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CIVE1163 Long span and High rise Structures

Special Cover Sheet


Special notes
1. Circle/highlight correct report descriptor in the first bar (ex. Lateral loads)
2. Acknowledgements in this template are regarded as an indication of authors recognition of
team members contribution towards the final project outcome.
3. Table 1 indicates authorship, partnership and direct contribution, as a percentage, of your
immediate sub-team partner. (ex. If report marks to be shared evenly indicate 50% in front of
each name. If all the work done by the author, with no measurable contribution from the
partner, then indicate Individual)
4. Table 2 indicates the remaining team members from other sub teams you wish to
acknowledge who works tirelessly in spirit and effort to make the project a success throughout
the semester. Number them in order. You may number 1 (most recognisable) to 4 (least
recognisable) - assuming 6 in a group. In situations where equal recognition is needed you
may give same ranking for more than one person. (ex. 1, 1, 2, 2)
5. If all team members have really contributed in all aspects, the team is a dream team,
colleagues are of the highest calibre, a treat to work with in a project this scale, and then
obviously you do not want to take anything away from them. The natural outcome would be 50%, 50%, 1, 1, 1, 1 - for a group of six in all four reports.

Report Descriptor
Architecture

Gravity Load

Lateral Loads

Constructability

Table 1 Acknowledgement of Sub team Partnership/Authorship/Work commitment


Author
1
2

St. No.
S3319883
S3327117

Name and Work Load Sharing


MING HONG
WENZE SHAO

50%
50%

Table 2 Acknowledgement of members of other sub-teams


St. No.

Name of other member

Ranking (1-4)

S3285754
S3326998

ALI TAZEHLI
YUHAN LIU

1
1

S3323390
S3326823

YI LIN
JIAJUN DENG

1
1

Rank 1 most recognisable

Rank 4 Least recognisable

(No rank given not active in the project)

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MAG-SIXTY TOWER
ARCHITECTURAL REPORT

HLD + PARTNERS

Panoramic View of Structure (Twilight)

1|MAG-SIXTY

MAG-SIXTY TOWER
OVERVIEW

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HLD & Partners was one of the eleven competing


consortiums in the Royal Melbourne Institute of
Technologys High Rise Structures competition to design
an innovative and unique high rise structure. The
proposed hotel development is to be done on a two
hectare land with design criteria restricting a maximum of
sixty levels with an average gross floor area of 1750sqm.
The HLD & Partners vision for the building is for a world
class, highly adaptable and sustainable tower. At its heart
is an instantly recognizable design which stands out of the
proposed site but also creates new connections to the
surrounding area and its communities.
The MAG-SIXTY tower was designed to incorporate all
these attributes to create a vibrant structure for current
and future generations to enjoy. The tower includes a five
floor atrium created within the tower foyer where water
features and a rain forest setting are incorporated.
The Fat Duck, a signature modern restaurant by Heston
Blumenthal designed in collaboration with our in-house
designers will be located at the top of the tower. Rapid
vertical transport to the towers fifty-nine floors is
provided by a sophisticated multi-tier elevator system.
Externally, the two hundred metre high tower is given an
elegant layered faade with glazed curtain wall overlaid
with a pattern created from glass reinforced concrete. As
a result of its flower bud form and six illuminating petals,
the tower would be a distinctive element on the skyline.

2|MAG-SIXTY

Technical Details
Location: Melbourne, Victoria, Melbourne
Architectural Height: 228 meters
Top Floor Height: 216 meters
Floor Count: 60
Floor Area: 107248 m2
Core Area: 25.2 m2
Floor Layout Details
Shops: 10 units
Guest Rooms: 630 units
Suites: 70 units
MEPs: 3 units
Restaurants: 1 unit

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GENERAL INFORMATION

A workflow was created for this project to orchestrate


architectural activities into smaller processes for delivery of the
design as per required by the client. The importance of this
illustrated process allows the architectural sub-team to identify
major process required from one task to another and serves as a
perfect guidance from start to finish.
Identification of the process and relationships between the lateral
and gravitational teams prove to be an elementary agency in
conceptualizing and constructing structures of massive scales.
Opinions from both lateral and gravitational sub-teams together
with feedback from the client were influential in the towers final
design after going through numerous design options.

