You are on page 1of 33

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. It
comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining, training, developing, and
compensating the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business
organizations, such as education, healthcare, etc Human Resource Management is defined as
the set of activities, programs, and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational
as well as employee effectiveness……………
Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of his entry
into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM.
The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training
and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions,one such
important division is Training & Development.
Training – Introduction
This activity is both focussed upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently
holds education .
This activity focusses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is
evaluated against those jobs.
Training and personal development is an important method for a business to improve the performance
of employees.
Training is a process whereby an individual acquires job-related skills and knowledge. It is a cost to
firms to pay for the training and also to suffer the loss of working hours whilst an employee is being
trained.
However, the potential gains from employee training are significant. The main benefits of training are
improved productivity and motivation of staff and also better quality products being made.
Some of the specific reasons as to why a business should train its employees are:

Introduce new employees to the business (this is known as “induction training”) – see below
Help provide the skills the business needs (in particular making the workforce more flexibleor
being trained on new higher technology machinery)

Provide employees with better knowledge about the business and the market it operates in

Provide support for jobs that are complex and for which the required skills and knowledge are
often changing (e.g. a firm of lawyers training staff about new legislation)

Support the introduction of new working methods, such as a firm introducing new lean
production techniques

Reduce the need for supervision and therefore free up valuable manager timeHelp achieve a
good health and safety recordHelp improve quality of a product or service and lower customer
complaints

Increase employee motivation and loyalty to the business

Induction training
Induction training is important as it enables a new recruit to become productive as quickly as possible.
It can avoid costly mistakes by recruits not knowing the procedures or techniques of their new jobs.
The length of induction training will vary from job to job and will depend on the complexity of the job,
the size of the business and the level or position of the job within the business.
The following areas may be included in induction training:

Learning about the duties of the job
Meeting new colleagues

Seeing the layout the premises

Learning the values and aims of the business

Learning about the internal workings and policies of the business

On-the-job training
On the job training occurs when workers pick up skills whilst working along side experienced workers at
their place of work. For example this could be the actual assembly line or offices where the employee
works. New workers may simply “shadow” or observe fellow employees to begin with and are often
given instruction manuals or interactive training programmes to work through.
Off-the-job training
This occurs when workers are taken away from their place of work to be trained. This may take place
at training agency or local college, although many larger firms also have their own training centres.
Training can take the form of lectures or self-study and can be used to develop more general skills and
knowledge that can be used in a variety of situations, e.g. management skills programme.

Methods of training
Human Resource Management is concerned with the planning, acquisition, training &
developing human beings for getting the desired objectives & goals set by the organization.
The employees have to be transformed according to the organizations' & global needs. This
is done through an organized activity called Training.
Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of
knowledge & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behavior. It
helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge, skills & attitudes of employees.

Thus, training is a process that tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of
knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job or to mould him to
be fit for a higher job involving higher responsibilities. It bridges the gap between what the
employee has & what the job demands.
Since training involves time, effort & money by an organization, so an organization should
to be very careful while designing a training program. The objectives & need for training
should be clearly identified & the method or type of training should be chosen according to
the needs & objectives established. Once this is done accurately, an organization should
take a feedback on the training program from the trainees in the form of a structured
questionnaire so as to know whether the amount & time invested on training has turned into
an investment or it was a total expenditure for an organization.
Training is a continuous or never ending process. Even the existing employees need to be
trained to refresh them & enable them to keep up with the new methods & techniques of
work. This type of training is known as Refresher Training & the training given to new
employees is known as Induction Training. This is basically given to new employees to
help them get acquainted with the work environment & fellow colleagues. It is a very short
informative training just after recruitment to introduce or orient the employee with the
organization's rules, procedures & policies.
Training plays a significant role in human resource development. Human resources are the
lifeblood of any organization. Only through trained & efficient employees, can an
organization achieve its objectives.
* To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge & skills they need for an intelligent
performance of definite tasks.
* To prepare employees for more responsible positions.
* To bring about change in attitudes of employees in all directions.
* To reduce supervision time, reduce wastage & produce quality products.
* To reduce defects & minimize accident rate.
* To absorb new skills & technology.
* Helpful for the growth & improvement of employee's skills & knowledge.
METHODS OF TRAINING: The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified into two
categories: On-the-Job Training & Off-the-Job Training.
ON-THE-JOB TRAINING is given at the work place by superior in relatively short period of
time. This type of training is cheaper & less time-consuming. This training can be imparted
by basically four methods: Coaching is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his sub-ordinates & gives
him/her job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes & gives suggestions for
improvement.

