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**In the previous lessons we learned that a frictional force is any force that resists, retards
**

or impedes the motion of an object. In this lesson we will discuss how friction results

from the contact between two surfaces.

I.

Friction forces

**The current theory that describes friction is quite complicated and is beyond what we
**

deal with in Physics 20 and 30. However, for our purposes, we will work with a simple

(but reasonably accurate and useful) approximation of friction. When an object is in

contact with a surface of some kind (table, floor, pavement, concrete, etc.) there are two

factors that determine the frictional force. The first factor is the magnitude (size) of the

normal force acting on the object by the surface. The normal force is actually the

combined effect of all the small forces of the surface acting on an object.

The normal force is

the sum of all the

small forces of

contact.

object

surface

FN

Fg

**The heavier the object, the greater the interaction between the atoms and electrons of
**

the object and the surface and, therefore, the greater the frictional force. A heavier

object will have a larger frictional force than a lighter object.

The second factor is the nature of the interaction between the atoms and electrons of

the object and the atoms and electrons of the surface. The interaction between a

rubber tire and a dry pavement surface, for example, is substantially different from the

interaction between a rubber tire and an icy surface. The interaction between the

surfaces is represented by a number (pronounced “mu”) called the coefficient of

friction. The coefficient of friction can be thought of as an indicator of the “stickiness” of

the interaction between two surfaces – the higher the coefficient, the stickier the

interaction, the greater the frictional force. For frictionless interactions, which are only

theoretical, = 0. In the table below a number of coefficients are given (see Pearson

page 183 as well). Note that the coefficient of friction is unitless.

Surfaces

wood on wood

waxed wood on snow

metal on metal with oil

rubber on solids

human hip joint

Coefficient of

static friction, s

0.40

0.14

0.15

1 to 4

<0.01

Coefficient of

kinetic friction, k

0.20

0.10

0.07

1

<0.01

**Note that there are two types of frictional coefficients s and k. The coefficient of static
**

friction (s) is used to calculate the frictional force which must be overcome to start the

object moving. The kinetic coefficient of friction ( k) is used to calculate the frictional

force when an object is already in motion.

16 - 1

14/12/14

Ff FN 0. 1.77 kg g 9.5 N FN Ff FA Fg = mg = 50 kg(9.77 kg 16 .The two factors.5 N) = 171. normal force and coefficient of friction. We can calculate its mass by using F g = mg.ca/sss/science/physics/ username: students password: cbe2002 and go to the Frictional Forces section of Java Applets.7 N 2. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0. Fg 400 N m = 40. what is its acceleration? From the diagram FN = Fg FN Ff FN = 400 N FA = 120 N Fg = 400 N Calculate the friction force.5 N Ff FN 0.69 m/s2 m 40.23 and the applied force is 120 N.2 14/12/14 . A 400 N object is pulled over a horizontal surface.81m s2 From the free body diagram: FNET = FA – Ff FNET = 120 N – 92 N = 28 N Calculate the acceleration: a FNET 28 N = 0.23 ( 400 N) = 92 N Fg = 400 N.35? From the diagram. combine to give the following equation: Ff = FN At this point it would be wise for you to go to the following Physics website http://projects. FN = Fg FN = 490.cbe.ab.35 ( 490. What friction force must be overcome to start a 50 kg object sliding across a horizontal surface when the static coefficient of friction is 0.81 m/s2) Fg = 490.

1N 4.20.83 m/s2 m 10 kg 16 . If the box moves with a constant speed of 0.94 N Calculate acceleration a FNET 38.81 m/s2) = 98. what is the coefficient of kinetic friction for the surface? FNET FA Ff The velocity is constant FNET = 0 0 40 N Ff FN Ff Ff = 40 N FA FN = Fg = m g = 10 kg(9. A 10 kg box is dragged across a level floor with a force of 60 N.41 FN 98.1N FN FN = 68.3 14/12/14 . 60 N FN Ff 30o Breaking the applied force into its components: Fg = m g = 10 kg(9.34 N = +3.5 m/s.1 N Fg Ff 40 N = 0.81 m/s2) Fg = 98.62 N = 38. Therefore the amount of friction will decrease.96 N FAy = 60 N sin 30o FAy = 30 N In the vertical dimension FNET ( V ) FAy Fg FN Since the object does not move up or down FNET (V) = 0 0 30 N 98.1 N 30o FAx = 60 N cos 30o FAx = 51. there is a smaller normal force acting on the block. what is the acceleration of the box? Note that some of the applied force is pulling the box and some is lifting the box.20 (68.62 N In the horizontal dimension FNET ( H) FAx Ff FNET (H ) = + 51.1 N Ff = FN = 0.96 N + -13. Due to the lifting force. If the coefficient of friction is 0. A 10 kg box is dragged over a horizontal surface by a force of 40 N.3.1 N) = 13. The force is applied at an angle of 30° above the horizontal.