Information

Case Study

High rise case studies


Site case studies

Concept

Assessment

Lateral SubTeam

Client feedback
Sub team evaluations

Design

Floorplan, core and facade designs


Drafting of approved work

Model

Structure visualization
Structural and interior renderings

System

Form performance analysis


Final design review

Architectural
Sub-Team

Gravitational
Sub-Team

Inspirations & ideas


Sketches and rundowns

Fabrication

Selection of materials
Production of scaled structural model

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WORKFLOW PATTERN

Client and team meetings


Design criteria and limitations

Australia is a large country


making up most of the Australian
continent. The proposed project is
situated in Victoria, which is a
state in Southeast Australia with
its capital in Melbourne.

As the capital city of Victoria,


Melbourne acts as one of the most
important
economic
centres,
transportation and communication
hubs in Eastern Australia.

The site is located on the southern


side of Southbank suburb in
Melbourne. The 18,122sqm site is
flanked by Kavanagh and Power
St.

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SITE ANALYSIS

The proposed site was selected based on 7 key


planning principles set out by the architectural
team for the MAG-SIXTY tower. The planning
principles are:

1. High-rise structure should be built near

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

HLD + PARTNERS

2.

central area of the city;


Location should be strategically located
near
public
transportation,
tourist
attractions and shopping centres;
Proposed site has adequate building
setbacks and has compatibility with
existing development in the surrounding
area;
Proposed site has direct access to collector
or arterial road;
Proposed structure should be sited and
designed to create a landmark in the
area;
Proposed structure should be sited and
designed to minimize adverse shade and
wind conditions on surrounding structures
and open spaces;
Proposed site should provide surface
parking for visitors at the side or rear of
the building.

Street view from Kavanagh and Balston St.

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SUN MOVEMENT

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The placement of the tower within the


two hectare site is another important
aspect where visual comfort and lighting
is
evaluated.
SunCalc,
an
online
application that determines the sun
movement and sunlight phases was used
to select the appropriate location within
the proposed location. Through analysis
of the shading and suns movement
during summer and winter periods, the
towers location is to be built on the
Eastern edge of the proposed site. This
location is where optimum sunlight
penetration would be experienced which
allows heat retention during winter
periods reducing the cost of heating
elements within the building.

SunCalcs Sun Movement Analysis of the Site

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TOWER CASE STUDY

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The Shanghai Tower and Burj Al Arab were both used


as case studies to acquire the knowledge and concept
of its respective designs. Although these two high rise
structures are off total different designs, the formers
rotating near elliptical design and the latters 60 floor
and massive atrium layout prove to be useful in
giving the architectural team insight on its design
approach.
Shanghai Tower designed by Gensler, is located in the
Pudong district of Shanghai is a super skyscraper that
rises to a total height of 632 meters tall. The towers
glass faade design is innovative where it is designed
to reduce wind loads of the building by a significant
amount compared to conventional methods. This was
done through analysis of the wind tunnel test of a
scaled structure.With this aerodynamic design
Shanghai Tower requires fewer materials to be used
for construction compared to conventional design.
Burj Al Arab designed by WKK Architects, on the
other hand is a 5 star luxury hotel situated in Dubai.
Built in resemblance of a dhow, the three hundred
meter tall hotel contains an enclosed space between
the wings in which a 590 foot atrium is contained.
The placement of the columns and pillars were
studied to understand the challenges faced in
designing multi-level atriums.