Job Rotation: - In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so that he/she
should be able to perform all types of jobs. E.g. In banking industry, employees are trained
for both back-end & front-end jobs. In case of emergency, (absenteeism or resignation), any
employee would be able to perform any type of job.
OFF THE JOB TRAINING: - is given outside the actual work place.
Lectures/Conferences:- This approach is well adapted to convey specific information,
rules, procedures or methods. This method is useful, where the information is to be shared
among a large number of trainees. The cost per trainee is low in this method.
Films: - can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented
by other techniques. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference,
discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized.
Simulation Exercise: - Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial
environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation.
Simulation activities include case experiences, experiential exercises, vestibule training,
management games & role-play.
Cases: - present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might
encounter on the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem, evaluate
alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory.
Experiential Exercises: - are usually short, structured learning experiences where
individuals learn by doing. For instance, rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts &
how to deal with them, an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation
where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.
Vestibule Training: - Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but
the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. While expensive, Vestibule
training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures.
Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job.
Role Play: - Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this method of
training, the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written
description of a particular situation.
Management Games: - The game is devised on a model of a business situation. The
trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies.
They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. Decisions made by the
groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups.
The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account.
In-Basket Exercise: - Also known as In-tray method of training. The trainee is presented

with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take
decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time.
The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. The trainees are
provided feedback on their performance.
RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSION: No doubt Training is a very powerful tool for the smooth functioning of the organization, but
it needs to be used with care in order to derive all the benefits. Here are seven
recommendations for getting the best out of this tool: 1. Learn about the needs and proficiency of each and every employee before an
organization invests its effort, time & money on training. Its better to identify the needs &
shortcomings in an employee before actually imparting training to him/her.
2. Experienced & skilled trainer, who possesses good amount of knowledge & understanding
about the organization's objectives, individual abilities & the present environment, should
give training.
3. Active participation from the trainees should be encouraged. There should be a two-way
communication between the trainer & trainee.
4. Feedback should be taken from the trainees after the training is over, so that the
organization comes to know about the deficiencies in the training program & also
suggestions to improve upon the same.
5. Focus of training should be on priority development needs and to produce strong
motivation to bring change in employees.
6. The cost incurred on the training program should not exceed its benefits.
7. The method or type of training should be very cautiously selected by the organization
depending upon the organizations' resources & an employee's individual need for training.
Thus, training is a vital tool to cope up with the changing needs & technologies, & everchanging environment. It benefits both the organization as well as the employees.

There are many different ways to train. Indeed, entire books have been written on the ways to
deliver training. How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an
appropriate method? This article defines some of the most common training methods and
reviews pros and cons for each one.
The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company, the
trainee, and on the task being performed. The method should suit the audience, the content, the
business¡¦ environment, and the learning objective. Ideally, the method chosen will motivate
employees to learn, help employees prepare themselves for learning, enable the trainees to

apply and practice what they've been taught, help trainees retain and transfer what they have
learned, and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge.
Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include:
-Age, gender, or level of education of the trainees
-Learning styles of the trainees
-Number of trainees
-Budget
-Trainer's skills and training style
Common group training methods include:
Lecture
A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary
education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners.
In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts,
visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily oneway: from the instructor to the learner.
Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of
information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details.
Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much
information if it is presented only orally.
Demonstration
Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training. The trainer shows trainees how to do
something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being
demonstrated.
Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. It engages several senses: seeing,
hearing, feeling, touching.
Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. There also needs to be an
adequate space for the training to take place. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught,
poor work habits can be learned by the trainee.
Seminar

Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, conferences,
demonstrations.
Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many group methods as
part of the seminar activity.
Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More
time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods.
Conference
The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group considers a
specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions.
Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use
several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting.
Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from
the manager¡¦s ideas, causing conflict.
Panel
A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Panel
members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose
of the training. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people.
Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. The process invites
employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives.
Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. The results of the method can be difficult to
evaluate.
Role Playing
During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning
concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training.
Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get
an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different
approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers.
Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in
helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to
practice while others watch.

