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# MFE O3 Design for Manufacture and Assembly

Section-I
1. Design for Manufacturing (DFM) is a methodology aimed at improving the
manufacturability or producibility of a single product by reducing manufacturing
costs
2. Functional dimension-is an important dimension that is involved with the
correct working of a machine assembly.
Non Functional dimension is, relatively, an unimportant dimension in that it is
not a critical dimension in the working of the machine.
3. This technique involves the selection of random observations with in the
simulation model. It is constrained for application involving random numbers to
solve deterministic and stochastic problems.
The underlying principle of this technique is
o Replace the actual statistical universe by another universe
described by some assumed probability distribution.
o Sample from this theoretical population by means of random
numbers.
4. Straightness, flatness, roundness, concentricity, squareness, parallelism,
angularity, symmetry
5. 1.trial and error 2. Interchangeable assembly 3.selective assembly
6. False
7. The procedure to be followed when changing the datum face may be
summarized thus:
o Decide the required manufacturing datum face.
o Decide the required manufacturing required manufacturing dimension
o Determine the tolerance for each of the manufacturing dimensions
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True 11. Machined holes over 30mm diameter to be cast/ cored. True 15. 12.  Avoid placing welds in vulnerable cross-sections  Avoid laps.  Machined holes up to and including 30mm diameter to be cast solid. 8. True 14.  Drill/boring is decided by the size of the hole  Machined holes. and stiffening angles (with figures) 13.  unnecessary large machined areas  unnecessary amount of small tolerance machining 2 .o Set suitable limits for all but of required dimensions o Determine the limits for the final dimension. straps. True 9. Machined holes  Round machined holes in a cast component may be produced by drilling or reaming or by boring. up to and including 30mm diameter to be drilled.  Uneconomical  Difficult to remove from the mould  Core removal difficulty 10. -Economic analysis-component design -Ability to identify uneconomical design -Ability to modify the design to eliminate the fault whilst retain the essential functional feature of the design 16. holes over 30mm diameter to be bored.

improve and control)  Bottle-necks and problems identified. Value Stream Mapping • Follow a “product” or “service” from beginning to end.(DMAIC- Define. difficult or unduly lengthy machining features  slightly dissimilar components that could be standardized 17. “A team based approach to identifying and eliminating waste (non-valueadding activities) through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection” A methodology to minimize waste at all levels through assessment of each activities of a company 20. and draw a visual representation of every process in the material & information flow.  This method uses various statistical tools to measure business process.  Improvement program is defined and defects removed 18. A poka-yoke device is any mechanism that either prevents a mistake from being made or makes the mistake obvious at a glance: to control (for instance shuts down) or warn for abnormalities  No errors à no defects à Zero quality control (ZQC) 19. A Value Stream is the set of all actions (both value added and non value added) required bringing a specific product or service from raw material through to the customer. 3 .measure.  The main goal is continuous improvement  Six sigma is carried out as project. it concentrates on those outputs which are important to customers.analyze.  Six sigma is a business method for improving quality by removing defects and their causes in business process activities.

 Minimizing manufacturing cost. • VSM serves as a . the variations in sizes of similar components will be within reasonable limits.Communication Tool. draw (using icons) a “future state” map of how value should flow. Business planning Tool Tool to manage any change process Section-II 21.(i)  Tolerance must be placed on dimensions of a part to limit the permissible variations in size because it is impossible to repeatedly manufacture a part exactly to a given dimension.• Then.  Position & orientation tolerance: attributes of feature relationships 21..  Obtaining the best quality and performance from the design. All the assignable causes of variation are controlled or eliminated.  Manufacturing process is a combination of three elements man. If the process is under control.  improves communication  provides better product design  increase production tolerance Tolerances as Feature Attributes Tolerance as an attribute  Size tolerance: attributes of dimension parameters  Form tolerance: attributes of edges or surfaces.  A small tolerance results in greater ease of interchangeability of parts and less play or chance for vibration in moving parts. materials and machine. (ii) Process capability analysis:  Statistical techniques can be helpful through the product cycle 4 .

