o f material ofstruchrrelobejoined.

2) Explain in detait rhe different strBctriiat ionneciiqn;i;p;;;ii a;ii,ti"E


Junction typcs/groups of Joints (April/ May ZO17) (May /runc ZO13J

i.
ii.
iii.
iy.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

.;

Ioining ofcolumn to footing.


loining ofbeam to top ofcolumn.
Joining ofbeam at an tntermediate ioint.

Lengthelingofcolumn.

beams.

Joining of
Formirtg ofjoints forarcherl slructrrrr:s.

'
'

Joiningofjointsofposttensionstructures.
loining ofprecast to monolithic RC structures.

iJ |oining ofcolumn to footing:

.
.

Usually rigid.

It may also be hinge-like.

Methods:
A rigid

ioint can

be made by

placing the column into calyx at the footing or by using

welded joinL

;r) Culufirn plared irlto a calyx:


COL(JH

- loc.o aErNrlB '


co^r"PETE F|LL
ATEEL

RATE

.TO EN&EE
cal-t)rlN

fos'flIa aF

Advantages:

.
.

lt

simplcr requires less timc suitablc for small column_ (i-cl placing, pumping,
fixing of fhc colurnn and filling calyx with concrete is easier.
is

lhis mcthod is leasl resistivc to inaccurrcicsararsingdue toconstruction.

@FT

b) By welding:

tooxlo t6
to xrortomr', Pl<t
,Oo

Disadvantagesr

.
.

Moment araising from fixity of column demands double bearing.


The excess material to bear this moment is insiSnificant for small columns.

NOTE:
Cal5rx

should be designed to result

+ Bending
+ Shear
-e

The ibrces acting on the calyx wall.

ii) Joining ofcolumn to beam

oR top ofcolumn:

a) By overlapping steel bars:

.t

.t
J
hJ By hool<ed steel bars:

c) By welded ioint:

welding of column to foo

s6.,t Pl"f,.

Advantages:

.
.
.
.

It is effective and wide spread method.


lt is easily accessible.
lt ensures the well executed work and aiiequate control
It is more economical for larger member thrn the calyx method.

iii) loining of beam to column on top ofcolumn:


a) By overlapping steel bars:

7,6r'
@Y*Job

>tA

l-

tsi

ffi
f.""
1- hoh"/;'4
lYorie^
'

Wor^

Co[rfl",

b) Bv weldingr

Tr,rifr
cortreV

Simple method lor riSid iunction fitting column wilh beam at gi.der.

At the top ofthe column the use ofovertapping steel with beam and subsequating
concrete is alone.

Li0litations!

.
.
.

Demands more carc and skill.


Increased use ofsteel.
a greatest
Execution of work is complicated becauie the work must bc performed at
on a light scaffold suspendd on the beam itselt'

b)

c)

CoLr*,'

d) lntcn cdiatc lrcam-column ioints:

It is the easiest method [i.e) placjng a beam on the top ofthe column.
At the resting place, both the top ofthe column and the underside ofthe beam must
be furnished with a steel plates anchored into the concrete, so that the two steel
plates rest on each other.
v) loining of truss to a column:

\Z

--\

,r^t
6err{orcol"-cnt

.d
.

o"or"[.y

'l'he truss rests o[ the column by its cantiiever]ike


lengthened upper chord while
the lowel chord has subsequently be lengthened and joined to a coiumn.

For ve.tical

loads )

The

joint should

The

joinl should be Rigid.

For horizontal loads

vi) foininA of column to

a beam at

be Hinge-like.

an interrnediate level:

cardMrl f?h'4l Nq THBDoql| sevEehL FttfPd

It

is

appliclblc lor multi storeycd huildings.'l'hclc are two mJthojs.

Mct}lod I:
The beams rest on cantilever of the column and their top bars are welded to dowels
protruding from it.

Method II:
A beam shaped Iike an inverted 'U' rests on cantiiever protruding Iaterally from the column'
The advantage is that the concentric loading can also be accomplished for the outermost

columns which is impossible when using method


NOTE:

Ifan additional reinforcement is applied, the beam can also be transformed to a continuous
beam.

vii) Lengthening of columns:

.
.

Columns are usua)ly Iengthened at floor levels.


Intermediate lengthening should be avoided ifpossible.

B@N't'
W2r^

'lu1.,,,[
e&*^x11^

.
.

1cru.-'

)q"d

The upper columns rest on the lower ones by a tongue Iike extensions.
The steel bars of the main reinforcements are loined by overlapping are looped steel
hars are welding.
'fhen the stirrups arc to be placed .lnd finally, the iolnls must be concreted

viii) loining ofbeamsl


a)

o'P,Uf
'l'lre
th

iu

n.rion oi the beam is donc by ovcrlapping lhc protruding skrcl bars or hy wclding

cnl logethcr.
10

The ioint is constructed by making the beam


ends cantireverlike and werding the
steer bars
together.