Case Studies
A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that
trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions
based on the content provided.
Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would
do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important.
Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be
creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track.
Simulations
Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive activity where they imitate actions required on
the job. It is a useful technique for skills development.
Pros: Training becomes more reality-based, as trainees are actively involved in the learning
process. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. Simulations involve yet another
learning style, increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned.
Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that
trainees practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice makes perfect.
Projects
Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as
helps them learn about the topic of training. It might involve participation on a team, the creation
of a database, or the forming of a new process. The type of project will vary by business and the
skill level of the trainee.
Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. Projects can be chosen which
help solve problems or otherwise improve the operation. Trainees get first-hand experience in
the topic of the training. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience.
Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose, trainees may think they are
doing somebody else¡¦s work. Also, if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no
immediate impact on their own jobs, it will be difficult to obtain and maintain their interest.
Common individual training methods include:
Self-discovery
Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises,
books, and research.

Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. They are able
to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning.
Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It is
also more difficult to measure the employee¡¦s progress.
Movies/videos/computer-based training
Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based
program.
Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and
discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee.
Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training
from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.
On-the-job training
This is the most common method of training. The trainee is placed on the job and the manager
or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. To be successful, the training should be done
according to a structured program that uses task lists, job breakdowns, and performance
standards as a lesson plan.
Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. It is highly practical
and reality-based. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her
supervisor or mentor.
Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. There is often a tendency to have a person
learn by doing the job, providing no real training.
Mentoring
A mentor can tutor others in their learning. Mentors help employees solve problems both
through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. This
system is sometimes known as a buddy system.
Pros: It can take place before, during, or after a shift. It gives the trainee individual attention and
immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and
organizational structure.
Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. If a properly trained mentor is not
chosen, the trainee can pick up bad habits.

When choosing from among these methods, the trainer must decide which one best suits the
trainees, the environment, and the investments available. Many trainers will choose to combine
methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never
vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity.

Training and Human Resource
Management
Traning and Development Home » Training and Human Resource Management

The HR functioning is changing with time and with this
change, the relationship between the training function
and other management activity is also changing. The
training and development activities are now equally
important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the
days, when training was considered to be futile, waste
of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is
an investment because the departments such as,
marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc
depends on training for its survival. If training is not
considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in
the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such
a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training
actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile
development activities in the organization.

To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM),
senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require
careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education.
Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate
because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing
the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and
covers
a
multitude
of
courses.
Role

of

HRD

Professionals

in

Training

This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR
professionals
in
training
has
been
widened.
HR
role
now
is:
1.
Active
involvement
in
employee
education
2.
Rewards
for
improvement
in
performance
3.
Rewards
to
be
associated
with
self
esteem
and
self
worth
4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment
support
for
advanced
education
and
training

5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training
Training Effectiveness
The effectiveness of training is a measurement of learning. It is determined by comparing post-test scores
with pre-test scores and then measuring the net change. There are several methods to measure this—on a
per-student basis, on a per-“skill point” base or on a per-dollar basis. Let’s look at the skill-point base, which
measures the cost of raising a student’s skill by one unit."
This is dangerously wrong! Let me explain!
The difference between a pre-test score and a post-test score can be for many reasons, several of which
may actually apply together. Without any root cause analysis to identify the causal links between the
different scores (pre-test and post-test) all you can truthfully say about this situation is that the pre-test
scores were X and the post-test scores were Y - you cannot say WHY they are like this.
This does NOT mean there is no link, just that you haven't demonstrated one - and this is where evaluation
practitioners get in to bother - yes, even if you follow Kirkpatrick or Phillips' approach - you have to have
PROOF when the CFO and CEO ask for it - CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION!!!
A measurement of learning is not training effectiveness - it's a measure of learning! You can learn
everything required, but fail to put it to required use and the required outcomes are not achieved. Training
in organisations is ALMOST ALWAYS about achieving a better performance or capability than is currently
available - it's about OUTCOMES that favour the customer and the shareholder - it's not about learning that's a bonus (in my humble opinion!).
Generally effectiveness measures are defined in terms of the extent to which a set of objectives are met. It
would be quite easy to have a large overlap here with efficiency measures.
(Training) efficiency is generally defined as the number of units output for the number of units input. Taking
a similar theme I suggest training efficiency can be measured several ways - here are some examples:
Number of training courses achieving the required outcomes
----------------------------------------------------------------- ---- x 100%
Total number of training courses delivered

Or

100% x (Number of trainees behaving as requried/operating equipment to required standard) / (Total
number of people trained)
Or
100% x Total benefits / Total costs

