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UTILITIES

FLEA 2010 REVIEW

SANITARY AND
PLUMBING SYSTEMS

Introduction

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PLUMBING
Is the art and technique of installing pipes,
fixtures & other apparatuses in buildings &
for bringing the supply, liquids, substances
&/or ingredients & removing them;
from the Latin plumbum for lead as pipes
were once made from lead.
refers to a system of pipes and fixtures
installed in a building for the distribution
of potable water and the removal of
waterborne wastes.

Introduction - history
PRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES

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Birth of plumbing profession traced back to the 17th century


as Spaniards established Walled City known as Intramuros
as a model community.
In 1902, the PLUMBING TRADE was duly recognized by the
government.
Master Plumber John F. Hass became the 1st Chief of Division
of Plumbing Construction and Construction. A plumbing code
based on the Plumbing Code of the US was incorporated into
the Building Code for the City of Manila.
In 1935 the National Master Plumbers Association of the
Philippines (NAMPAP) was organized and registered with
the SEC.

Introduction - history
PRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES

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City Ordinance 2411 known as The Plumbing Code for the


City of Manila was enacted with the consultation of
NAMPAP
In 1954, the 3rd Congress of the Republic of the Philippines
approved after the third reading House Bill No. 962. This
became Republic Act No. 1378.
On June 28, 1955, R.A. 1378 known as the Plumbing Code of
the Philippines was signed by President Ramon Magsaysay.
In December 21, 1999 pursuant t Section 4 of R.A. 1378,
Joseph Ejercito Estrada approved the Revised Plumbing
Code of 1999.

Plumbing System - Fundamentals


PLUMBING SYSTEM

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System includes all potable water supply and distribution


pipes, all plumbing fixtures and traps; all sanitary and
storm drainage systems; vent pipes, roof drains, leaders
and downspouts; and all building drains and sewers,
including their respective joints and connections;
devices, receptacles, and appurtenances within the
property; water lines in the premises; potable, tap, hot
and chilled water piping; potable water treating or using
equipment; fuel gas piping; water heaters and vents for
same.
SUPPLY
PIPE

FIXTURE

DRAINAGE
PIPE

Plumbing System - Fundamentals


PLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

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WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


SANITARY DRAINAGE AND DISPOSAL SYSTEM
STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM
PLUMBING FIXTURE
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
FUEL AND GAS PIPING SYSTEM

Plumbing System - Fundamentals


PLUMBING CYLE

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S U P P L Y
Water Mains,
Storage Tanks

DISTRIBUTION

U S E

Pressure,
Piping
Networks

Plumbing
Fixtures

S O U R C E
Lakes, Rivers,
Reservoirs
Treated water
returned to the
original source

COLLECTION

TREATMENT
Sewage Plants,
Natural
Purification

DISPOSAL
Sanitary and
Storm Sewers

Gravity,
Piping
Networks

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WATER SUPPLY
AND
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM

Water Supply and Distribution System

definition

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Carries water from the water source, street main or a


pump to the building and to various points in the
building at which water is used.
COLD WATER SUPPLY
HOT WATER SUPPLY

WATER
plays an important part in the plumbing system
Providing water is one of the most critical utility requirement
Universal Solvent

Water Supply and Distribution System

WATER CYCLE

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3 MAJOR STAGES
EVAPORATION

CONDENSATION

PRECIPITATION

Water Supply and Distribution System

SOURCES OF WATER

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RAIN WATER
Collected from roofs of buildings and special water sheds and
stored in cisterns or ponds.
ADVANTAGE
Water is soft & pure and is suitable for the hot water
supply system
DISADVANTAGE
Only a source during the wet season
Storage becomes a breeding place for mosquitoes
Roofs may not be clean

Water Supply and Distribution System

SOURCES OF WATER

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GROUND WATER
The portion of the rainwater which has percolated into the earth to
form underground deposits called aquifers (water- bearing soil
formation).
From springs and wells and is the principal source of water for
domestic use in most rural areas.
ADVANTAGE
Usually has an abundant supply;
requires less treatment because of natural filtering.
DISADVANTAGE
May have organic matter & chemical elements usually
treatment is suggested.