NOTE: The verticaljoints are better than inclined


ioints.

ix) Forming otiunction for arched structures:

SrS,""1# C-'"ol'Y

Prccastarches are usually produccd and assembled


in the form ofthree hinged
structure,

.'l'he

elimination of centreioint increases the rigidityof


the structure.
.llingeofarchedstructurescanbemadebyusingeithersteel

bars shoes or hjnges

forrned ofconcreto
Stecl bars are expensive.

x) Joint for post tensioned structures:

11

g''&

.
.

tensionin& it is ensured that the entire shucture including the joint only
compressive can developed.
The ioints are made by placing plane surfaces side by side and then filiing to gaps
with cement mortar. By doing so, longer beams cari also be produced from shorter
By post

pre-cast members-

.
.

making joints.
After casting of the gaps and hardening ofmortar, the short inserted cables are
stressed and so rigid ioints are established.
No drffrculties in

xi) Joining ofprecast to monolithic

RC

structures:

Achieved by placing, end ofthe beam either or tvvo cantilever protruding from the
colu mn or an opening from in lhe shaft of thi: column.

S> orrtzQ

Poe"":t

baxz

dot,.Y''

I
When making joints first of ali, a 2.5cm deep cavity is chiselled out at the side of the
precast column.
The bottom of this cavity should be roughened so as to attain a better bond b/w the
concrcie ofthe mon(rithic bcam and prccast column.

) Explain about suspension of mcmbcrs: (APR/MAy 2003)

i) Suspension oI nrernbers by slopinS cahlc


t2

jiJ Suspension of members by using


a stock.

iii] Suspension by a triangular cable rocks.


i) Suspension ofmembers t y sloping cables:

r
.
o

'fhe menrbers have to be transporred Frotn


the manutacturing location to the storing
Sometimes frames (bridge crane, tower crane, gantry crane etc) are
usually used for

transportation.
The members are hanging from tle hook ofthe crane. Method ofsuspenslon
depends on form and dimension ofmpmbers.

The suspension must be situated above the beam or else the beam become
unstable.

ii) Srlspension ofmembers using

a stock:

sl""f./-giJ 4..^a
.

Stabiliry ofthe beam may be by enclosing beam by a stock (i.e) by placing the girder
into a rigid planc. By dqing so, the suspension itselfis transferred to a pointoutside

th(.b.rm.

iii)

Suspension by a

triangular cable

rocl(s:

13

.
.

Incrcasc in the statlility can be achieved.


Thebranches ofthe triangular cable rockers are ofequal length andjoin at the
suspension ioint.

NOTE:
When the members are suspended at any points a lifi ing should begin

simultaneously.

sl.Itq
inlo a Adok
Jo

LIFTING LIIGS:

kt+y

4)

X,4^

Largc concrctc roofing mcmbers:

It rests dircctly on the main girdcrs ofthe hall struclurcs.


l4

length corresponding ro rhe frames


'
[6 ro 10m] width is [1.3 to
Ij;;ttt'."t''
. They are direclly supported by the-maln girders
so that purlins arc hot requit.ed.
o A large roofing member con

having a thick.ess
'l'hese members

ribs aDd a srab

o,r.r,;'jfi:lT::j:Tli:Tl.".i*""#::.."'s

connected t

unirormcd continuou, _-,,u.,orflfn

utnu. aDd

Lo

the f'a me girdcrs from by

5) Kinds ofmembers:
i. Normal members for intermediate
placing.

ii. Mem h|rs with r cornicu.

iii. Members

iv.loining

.
.

'
.

havjng edves gufl er.

members

members can be solely from


The heat insulation oFthe roo
t,es or some other s,n,r"
The

RC

or combined with porous hollow


tiles.

jjil""T:,l,o:ffiT:;:Xr1rffH."T-

;lil,'ffi

[:"ii[::"'*'

amountins to about 1 to 2cm

rrequentrvo."i"

ilu

,o

,nr..u.r", or

These must be equalised bya subsequently


mortar Iayer and the heat insulating
items have to be embedded into

this mortar

tEdge rib Dimensions are:

For spans of 6, 9 and 12m, the

25 to 50cm. These widths are r


around rhe bottom b*.

widrh is usually 4, S and 6m. The depth


varying from
encasing the adequate cover of concrete

,t*" [ff;i;",;:r

6) Rocl(ers used for plane members:

.
.