Coming back to the effectiveness focus again there is some help to be found from our old friend Kirkpatrick.
Effectiveness at Level 1 (Reactions of trainees) could be measured in terms of getting at least 4 out of 5 in
each area being rated. If 100% of trainees rate all the aspects at least 4 out of 5, then at Level 1 we'd be
100% effective. But if these same trainees have line managers sho report that these trainees are only
demonstrating new but required behaviours for 40% of the time, then arguably the training at Level 4

(Business Impact of training) is just 40% effective.
Going back to the article I quoted from above...
IF you can demonstrate causal links as I discussed earlier, then arguably the pre and post test scores CAN
be seen as a measure of effectiveness.
Read carefully with definitions!!

Measuring of training
Training is a critical component in any organization's strategy, but organizations
don't always evaluate the business impact of a training program. Given the large
expenditures for training in many organizations, it is important to develop business
intelligence tools that will help companies improve the measurement of training
effectiveness. These tools need to provide a methodology to measure, evaluate,
and continuously improve training, as well as the organizational and technical
infrastructure (systems) to implement the methodology. Cross-functional and
reporting and learning analytics provide important connections between the
measures of learning effectiveness offered by a learning management system (LMS)
and the larger enterprise metrics that indicate whether learning is transferred and
positively affects business results.

Training Effectiveness & its Significance
In India, training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles, structures and
budgets, but it is still young. This field is, however; expanding fast but controversies seem to envelop
any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. Training has made
remarkable contributions to the improvement of all kinds. Training is essential; but doubts arise over
its contribution in practice. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. The training
apparatus and costs have multiplied but Unhappiness persists and is growing at the working level
where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. This disillusionment shows in many ways reluctance to send the most talented workforce for training, inadequate use of personnel after
training, etc.
With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion, training has entered a dangerous phase in its
development. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. What is required is an

insight into what training can or cannot do, and skill in designing and executing training successfully
and cost-effectively.
At the present time, all the organizations give more trust on commercializing their activities. All the
firms, in order to continue to exist in the competitive global market and to be effectual, should
espouse the most modern technology, i.e., mechanization, computerization and automation. Technical
know-how alone, however, does not assure success unless it is sustained by workforce possessing
indispensable expertise. Hence, organizations should train the employees to enrich them in the areas
of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time.
The Input-Process-Output Model for an Effective Training
Input
Training need analysis: survey based on performance gaps in previous year & performance
opportunities in the next year.
Periodical request from department heads based on potential appraisal exercises.
Information on implementation of new practices, technological changes, strategic moves, and
changes in the environment.
Information on new recruitments.
Updation of procedures, rules & regulations.
Training policy of the administration
Process
Exercise of determining needs & maintenance of training register
Verification of need to prepare training plans
Deciding to conduct onsite programmes, if large number of participants require training.
Deputation of employees for short term training programmes conducted by local training
institutes.
Conducting induction training for new recruits.
Monitoring the training conducted by various departments.
Implementation of changes in the prgramme as necessitated by the feedback.

Output
Release of training plan
Issue of orders of deputation for individual programmes
Feedback on effectives: from participants, from departmental heads

Training starts with a strategy
It is important that a business provides training that is consistent with the business strategy. The main
steps in developing a training strategy are to:
- Identify the skills and abilities needed by employees;
- Draw up an action plan to show how investment in training and development will help meet business
goals and objectives;
- Implement the plan, monitoring progress and training effectiveness
Benefits of training to a business
The main benefits to a business of a well-trained workforce are:
- Better productivity (and, therefore, lower production / operating costs)
- Higher quality
- More flexibility - training helps employees develop a variety of skills. Multi-skilling is only possible if
the workforce is well trained
- Less supervision - lower supervision and management costs if employees can get on with their jobs.
This might also improve motivation - through greater empowerment
- More successful recruitment and employee retention - businesses with a good reputation for training
are likely to find it easier to attract good quality staff - and then keep them

- Help in achieving change - businesses with strong training systems and culture find it easier to
implement change programmes

Development - Introduction
This activity focusses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that
the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or
behavioural change takes place in structured format.
In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned
with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in
organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee
development, human resource development, and learning and development.
Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel
and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. "Employee
Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer
and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to be
comfortable with. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics, who objected to
the idea that people were "resources" — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual.
Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development", although that was itself not free
from problems, "learning" being an overgeneral and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still
widely known by the other names.

Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and
development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the Irish Institute of Training and
Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However,
to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities
The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes.
The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training
and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching,

resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the
processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers
are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations,
which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others.
The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place
between employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs
is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and
executive coach, Dr. John Hoover points out, "Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced
his or her career by making the boss look stupid." Training an employee to get along
well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the
best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone won't
compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer

TRADITIONAL

AND

MODERN

APPROACH

OF

TRAINING

AND

DEVLOPMENT

Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training.
They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also
some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe
more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.
The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized
the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a
cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce
and yield the best results.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS OBJECTIVES :The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a
skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other
objectives:

 Individual,
 Organizational,

 Functional, and
 Societal.
Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn,
enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing
Individual effectiveness.
Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the
organization’s needs.
Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the
needs and challenges of the society

Importance Of Training and Development
• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the
utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals
as well as their individual goals.
• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an
opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and
behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.
• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job
knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human
intellect and all over personality of the employees.
Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees
that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.
• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team
spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the
employees.
• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the
organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the
organization.

• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and
feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates
and peers.
• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work- life.
• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working
environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individuals goals aligns with
organizational goal.
• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the
organization thus preventing obsolescence.
• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive
attitude towards profit orientation.
• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more
effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out
organizational policies.
• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better
attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.
What training cannot solve
it is tempting to think that training is the solution to many if not all business problems. However, there
are some things that training can rarely solve: these include:
- Poor management (although management training might help!)
- Poor job design
- Ineffective or inefficient equipment, production organisation
- Recruitment
If training is so important, why do some businesses invest so little in it?

Ideally training should be seen as an investment in the future of the business. it takes time for the
effects of training to impact business performance.

Some businesses are reluctant to spend on training because:
- They fear employees will be poached by competitors (who will then benefit from the training)
- A desire to minimise short-term costs
- They cannot make a justifiable investment case

Training should meet two basic objectives.
1. Training should make the personnel skilled enough to do the job on hand efficiently
leading to targeted productivity levels.
2. Training should be cost effective.

Training must be based on scientific approach and quality training material to meet
objective number one. The training duration should be as short as possible and
resources used efficiently for meeting objective number 2.
In this connection, I would like to describe about a training approach, called ICAO
TRAINAIR Methodology, which is accepted and followed by many Civil Aviation Training
establishments all over the world.
The TRAINAIR is a programme of the International Civil Aviation Organization that was
evolved to strengthen the basic civil aviation concept of safety and and regularity of air
transport operations, by means of a high standard of training for aviation personnel
through what are known as Standardized Training Packages (STPs).
The TRAINAIR course development methodology is a scientific approach of developing
training courses for a job-oriented objective. This methodology has both the process
standard and product standard.

Process standard means the standard in which the

process is important but no weightage is given to the end result. Product standard
means the standard in which end result is important but no weightage is given to the
process. TRAINAIR methodology has both process and product standards.
This methodology seeks to impart skill, knowledge and attitude required to perform the
job and eliminate all things which are extraneous and not required to perform that job.
That means the trainees are taught only the “Need-to-Know Things” and not the “Nice-toKnow Things”. Because of this, training becomes focussed and the training time and

costs, and duration of absence of the workforce from the operational units are
minimized.
The TRAINAIR Standardized Training Package (STP) preparation methodology is based
on an engineering approach called the system approach. It consists of following three
activities.
1. Analysis
2. Design and production
3. Evaluation
All these activities are divided into 9 Phases.
Phase 1, Preliminary analysis, is invoked when a decision is to be taken whether or
not training is needed to do a job on hand; then assistance of a qualified Course
Developers team is requested.

The course developers team visits the operational unit,

analyzes the system and interviews the personnel working. The result of analysis is
one of the following:
1. Recommending non-training management solutions like developing a job aid such
as checklists, flow charts or automation etc.
2. Develop a Standard Training Package (STP) as a training solution
If it is found appropriate to proceed with a training solution by development of an STP,
the Phase 2 activities commence.
In Phase 2, Job analysis,

again the Course Developers team visits operational unit,

interviews the working experts. The job is divided into duties, duties are divided into
tasks, tasks are divided into sub-tasks, and further the skill/ knowledge/ attitude required
to carryout sub-tasks are decided.
In the Phase 3. Population Analysis, the data on target population’s (i.e., intended trainee
group) acquired skill/ knowledge/ attitude, qualifications, job experience, social
background, learning preferences are collected and analyzed.