Water Supply and Distribution System

SOURCES OF WATER

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NATURAL SURFACE WATER


A mixture of surface run-off and ground water. Surface sources
includes rivers, lakes, ponds and impounding reservoirs.
ADVANTAGE
Usually easy to acquire and in large quantities.
Used for irrigation, industrial purposes and, when treated,
for community water supply.
DISADVANTAGE
Contains a large amounts of bacteria, organic, & inorganic
substances; Purification & treatment is necessary.

Water Supply and Distribution System

USES OF WATER

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NOURISHMENT
CLEANSING AND HYGIENE

CEREMONIAL USES
TRANSPORTATIONAL USES
COOLING MEDIUM
ORNAMENTAL ELEMENT
PROTECTIVE USES

Water Supply and Distribution System

PHYSICAL PROPETIES OF WATER

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SURFACE TENSION
The ability to stick itself together and pull itself together

HEAT ABSOPTION/CAPACITY
The ability to absorb heat without becoming warmer

CAPILLARITY
The ability to climb up a surface against the pull of gravity

DISSOLVING ABILITY
Known as the Universal Solvent

Water Supply and Distribution System


WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTION

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PROBLEMS

CAUSE

EFFECTS
Corrosion of
non-ferrous
pipes
Rusting &
clogging of
steel pipes

1. Acidity

Contains
carbon dioxide

2. Hardness

Presence of
Clogging of
magnesium and pipes
Impaired
calcium salts
laundry and
cooking

3. Turbidity

Silt or mud in
surface or in
ground

Discoloration
Bad taste

CORRECTION
Passing the water
through a bed of
crushed marble or
limestone to
achieve alkalinity,
or adding sodium
silicate.)

Boiling
Introduction of
water softeners
made up of
Zeolite

Filtration

Water Supply and Distribution System

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WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTION


PROBLEMS

CAUSE

EFFECTS

CORRECTION

4. Color

Presence of
Iron and
manganese

Discoloration of Chlorination
or
fixtures
ozonation and file
and laundry
filtration

5. Pollution

Contamination
by organic
matter or
sewage

Disease

Chlorination

Water Supply and Distribution System

Water treatment and purification

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is any method that will remove one or more materials that make
the water unsuitable for a given use

AERATION
Water is sprayed into the air to release any trapped gases and absorb
additional oxygen for better taste.

Water Supply and Distribution System


COAGULATION - FLOCCULATION

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process by which small sediment particles which do not settle well combine
together to form larger particles which can be removed by sedimentation

COAGULATION chemical process in which the coagulant reacts

with the sediment to make it capable of


combining into larger particles.
FLOCCULATION physical process in which the sediment particles
collide with each other and stick together.

Water Supply and Distribution System


SEDIMENTATION

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suspended solids are removed from the water by gravity settling and
deposition

water is passed through basins so sediments can settle through a


period of time

Water Supply and Distribution System


FILTRATION

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water is passed through layers of sand and gravel in concrete basins in order
to remove the finer suspended particles.

DISINFECTION/ CHLORINATION
method of introducing a controlled amount of chlorine to the water in
order to attain a desired degree of disinfection.

Water Supply and Distribution System


WATER TREATMENT PROCESS

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Water Supply and Distribution System


WELLS

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Wells are holes in the earth from which a fluid may be


withdrawn using manual or mechanical means such as draw
bucket, pump, etc.
GENERAL TYPES OF WELL
SHALLOW WELL
DEEP WELL

TYPES OF WELL
(ACCORDING TO METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION)
DUG WELLS
can be constructed with hand tools or power tools
depth of about 15 meters (50 ft)
can have the greatest diameter that a space
may allow

Water Supply and Distribution System


DUG WELL

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Water Supply and Distribution System


DRIVEN WELLS

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A steel drive-well point is fitted on one end of the pipe section


and driven into the earth. The point may be driven into the
ground to a depth of up to 15 meters (50 ft).

Water Supply and Distribution System

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BORED WELLS
These are dug with earth augers are usually less than 30 meters
(100 ft) deep. The diameter ranges from 2 to 30 inches. The well
is lined with metal, vitrified tile or concrete.

Water Supply and Distribution System

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DRILLED WELLS
Requires more elaborate equipment depending on the geology of
the site.
Used for drilling oil and can reach up to 1000 meters in depth.