8|MAG-SIXTY

DESIGN CONCEPT

Initial sketches and design were based off a


Chinese coin where the central core would be
of a rectilinear design with circular floor plans.
Studies have shown that the circular shape
high rise structures are effective in reducing
torsional loads due to wind-induced stresses
and higher seismic resistance compared to
simple shapes.
Detailed studies and sketches were done to
improve the initial concept of the tower
through observation of the surrounding flora
and fauna. These observations included jointed
segments of bamboo plants, formation of
schools of fish and geometric patterns flowers.

HLD + PARTNERS

The initial concept for the sixty storey hotel


development was to maximize floor space and
to achieve an innovative aesthetically pleasing
design. Lateral and gravitational factors were
considered to ease technical issues that may
arise from the overall buildings form and
design.

Initial Sketches

Inspirations
and Ideas

9|MAG-SIXTY

The magnolia flower which the MAGSIXTY tower was designed from,
symbolizes
the
pioneering
and
enterprising spirit of the city where
the bloom of the new building would
prosper among the rest of its
surrounding.
Key features discussed between the
sub-teams to create a harmonious
blend of architectural elegance and
structural functionality includes a five
floor atrium with rain forest settings,
generous open spaces and curtain
wall system for the exterior.
The towers design was further
reinforced
with
six
illuminating
petals where the emphasis of the
form is shown.

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HLD + PARTNERS

Inspiration for our latest design were


conceived
from
the
Magnolia
Heptapeta flower, a subgenus of the
Magnolia plant species. The elegance,
purity and femininity of its form were
incorporated into our final design.

CONCEPT ZONE DISTRIBUTION

ZONES

TOTAL AREA

RESTAURANT

1-2% of Total Area

SUITES

15-20% of Total Area

GUEST ROOMS

60-80% of Total Area

OFFICE FLOORS

5-10% of Total Area

ATRIUM & SHOPS

5-10% of Total Area

Restaurant
Level 59

Suites
Level 48-58

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The MAG-SIXTY towers sixty floors are divided


into five initial concept zones which consist of
the atrium & shops, office floors, guest rooms,
suites and restaurant. The floors are all
connected to the central core that holds six
elevator cars that serves as a multi-tier
transport from the ground to the fifty-ninth
floor. Initial planning and process for the multitier vertical transport would be analyzed using
KONEs online analysis tool for selection of the
ideal configuration of the type and number of
elevator cars.

Guest Rooms
Level 8-47

Office Floors
Level 6-7

Atrium & Shops


Level G-4

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PROCESS
Rhinoceros 3D was used for the computer-aided
design of the MAG-SIXTY tower. Although
sharing a few similarities as AutoCAD, Rhino3D
together with a graphical algorithm editor such
as the Grasshopper plugin allowed complex
three dimensional modelling of the high rise
structure.
Grasshopper
serves
as
a
fundamental tool where design and simple
structural information can be calculated such as
structural dimensions and weight.

OPTION 1

OPTION 2

OPTION 4

OPTION 5

OPTION 3

Studied options
The towers basic floor layout was created with
an open curve in Rhino3D and structurally
modelled and extruded through Grasshopper. A
few studied options were made with the
consortium on its overall look, orientation and
constructability. Option 6 was chosen out of the
other 5 design based on its overall form, ease
of constructability and floor space distribution.

OPTION 6

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Computer-aided design

Initial Structural renderings

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Early renderings were done with Flamingo NXT plugin for Rhino3D to visualize the towers design form. This was a critical step
for later design alterations with the feedback of the client, lateral and gravitational sub-teams. It was important to co-operate
with the client and other sub-teams so that the design and delivery of the structure although challenging, would be manageable.