In Phase 4, Design of Curriculum, the difference in skill/knowledge/ attitude
required (decided in phase 2) and those acquired (decided in phase 3) will become the

Course Curriculum. The modules and sequence of training program are decided in this
phase.

In Phase 5, Design of modules, all the course materials such as Trainee Handouts,
Instructor guide, Practical exercise sheets, Progress tests, key to progress tests, Mastery
tests, key to mastery tests will be developed.

In Phase 6, Production and developmental testing, the prepared Mastery tests,
Progress tests and practical exercises are tried out as developmental testing to check
the accuracy and reliability of training materials. Detailed lesson plans to guide the
instructors, hand outs for the trainees, audio-visual materials etc are all prepared ready
for the initial Validation delivery of the package.
In Phase 7, Validation and Revision, for the first time, the prepared course material will be
tried on a group of trainees for whom the course is designed. The group of Course
Developers will monitor the delivery of the course throughout, and observe the reactions
of trainees and instructors. . They also take a note of the result at the end of the course.
If 80% of the participants passes with 80% marks or attain the standard, then the same
course will be administered to the remaining trainee population in subsequent sessions.
Any deficiencies noted will be corrected during this phase. At the end of this phase, all
the developed training materials will be sent to the ICAO TRAINAIR Central Unit, Montreal
for accord of approval as full-fledged STP.

In Phase 8, Implementation, full STP Course is available for future deliveries. The
same course is also available for global sharing among the members of TRAINAIR
programme.

In Phase 9, Post-training evaluation, the effectiveness of the course which is now
implemented is evaluated by analyzing

1. Was there the desired improvement of the trainees’ performance when they return
to their jobs?

2. Did the training program effectively meet the operational need which gave rise to
it?.
This is done by gathering information which is used to make improvement in the
training and determine the costs and benefits of the training development project.
During the entire process of course of development, Course Developers interact with
the Subject Matter Experts and skilled job performers as and when required and get the
required inputs.

Sales Organisation Effectiveness - High Performing Sales
Organisations
Sales organisations are facing higher level challenges, driven by various factors in the
marketplace:

Increased competition, including from non-traditional competitors.

Globalisation of markets.

Impact of technology, leading to new purchasing methods and changing relationships
with customers (more e-based business).

Rising customer expectations, especially in the case of longer term contract based
relationships, where customers are looking for value and insight from their suppliers.

Organisations moving towards preferred supplier agreements.

The challenges many organisations face in response to the above factors:

Developing sales managers who lift performance through best practice leadership of
sales teams.

Development and retention of high performing sales people. Productivity differentials
between high and medium performing sales people can be significant.

Cross-functional teams developing strategic customer relationships.

Hemsley Fraser works with organisations to:

Develop sales managers, as a key differentiator of sales team performance.

Create differentiated skills and behaviours in sales teams to lift the performance of sales
people.

Drive reliable processes and practices throughout the sales organisation.

Support cross-functional teams who develop high value strategic customer relationships.

Create clear strategies for development and retention of high performing sales people.

Create a strong focus on a strategy, with supporting processes, to acquire and retain
long-term profitable customers.

Measuring the Effectiveness of Training and Development
More and more successful organisations are increasingly intent on measuring the impact of
training on their organisations, to reaffirm the performance outcomes expected and to make
changes to training plans where necessary. This programme has been designed to aid all
Human Resource practitioners in measuring the effectiveness of training. Having an evaluation
of training effectiveness in place is also one of the dimensions of the People Developer
Standard.
Key Benefits

Introduction to the different Training Evaluation models

Learn how to make detailed measurements of training

Measure the effectiveness at various levels up to the impact of training on the
organisation

Course Content

Introduction to various Training Evaluation Models

Measuring the Impact of Training on Operational Results

Measuring the Impact of Training on the Organisation using Corporate Indicators

Identifying and Measuring “Soft” Areas in the Organisation

Understanding and Measuring Organisational Development through a Morale Survey

Measuring the Personal Competencies of Employees

Learning Methodology

Group work and exercises will be used to provide participants with many opportunities to
demonstrate their knowledge, learning and skills.

Who Should Attend

All Human Resource Personnel who are involved in Training and Development and
those responsible for attaining the People Developer Standard for their organisation.

Training emplyees

Importaance of training
Training your employees do have a significant role in modern business era. Not just to equip
them with latest tools your company has implemented, there is a lot more to it.I have sorted

down them in a list. This is a must read if you employ or mean to employ in future atleast one
person.
Training your emplyess is important because
1.