Water Supply and Distribution System

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JETTED WELLS
Use extreme water pressure so as not to affect existing
foundation in the vicinity. It makes use of a suction pump above,
while casing acts as the pump riser.

Water Supply and Distribution System


PUMPS

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A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries.


A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action.

CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS
RECIPROCATING PUMP
Pump having a plunger that move back and forth within a cylinder
equipped with check valves. The cylinder is best located near or below
the ground level.

Water Supply and Distribution System


CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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It contains an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft. The rotating


impeller increases the water velocity while forcing the water into a
casing thus converting the waters velocity into higher pressure.

Water Supply and Distribution System


TURBINE PUMP

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A turbine pump has a vertical turbine located below groundwater


levels and a driving motor located at ground

Water Supply and Distribution System


SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

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Is basically a centrifugal pump complete with electric motors which


are positioned underwater in a suitable bored hole that delivers the
water to the surface

Water Supply and Distribution System


JET (EJECTOR) PUMP

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Jet pumps are centrifugal pumps typically used for drawing water
up from a well.

Water Supply and Distribution System


PISTON PUMP

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Is a positive displacement reciprocating pump in which a plunger is


driven backwards and forwards, or up and down by a mechanical
working head.
Water is sucked into a sealed vacuum by use of a piston.

Water Supply and Distribution System


SUMP PUMP

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Sump pumps are used in applications where excess water must be


pumped away from a particular area.

a pump used to remove water that has accumulated in a water


collecting sump pit,

Water Supply and Distribution System


WATER STORAGE FOR DOMESTIC USE

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OVERHEAD TANK/ GRAVITY SUPPLY TANK


Does not have any pressure concerns
but relies on gravity to supply water to
fixtures below.
Use in overhead feed system

COMPONENTS

Supply Pipe
Inlet
Overflow Pipe
Drip Pan
Gate Valves

Water Supply and Distribution System


CISTERN

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Usually built of reinforced concrete


underground and connected with a pump.

PNEUMATIC WATER TANK


Used in the air pressure system and
often used with a pump.
Make use of pressure relieve valve to
release excess pressure if necessary

Water Supply and Distribution System


HOT WATER TANK

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Range Boiler
Small hot water tank (30-60 cm
diameter; 180cm max length)
Made of galvanized steel sheet,
copper or stainless steel

Standard working pressure limit is 85 to 150 psi

Storage Boiler
Large hot water tank (60-130 cm
in diameter; 5m max length)
Made of heavy duty material
sheets applied with rust proof paint

Standard working pressure limit


is 65 to 100 psi.

Water Supply and Distribution System


VALVES AND CONTROLS

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FUNCTION OF VALVES
Control of the water system
-

Start or shut down a system


Regulate pressure
Check backflow
Control the direction of water

TYPES OF VALVES
GATE VALVE (Full-way Valve)
Used mainly to completely close or
completely open the water line (does
not control flow of water).
Wedge Shape or Tapered Disc Valve
Double Disc Valve

Water Supply and Distribution System


GLOBE VALVE

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Controls the flow of water with a


movable spindle. Can reduce water
pressure (throttling).

3 types
Plug Type Disc Valve

Conventional Disc Valve

Composition Disc Valve

Water Supply and Distribution System


CHECK VALVE

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Main function is to prevent reversal of


flow (backflow) in the line.

4 types
Swing Check Valve

Lift Check Valve

Vertical Check Valve

Horizontal Check valve

Water Supply and Distribution System


ANGLE VALVE

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Used to make a 90 turn in a line.

FOOT VALVE
Located at the lower end of the pump. Used
mainly to prevent loss of priming of the pumps.

SAFETY VALVE
Used on water systems, heating systems,
compressed air lines & other pipe lines
with excessive pressure.

Water Supply and Distribution System


TYPES OF FAUCETS

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COMPRESSION COCK
Operates by the compression of a soft
packing upon a metal sheet.

KEY COCK
Operates with a round tapering plug
ground to fit a metal sheet.

BALL FAUCET
Constructed with a ball connected to the
handle.

HOSE BIBB
A water faucet made for the threaded
attachment of a hose.

Water Supply and Distribution System


WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

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The water service pipe, water distribution pipes, and the necessary
connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or
adjacent to the structure or premises.