 There are two ways to think of this of this variability: 1.2. center (mean). Obviously.  The estimate process capability may be in the form of a probability distribution having specified shape. The variability over time. (i)  Interchangeability or random assembly is an assembly technique in which all the components assemble with any other mating components 5 .  Prediction how well the process will hold the tolerances. in quantifying process variability. and spread (standard deviation).  Process capability analysis is a vital part of an overall quality improvement program.the natural or inherent variability at a specified time. 22.  Selecting between competing vendors. in analyzing this variability relative to product requirements or specifications.  Assisting product developers/designers in selecting or modifying process.  A process capability study usually measure functional parameter on the product.  Process capability analysis as an engineering study to estimate process capability. Development activities prior to manufacture.  It is customary to take the 6-sigma in the distribution of the product quality characteristic as a measure of process capability. not the process itself.  Specifying performance requirements for few equipment. the variability in the process is a measure of the uniformity of output.  Reducing the variability in a manufacturing process. and in assisting development and manufacturing in eliminating or greatly reducing this variability  Product capability refers to the uniformity of the process. that is “instantaneous” variability.

6 . thus providing an advantage over other shim system where a range of several shim thickness must be available.  Only one shim is needed per unit assembly. Interchangeability Selective assembly Mass production system.  Larger component machining tolerance. Selective assembly where parts are Specified tolerance limits.  This particular type of shim has the advantage of quickly and a accurately providing this assembly requirements No second stage machining is involved. when a critical assembly is requested. is the laminated shim. thus we go for selective assembly technique. graded and grouped according to size. Selective assembly if the tolerance limit of mating part is very. than manufacturing tolerance Only matched groups of mating parts allowed for that part. and finally corresponding groups are assembled together. in the case of fully Interchangeability . are assembled Assembly time is reduced Reduced production cost (ii) Laminated shim control of axial ply. manufactured to rather wider Process cability is equal to or less tolerances. her all the parts are measured.the demanded accuracy of assembly may not be obtained.

 Smart shim with feel able precision of 0. Laminated shins – sheet of brass fail. thus. use 0. but rotation about 0Z less precisely than the others. either 0. Benefits of laminated shim. Spigot and hole assembly with grouped Datum plane.  Min thickness can vary – depending upon the overall size and shape of the shim used. Grouped Datum plane. use 0.  Make assembly line adjustments earlier and faster.  The choice of lamination thickness.  Replace costly precision machining of making parts.51mm lamination o If the assembly tolerance is 0. 23.001 mm is readily offered. 7 .051mm or 0.076 mm is usually determined by assembly tolerance involved. recess and pin (with figure)  Function: The system controls the relative movements of two components in all 6 degrees of freedom. o If the assembly tolerance is 0.051mm laminations.076 mm or more. This system is used mainly as a datum group for positional features.076 mm lamination.  Provide flexibility for assembly line adjustments.

y and z direction is limited by the fit c between the spigot and recess and by the flatness of the planes.  Do not specify flatness tolerances for the planes unless unusually location is required. design sizes and tolerance.  Hole basis is preferred. The fit between the spigot and recess should be chose n to suit the location accuracy required.  Basic size: Choose from data sheets as appropriates. 8 .  The hole and pin are datum having position and square ness tolerance MMc relative to the datum spigot and plane and the datum spigot and plane and the datum recess and plane. C=C±k  Rotation about ox and oy is limited by the flatness of the planes. about oz by the fit between the spigot and recess and the hole and pin.Geometric analysis: The plane are principal datum’s with zero position tolerances.  Location accuracy: Translational movement in the x. The spigot and ranges are datum with zero position and square ness tolerances on MMc relative to the principal datum. The clearance between the latter including provision for position tolerance for the position tolerances for hole and pin.  Fits. Take as before the Criterion.

24.(ii) Projected Tolerance Zone (with figure) 9 . (i) Comparison between geometric tolerancing and coordinate tolerancing Drawing concept Coordinate tolerancing Tolerance zone Condition shape Square or geometric tolerancing Condition rectangular Can use diameter symbols zones for hole location to allow round tolerance zones result result less tolerance available for 57% more tolerance for hole Tolerance flexibility hole location higher mfg costs zone Condition Tolerance zone fixed in size Lower mfg costs Condition Use of modifier allows tolerance zone to increase under certain conditions result Functional parts scrapped result Functional parts used Higher operating costs Lower operating costs 24.

