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# eatest12/14/12

common div isor. Lowest common multiple. A complete course in arithmetic

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ARITHMETIC
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Lesson 33

GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR
LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE

We will now learn how to find the greatest common divisor and the lowest common multiple of
two numbers from their prime factorizations. (In Lesson 23 we saw how to find the LCM
directly.) But first, let us see how to find all the divisors of a number from its prime factors.
We say that one number is a divisor of a second when the second is its multiple. 4 is a divisor of
36 because 36 is a multiple of 4: 36 = 9 × 4. And we can see that in the prime factors of 36:
36 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3.
Apart from the order, 36 = 9 × 4.
4 is a divisor of 36. (And so is 9.)
All the divisors of a number can be found from its prime factors.
Example 1. Here is the prime factorization of 60:
60 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 5.
By taking those primes singly, then two at a time, then three at a time, and so on, we can construct
all the divisors of 60.
Singly: 2, 3, 5, and 1.
www.themathpage.com/ARITH/gcd.htm

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Then construct all its divisors. 2 × 5. 2 × 3. 3 × 5. Although 1 is not a prime. 20. click "Refresh" ("Reload"). 2 × 3 × 3 × 5. Lowest common multiple. Four at a time: 2 × 2 × 3 × 3. and 1. 6.that is. A complete course in arithmetic Do not forget 1. 6. 60 is a multiple of each one. 2 × 2 × 5. 3. Here are all the divisors of 20: Search www. To see the answer. Singly: 2. A certain number is not divisible by 3. Greatest common divisor Here are all the divisors of 12: 1. 2 × 2 × 5. 1 is a divisor of every number. All five: 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 5 These numbers are: 1 2 3 5 4 6 10 9 15 12 20 18 30 45 36 60 90 180 Problem 2. Three at a time: 2 × 2 × 3. 3 × 5. Two at a time: 2 × 2. pass your mouse over the colored area. Two at a time: 2 × 2. 5. Three at a time: 2 × 2 × 3. 12. 2 × 3. then any number divisible by 12 -.must have 3 as a prime divisor. 3 × 3 × 5. All four: 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 = 60. That is: 12. 2 × 5. 15. That is: 4. 2 × 2 × 3 × 5. Do the problem yourself first! 180 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 5. 10. 2. 30. 4.com/ARITH/gcd. Problem 1. To cover the answer again.eatest12/14/12 common div isor. which is a multiple of 12 -. 2 × 3 × 3.themathpage. These are all the divisors of 60. Therefore why is it not divisible by 12? Since 12 = 2 × 2 × 3. Write the prime factorization of 180. 3 × 3. 3. 2 × 3 × 5. 2 × 3 × 5.htm YouTube Free Downloader 2/6 .

7 e) 4. But 1 is a common divisor of e) every pair of numbers. 1 h) 6. 10. 4 f) 6. 20. 4. 7 d) 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 × 5 and 2 × 3 × 3 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 7. Problem 5. 11. 4 c) 16. Which prime factors do these two numbers share? 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 and 2 × 5 × 5 2×5 2 × 5 is their greatest common divisor. 3 b) 8. Lowest common multiple. From the primes of each number we could construct the divisor 2 × 5. 2. 11 b) 5 × 7 × 7 and 5 × 5 × 7. 14.themathpage. we can construct the divisors of a number from its prime factors. What number is their greatest common divisor? 4. e) 3 × 7 and 11 × 29. 5. a) 3 × 11 and 11 × 13. 1 i) 1. In the case. Problem 3.com/ARITH/gcd. Find the greatest common divisor of each pair. 40. What number is the greatest common divisor of each pair? a) 6. 1 Problem 4. 20. and two 5's. 9. www. 2×3×5×5 They share one 2.eatest12/14/12 common div isor. 4. 12. A complete course in arithmetic 1. 8 d) 7. 6 g) 5. 35. 2. one 3. The greatest common divisor of two numbers is the largest product of primes that the two numbers share. Which numbers are the common divisors of 12 and 20? 1.and greatest -e) common divisor. 1 e) Those numbers don't share any primes. it is their only -. For.htm 3/6 . 42. 12. 5 × 7 c) 2 × 3 × 7 and 5 × 7 × 7 × 11.