A 15 kg box is being dragged over a concrete floor with an applied horizontal force of 40 N. What is the acceleration of the cart if a 200 N force is applied? (2.13) 3. Practice problems 1.20. What is the coefficient of friction? (0. A rope attached to a 50 kg cart is being pulled at an angle of 25 o across a horizontal floor where the coefficient of static friction is 0.25.1 m/s 2) 16 .4 14/12/14 . what is the acceleration of the box? (0. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.II.21 m/s2) 2. A 20 kg apple crate is being dragged across a floor at constant velocity with a horizontal force of 25 N.

10 s) 7. A box. 2.30.0 m/s. weight is negligible) snow shovel at a uniform velocity across a sidewalk. A 10 kg box is pulled across a level floor.0 m/s? (6. If its initial velocity is 2. Sliding at constant speed without friction.0 m/s 2? (54 N) 8. eventually coming to a stop. What is the coefficient of friction? (0. Hand-in assignment For each situation below. If the coefficient of friction is 0.30.0 N. is pulled across a level desk by a horizontal force of 4. A boy pulls a 50 kg crate across a level floor with a force of 200 N. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.70) 6. how much horizontal force is needed to pull a mass of 15 kg across a level board with constant velocity? (44 N) 4. It takes a 50 N horizontal force to pull a 20 kg object along the ground at constant velocity.0 m) 16 . If the handle of the shovel is inclined at 55 o to the horizontal and she pushes along the handle with a force of 100 N. 1. A. 0. what is the acceleration of the box? (0.9 x 10 2 N) (b) the frictional force exerted on the crate by the floor. B. It slides across a table. draw accurate free-body diagrams showing all forces acting on the rock.20. A girl pushes a light (i. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0. If the force acts at an angle of 30o up from the horizontal. A 70 kg hockey player coasts along the ice on steel skates. (a) what is the force of friction? (b) How long will it take him to coast to a stop.III.0 kg.9 N.35.26) 3.2 x 10 2 N) (c) the acceleration of the crate. and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the two surfaces is 0. (1. how far will it travel across the table? (1.12. what is the force of friction? What is the coefficient of kinetic friction? (57 N. What horizontal force is required for an acceleration of 2. and the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.1 m/s2) A can of pop (mass = 500 g) is given a shove. (1. mass = 2. (3. where the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0. if he is initially travelling at 1.e.5 14/12/14 . Decelerating because of kinetic friction.010.83 m/s2) 5. (a) the normal force exerted on the crate by the floor. determine 9.

00 1. the slope will equal the coefficient of friction (). 5. Materials: wood block with string masses from 0.6 14/12/14 .20 1. Calculate the slope of the line-of-best-fit for the graph.0 kg graph paper spring balance thinking student(s) Analysis: Rearranging the friction equation Ff = FN we have F rise f slope FN run Thus if we plot a graph of Ff Vs FN and calculate the slope of the best-fit-line.40 1. Place the first mass on the block. 6.60 0. Choose a suitable wooden block. The spring scale reading is the kinetic applied force. On a sheet of graph paper draw a graph for the kinetic data. Calculate the weight of the total mass. Procedure: 1. 7. Drag the block and mass across the surface making sure to pull horizontally and at a constant speed. Construct a data table like the one below as a part of your write-up. Repeat steps 3 to 4 for the other masses. The mass is written on the block. 2.) 3.60 16 .80 1. Data Table: Extra Mass (kg) Total Mass (kg) Fg (N) FN (N) FA (N) kinetic Ff (N) kinetic 0. Make sure the axis on your graph match the equation. (Do not use the one on this page.10 kg to 1. Extra mass Weighing scale Wooden block Applied force 4.Coefficient of Friction Activity Purpose: To measure the kinetic coefficient of friction for a surface.

Explain why the applied force should be applied horizontally and not at an angle. What is the relationship between the applied force and the frictional force? 6. 4. Explain why the block should be pulled at a constant speed. 5. 3. What is the relationship between weight and the normal force? 7.7 14/12/14 . 2. Draw a free-body diagram of the block with an applied force just before its starts to move. Draw a free-body diagram of the block as it is being pulled across a surface at constant speed.Analysis and Interpretation: 1. What is the unit for the coefficient of friction? Do your calculations show this? Write-up: data and observations graphs calculations answers to Analysis and Interpretation 16 .

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