PARTS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


SERVICE PIPE
The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply
to the water distribution system of the building served.

WATER METER
Device used to measure in liters or gallons the amount of water that
passes through the water service.

DISTRIBUTION PIPE/ SUPPLY PIPE


A pipe within the structure or on the premises which conveys water
from the water service pipe or meter to the point of utilization.

Water Supply and Distribution System

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RISER
A water supply pipe that extends one full story or more to convey
water to branches or to a group of fixtures.

FIXTURE BRANCH
The water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe & the water
distributing pipe.

FIXTURE SUPPLY
A water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch.

Water Supply and Distribution System


COLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

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TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION


DIRECT (UPFEED)
INDIRECT
- Down feed or Gravity System
- Hydro pneumatic System ( Air Pressure System)

DIRECT (UPFEED)
Water is provided by the city water companies using normal
pressure from public water main

Water Supply and Distribution System

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DOWNFEED or
GRAVITY SYSTEM
Water is pumped into a large
tank on top of the building and
is distributed to the fixtures by
means of gravity.

Water Supply and Distribution System

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HYDRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM/


AIR PRESSURE SYSTEM
When pressure supplied
by city water supply is not
strong enough
Compressed air is used to
raise and push water into
the system

Water Supply and Distribution System

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ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Upfeed System
1. Eliminates extra cost of pumps &
tanks.

1. Pressure from water main is


inadequate to supply tall buildings.
2. Water supply is affected during peak
load hour.

Air Pressure System


1. With compact pumping unit.
2. Sanitary due to air tight water
chamber.
3. economical (smaller pipe diam)
4. less initial construction &
maintenance cost
5. Oxygen in the compressed air serves
as purifying agent.
6. Adaptable air pressure.
7. Air pressure serves zones of about 10
stores intervals.

1. Water supply is affected by loss of


pressure inside the tank in case of
power interruption.

Water Supply and Distribution System

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DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES
Overheadfeeed System
1. Water is not affected by peak load
hour.
2. Not affected by power interruptions.
3. Time needed to replace broken parts
does not affect water supply.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Water is subject to contamination.


High maintenance cost.
Occupies valuable space.
Requires stronger foundation and
other structure to carry additional
load of tank and water.

Water Supply and Distribution System


Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems

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Upfeed and Gravity Return System


With a continuing network of
pipes to provide constant
circulation of water
Hot water rises on its own &
does not need any pump for
circulation
Hot water is immediately
drawn form the fixture any time
Provided economical circulating
return of unused hot water

Larger pipe is installed at the


top of the riser & the diminishing
sizes passes through the lower
floors of the building

Water Supply and Distribution System


Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems

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Downfeed and Gravity Return System


Hot water rises on to
the highest point of
the plumbing system
and travels to the
fixtures via gravity
(closed pipe system)
Water distribution is
dependent on the
expansion of hot
water & gravity.
Larger pipe is installed
at the bottom of the
riser & the diminishing
sizes passes
through the upper
floors of the building

Water Supply and Distribution System


Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems

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Pump Circuit System


For a more efficient circulation of hot water to the upper floor levels
of multi-storey buildings

FLEA 2010 REVIEW

SANITARY DRAINAGE
SYSTEMS

Sanitary Drainage System

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General Rules in designing


the Sanitary system:
The pipes should take the shortest possible route to
the house sewer or the terminating point of the
Sanitary system
Control components such as clean-outs, traps, and
vents, should be located strategically so as to ensure
efficient circulation

Subsystems of the
Sanitary System:
Waste Collection System
Ventilation System

Sanitary Drainage System


Waste Pipe

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conveys only wastewater or liquid waste free of fecal matter.

Vent Pipe
used for ensuring the circulation of air in a plumbing system and
for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals.

Trap
a fitting or device designed and constructed to provide, when
properly vented, a liquid seal which prevents the backflow of foul
air or methane gas without materially affecting the flow of
sewage or wastewater through it.

Stack
the vertical main of a system of soil, waste or vent pipings
extending through one or more stories and extended thru the
roof.

Branch
any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack.

Sanitary Drainage System

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House/Building Drain
part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which
receives the discharges from the soil, waste and other drainage
pipes inside of a building and conveys it to the house sewer outside
of the building.