PETAL OUTLINE

GLAZED GLASS

CROSS SECTION

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Lift 5 Type 1
Level G, 6 - 59

The selection and layout of the elevators for transportation of


guest within the core were designed together with the
gravitational and lateral sub-teams. KONE, of the worlds
largest manufacturers of elevators and escalators were
consulted for the selection of the appropriate multi-tier vertical
transportation system for MAG-SIXTY. A few online support
tools by KONE were available for the analysis and estimation of
the lifts and cars. Using KONE Quick Traffic and Planulator,
confirmation of the right vertical transport for the tower proved
to be practical and efficient.
The MAG-SIXTYs vertical
total of 8 lifts are divided
5 quick lifts operating
remaining 3 smooth lifts
G to 27.

transport system which consists of a


into two zones where one consists of
between floors G to 59, and the
to transport individuals between floor

Lift 1 Type 1
Level 6 - 59

Lift 4 Type 1
Level G, 48 - 58

Lift 6 Type 1

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ELEVATOR LAYOUT

Level G, 28 - 47

Lift 7 Type 1
Level G, 28 - 47

Lift 2 Type 2

Type 1 Lifts

Type 2 Lifts

No. of Cars
(Units)
Elevator Size
(Persons)
Transport
Speed (m/s)
Floors

20

30

2.5

G, 28-59

G, 6-27

Travel
Distance (m)

159.8 - 200.6

23.8 - 91.8

Level G, 8 - 27

Lift 3 Type 2
Level G, 8 - 27

Lift 8 Type 2
Level G, 6-7

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STRUCTURE ZONE DISTRIBUTION

We moved all retails from the ground atrium to level 3 as an


independent shopping area suspending in middle of atrium. This
brings a wide view from shop area and also makes our foyer
much spacious and organised.

The 7 zones of MAG-SIXTY tower are:


Zone 1: Level G-2, Atrium and Foyer
Zone 2: Level 3-4, Shop area
(level 5 is transfer structure)
Zone 3: Level 6-7, Office area
Zone 4: Level 8-47, Guest room
Zone 5: Level 48-58, Suit room
Zone 6: Level 59, Restaurant
Zone 7: Level 60, Roof, Mechanical

The other improvement was that we added a mechanical service


area and one heliport on the top roof of the building. The
mechanical area provides space for building systems such as
phone relays, electrical panels, elevator controls, and other
systems to support their operations. The heliport on the roof is
prepared for helicopter for emergency operations and protocol.
Because of the hotel is located on a total area of 2 hectare land,
thus the hotel car park is designed outside the building or under
the ground separately instead of being built within the structure.

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HLD + PARTNERS

MAG-SIXTY tower is a contemporary hotel located in the


metropolis, Melbourne; the building includes comprehensive
areas to satisfy different kinds of requirements. Distributed zones
were assigned to cater to these requirements consists of foyer
atrium, water features, rain forest, retails, significants restaurant,
office zone, mechanical service floor, car park, and of course
types of guest rooms and suites. After a more detailed
researched was performed on its functionality, we decided to
divide the entire building into 7 different zones; which is more
suitable than the 5 zones concept zones we initially planned
before.

CENTRAL CORE LAYOUT

HLD + PARTNERS

MAG-SIXTY tower only has a simple central core which is located at the horizontal centre axle of the building. The centre core is
composed of two types of layout, both types comprise of custom lift shafts, stairs, service lift shafts, and service supply area. All the
detail layout of cross section of the core is designed and certificated with our lateral sub-team. The parameters provided by lateral team
includes: 1.000 meter thick for external wall; 0.600 meter thick for internal wall; and 12.6 meters x 12.6 meters dimension for the base
core. Figure below shows the central core layout in greater detail.