Yes. What number is the lowest common multiple of each pair? a) 9 and 12. But when 1 is their only and hence their greatest common divisor. a) 12 and 16. we say that those numbers are relatively prime. Lowest common multiple We saw examples of what we mean by the lowest common multiple in Lesson 23. Then name their greatest common divisor (GCD). We also saw a way to find it. 55. Yes. e) 9 and 20. GCD = 5. Lowest common multiple. No. Problem 8. 6 h) 5 and 8. c) 8 and 27. LCM = 48. Yes. 12 = 2 × 2 × 3. 4/6 . 24 c) 10 and 12. 15 e) 4 and 24. 12 and 35 are not prime numbers. 24 f) 11 and 55. A complete course in arithmetic f) 5 × 5 and 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5. That is how to recognize when two numbers are relatively prime. but they are relatively prime. d) 13 and 91. b) 6 and 21. LCM = 60. 60 d) 3 and 15. 35 = 5 × 7. a) What is the greatest common divisor of 12 and 35? 1 1 is a common divisor of every pair of numbers. Find the greatest common divisor of each pair.eatest12/14/12 common div isor. Name the lowest common multiple (LCM) of each pair. a) 45 and 75. 36 b) 6 and 8. No. 5 × 5 Problem 6. Problem 9. g) 2 and 3. Which of these pairs are relatively prime? a) 6 and 35. b) 15 and 20. GCD = 4. f) 1 and 16. 72 Problem 10. Yes. 1 Problem 7. c) What prime factors do they share? None. 40 i) 8 and 9. Now. 21 c) 30 and 77. b) Write the prime factorizations of 12 and 35. 15 b) 42 and 63.

Lowest common multiple. Now. f) 2 × 3 and 5 × 7. c) LCM = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 × 5 × 7 = 4200.htm 5/6 . What number is the lowest common multiple of 6. The above is the smallest product of primes that contains both 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 and 2 × 2 × 5. the one 3 of 24. and 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 × 7. a) 2 × 3 and 3 × 5.com/ARITH/gcd. g) 2 × 5. Their lowest common multiple will be the smallest product that contains every prime from each number. d) 2 × 2 and 2 × 2 × 2. 24 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3. A common multiple will have all the primes of each. 20 = 2 × 2 × 5. the order of the factors does not matter. e) 7 and 11. each multiple of these numbers will have its own prime factorization. Construct the lowest common multiple of the following.eatest12/14/12 common div isor. 8. c) 2 × 3 × 5 × 5. A complete course in arithmetic c) 13 and 39. To evaluate that number. LCM = 2 × 3 × 5 × 7 = 210.themathpage. LCM = 40. LCM = 7 × 11 = 77. b) 3 × 3 × 5 and 3 × 5 × 5. www. The prime factorization of a multiple of 24 will contain all the primes of 24.) Therefore let us take advantage of 2 × 5 = 10. and the one 5 of 20. (Lesson 9. LCM = 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. 7 × 11. LCM = 39. Problem 11. GCD = 1. and 5 × 11. d) 5 and 8. LCM = 2 × 5 × 7 × 11 = 770. LCM = 120. Here it is: LCM = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 5. LCM = 2 × 3 × 5 = 30. Here are the prime factorizations of 24 and 20. GCD = 4. e) 20 and 24. GCD = 13. and a multiple of 20 will have all the primes of 20. Example 2. Problem 12. and 10? 120 We will now see how to find the LCM by writing the prime factorizations. We will group the factors as follows: (2 × 5) × (2 × 2 × 3) = 10 × 12 = 120. LCM = 3 × 3 × 5 × 5 = 225. We have taken the most of each prime from the two numbers: The three 2's of 24.

themathpage. 1350 d) 6 and 77. 3 × 7 × 11 = 231. Lowest common multiple. Copyright © 2012 Lawrence Spector Questions or comments? E-mail: themathpage@nyc. 35. Compare Problem 11.com/ARITH/gcd. 770. Since 15 = 3 × 5. 195 c) 54 and 75. Find the lowest common multiple of a) 6. 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 = 60. and 55. 2 × 2 × 5 = 20. b) 14. Find the lowest common multiple of each pair.eatest12/14/12 common div isor. 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 = 120. 8.rr. 2 × 2 × 3 = 12. b) 65 and 39. Introduction | Home | Table of Contents Please make a donation to keep TheMathPage online. 15 and which other numbers have 60 as their lowest common multiple? 60 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 5. a) 21 and 33.com www. Those numbers are: 2 × 2 = 4. A complete course in arithmetic Problem 13. 462 e) 17 and 33. then each of the other numbers must have 2 × 2.htm 6/6 . 561 Problem 14. Problem 15. Even \$1 will help. and 10.