House/Building Sewer
extends from the house drain at a point 0.60 meters from the
outside face of the foundation wall of a building to the junction with
the street sewer or to any point of discharge, and conveying the
drainage of one building site.

Sanitary Drainage System

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CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF SANITARY


DRAINAGE LINES
Horizontal to Horizontal change in direction
use 45 wye branches, combination wye 1/8 bend
branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep

Vertical to Horizontal change in direction


45 wye branches or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep

Sanitary Drainage System

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Horizontal to vertical change in direction


use 45 or 60 wye branches, combination wye -1/8 bend
branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped tee branches, or
other approved fittings of equivalent sweeps.
No fitting having more than one inlet at the same level
shall be used (i.e., sanitary cross)
Double sanitary tees may be used when the barrel of the
fitting is at least two pipe (2) sizes larger than the largest
inlet, (pipe sizes recognized for this purpose are 51, 64, 76,
89, 102, 114, 127, & 152 mm dia.)

Sanitary Drainage System

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MINIMUM SLOPE OF
SANITARY DRAINAGE LINES
Minimum slope or pitch of horizontal drainage pipe 2% or
20mm/m ( per foot).

Exception: Where it is impracticable due to depth of street


sewer, adverse structural features and irregular building plans,
pipes 102 mm dia or larger may have a slope of not less than
1% or 10mm/m (1/8 per foot), approved by the Administrative
Authority

Sanitary Drainage System

Types of Permissible Traps:

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The Common P-Trap


Used for lavatories, kitchen sinks,
laundry tubs, & urinals
Materials commonly used for the
P-trap: nickel, chrome plated brass,
Galvanized malleable copper, & PVC.

The Deep Seal P-Trap


Water seal is about twice the size of
The common P-trap
Used for extreme conditions because
resealing quality is greater

Sanitary Drainage System

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The Stand Trap


Used for fixtures such as slop sinks
that are usually built low in the
ground, leaving very little space for a
foundation & a trap
Serves as a water seal & structural
support for the fixture

The Running Trap


Used within the line of
the house drain

Sanitary Drainage System

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The Drum Trap


Has a large diameter (around 0.16 m)
Used for fixtures that discharge large amount of water
(bathtubs, shower or floor drains)

Sanitary Drainage System

REQUIREMENTS:

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Traps REQUIRED
Each plumbing fixture, except those with integral traps, shall be
separately trapped with an approved-type waterseal trap.
Only one trap shall be permitted on a trap arm (portion of a fixture drain
between a trap and the vent)

One trap, centrally located, may serve three single compartment sinks
or laundry tubs or lavatories, adjacent to each other and in the same
room, where their waste outlets are not more than 0.75 m apart.

Sanitary Drainage System

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SIZE OF TRAPS:
The trap shall be the same size as the trap arm to which it is
connected.
Each fixture trap shall have a trap seal of water of not less than
51 mm and not more than 102 mm (except where a deeper seal
is found necessary by the Administrative Authority for special
conditions.

Sanitary Drainage System

INSTALLATION OF TRAPS:

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The vertical distance between a fixture outlet tailpiece and the


trap weir shall not exceed 0.60 m in length.

Horizontal Distance of Trap Arms


TRAP ARM
DIAMETER

DISTANCE
TO VENT

32 mm

0.76 m

38 mm

1.07 m

51 mm

1.52 m

76 mm

1.83 m

102 mm & larger

3.05 m

Note:

In no case shall the


trap distance be less than 2
times the diameter of the
trap arm.

The developed length of the trap arm (measured from the top of
closet ring to inner edge of vent ) of a water closet or similar
fixture shall not exceed 1.8 m.
For trap arm 76 mm dia or larger, a cleanout is required for a
change of direction of greater than 22 .

Sanitary Drainage System

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REQUIREMENTS:
Clean-outs REQUIRED
at the upper terminal of every horizontal sewer or waste line
at each run of piping more than 15 meters (50 feet) in total
developed length
at every 15 m (50 ft) of total developed length or a fraction
thereof
additional clean-out shall be provided on a horizontal line with an
aggregate offset angle exceeding 135
inside the building near the connection between the building
drain and the building sewer or installed outside the building at
the lower end of the building drain and extended to grade.