Rapid technological innovations impacting the workplace have made it necessary for
people to consistently update their knowledge and skills

2.

People have to work in multidimensional areas , which usually demand far more from
their area of specialisation.

3.

Change in the style of management.

4.

Due to non-practical collage education.

5.

Lack of proper and scientific selection procedure.

6.

For career advancement.

7.

For higher motivation and productivity.

8.

To make the job challenging and interesting

9.

For self and development

10.

For employee motivation and retention

11.

To improve organisational climate

12.

Prevention of obsolescence

13.

To help an organisation to fulfil its future manpower needs.

14.

To keep in pace with times

15.

To bridge gap between skills requirement and skills availability

16.

For survival and growth of organisation and nation

EVALUATION OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING

Introduction
Staff development is an important part of assisting performance
improvement at organisational, faculty/central department, unit
and individual levels. It is therefore important that the transfer of
learning into the workplace is assessed through a process of
review and evaluation so that its success or otherwise can be
established and so that we can demonstrate the contribution
learning makes towards overall organisational success.
Evaluation is the process of finding out how the development or
training process has affected the individual, team and the organisation.

The benefits of evaluating training and development are to:

Promote business efficiency by linking efforts to train anddevelop staff to operational priorities,
goals and targets.
Identify cost effective and valuable training events orprogrammes, leading to better focused
learning anddevelopment.
Ensure the transfer of learning into the workplace.
Use and reinforce techniques learned to help improve quality and customer service within the
organisation.
Help define future development objectives.

Stages of Evaluation
There are four key stages at which training and development
should be evaluated:
Reaction: At this stage evaluation provides information on the
attitudes and opinions of participants to the learning they have
undertaken typically via evaluation forms or comment sheets
Learning attained: Evaluation at this stage looks at the extent
to which learning objectives have been achieved. Evaluation of
learning can take place during the activity using interactive
sessions, tests and practical application and after the activity by
re-testing knowledge and skills and comparing them with pretraining
results, observing
Performance: Evaluation at this stage looks at the impact of a
learning experience on individual/team performance at work.
Key to this level of evaluation is the need to have agreed clear
learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when
evaluation takes place there are measures to use.
Organisational Impact: At this level evaluation assesses the
impact of learning on organisational effectiveness, and whether
or not it is cost effective in organisational terms.

Responsibility for evaluation
Responsibility for evaluation of staff development rests at the

following levels:
Individual: The University’s Staff Development Application
Form and Record requires individuals to identify
their objectives linked to strategic development and training
priorities and job role for the requested development activity..
Manager: The manager is responsible for ensuring that staff
have identified learning objectives for any development activity
they plan to undertake and to agree on the methods to be used
to evaluate learning
Faculties/Central Departments: The Staff Development Plan
template requires Faculties and Central Departments to annually
set out their planned staff development activities and an
explanation of how they will be evaluated.
Central Training Providers: All training courses delivered by
central training providers are assessed by the University end of
course review form. At this level evaluation provides information
on the attitudes of a participant to learning but does not measure
how much they have actually learned.
Organisation Development and Training (ODT): ODT will
carry out follow up evaluation of a sample of centrally delivered
courses/programmes 3-6 months after the event to measure
how learning has been applied in the workplace.

Training Program Evaluation
The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training
evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation
ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective
workplaces, or to the regular work routines.
Purposes of Training Evaluation

The five main purposes of training evaluation are :
Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it
To learning outcomes.
Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of
knowledge at the work place, and training.

Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then
It can be dealt with accordingly.

Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the
evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the
Expected outcomes.

Process of Training Evaluation :

Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program.
During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at
most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the
program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether
those

methods

confirm

to

the

candidates

preferences

and

learning

style.

During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of
short

tests

at

regular

intervals

After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to
measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training
has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various
evaluation techniques for this phase.

Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective,
then

it

can

be

dealt

with

accordingly.

Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the
evaluative

data

to

manipulate

it

for

their

own

benefits.

Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the
expected
Process

outcomes.
of

Training

Evaluation

Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training
program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of
resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and
learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the
methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and
learning

style.

During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of
short

tests

at

regular

intervals

After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to
measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether
training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There
are

various

evaluation

Techniques of Evaluation :

Observation

Questionnaire

Interview

Self Diaries

Self recording of special incidents

techniques

for

this

phase.