Ifthe member is [o be lifted at more than


Distortion in thc member takes place.

15

points.

4) How stresses can be eliminated during erection olprecast elemerlts. (May/Iune

2Ot2)
Surplus stresses are forms when memters are hoisted and placed. These stresses are
called handling or erection stresses.

.
.
.

In good method ofconshuction is characterised by elimination ofthose stresses.


It should be eliminated iD such a way that no additional reft is required.
The stresses due to wind or other external forces are avoided by a temporary racing
ofthe placed members facening.

lfI"q
ilJ

H*^J A-

(D.L

1**-l d., L
eusl

.'lhc

hoistingof

straight beam is accomplishcd by liiting it at 2pts.'

16

/o,,v";y

.
.

'I'he location ofthesc 2pts depends on tlre reft


ifthe bcam is the s.s one, the lifting
should be at the ends or in such a manner that tlre aralsing moment should be
equalised.

pt

When hoisting a continuous beam, post tcnsioning is necessary.

B) Girrlers:
A girder having a length of 25cm is clutched at Zpts when ir is hoist but the
tilting
same girder requires atleast 4 Iittlng pts.
'l'hese pts should be determined based on equal moments
simultaneously taking
iflto consideration. 'l'he reft design [o resist force affecting the beam, in its final

position.

COLUMNS:

The mostadvantage pt for lifting should be first determined.


The column dividing hoisting acts like a s.s beam with the cantilever at the end,
loaded bythe dead weigh! temporary post tensiooing must be worked out, so that
additional reft is not required.

l-,f,J."q

p.iJl

ELI MINATION METHODS:


'llhe stresses developing in membcrs during hoisting
and placing differs these araise

in lhe finalposition.
An additional reft may bc sometimcs require but Becomes unnecessary after placing
is finished-

1/

of

additional stresses as well


eliminated.
Hence the

as

reft required to resist them should be

5) What are thc methods used in stress elimination in precast members:

i) a. By an l-profile steel beam to

the

girder'

b. Using Post tensioning.

ii) Bracing of two stancilions'


iii) Temporary Post tensioning'
iv) MultiPoint PickuP..

i)

By an

.
.
.
.
.
.

l-profile steel beam to the girder:

This is most simple.

ofsteelbeam are merged to stanchion while its middle is stresses to the


it down'
stanchion by the bolts of an inserted stirrup which Frcsses
load is bound by the steel
Hence the developing bending moment due to the dead
reft'
beam and the remaining by the stanchion, without any additional
beam becomes
After the beam has been hoisted by 450, the temporary reft steel
unnecessarY and can be removed
is unsatisfactory'
For large structure, (great length & strong forces] this method
IJence for those structures post tensioning can be adopted'

The ends

3oo..r"

'ilrL

rro*gJ t

-FoP.L

".5*
bs
o'a-

A Po{lz beat.
tor'o
-*J +" tehill
n^, oil,,,,-

beoJn

Ne5

18

61

.
.

'l'he tenslonlng force rs controlled bymeasuring


thc.reaction force developing abovc
thc lifting pin using a nlat.r{rrtletcr.
When the column has been hoisted, the equipment
used for post tensioning has to
be dismantled before placing begins_

ARACING OF TWO STRUCTIIRES:

.
.

It is done by placing two stanchion ofa plane [u IJe transported,


so that the moments
arising at the supports are climinated.

Developments of negative stresses are overcome by the bracings


provided. By using
hydraulic iack the hoisting is done. After placing, the bracing
bar i. .._ouea.

-_lo"psa

hsl

@:r

- t-r e &t
,J,r

.sh",,r;^q

on

B.d ax;t\ kon


H{&a,-t'

t>.L

JocJ<

elimination ofstresses is achieved by temperory post tensioning of a shorter


section ofthe column.
The required tensioning force is providecl by a hydraulic jack.
The girder is lifted at two pts, The sfressing cables are lead in
as in a way that the
moment developing from post tensionin& djminishes to the necessary
degree, the
moment arising due to dead load.
The

Multipoint Pickup:

It is one ol

thebestsolulion\firrtheeliminationoferectionstressesforeg:hoisting

of a truncatcd cone

like rool over a ce,nent silo.


Ihc roofwas liJrcd at dual pts ,n a statically determined manner using a
three pt

suspension.

This resulted iD the elimination oferection stresses in the Iower edge ring and
truncated cone shaped roof:

'Tin'oeo*l -cor\'osl,rfp.A

rr'{

<- cr*,t 'j;lt


NOTE:
Erection stresses during hoisting ofcolumn can also be eliminated by using

multipoint lifL
6) Whatare the differe t Hoistilg machines used in precast erection.
i.