Sanitary Drainage System

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Clean-outs NOT REQUIRED


on a horizontal drain less than 1.5 m in length unless such line is
serving sinks or urinals.
on short horizontal drainage pipe installed at a slope of 72 deg or
less from the vertical line (or at an angle of 1/5 bend)

Sanitary Drainage System

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VENTILATION
Portion of the drainage pipe installation intended to maintain a
balanced atmospheric pressure inside the system

Vent Pipe- a pipe or opening used for ensuring the


circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the
negative pressure exerted on trap seals.

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Main Types:

VENTS

Main Soil & Waste Vent

the backbone of the entire sanitary


system
Connected to the Main Soil & Waste
Stack
The portion where waste does not
travel through
Continues to the roof; the portion
penetrating the roof is called the
Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR)

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Main Vent
the principal artery of the venting
system to which vent branches are
connected.
a.k.a. Collecting Vent Line
serves as support to the Main Soil &
Waste Vent

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Individual Vent or Back Vent

a pipe installed to vent a fixture trap, that


connects with the vent system above the
fixture served or terminates in the open air.

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Unit, Common, or Dual Vent

an arrangement of venting so
installed that one vent pipe
serve two (2) traps.

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Relief Vent

a vertical vent line that provides


additional circulation of air between
the drainage and vent systems or to
act as an auxiliary vent on a specially
designed system such as a
yoke vent connection between the
soil and vent stacks.

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Yoke or By-pass Vent

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a pipe connecting upward from a soil


or waste stack below the floor and
below horizontal connection to an
adjacent vent stack at a point above
the floor and higher than the highest
spill level of fixtures for preventing
pressure changes in the stacks.

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Circuit Vent

a group vent pipe which starts in front of the


extreme (highest) fixture connection on a
horizontal branch and connects to the vent stack.
a.k.a. Loop Vent
Serves a battery of fixtures

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Looped Vent

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a vertical vent connection on a


horizontal soil or waste pipe
branch at a point downstream
of the last fixture connection
and turning to a horizontal line
above the highest overflow
level of the highest fixture
connected there

Used in spaces without partitions

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Wet Vent
that portion of a vent pipe through which wastewater also
flows through.

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Local Vent
a pipe or shaft to convey foul air
from a plumbing fixture or a room
to the outer air.

Dry Vent
a vent that does not carry liquid or
water-borne wastes.

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Stack Vent
the extension of a soil or waste stack
above the highest horizontal drain
connected to the stack.

Vent Stack
the vertical vent pipe installed
primarily for providing circulation of
air to and from any part of the soil, waste
of the drainage system. The uppermost
end above the roof has traditionally been
referred to as Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR).

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REQUIREMENTS:
Vents REQUIRED
Each trap shall be protected against siphonage and back-pressure
through venting.

Vents NOT REQUIRED


on a primary settling tank interceptor which discharges through a
horizontal indirect waste pipe into a secondary interceptor. The
secondary interceptor shall be properly trapped and vented.
Traps serving sinks in an island bar counter. Such sink shall
discharge by means of an approved indirect waste pipe into a
floor sink or other approved type receptor.

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SANITARY SYSTEM PROBLEMS:


Trap Seal Loss
- Direct effect of the Minus & Plus Pressure inside the system due
to inadequate ventilation of traps
- Attributed to the following conditions:

Siphonage- direct and momentum

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Back Pressure

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Evaporation- caused by extreme temperatures, idleness


Wind Effects- strong winds blow the trap seal
Retardation of flow
-

Due to the effect of atmospheric pressure and/or gravity

Deterioration of the Materials


-

Due to the formation of acids

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Indirect Waste Pipe


is a pipe that does not connect directly with the
drainage system but conveys liquid wastes by
discharging into a plumbing fixture, interceptor or
receptacle directly connected to the drainage system.

