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This chapter covers research design, population and sample, instrument of

the research, procedure of collecting data, and technique of data analysis.
A. Research design
This research applied a pre-experimental method with one group pre-test
and post-test. In this research, sample was given pre-test (X1) treatment (T) and
post-test (X2). The research design can be seen in the following:
E :



X1 : Pre-test

: Treatment

X2 : Post-test
(Gay, 2006)
B. Research variables and their operational definitions
In this research, there are two variables, as follows:
1. The independent variable is reading short stories: it is an activity of getting
some information or new words through short stories as a teaching media.


2. The dependent variable is vocabulary mastery which is the students

ability in recognizing the number of words in English language after
giving treatment reading short stories
C. Population and Sample
1) Population
The populations of this research were the first year students at SMA Neg.
1 Rilau Ale Kab. Bulukumba. It consists of seven classes and the numbers of the
students are 316.
2) Sample
Due to the big numbers of population, the researcher used simple random
sampling technique. The researcher took only one class of the population as the
sample of this research. The total numbers of population was represented by 30
respondents from one class.
D. Instrument of the Research
The instrument of the research which was used to collect data was
vocabulary test. The test consists of pre-test and post-test. Both of pre-test and
post-test consist of two parts with 20 items, first part consists of 15 multiple
choices, the other part consist of 5 items. The tests are used to collect data on the
students vocabulary mastery.


E. Procedures of Collecting Data

The procedures of collecting data were chronologically performed as follows:
1. Pre-test
Pre-test was administered before treatment
2. Treatment
The treatment was conducted in three meetings. The researcher used
different title of short story for each meeting. Each meeting ran for 90 minutes.
The researcher used three phase technique. The following descriptions are the
illustration of the procedure in the treatment.
1) Pre-reading
a) Ask the students about the things which connect with reading topic to the
several students. The questions which the researcher will give such as (1)
have you ever read short story before? (2) Do you interest read short
story? (3) What kinds of short story do you like?
b) Giving the students short story
c) Ask the students to look the title, and guess what the story is about.
d) The researcher will read the short story for the students
e) Ask the students to underline the difficult words
f) Ask the students to Find out the meaning of unfamiliar words
g) Ask the students to find out synonym and antonym of the words that


h) Ask the students to classify the class of words (noun, verb, adjective, and
2) During reading
a) Ask the students to read short story, and then the researcher will help the
students to know the description which is happen in the short story.
b) Ask the students to state true or false statements related to the topic.
3) Post-reading
Ask the students to answer the question related to the topic.
3. Post-test
After giving the treatment, the researcher gave post-test. It aims to find
out the result of treatment.
F. Technique of Data Analysis
The data collected through the test was analyzed quantitavely. This
quantitative analysis used statistical calculation to test the hypothesis. The steps
undertaken in the quantitatively are follows:
1. Scoring the students correct answer of pre-test and post-test by using the
following formulas:


2. Classifying the score of the students based on the following categories:



Very good

9.1 10


7.6 9.0


6.1 7.5


5.1 6.0

Very poor

0 5.0
(Soetjipto, 2007: 186)

1. Calculating mean score, frequency, and percentage by using SPSS analysis

2. Calculating standard deviation and t-test by using SPSS analysis.


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