Central core cross section for ground level to level 48, mm

Central core cross section for level 49 to level 60, mm

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ELEVATOR DESIGN

HLD + PARTNERS

Elevators are an important vertical transportation system used in high rise buildings. The
number of elevators, along with their size and speed that a building will have is
determined by: population to be served, passenger waiting time, number of floors, and
height of each floor. The number of people to be served by elevator can be determined
by estimating the floor population. By analysing all the parameters of MAG-SIXTY (which
has 640 guest rooms + 110 suit rooms distributed in 51 levels; two levels of office; one
restaurant on level 59; with floor space of 3.4 meters;) it is found that the most effective
option is using 4 elevators cover guest room levels; 1 elevator cover suit levels; 1
elevator direct from atrium to top restaurant; 1 elevator cover all resident levels to top
restaurant; 1 elevator for office; 1 service lift for whole building; 2 elevator outside the
central core response for shops. In total there are 9 elevators inside the central core and
2 outside the core.
The elaborate elevator distribution is shown below:
Lift 1. Stop at each level from level 6 to 59
Lift 2, 3. Start at ground level, stop from level 8 to 27
Lift 4, Start at ground level, stop from level 48 to 58
Lift 5, Express between ground level and 59
Lift 6, 7. Start at ground level, stop from level 28 to 47
Lift 8. Start at ground level, stop at level 6 and 7.
Service lift. Stop at each level
Shop lifts. Not included in centre core,
Stop at ground level and level 3

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FLOOR PLANS

All the floor plan layout were drawn in Auto CAD. For each floor plan, its total floor shape is plotted from
3D building model in Rhinoceros where it is imported in this floor shape into Auto CAD, and then
designed its layout with maximum space utilization and most comfortable human-friendly idea; after
having several times modification and integration with other sub-teams, the final floor plan layout CAD
file is imported into Sketch Up for interior model design; following large hotel interior design case study,
the finally decorated with fully furniture floor model is ready to render to real style photos by using
iRender Plugins in Sketch Up.

Sketch Up

Auto CAD

Rhino

iRender
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HLD + PARTNERS

MAG-SIXTY tower has 7 different floor plans according to its 7 functional zones. It is progress through collaboration with gravity sub-team
to obtain the best solution for interior floor layout. Such as column size, number, and location, and uses of shear wall are organised
harmonious with each floor plan layout.

FLOOR PLANS - ZONE 1, ATRIUM

In order to create the best open view, we only utilize four special columns in the
atrium instead of eight normal columns runs through all levels above. Therefore, it
requires a transfer structure between ground atrium and floors above which are
held by trusses. We put several large trusses on level 5 to connect these two
kinds columns for load pass, and these trusses are designed and certificated by
our gravity sub-team.

Rain forest & Water function in the Atrium


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HLD + PARTNERS

The ground level of MAG-SIXTY tower is designed to house a five levels high atrium for its whole ground floor. The building does not
have level 1 to level 4 (shop area only occupies 1/3 of total floor area of level 3). This builds an excellent wide feeling when customs
come in the atrium. Cross broad foyer, long size reception welcomes every custom come in from main entry; on the right side, it is a
modern cafe with beautiful music played by pianist; on the left side, world banks and internet bar are always ready to service everyone
needed; lift and stairs set in centre core just behind reception transport customs to each level; at the back area of ground floor, there is
a rain forest and water function, which brings spontaneous entertainments and sustainable environments to the whole building.

FLOOR PLANS - ZONE 2, SHOP AREA

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MAG-SIXTY has its independent shop area on level 3 which consist of 8 to 10


world famous retail shops. As the hotel is located in South Bank and close to
Crown Entertainments, these shops can not only open for hotel customs but for
visitors from Crown shopping mall and casino as well. Because of shop lifts are
spot outside the central core, visitors from out of the hotel will not affect any
safety issue on hotel customs at all.

Level 3 Shop Area Floor Plan


The shop area level 3 only has 1/3 area of total floor area, it is
suspending in the middle of the atrium. This design ensure
most area of ground level will have more than 15 meters
height atrium, and at same time, it gives a wide open view
overlook hotel foyer and rain forest area for customs on level
3. Our gravity sub-team provides two trusses cross whole
atrium sit on columns to support entire floor of shop area.

Level 3 shop area suspending in atrium


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FLOOR PLANS ZONE 3, OFFICE AREA


Level 6 and 7 of MAG-SIXTY tower is designed as buildings office area. It provides 8 different
rooms for different requirements such as management, marketing, meeting room, HR
department, entertainment space, kitchen, and toilet on each level. Each room is big enough for
company lecture or divide into several small private offices if necessary.