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DISPOSAL PHASE- the final stage of the plumbing process; where


used water and water-carried wastes are brought to various
disposal outlets

Definition:

SEPTIC TANKS

A watertight covered receptacle designed and constructed to


receive the discharge of sewage from a building sewer,
separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter and
store digested solids through a period of detention, and allow
the clarified liquids to discharge for final disposal

SLUDGE- solid organic matter that are denser than water and
settle at the bottom of the septic tank

SCUM- lighter organic material that rise to the surface of the


water

EFFLUENT- liquid content of sewage

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Bacteria in septic tank


to encourage decomposition:
Aerobic bacteria- relies on oxygen to survive
Anaerobic bacteria- can survive in places without
oxygen

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Minimum
dimensionsL= 1500mm
W=900mm
D=1200mm

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COMPARTMENTS:

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have a minimum of 2 compartments:


First compartment: not less than 2/3 capacity of the total
capacity of tank; not less than 2 cum liquid capacity; shall be
at least 0.9 m width and 1.5 m long; Liquid depth not less
than 0.6 m nor more than 1.8 m.
Secondary compartment: maximum capacity of 1/3 total
capacity of tank; minimum of 1 cum liquid capacity
In septic tanks having over 6 cum capacity, the secondary
compartment should be not less than 1.5 m in length.
maintain a slope of 1:10 at the bottom of the digestion chamber
to collect the sludge and make it easily accessible from the
manhole

MANHOLES:
with at least two (2) manholes, 508 mm in min dimension; one
over inlet, other over outlet. Wherever first compartment
exceeds 3.7 m in length, an additional manhole required over the
baffle wall.

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SIZES OF PIPE INLET & OUTLET & THEIR VERTICAL LEGS:


Inlet and Outlet pipes diameter size not less than the sewer
pipe
Vertical legs of inlet and outlet pipes diameter size not less than
the sewer pipe nor less than 104.6 mm.

LENGTH AND LOCATION OF INLET & OUTLET:


Shall extend 101.6 mm above and at least 304.8 mm below the
water surface
Invert of the inlet pipe shall be at a level not less than 50.8 mm
above the invert of the outlet pipe.

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AIR SPACE:

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Side walls shall extend 228.6 mm above liquid depth.


Cover of septic tank shall be at least 50.8 mm above the back
vent openings.

PARTITION (between compartments):


An inverted fitting equivalent in size to the tank inlet, but in no
case less than 104.6 mm in diameter, shall be installed in the inlet
compartment side of the baffle with the bottom of the fitting
placed midway in the depth of the liquid. Wooden baffles are
prohibited.

STRUCTURE:
Shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not
less than 14.4 kPa

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CAPACITY:
The capacity of septic tanks is determined by the number of
bedrooms or apartment units in dwelling occupancies; by the
estimated waste/sewage design flow rate for various building
occupancies; or by the number of fixture units of all plumbing
fixtures; whichever is greater.
The capacity of any one septic tank and its drainage system shall
also be limited by the soil structure classification in its drainage
field.

LOCATION:
Should not be located underneath the house
At least 15 meters from the water distribution system

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CLASSIFICATION OF SEWERS:

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Combination Public Sewers


Oldest variety
Carries both storm & sanitary wastes

Storm Sewers
Sanitary Sewers
Carries regular sanitary wastes only
Terminates in a modern sewage disposal plant for
treatment
Built at a depth of 3 meters (tributaries)

FLEA 2010 REVIEW

STORM DRAINAGE
SYSTEMS

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3 Major Systems of
Collecting Storm Water:
The Independent System
a.k.a. the Separate System
Brings collected water directly
to the water reservoirs

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The Combined System

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Combines storm water


with sanitary wastes

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The Natural System


Without using any roof gutters or downspouts
Also when rainwater is collected in cisterns

Storm Drain Locations

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Roofing Elements to
Collect Rainwater:

The Gutter
Usually located along the
entire perimeter of the roof

The Downspout
Located every 8 to 10 meters
& at every corner of the roof
(but, to avoid clogging of pipes,
it is best to locate them every
4 to 6 m)

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The Strainer or Roof Drain


Drain designed to receive water collecting on
the surface of a roof and to discharge it into a
downspout. Designed to prevent clogging.

The Shoe
At the bottom of the roof leader to direct rainwater towards the nearest catch basin

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The Catch Basin


Downspouts should terminate in a catch basin (can serve more than one
downspout)
Delivers water to the sewers in the street via gravity
Area-Drain-Catch-Basin: also collects surface water

The Storm Line


Connects to each catch basin

FLEA 2010 REVIEW

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