 In zero true position tolerancing the same principles apply. (i) (i) Form design for welding rules: (with fogures) 10 . except that the true position tolerancing stated is always a fixed “zero”. Where design considerations require a closer control in the perpendicularity of a threaded hole than that allowed by the positional tolerance. with all the tolerance placed on the same dimension. 25. a perpendicularity tolerance applied as a projected tolerance zone may be specified  Specifying a projected tolerance zone will ensure that fixed fasteners do not interfere with mating parts  Further enlargement of clearance holes to provide for an extreme variation in perpendicularity of the fastener is not necessary.form and position interrelationships.  The squareness error of the fastener (or press-fit pin) may result in an interference condition with the mating part. zero tolerancing is technically acceptable  Zero position tolerancing is not appropriate  True position tolerances are usually established on the basis of MMC size relationships of mating part features. When dimensioning threaded holes (or press-fit holes). consideration must be given to the variation in perpendicularity of the axis of the hole relative to the mating face of the assembly.  Where mating parts and features are simply to mate up or “GO” and tangent contact of the mating features could occur. Zero true position tolerancing  Zero true position tolerancing is a technique adaptable to situation requiring functional interchangeability and maximum tolerance advantage in the feature size.

(ii) cast holes-cored holes(with figures) o Holes of any kind in castings are produced either by casting or by coring. o Holes produced by use of special sand core –cored holes 26 (i). Do not attempt to copy blindly from cast. and stiffening angles  Use butt welds wherever possible  Limit the number of welds used  Make sure that ends to be welded together are of equal thickness  Avoid placing welds in vulnerable cross-sections.etc  Provide for easy ass to welds. riveted.  Provide for s straight line force pattern as far as possible  Avoid laps.  Allow for the effect of thermal stress  Distribute heavy loading over long welds in the longitudinal direction  Avoid subjecting welds to bending loads  be careful with the use of ribs  avoid large flat walls which tent to bulge and flex 25. shoulders. Identifying uneconomical design features  unnecessary large machined areas  unnecessary amount of small tolerance machining  difficult or unduly lengthy machining features  slightly dissimilar components that could be standardized  machined features restricted to one particular process  feasibility of assembly and dismantling for casting. straps. sand cores that may be eliminated 11 . and forged designs.  Facilitate assembly by means of registers. o Holes produced by the mould sand of the boxes are cast holes.

sand cores that may be eliminated.  Base has an unnecessarily large machine area  With base as mould parting line. internal and external sand cores needed for the circular bosses. Gear box: Identifying uneconomical design features  unnecessary large machined areas  unnecessary amount of small tolerance machining  difficult or unduly lengthy machining features  slightly dissimilar components that could be standardized  machined features restricted to one particular process  feasibility of assembly and dismantling  For casting.(ii) Modifying the desig  when redesign for manufacture the external features and dimensions of the unit should remain unaltered  Internal features may be adjusted in any way to meet manufacturing requirements. provided the functional features of the design are not impaired. even expensive. 27.  Provided the functional features of the design are not impaired  Whenever an assembly or dismantling difficulty is present in a proposed design it is essential that difficulty be removed.  Spot facing of holding –down bolt holes restricts machining to one processes  Joint face has unnescessarily large machined area  Different types of bearing bush  Different type of boss type  Assembly of layshaft is difficult Acceptable modified design of the spur gear reduction unit where (with figure) 12 .

and hence permits  Amalagamation of gears with shafts which eliminate an appreciable amount of small tolerance machimg-circlips and keys. (i) DFMA Applications  DFMA software provides a systematic procedure for analyzing proposed designs from the point of view of assembly and manufacture. the vendors that are no longer required. 28.  In addition. and the benefits of simultaneous or concurrent engineering can be achieved. any reduction in the number of parts in an assembly produces a snowball effect on cost reduction. The machined base is reduced to small facings encompassing the holding –down bolt holes  The casting can be obtained without the need for sand cores  The holding –down bolt hole bosses can be machined by several different processes  One type of bearing bush used throughout  Splitting the box on the shafts axis permits easy/dismantling.  Application of DFMA Software to the Design of a Motor-Drive Assembly  Application of DFMA at an Electronics Manufacturer  Design-for-Assembly Implementation at an Automotive Manufacturer  Manufacturability Benchmarking by an Automotive Manufacturer 13 . and the inventory that is eliminated  DFMA tools encourage dialogue between designers and the manufacturing engineers and any other individuals who play a part in determining final product costs during the early stages of design  This means that team working is encouraged.  This procedure results in simpler and more reliable products that are less expensive to assemble and manufacture. because of the drawings and specifications that are no longer needed.

(ii) Quality Function Deployment A Means of integrating the design process  – Voice of the Customer – Priorities of Marketing – Product design knowledge of the Engineer – (Production Planning and Design) House of Quality  Gather customer attributes  Group attributes logically  Assess relative importance of the attributes  Assess competitive performance on the attributes  Describe product in terms of engineering characteristics 14 .

 Detail influence of engineering characteristics on customer attributes  Detail interaction between engineering characteristics 15 .