Tower Cranes.

ii. Crawler Cranes.


iii- Truck Cranes.
iv. Gantry Cranes.
v. Mast Cranes.

vi Twinned-mast

Cranes.

vii. Derrick Cranes.

Transporl Trailers:
i. In

llorizontal Position.

ii. In Upright Position-

7) Explain about dimensioning ofJoints.


A) According to Hungarian Standards: (MNOSZ 15022:1952)

Lengthcning:

)Either

by welding steelbars togelher {orl

20

)By

'

Overlapping hooked Stcct


bars.

The len8thening of steel


bars by over,e.hihd

subiccred to rension

i. not
.
-^l -pernritted
^_- .-- .when
the concrcre

*"o*n"." ,l",iflLiliis

(
'l'he most suitable
welded joint
oI four welds and two

laps.

's4
t*d

s:sA-

welded leDgthening is in arc welded

ioint, consisting

Length ofLap = 2*3.Sd 7d.


=
Diameter = O.7d
d )Diameter of steel har lengtherled.

.
.

Grade

;::ty

ofsteel uscd-

steet Crades 34.218. 50, 35


Bmk can be welded, the carbon
conrerr is almost

B) According to

cerman Standards (DIN 4225):

The cube strength-ofcement


m(

*."#,,:,j.[[:,j,off[T:fl1i:;,_1ff

].:;Hi:Il""

r,rltar

is

:ilT:11,J:"r;surinsadequa,e

its top must be ar teast 3cm,


is compressive force is to
be

Caps between slabs like beams


are toformed like grooves,
which when filled
with C.M is appropriate for the transmission

ofshear.

'l'hc bcst concrctc


quality to be considered in
the case ofan in-situ concrcting.
i) is C 300 if the srnallcst dimension
is not less than 1ocm.

up

iiJ is C225 ifthe smallest dimension is 3cmThe permissible compressive stres$ is 50 I(P/cm2 in thc
widc.

C)

case

ofioint

lcss than 1cm

According to soviet code:


'l'he quality ofconcrete used for 0re co[cretiilg ofioints shall bei
Be er by 1q than ihat of the joinl members, provided lhe plan does not comprise
any special stipulation.
lf the ioints between the precast members are ofsmallsize and non-refd, the cross
section ofthese joints cannot subiected to either compressive or shear.
If the joints are oflarger size and refd, their c/s can be taken into account because
widcrioints make easier and better concreting possible.

D) According to Austriatr code:

Similar to the Hunga an code.


Specifies the value ofthe permissible Shear stress is the precast and the in-situ
conc rete at only hall of lhe value of thc sheJ r slress can be considered.
Safety ofjoints against failure should not less than 3 fold.
Joining of prefabricates in shucturalwalls.
B) Explain the ioint technique and materials used in detail? (Nov/Dec 2013)

Ioint techniques normally employed are:

F
)

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Welding if cleats or projecting steel


overlapping reinforcemenl loops and linking stcel grouted by concreteRcinforced concrete ties all round a slab
Pl-estressing
Epoxy grouting
Ilolts and nuts connection. and
A combination ofthe above.

ll

Materials for concrete ioints:


There are numerous different materials used in fbrming joints in concrete slabs, but the
nlost conT nlon are

.
.
.

Flexible board
Dowels
Sealants

Flexibldboard:

.
.
.

A fibrous, compressible, flexible board such as flexcell, it is cheap and readily


available from builder's merchants in pre-cut strjps ofthe required depth, especially
tor creating expansron lolnts.
It is typically 12mm, 20mm or 2smm thick and right thickness for the joint should
be chosen.
No joint should be wider than 30mm.

Dowels:

400

600mm lon&

Z0

32mm in diameterand manufactured from grade 250steel.

Sealants:

.
.
.

There are three main types


Hot poured, usually bitumirous in origin. Not as widely used now a days as they
once were.
Cold applied, often a two part poly sulphide mix incorpora'ting resins and curing
agent. Usually applied via a mastic gun and smoothed with a putty knife.
Preformed elastomeric, expensive and need to be squeezed and inserted into a
scrupulously clean and w(ll l0bricated perfectly formed joint.

9) Explain the design ofExpansion ioints in Precast Structures (APR/MAY 2013)


(Nov,/Dec 2013) (MaylJune 2011)
Expansion joints are necessary in precast structures in order to allow for the
expansion and cooling ofvarious members due changing in tcmperature. ln precast
structures^ the shrinkage takes place before the assembling ofmembers, therefore the
spacing oI expansion joints may bo 1.5 to 2 times greater than in monolithic structures.

I-xpansion joints are usually formed at the joint ofroofing members and main
girders.

2l