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# MACHINING LAB #1:

## INTRODUCTION TO PRISMATIC AND ROTATIONAL MACHINING PROCESSES

Technical Report Submitted to:
Dept. of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
Prof. Edward C. De Meter
310 Leonhard Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

Submitted by:
Patrick Cathrall
Kelly Johnson
Harsh Tusani
Kevin LeFrate
Christian Gobart

SECTION

PAGE

## 1.1 Face Milling Process Parameters...2

1.2 Cutting Fluid Application...2
1.3 Face Milling Geometric Error Assessment...2
1.4 End Mill Capability.3
1.5 Resultant Chamfer Geometry.3
1.6 Standard Drill Sizes.3
1.8 Hole Finishing..4
1.9 Mechanical Clamping.5
1.10 Insert Nose Angle..5
1.11 Insert Coatings..5
1.12 Peck Drilling..5
1.13 Boring Processes...5
References.6

INVESTIGATION RESULTS:
MACHINING PROCESS RESEARCH AND DATA ANALYSIS
5.1 Face Milling Process Parameters
Based on our observations of the process, the radial depth of cut is 4in and the feed rate is
10in/min. Likewise:
Cutting speed is equal to (pi)*(diameter)*(spindlespeed) = (pi)*4/12*6000rpm
*Cutting Speed=6283.19ft/min.
Lastly, to enable the cutting process:
Material removal rate is equal to (width of cutter)*(depth of cut)*(feed rate)
4in*.047in*10in/min
*Removal Rate=1.88in^3/min.
Power needed is equal to (MMR/60)*(unit power)=1.88/60*.4
*Power=.0125hp
Equations and table required found in Text5
5.2 Cutting Fluid Application
There are a few aspects of a cutting fluid that complement the machining and turning
process used in making the product. For instance the cutting fluid cools the cutting zone, which
reduces the work-piece temperature and distortion. Usually when manufacturing a product,
distortion occurs on the product and the cutting tool. In order to reduce the deformation, a
coolant and cutting fluid are used. The cutting fluid helps in reducing friction and wear which
gives a better finish due to the lubricating feature in the cutting fluid. The cutting fluid also
reduces force and energy consumption. The fluid also helps get rid of chips which increases
random error and can be disruptive to the machining process. Finally, the fluid helps protect
surfaces from corrosion and embrittlement because of the fluid properties.
5.3 Face Milling Geometric Error Assessment
The results are not similar across all three parts. The two parts machined by the TAs
were 10 times less precise than the part machined by the lab technician. The cause for this
difference could be related to the amount of experience each individual has. The lab technician
will have more experience than the TAs therefore his machining was much more precise. Also,
the workers care in placing the piece in the vice could cause for one side to be machined more
than the other. As seen in the results the two pieces machined by the TAs had a greater
discrepancy in the measurement location than the other side.
Yes, this face milling process could satisfy the tolerance of .001. The operator just
needs to be careful with their placement of the piece into the device, as the technician did, in
order to obtain this tolerance. It may be wise for this milling process to be completed by the
technician or under his supervision.

## 5.4 End Mill Capability

HSS stands for standard high speed steel (M7) which is the material the end mill is made
of . Center cutting end mills have the capability for plunge milling which is the process of
plunging into the work piece face. The center cutting capability is not needed to machine the
shoulders of the part because it requires no plunging.
2

## 5.5 Resultant Chamfer Geometry

The chamfer on hole #1 was created before the hole was plunge milled. This chamfer
provided a guide for the drill and reduced the ability for the drill bit to skip across the surface in
a banana shape, which would have damaged the surface and created a positioning error. The
nominal chamfer specifications for hole #1 were for a diameter of 5/8 at a 90 degree angle.
5.6 Standard Drill Sizes
The American National Standards four drill diameter series are3:
#80 to
over to
over to 1
and over 1 .
The nominal drill size diameter of a U-size drill is .368 inches.4

The relationship between helix angle, pitch diameter, and pitch is derived below.

5.7 (continued)
Theoretical UN 3/8-16 Geometric Parameters:
Major Diameter:
9.525mm
Minor Diameter:
7.976mm
Pitch:
1.588mm
Pitch Diameter:
8.602mm
Helix Angle:
10.45 degrees
Class 2, UN 3/8-16 internal thread dimensional limits:
Minor Diameter: 8.153mm maximum to 7.798mm minimum
Major Diameter: 9.525mm minimum
The nominal diameter of a unified 3/8-16 hole is 5/16.
The feed rate for tapping is dependent on the threads per inch, or the pitch of the thread.
The feed rate of UN 3/8-16 is .0625 in/rev
Information obtained for the above section corresponds to [8].
5.8 Hole Finishing
Table 1.8
Size Error
average
Hole 1 0.0019727
Hole 3 0.000225

Size Error
Deviation
0.000471362
0.00013568

Circularity Error
Average
0.000927273
0.000291667

Circularity Error
Deviation
0.000257258
0.00011645

Ra Average Ra Deviation
214.636363 22.26779166
15.16667
8.244373

The reaming process that was absent for hole 1 and applied to hole 3 made a significant
difference in the size error, circularity and roughness values. With an average and standard
deviation for each set it was evident that the reaming process was a finishing process while a
straight drilled hole left a rough finish. This is due to the fact that the reaming process takes
away less material than the drill did. In all 6 data sets Hole 3 had a smaller value than whole 1,
shown in table 1.8.
The drilling process by itself cannot fabricate holes to the specified size tolerance of
.0007; it alone created a size error average of .0019.
For threaded holes the drilling process is perfect for the specified tolerance of .01in; its
average size error was at .0019727, well below .01in.

## 5.9 Mechanical Clamping

The mechanical advantage of a vise with a screw threading of ACME 5/8-7 with a 6
lever is 131.947, obtained from calculation below. 5

## 5.10 Insert Nose Angle

Roughing inserts have a larger nose angle because they are required to remove large
amounts of material. Large nose angles are usually strong and require more machining power
and are more likely to begin vibrating. Small nose angles give smoother surface finish but are
more susceptible to heat effects.
5.11 Insert Coatings
Insert coatings provide wear resistance to the tooling. Therefore it increases the longevity
of a tool and helps keep it precise. Some common coatings used are TiN (titanium nitride), TiC
(titanium carbide), and TiAlN (titanium aluminum nitrie).
5.12 Peck Drilling
The reason for peck drilling of the 47/64 hole is to remove chips from the hole and/or to
allow coolant to enter the hole6.
5.13 Boring Processes
The micro adjustable boring bar controls the diameter of the hole because it removes
more material after the drilling process is complete. The physical phenomenon that limits the
boring process is vibration and stability of the boring bar on the work piece. The radial cutting
force of the boring bar on the work piece and the tangential force on the bar cause the bar to
deflect away from the work piece and at longer lengths of bar with smaller diameters this limits
the effectiveness of the boring method7.

REFERANCES
[2] End Mill Training- Tool Material Selection. Melin Tool Company. 5565 Venture Drive,
Cleveland, Ohio 44130. March 17, 2014.
<http://www.endmill.com/pages/training/material.html>
[3] Drill Jig Bushings: General Information. Accurate Bushing. F.O.B. Garwood, New Jersey
07027. March 17, 2014 <http://www.smithbearing.com/pdf/eng-drill_jig.pdf>
[4] Standard Drill Sizes Inches. Mechanical Design Resources on the World Wide Web.
March 17, 2014 <http://www.gearhob.com/eng/design/drill_eng.htm>
[5] Kalpakjian, S. and S. Schmid, Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th
Edition, Prentice Hall, NJ 200