Level 6 Office Layout

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Office area is using one elevator (Lift 8) only stop at ground level and level 6 and 7, it guarantees
employees working effect and hotel customs privacy.

Hotel Marketing Office Room on Level 6


Level 6 Office Area Floor Plan
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FLOOR PLANS ZONE 4, GUEST ROOM


There are 640 Guest rooms in MAG-SIXTY tower which are distributed in level 8 to level 47. Four fast
elevators transports customs between ground atrium and each guest room level in central core.
Each level has 16 guest rooms including two types, 8 Standard Rooms and 8 Deluxe Rooms. Both types of
guest rooms are suitable for two customs; each room have two double size beds, two full HD televisions, and
fashion sofas, study desk with chair, one fridge, and completed washroom with toilet.

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The Standard Room has a usable living area of 83m2 out of 90m2

Standard Guest Room Floor Plan

Interior design for Standard Guest Room


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FLOOR PLANS ZONE 4, GUEST ROOM

Level 25, Guest Room Floor Plan

Deluxe Guest Room Floor Plan

Interior design for Deluxe Guest Room


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HLD + PARTNERS

The Deluxe Room has a usable living area of 101m2 out of 111m2. Compare with Standard Guest
Room, this type room has larger living area to make it more comfortable for family living. It also
retains an extensive frameless glass curtain wall which brings a much more widely high point
vision.

FLOOR PLANS ZONE 5, SUITE ROOM

Each level has 10 suite rooms. It is suitable for twofour customs per suit. Each room have two king size
beds, two full HD televisions, fashion sofas, dinner
table, one bar area, study desk with chair, one fridge,
one wash machine with dryer function and completed
washroom with toilet.

Level 50 Suite Room Floor Plan

Suite Room Floor Plan

The Suite Room has a usable living


area of 112m2 out of 127m2

Interior design for Suite Room


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HLD + PARTNERS

There are 110 Suite rooms in MAG-SIXTY tower which


all located in level 48 to level 58. Two fast elevators
transports customs between ground atrium and each
suite room level in central core.

FLOOR PLANS ZONE 6, RESTAURANT

Custom View in
the Restaurant

The significant revolving restaurant is at level 59 of


MAG-SIXTY tower. It is a top level local cuisine luxury
restaurant with maximum capacity of 400 customs; 360
degree top vision overlook entire Melbourne city; Five
VIP family room provide best place for any kinds of
party.

HLD + PARTNERS

There is one express elevator runs between ground floor


and level 59 restaurant directly; and another fast
elevator connects whole hotel custom rooms with this
top level restaurant.
The restaurant offers room delivery service to every
hotel rooms.

Level 59
Restaurant
Floor Plan
26 | M A G - S I X T Y

Fabrication of scaled model

This allowed the architectural team to quickly access any problems that they may have faced without the trouble of glue adhesive
assembly. Visualization of the structures design in both 3D models and actual scaled model allowed the consortium to discuss on any
improvement and changes needed to create a landmark building for generations to admire and enjoy.

Assembly of Core and Floor Plates

Interlocking Components for Scaled Model

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HLD + PARTNERS

A 1:200 scaled structural model was made on the MAG-SIXTYs design. The model was constructed through the use of 61 floor plates
cut-outs that we digitized in Rhino3D and exported into AutoCAD and CoralDraw files. 3mm MDF materials and balsa wood were used to
create the floor plates and columns of different diamaters. A laser cutter was use to cut out each floor plan with precision and was
assembled using interlocking designs where quick assembly was obtained.

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Atrium Floor Plates and Initial Columns

Initial Assembly of 1:200 Scaled Model

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Installation of Lights and Faade Components

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SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE
OVERVIEW

Structural Design
& Placement
Orientation
Solar Control

HLD + PARTNERS

A crucial part of the overall design of MAG-SIXTY is its incorporation of sustainability architecture. Two aspects of sustainable architecture
was taken in account which are structural design & placement and sustainable energy. The idea and though of incorporating this
sustainable aspects is to reduce environmental impact of buildings and to ensure current activities to not impede opportunity of future
generations.

Energy Usage
Geothermal
Energy

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN & PLACEMENT


ORIENTATION

To understand this, a study of the annual sun path for the proposed site was done as there is a general misunderstanding that solar
access does not occur on the south faade for structure in the southern hemisphere. By using online tools such as SunCalc and the
Energy Smart Housing Manual, we are able to identify the impact of sun movement in the equinoxes, winter and summer solstice.
The Green House effect is desired during the winter periods where natural heat retention would important thermal comfort and reducing
the operation burden of HVAC systems. This would in turn reduce electrical cost and reduction in carbon footprint.

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HLD + PARTNERS

Direct solar access and the orientation of the structure within the proposed site is critical where majority of thermal heat transfer takes
place from the solar radiation. The thermal heat is transferred either in convectional or conductional paths where an absorbed portion of
the energy is dissipated by re-emission from inner and outer layers.

Solar Control

Low emissivity glass (Low-E) is glass that has a surface coating that changes thermal properties but not the appearance. This allows
selective spectral filtering where visible light and infra-red radiation components of the sun are separated. This result in significant heat
reduction but light gain is not interrupted compared to body tinted glass. Double glazed glass with low-e coatings in the outer and inner
faces would prevent heat gain during warmer periods and prevent heat loss during cooler climates experienced in Melbournes frantic
weathers.

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HLD + PARTNERS

Solar analysis and heat gain are to be conducted before the commencement of the construction of the project. The results from the
analysis would provide the needed information in selecting appropriate solar control measures for glass at different sections of the tower.
The knowledge of solar heat gain co-efficient during warmer climates and U value for cold climates of the structure in the proposed site
has led to the selection of double glazed glass with low-e coating.

GLASS TYPE
Double glazed low-e
coated panels (2
sections)

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Double glass with single


low-e coating panels (4
sections)

Glass Panels Installed


in Sections (6 in
Total)

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ENERGY USAGE
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

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An interesting addition in the sustainability design of MAG-SIXTY is its


implementation of geothermal heat pump to be used with HVAC (Heating,
Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems. The ground beneath the proposed
site could be used as a heat source and heat sink during different seasonal
periods to reduce operational cost and carbon emissions of the HVAC system.
Vertical closed loop geothermal elements would be used where hole which
could span 15-100 meters deep into the Earths surface would be bored and
placed into appropriate locations as designed.
Studies have shown that geothermal heat pumps are one, if not the most
energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning
systems available. By including this sustainable component into the towers
design, it would lower its overall carbon emission significantly with the
appropriate state-of-the-art HVAC systems.

Ground Source Heat Rejection implemented in the


Pearl River Tower by Skidmore Owings and Merrill
in Guangzhou

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APPENDIX A
GENERAL FLOOR PLAN LAYOUTS

35 | M A G - S I X T Y

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Lift
Level1-3
Only

First
Aid

Tel &
Internet
Bar

Cafe

TOILET

Bank

Luggage Storage
Room & Security

Reception

General Manager

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Lift
Level1-3
Only

TOILET

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Rain Forest and Water Features area

Rain Forest and Water Features area


Lift
Level1-3
Only

Lift
Level1-3
Only

Shop

Shop

Shop

Shop

Shop

Shop

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Design Process and Documentation

Site information Preparing

Site Analysis

Land soil test

Land excavation

Architecture design

Structural
engineering design

Environmental and
energy rating design
check

Council and
Government
department
Approval

Project Management

Financial Stage

Financial Approval

Risk Control

Budget calculation

Project Manager
motioning
Time Control

Construction Process
Quality Control

Roof part

Faade working

Main Structure part

Foundation working

Final Inspection Stage

Interior
refurbishment
Surveyor Checking

Occupation permit

Key handing &


Project turnover